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COST 270 Final Evaluation Report


COST Action 270

Reliability of Optical Components and

Devices in Communications Systems and


Edited by :
H. G. Limberger Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
L. Wosinska Kungliga Tekniska Hgskolan (Sweden)
F. Berghmans SCKCEN and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)
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Table of Contents



3.1. Subdivision in Working Groups 5


4.1. Management Committee 7

4.2. Management committee members 8

4.3. Participating Institutions 8

4.4. Meetings of the Management Committee 11

4.5. Meetings of the Working Groups 11

4.6. Short-term scientific missions 12

5.1. Results of WG1 18

5.2. Results of WG2 19

5.3. Standardisation 20

6.1. Publications and reports 21

6.2. Conferences and Workshops 21

6.3. Web site 22

6.4. Scientific and Technical Cooperation 22

6.5. Transfer of results 24

6.6. Contacts in the ERA 25





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COST Action 270 Reliability of Optical Components and Devices in
Communications Systems and Networks

TC Recommendation: 07 June 1999 First MC meeting: 07 December 2000

CSO Approval: 10 December 1999 Last MC meeting: 02 April 2006
Start date: (1) 07 December 2000 Final Report: -(2)
Duration: 60 months Evaluation Report: -(2)
Extension: 6 monts TC Evaluation: -
End date: 06 June 2006

Number of signatories: 15 (2nd April 2006)

Signatories and date of signature:

Austria 17 May 2000 Greece Poland 08 September 2000

Belgium 28 June 2001 Hungary 03 January 2005 Portugal
Bulgaria Iceland Romania
Croatia Ireland Slovakia
Cyprus 16 May 2002 Italy 26 February 2001 Slovenia
Czech Rep. Latvia 09 June 2000 Spain 17 May 2000
Denmark 17 May 2000 Lithuania Sweden 17 May 2000
Estonia Luxembourg Switzerland 16 May 2000
Finland Malta Turkey
France 17 May 2000 Netherlands 10 October 2001 United Kingdom 16 June 2003
Germany 17 May 2000 Norway

Institutes of non-COST countries: TRLabs, Edmonton, Canada

Action Web site:

Dr. Hans G. Limberger Tel.: +41 21 693 5183

IOA-EPFL Fax: +41 21 693 3701
BM4.116, Station 17, CH-1015,
Lausanne, Switzerland E-Mail:

TC Rapporteur: A. Brenac, Association Nationale pour la Recherche

Technique, Paris, France (
External Evaluator: J.-C. Bouley, GET/Tlcom Paris Ecole Nationale Suprieure
des Tlcommunications Dpartement Communications et
Electronique, Paris, France (

When 5 Signatures have been collected
When the report is received by TC Secretariat
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The main objective of the Action is to develop methods to ascertain and to
improve the reliability of new types of optical components and devices in
communications networks and transmissions systems. The Action also deals with
aspects of network and component costs, environmental conditions and installation
procedures for equipment in core transport networks, in subscriber access networks
and in in-house (local area) networks.
Most of the efforts aim at improving the understanding of failure mechanisms
of new types of optical components in new high capacity systems and networks. At
the same time the Action gathers information on the field behaviour of fibre-optic
components, systems and networks to study the effect of the service environment.
Finally COST 270 analyses and develops relevant lifetime estimation methods. The
final objective is to transfer the results and experience to the appropriate
standardisation bodies, including ETSI TM1, CECC 86BXA, IEC 86 A and B, and
ITU-T SG.6 and SG15, as an input to further standardisation issues.
This research is conducted as a co-operation between component and system
manufactures on one hand and research institutes and universities on the other hand. It
relies on the results and achievements of earlier reliability actions (COST 246, 218
etc.) and should influence the suppliers in developing and manufacturing reliable
components and devices. Figure 2-1 illustrates the action scope and the flow of
information relevant for COST 270.

Figure 2-1. COST 270 action scope and context.

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3.1. Subdivision in Working Groups

COST 270 consists of two Working Groups (WG). The second working group
is subdivided into three Study Groups (SG). This organisation is illustrated in Figure
3-1 and described below.

WG1: Reliability of optical networks and systems including transport and

access network and free space communication
Chairperson: Prof. Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),
The aim of WG1 is to investigate the availability of optical networks in order
to define the weak points in the network and to develop a methodology for designing
optical networks that are robust to failures. WG1 develops general availability models
for networks and investigates the scaling limitations of optical networks due to
reliability constraints.
From the beginning the focus of WG1 was to identify requirements for
reliability performance of optical components and network elements from the network
perspective. The result should be a better understanding of what the weak points are
in the networks and of which reliability data are needed to satisfy the demand of both
the network operators and the users. Over the time the interest of WG1 became
broader and includes fault management in optical networks, e.g. network mechanisms
that ensure the required level of connection availability. The work includes :
developing models to estimate survivability of optical networks in cooperation
with other cost actions (e.g. former COST266 and COST291) and other partners
(e.g. TRLabs, Edmonton, Canada) ;
cost studies for different survivability strategies ;
network optimization from reliability and cost point of view ;
defining the weak points in the network regarding components and systems (input
for WG2) ;
collecting reliability data for components from suppliers and WG2 ;
defining the reliability requirement of components for optical networks (input for
WG2) ;
reliability of FTTH access networks ;
differentiated reliability concept including physical impairments ;
reliability aspects in physical impairments aware domains of transparency.
In addition, WG1 takes up Optical Free Space Communications in its
activities. Optical free space laser communication is another transmission technique to
transmit high data rates without any cabling. Here reliability is not only specified by
the components (laser diodes, drivers, interfaces, etc.) but is also defined by the
weather conditions (rain, snow, fog or sun). Reliability must therefore be
considered in combination with the availability of the free space optical link.
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WG2: Reliability of passive components including jumper cables, fibre

coating materials and effects of high optical power application
Chairperson: Dr. Francis Berghmans, SCKCEN, Belgium.

WG2 focuses on the identification and measurement of essential parameters of

optical components and devices related to the most important reliability issues. In this
respect, this working group characterises and models optical components and devices
from the point of view of their optical and mechanical reliability. The research
therefore includes :
studying the long-term behaviour and failure mechanisms of new optical
components and devices under variable service conditions ;
studying the impact of various designs, materials, structure and packaging on
their reliability ;
studying the environmental conditions of service for new components, and
specific requirements for different applications, such as aerial, underwater,
subscriber networks and in house applications ;
developing lifetime calculation methods (including experimental parameters and
methods) for optical components, devices, systems and networks ;
studying and developing life testing procedures and organising joint and "round-
robin" tests on the lifetime testing methods and on the components ;
collecting field test data and experience ;
determine FIT values of components ;
check the applicability of demarcation energy theory to estimate component life
Three types of optical components are found to be the most relevant for in
depth reliability studies. Accordingly, three study groups (SG) are established within
WG 2. Their names and the scope of their activities is given below.
SG1 : Connectors and Patch cords (contact person Aleksandar Opacic,
Huber & Suhner, Switzerland). SG1 looks at high optical power applications
and the associated reliability issues of new types of optical connectors, e.g. multi
fibre connectors or high power connectors and patch cords. The goal is to get
reliability information based on reasonable mathematical models as well as to
determine dedicated testing procedures which could find acceptance by
manufacturers, OEM/system suppliers and end users and which may also be
implemented by international standardization bodies.
SG2 : Optical Fibres (contact person Frdrique de Fornel, CNRS
Universit de Bourgogne, France). SG 2 deals with the reliability of standard
and modified (e.g. uncoated) fibres. Lifetime models for new types of optical
fibres, such as plastic fibres, microstructured fibres, fluoride fibres, laser fibres,
amplifier fibres are within the scope of the investigations. The influence of high
optical power on fibres in amplified high capacity DWDM/CWDM networks is
an issue as well. Finally, SG2 could also tackle the ways in which fusion and
mechanical splices, splicing techniques and splice protection methods influence
the reliability of fibre links. Attention is paid also on the effect of cabling on
polarization mode dispersion in optical fibres.
SG3 : Fibre Bragg gratings (contact person Hans Limberger, IOA-EPFL,
Switzerland). The goal of SG3 is to investigate reliability issues connected with
fibre Bragg grating devices (irradiated fibre, fibre grating, recoating, ..), with a
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special emphasis on the effects of high optical power on the main characteristics
of the grating (reflectivity, dispersion, side lobe suppression, etc.).
In addition, the reliability of one active component, i.e. SLEDs as well as the
reliability of optical components in an environment of ionising radiation, i.e. space
and civil nuclear environment, is considered.
The individual SG activities in WG2 clearly focus on components. However,
two common aspects are linking the activities of the different study groups, i.e. the
effects of high optical power (HOP) and the application of demarcation energy theory
(DET). HOP issues are of increasing importance for a majority of fibre-optic
components due to the frequent use of Raman and erbium doped fibre amplifiers and
due to the large number of high capacity optical channels in a single fibre carrying
each a significant amount of optical power.

Figure 3-1. Organisation of the COST 270 action. HOP High Optical Power ,
DET Demarcation Energy Theory.


4.1. Management Committee

Chairperson : Dr. Hans G. Limberger, IOA-EPFL

Address: EPFL/APL; BM4.116, station 17, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland;
Tel:+41216935183; Fax:+41216933701; Email:

Vice Chairperson: Mr. Aleksandar Opacic, Huber & Shner AG

Address: Degersheimerstrasse 14, CH-9100 Herisau, Switzerland,
Tel:+41713534247; Fax:+41713534647; Email:

Secretary and grant-holder: Prof. Dr. Francis Berghmans, SCKCEN

Address: Instrumentation Department, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium
Tel: + 3214332637; Fax: +3214311993; Email:
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4.2. Management committee members

In June 2006, the MC of COST 270 counts 21 members, as detailed in Table

MC member Affiliation Country

Dr. Erich Leitgeb ITU-Graz Austria
Dr. Francis Berghmans SCKCEN Belgium
Dr. Yves Hernandez Multitel ASBL Belgium
Dr. Kyriacos Kalli Higher Technical Institute Cyprus
Dr. Michalis Komodromos Frederick Institute of Technology Cyprus
Dr. Jens Engholm Pedersen Koheras A/S Denmark
Dr. Frdrique de Fornel CNRS, Universit de Bourgogne France
Dr. Christian Boisrobert Universit de Nantes France
Dr. Wolfgang Habel BAM Berlin Germany
Dr. Detlef Kuhl Siemens AG Germany
Mr. Michele Guglielmucci ISCOM-Ministry of Communications Italy
Dr. Davide Sarchi Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi Telecom Srl Italy
Dr. Dariusz Litwin Institute of Applied Optics Poland
Dr. Marian Marcinak National Institute of Telecommunications Poland
Dr. Horacio Lamela Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Spain
Dr. Javier Marti Sendra Universidad Politechnica de Valencia Spain
Dr. Lena Wosinska Royal Institute of Technology Sweden
Dr. Tarja Volotinen OFCON Optical Fiber Consultants AB Sweden
Dr. Hans Limberger Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Switzerland
Mr. Aleksandar Opacic Opacic Communications Switzerland
Dr. David Webb Aston University United Kingdom
Mr. David McCartney BT Exact United Kingdom
Dr. Zsolt Pandi Budapest University of Technology and Hungary
Dr. Laszlo Jereb University of West Hungary Hungary
Table 4-1. Management Committee members of COST 270.

4.3. Participating Institutions

The number of institutions contributing to COST 270 has been steadily
increasing since the beginning of the Action. In June 2006, 87 institutes/companies
from COST countries (see Table 4-2) are listed as having participated to COST 270
activities and events. Those having only participated to workshops are indicated with
a bullet in the rightmost column.

Institute/Company Country Only

ITU - Graz Austria
Tyco Electronics Raychem NV Belgium
Multitel ASBL Belgium
SKCCEN Belgium
IMEC Universiteit Gent Belgium
Vrije Universiteit Brussel Belgium
Higher Technical Institute Cyprus
Frederick Institute of Technology Cyprus
Koheras A/S Denmark
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VTT Finland
Nextrom Technologies Finland
CNRS, Universit de Bourgogne France
Universit de Nantes France
Universit de Rennes I France
Universit de Lille France
Universit Paris-Sud France
Universit de Saint-Etienne France
Universit de Bordeaux France
France Tlcom France
Laboratoire IXL France
Thales Research and Technology France
Alcatel Optronics France
Highwave Optical Technologies France
Universit de Franche-Comt France
Universit de Rouen France
Ecole Nationale Suprieure d'Ingnieurs de Limoges France
Avanex France S.A. France
BAM Berlin Germany
Siemens AG Germany
University of Munich Germany
IPHT Jena Germany
JDS Uniphase Photonics GmbH Germany
Siemens Dematic AG Germany
Corning Cable Systems Germany
Fiberware GmbH Germany
Institut fr Mikrotechnik Mainz Germany
CeramOptech GmbH Germany
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Germany
Technische Univ. Berlin Germany
Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fr Hchstfrequentztechnik Germany
Budapest University of Technology and Economics Hungary
University of West Hungary Hungary
Waterford Institute of Technology Ireland
ISCTI-Ministry of Communications Italy
Pirelli Labs SpA Italy
Cisco Italy
Scuola Superiore SantAnna Italy
Universita degli Studi di Parma Italy
CNIT Italy
Universita degli studi di Perugia Italy
Universita Politecnica delle Marche Italy
Draka Comteq Fibre, B.V. Netherlands
Tyco-Electronics Netherlands
Institute of Applied Optics Poland
National Institute of Telecommunications Poland
Politechnika Warszawska Poland
Univ. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej Poland
Univ. De Aveiro Portugal
Univ. Politehnica Bucuresti Romania
Nat. Inst. for Lasers, Plasma and Rad. Physics Romania
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Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Spain

Universidad Politechnica de Valencia Spain
CTTC Spain
Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan Sweden
OFCON Optical Fiber Consultants AB Sweden
Ericsson Optoelectronics Sweden
SP Sweden
Acreo Sweden
Transmode Systems AB Sweden
TeliaSonera Sweden
Diamond Switzerland
Huber & Shner AG Switzerland
IOA-EPFL Switzerland
EMPA Switzerland
Reichle&De-Massari AG Switzerland
Exalos Switzerland
Swisscom AG Switzerland
RHK Inc. United Kingdom
Cable Free Solutions Ltd United Kingdom
Aston University United Kingdom
AWE Plc United Kingdom
University of Birmingham United Kingdom
Heriot-Watt University United Kingdom
Schlumberger Sensa United Kingdom
University of Bath United Kingdom
BT Exact Co. United Kingdom
Table 4-2. Institutes and companies contributing to COST 270.
COST 270 also initiated contacts with experts in reliability issues in a number
of non COST country companies and institutes with which information has been
exchanged, mainly during COST 270 workshops. The institutes are summarized in
Table 4-3.

Institute/Company Countries
Australian Photonics Cooperative Research Ctr. Australia
Optical Fibre Technology Ctr. Australia
University of Sydney Australia
University of New South Wales Australia
Instituto Militar de Engenharia Brazil
Univ. Federal do Espirito Santo Brazil
Univ. Federal do Para Brazil
Univ. Federal de Goias Brazil
Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications China
Univ. of International Business and Economics China
Universit de Montral Canada
ITF Optical Technologies, Inc. Canada
TRLabs and University of Alberta Canada
College of Khamgaon India
Brijlal Biyani Science College of Amravati India
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Japan
Hokkai-Gakuen Univ. Japan
Hokkaido Univ. Japan
FORC General Physics Institute Moscow Russia
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Schlumberger Research & Development, Inc. Russia

State Unitary Enterprise Russia
Institute for High Energy Densities Russia
Nanyang Technological University Singapore
Rutgers University USA
Corning, Inc. USA
University of Texas, Dallas USA
Telcordia Technologies USA
OFS Specialty Photonics USA
University of Connecticut USA
Nortel Networks USA
Lightpointe Communications, Inc. USA
Omniguide Communications USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. USA
Hybrid Glass Technologies, Inc. USA
CeramOptec Industries, Inc. USA
Table 4-3. Companies and Institutes of non COST countries with which information has been
In 2005 TRLabs (Edmonton, Canada), represented by Prof. Wayne Grover,
has become non COST country member of COST 270.

4.4. Meetings of the Management Committee

1st MC Meeting, 8 December 2000, Brussels, Belgium
2nd MC meeting, 27 June 2001, Paris, France
3rd MC meeting, 10 December 2001, Dbendorf, Switzerland
4th MC meeting, 10 April 2002, Graz, Austria
5th MC meeting, 30 June 2002, Kista, Sweden
6th MC meeting, 27 October 2002, Brussels, Belgium
7th MC meeting, 04 April 2003, Rome, Italy
8th MC Meeting, 10 December 2003, Berlin, Germany
9th MC Meeting, 25 April 2004, Strasbourg, France
10th MC Meeting, 22 October 2004, Pisa, Italy
11th MC Meeting, 06-07 April 2005, Larnaca, Cyprus
12th MC Meeting, 11 October 2005, Valencia, Spain
13th and Final MC Meeting, 02 April 2006, Strasbourg, France

4.5. Meetings of the Working Groups

WG meetings took place concurrently with the MC meetings. As MC
members are active participants in the technical activities of the Action, it made
economic sense to combine technical meetings with management aspects of the
Action. A meeting had MC sessions and technical WG sessions. The latter took place
in parallel or in joint sessions, depending on the available time.
1st WG1 and WG2 meetings, 8th December 2000, Brussels, Belgium
2nd WG1 and WG2 meetings, 25 26 June 2001, Paris, France
3rd WG1 and WG2 meetings, 8 10 December 2001, Dbendorf,
4th WG1, WG2 and SG1 meetings, 8 10 April 2002, Graz, Austria
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5th WG 1, WG2 and SG1-3 meetings, 26 30 June 2002, Kista,

6th WG 1, WG2 and SG1-3 meetings, 25 27 October 2002, Brussels,
SG2 meeting, 28 February 2003, Berlin, Germany
7th WG 1, WG2 and SG1-3 meetings, 02 04 April 2003, Rome Italy
7th bis WG1 meeting, 17 18 June 2003, Warsaw, Poland
8th WG1 and WG2 meetings, 08 09 December 2003, Berlin,
9th WG1 and WG2 meetings, 24 April 2004, Strasbourg, France
10th WG1 and WG2 meetings, 21 October 2004, Pisa, Italy
10th bis WG2 meeting, 15 March 2005, Lausanne, Switzerland
11th WG1 and WG2 meetings, 05-06 April 2005, Larnaca, Cyprus
11th bis WG1 meeting, 05-06 May 2005, Warsaw, Poland
11th tris WG1 meeting, 04-06 July 2005, Barcelona, Spain
12th WG1 and WG2 meetings, 10-11 October 2005, Valencia, Spain
13th WG1 and WG2 meetings, 02 April 2006, Strasbourg, France

4.6. Short-term scientific missions

A total of eleven successful short-term scientific missions (STSM) were

STSM-1 Availability modelling of optical networks from 25th to 30th June

Marcel Held, EMPA (Switzerland) visited Prof. Lena Wosinska, Laboratory of
Communication Networks, Royal Institute of Technology - KTH (Sweden).

Abstract : The main focus in this scientific mission was put on objective 1 of
work group 1, i.e. exchanging scientific know-how between KTH, EMPA, and
other WG1 partners mainly about availability/survivability modelling
approaches for networks. The goal was to establish a procedure for the system
definition and top-down decomposition of an optical network into a
mathematically treatable structure, e.g. reliability block diagrams or state
transition diagrams as well as the comparison and suitability check of software
tools for RAM-modelling at KTH and EMPA.
The use of approximate analytical expressions for large series-parallel
reliability block diagram (RBD) structures has shown to be not flexible
enough to study a large number of different and complex RBDs which is
necessary to investigate alternative designs. Another approach for the
estimation of availability for complex RBDs is the use of Monte Carlo
The suitability of Monte Carlo simulation is checked by investigating
availability of complex reliability block diagrams of optical cross connects
containing redundancy. A commercial software tool RELEX is used. In
RELEX RBDs are graphically designed and probability distribution functions
for failure and repair times with the according parameters are assigned to each
block. In the investigated examples it is assumed that failure free operating
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times and repair times are exponentially distributed with constant failure rates
and repair rates as parameters.
Monte Carlo simulation showed results that are very close to analytical
solutions. A relatively low number of iterations in the investigated examples,
10.000 - 100.000, and therefore short computation time is sufficient to obtain
results with accuracy required for engineering considerations.
It is therefore concluded that simulation tools are useful to investigate
complex structures of optical networks. However, such calculation is of course
very dependent on input data, i.e. failure and repair rates of components and
devices. Failure rates of optical components can be obtained from field data
analysis and specific reliability tests of manufacturers. Up to now there is no
established and accepted model for failure rate prediction for the large variety
of optical components. Thus, emphasis in network availability analysis should
not be put on the absolute accuracy of calculated results but on the sensitivity
to input parameters.

STSM-2 Reliability related effects originating from the manipulation and

use of fibre components from 26th February to 2nd March 2003.
Frdrique de Fornel, CNRS Universit de Bourgogne (France) visited Dr.-
Ing. Wolfgang Habel and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Werner Daum, Federal Institute for
Materials Research and Testing - BAM (Germany).

Abstract : A round table has been organized by Fornel and W. Habel to
define open questions concerning reliability-related effects due to the
manipulation and use of optical fibre components. Particular influences which
were considered involve the local modification of optical fibres. A modified
fibre can be defined as :
a fibre with chemically or mechanically stripped areas ;
a fibre with fused and recoated areas ;
a fibre with polished or etched areas ;
a fibre with connectorized ends.
Experts from suppliers and user companies as well as consulting offices were
invited to present their activities in this field and focus their open questions
that have been considered in the round table discussion. From the Berlin
meeting participants point of view, the most important reliability-related issue
is the effect of the stripping process (decoating) of the fibre and fibre
components (e.g. for the inscription of fibre Bragg gratings). One participant
had the vision that one day a single universal procedure to remove the coating
of a fibre should be available. Another point discussed at the last COST 270
meeting concerned the evolution of the fibres inside the connectors. With the
exception of one participant, nobody is working on such elements. The
meeting participants agreed that reliability aspects of POF are interesting and
should be considered too. SG 2 recommends also to discuss the extension of
reliability issues to POF for future COST 270 activities.
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STSM-3 Influence of temperature on Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

in single mode fibres with tight buffers from 19th to 23th May 2003.
Krzysztof Borzycki, NIT (Poland) visited Marcel Held, EMPA (Switzerland).

Abstract : This project focuses on the experimental investigation of PMD in

tight buffered single mode fibres and cables exposed to extreme operating
temperatures, accelerated aging and possibly other forms of degradation likely
to be experienced in real operating environments. The purpose is to test and
compare products manufactured by different suppliers using different
materials and technologies. Of particular interest is the behaviour of OPtical
Ground Wires (OPGW) with tight buffered optical units. Over 7000 km of
such cables is installed in Poland. They are also commonly used for LAN
indoor cables with fibres in 0.9 mm extruded thermoplastic buffers.
The samples were shipped from Poland and subjected to variable temperatures
changing between -20C and +70C in a single cycle in 5C steps, while the
PMD was measured. We tested one duplex LAN cable with LSOH sheath and
aramide strength members, one 4-fiber blown fibre unit (1 mm diameter) and
two tight buffered fibres for indoor cables with 0.9 mm extruded buffers. All
samples contained standard G.652 fibres. The results can be summarized as
the complete cable exhibited very weak positive temperature dependence
of PMD ;
the blown fibre unit had large, random changes of PMD with temperature
(2.5:1) ;
both tight buffered fibres showed a large PMD increase at low
temperatures, as expected. One of them also exhibited a PMD increase at
elevated temperatures above + 45C.
One fibre sample and the blown fibre unit suffered an irreversible physical
deterioration as a result of the test : the fibre experienced a 20% volume
shrinkage of the buffer, the blown fibre unit saw a coating shrinkage and a
large attenuation increase at 1550 nm for 2 out of the 4 fibres inside.
Those observations only partially confirm our previous expectations, that the
main effect will be a steady, reversible increase of PMD with decreasing
temperature due to shrinking and an increased pressure of the plastic coating
on the glass fibre

STSM-4 Availability prediction for Free Space Optic communication

systems from local climate visibility data from 23rd June to 27th June 2003.
Maher Al Naboulsi, France Tlcom (France) visited Erich Leitgeb, TU-Graz

Abstract : During this STSM we tried to combine the physical aspects of light
propagation in the atmosphere related to Free Space Optical (FSO)
communication with the technical aspect describing the technology and
components of FSO systems. Laser beam propagation through the atmosphere
under different weather conditions (especially fog phenomenon) was reviewed
from an empirical and theoretical point of view. Atmospheric attenuation
caused by absorption and scattering process was described to provide
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understanding of the different simplified models allowing to predict the

attenuation. These models valid for the visible and infrared spectral region
until 2.4 m are based on visibility data and on the particles size distribution.
Following the results of the exact computation of the scattering process, a
more accurate model for simplified calculation was derived leading to
significant different results than the previous low visibility (dense fog)
models. In fact, dense fog is the most important case to consider if high
availability for FSO transmission systems should be achieved. In addition,
characteristics of the optical components of FSO systems were described and a
calculation of the link budget is explained in theory and applied to a practical
system installed in the city of Graz. In conjunction with local climate visibility
data, these models allow the prediction of the availability for FSO systems.
The relation between attenuation and visibility at a given wavelength was
applied to experimental data. This data was obtained with the 2.7 km Free
Space Optic link in Graz during 1 year and the visibility data was collected at
the meteorological institute.

STSM-5 Reliability of polymer waveguide-based optical grating

components manufactured using femtosecond lasers from 15th July to 7th
August 2003.
Kyriacos Kalli, Higher Technical Institute (Cyprus) visited David Webb,
Aston University (United Kingdom).

Abstract : We have demonstrated and reported on the inscription of surface

and sub-surface damage lines and spots in PMMA slabs using a femto-second
laser system operating in the near infra-red. We have seen that the samples
have a low threshold for optical damage (we have produced voids under
modest laser powers) and that structures having dimensions of a few microns
can be realized. This lays the potential for single mode waveguides and indeed
we could use the microstructures that have been formed as channels to
incorporate other organic materials. Our measurements indicate that purely
refractive index changes may be difficult to realize with PMMA alone and we
will most likely require sample doping in future experiments. Our goals have
been to establish the correct manufacturing techniques, which includes
appropriate sample preparation and to determine the required inscription
stability for producing repeatable waveguide structures. Furthermore, we have
examined the stability of the structures in PMMA that have been inscribed to
temperature excursions below the glass transition temperature.

STSM-6 A service oriented framework for intelligent networks from 12th

June to 19th June 2004.
Barbara Martini, CNIT (Italy) visited Lena Wosinska, KTH (Sweden).

Abstract : In the last few years there has been a boom in requests\for
broadband connections in the access segment of telecommunication networks.
Indeed, customers are willing to use this broadband connection to support
concurrent and heterogeneous services. Telecommunication operators would
like to use the same transport infrastructure to deliver these emerging services
in an integrated way. We propose an enhancement to the existing ASTN
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architecture in order to deliver end-user customized services over legacy

transport infrastructure. The Intelligent Network Conceptual Model (INCM) is
used, where-in a service-independent transport network is interfaced to the
customer through an intermediate layer, named Service Plane. The Service
Plane permit to mask the transport-related implementation details from the
abstract request of a service by an end-user. In addition, the Service Plane
introduction leads to the separation of the telecommunication operator role in
two distinct activities: the Network Provider and the Service Provider. A
testbed named SOON (Service Oriented Optical Network) running the newly
design service-oriented software modules as an example of direct interaction
between customer and optical network for a dynamic service request. The
validation of the architecture is done by demonstrating a VPN service

STSM-7 Measurements of light attenuation at different wavelengths in

dense fog conditions for FSO applications from 23rd June to 30th June
Michael Gebhart, TU-Graz (Austria) visited Frdrique de Fornel, Univ. de
Bourgogne (France, La Turbie France Telecom Test Facility)

Abstract : Measurements were performed at the test facility of France Telecom

R&D in La Turbie (south coast of France). In the period from 23rd to 30th
June several events of dense maritime fog with visibilities as low as 30 meters,
corresponding to specific attenuations close to 500 dB/km could be observed.
Attenuation measurements at 950 nm, 850 nm and 650 nm were performed
using systems developed by the OptiKom group at TU Graz in comparison
with visibility data from a transmission measurement instrument operating in
the visible range around 550 nm. The most commonly used light attenuation
models of Kruse and Kim were compared with measurement data for dense
fog conditions. The measurements indicate a preference for wavelength
independent attenuation as predicted by Kim's model at low visibilities for
specular light in the 500 1600 nm spectral range, which is used for typical
FSO applications.

STSM-8 Service oriented framework for intelligent networks from 14th

February to 20th February 2005.
Americo Muchanga, KTH (Sweden) visited Piero Castoldi, Scuola Superiore
SantAnna (Italy)

Interrupted for medical reasons

STSM-9 Annealing study of Type IA fibre Bragg gratings and implications

to optical fibre component reliability from 23rd January to 1st February
Kyriacos Kalli, Higher Technical Institute (Cyprus) visited David Webb,
Aston University (United Kingdom)

Abstract : The annealing performance and thermal stability of Type IA Bragg

gratings are investigated and compared with Type I and Type IIA Bragg
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gratings, all inscribed in two batches of optical fibre; consisting of SMF28

(standard Corning fiber), B/Ge co-doped fibre (Fibercore PS1250/1500 B/Ge
co-doped single mode fibre - serial number 30246B/A-00A) and two different
samples of Ge-only doped fibre (Verillion IF0100331011 12mol%Ge and
FA1631211 21mol%Ge). The fibre batches are exposed to hot and cold
hydrogenation conditions, resulting in different values of hydrogen
equilibrium solubility at saturation. The grating transmission properties (mean
and modulated Bragg wavelength) are measured at predetermined
temperatures in an 8 channel DWDM test system, from which the decay
characteristics are inferred. This study has implications on the reliability of
optical fibre sensor and telecommunication devices that rely on the
wavelength stability of fibre Bragg gratings.

STSM-10 Capacity efficiency and availability optimization for mesh-based

survivable networks from 1st March 2005 to 1st April 2005.
Ling Zhou, EMPA (Switzerland) visited Wayne Grover, TRLabs and
University of Albert (Canada)

Abstract : A Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a contract between provider

and customer that stipulates certain Quality of Service guarantees. One
parameter of an SLA can be the maximum downtime guaranteed over the
contract time. If the actual outage exceeds the guarantee, the customer
unhappy and the operator may bear financial penalties. It is important
therefore that a network operator not only have some way to estimate or
calculate the theoretical long-term availability of the services offered, but
some basis for also determining a safety factor on the total outage time
promised to a customer on any finite-term contract. As the period gets shorter,
either nothing will go wrong and the effective availability will be perfect or if
a single outage occurs, the unavailability may seem very bad. More generally,
the question is how a network operator can build in theoretically justified
safety factors on the availability a customer may experience over a finite-term
contract. We are told that most service providers give availability guarantees
based empirically on experience and historical statistics. A simple theory is
thus proposed to help refine these methods for SLA policy setting. A
simulation study is implemented to verify the theory within the axioms it
assumes to be true. The contribution resulting from this STSM won the most
innovative paper award at the DRCN 2005 conference.

STSM-11 "In-service performance monitoring and reliability aspects in

domains of transparency" from 20th June 2005 to 24th June 2005.
Carolina Pinart and Ricardo Martinez, CTTC (Spain) and Filippo Cugini,
CNIT (Italy) visited Lena Wosinska, KTH (Sweden)

Abstract : The main goal of this scientific mission was to integrate in-service
information of the status of fiber links into a control plane based on
Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) in order to perform
routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) for lambda services (end-to-end
full transparent lightpaths) that satisfy specific quality of service (QoS)
requirements, and specifically reliability requirements.
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STSM-12 "A novel operation strategy for improved robustness in

automatically switched optical networks under distributed control" from 27th
February 2006 to 10th March 2006.
Zsolt Pandi, BUTE (Hungary) visited Wayne Grover, TRLabs and University
of Albert (Canada)

Abstract : The main goal of the scientific mission was to identify the benefits
of applying a novel operation strategy in optical networks, which potentially
eliminates performance decrease resulting from network state information
inaccuracy. Due to special, technology related constraints in optical networks,
in particular where service availability is an important issue, it is of paramount
importance to eliminate the adversary effect of network state information
distribution latency. A novel operation strategy was therefore proposed to
reach high service availability. A few representative optical network
topologies are used to evaluate the trade-off between the efficiency gain and
the increase of waiting time provided by the new operation strategy. The
optimization problem will be formulated using a general methodology and
with help of that and a simulator the effect of the choice of certain control
parameters is investigated in order to obtain increased efficiency and improved
service availability in optical networks.


5.1. Results of WG1

Accordingly to the WG1 objectives the main results of WG1 have been obtained in
the following domains : availability modeling and optimization of optical networks
[67], [146]-[149], [195], [207], starting the creation of a reliability database for optical
components and systems, differentiated reliability concept in multiple failure scenario
[1], [59], reliability issues in transparent optical networks, in-service performance
monitoring and improving connection availability by optical performance monitoring
[129], [187], service oriented framework for intelligent optical networks [4], QoS
guarantees in inter-domain scenario [6], [56], [69], the effect of temporary
inconsistency of the link state database [55], and finally reliability of terrestrial
wireless optical communications (Free Space Optical FSO communications) [11],
[48]-[50], [89]-[92], [124]-[128], [196]-[198].
New methods for connection availability calculations based on reference failure and
repair times were developed and tested on a case study. The availability of
connections within networks was analysed using different protection strategies, i.e.,
path protection, span protection and protection-cycles. Restoration-aware path
availability was proposed for the first time to be applicable to networks not only under
dedicated protection schemes, but also under restoration schemes with shared spare
capacity. Quantitative availabilities of service paths were computed for particular
networks. Parameters affecting the path unavailability were analyzed from the
standpoint of network design which revealed the potential to increase restorability. A
sensitivity analysis showed the dependency of the achieved connection availabilities
on reliability data and the resulting optimization potential, especially for cable repair
times. Linear programming formulations were designed to enhance the average
network dual failure restorability under a given investment. Optimization aspects
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were enhanced by an estimation of spare parts provisioning and corrective

maintenance actions. Our results can be used for network planning.
The most relevant physical impairments that need to be considered for Routing and
Wavelength Assignment (RWA) in transparent WDM networks have been defined.
Centralized and distributed control plane approaches to encompass physical
impairments were evaluated. For the distributed approach novel Generalised Multi-
Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) extensions were proposed to dynamically
estimate the optical signal quality and connection availability during lightpath set up.
On-line, non-intrusive monitoring strategies for providing physical-layer information
to the GMPLS control plane were designed and evaluated experimentally. Using these
extensions one can make sure that the lightpaths established in transparent domains
meet physical QoS requirements.
The service oriented framework for intelligent optical networks introduces the
concept of service virtualization in optical metro/core networks. We improved the
Automatic Switched Transport Network (ASTN) architecture by introducing an extra
functional layer, the Service Plane. It masks the physical layer and the control plane,
which improves service reliability.
We developed a new algorithm that is capable of routing connections with different
levels of availability in WDM networks. It uses the Shared Backup Path Protection
(SBPP) scheme and is derived from the Differentiated Reliability (DiR) concept. The
novelty lies in extending availability computations to multiple failures and in
including node availability. This approach leads to more cost-effective network
Connection admission decisions based on outdated or inconsistent network state
information may lead to severe performance degradation in WDM networks. A
theoretical model was developed to study the probability that wrong decisions are
made in a network where network state is continuously changing due to parallel
connection admission and teardown actions and equipment or cable failures.
In the field of terrestrial wireless optical communications the reliability of different
Free Space Optics-systems has been evaluated. Measurements of light attenuation in
dense fog conditions at different wavelengths (650 nm, 850 nm and 950 nm) for Free
Space Optics-applications were conducted (2 STSMs). Channel-modelling for the
optical wireless channel has also been performed. We introduced the Al-Naboulsi
model. We showed the improved reliability and availability of FSO links by
introducing Hybrid Wireless links (combination of FSO and microwave).

5.2. Results of WG2

The main achievements of WG2 are summarized below. Each of these achievements
complies with the objectives of the action and represents a collaborative effort
between two or more partners. Two types of activities are considered : those
conducted within a particular study group and research of a cross-cutting nature, i.e.
activities involving more than one study group (SG).
With respect to fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs), Type IA FBG data were gathered to
conduct demarcation energy analysis, a fabrication procedure was developed to make
them more reliable in a sensor network (straining). This work was conducted as an
STSM. Femto-second laser written gratings were investigated for their possible very
high temperature resistance. FBGs in polymer waveguides were also considered
through the development of annealing strategies to stabilize the grating and through
devising connection procedures to silica fibres to enhance their applicability. Finally,
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a round-robin measurement campaign on fibre Bragg gratings was concluded with a

number of rules of good practice that need to be respected whenever measuring the
characteristics of these devices.
In the study group on optical fibres an assessment of the state-of-the-art on fibre
stripping methods was made that confirmed that it is virtually impossible to remove
all coating residues from the silica surface using mechanical and chemical stripping.
Polarisation mode dispersion (PMD) issues were also investigated during an STSM
and as part of a PhD work. More particularly, a procedure was developed to calculate
probabilities of PMD induced outages with respect to bit-rates. A particular concern
was the performance of tight-buffered fibres that demonstrated increased values of
PMD due to temperature cycling. Network operators should therefore be careful when
increasing data-rates in installed networks that rely on these types of fibres.
The connector study group defined a reliability qualification test within COST 270
that was agreed on by IEC 86B working group 5 and that resulted in the IEC standard
IEC 62005-9-2. Dedicated optical instruments to investigate the quality of the
connector endface were developed as well. In collaboration with the study group on
fibre Bragg gratings, FBGs have been integrated in connectors to characterise the
stress distribution in mated and open connectors with micrometer resolution. This
method can be used to validate finite element calculations (FEM). The stress
distribution was found to depend on the fabrication technology. FEM calculations
explain the measured stress distribution to connector assembling and the changes due
to mating.
COST 270 initiated work on the effect of high optical power at tight fibre bends (< 10
mm diameter) which helped to accelerate standardisation work conducted by IEC 86A
WG 1 and WG3 on this issue. The continued efforts on high optical power effects
revealed that material absorption of the fibres at the wavelength of operation need to
be considered as local temperature increases can change the properties of fibre Bragg
gratings. This issue was raised for connector type fixed attenuators (EN50378-2) and
femto-second written gratings as well. The high power induced temperature
distribution of an attenuator fibre has been measured with micrometer resolution.
The very specific case of nuclear and space radiation effects on optical fibres was
considered as well. A first systematic study on the influence of high total dose (10
MGy) 60Co gamma radiation on the mechanical strength of both single-mode and
multimode fibres was conducted and revealed a 40% strength decrease.
Finally, demarcation energy theory (DET) received substantial attention. The
applicability of DET beyond the classical case of fibre Bragg grating stability was
recognized, more particularly as a tool for predicting the reliability and to identify the
most sensitive failure mechanisms in optical connectors. Upon informal input from
COST 270, the quantification given in IEC 62005-2-1 was found quantitatively
inaccurate and therefore this standard was published as a technical report and not as a

5.3. Standardisation
The impact of the Action on standardisation activities has been shortly
reported in the previous paragraph.
Cooperation and active liaisons through A. Opacic (Opacic Communications,
Switzerland) and M. Guglielmucci (ISCOM, Italy) were organised with the
standardisation bodies and working groups summarised in Table 5-1. The liaison
consisted in bi-lateral reporting of the activities of COST 270 and the standardisation
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organisations. More particularly, specific issues dealt with in these organisations, e.g.
on demarcation energy theory and high optical power, were considered by the Action
upon request by the standardisation committees.

Standardisation body Title of working/study group COST 270 liaison

and subgroup
CENELEC 86A Optical fibres and cables A. Opacic
CENELEC 86BXA Fibre optic interconnect, passive A. Opacic
and connectorised components
ETSI TM1/WP1 Transmission and multiplexing; A. Opacic
pPassive optical components
IEC 86A Fibres and Cables A. Opacic
IEC 86B Passive optical components A. Opacic
WG4 Standard tests and
measurement methods for fibre
optic interconnecting devices and
passive components
WG5 Reliability of fibre optic
interconnecting devices and
passive components
WG6 Standards and specifications
for fibre optic interconnecting
devices and related components
WG6 Task group for Fibre
Management Systems and
ITU-T SG.15 Optical and other transport M. Guggliemucci
network infrastructures
ITU-T SG.6 Outside plant and related indoor M. Guggliemucci
Table 5-1. Informal liaisons of COST 270 with standardisation bodies.


6.1. Publications and reports

The publication list of COST 270 (see ANNEX 2) counts :
180 publications at conferences and workshops (18 invited
26 publications in international journals;
17 related PhD/habilitation/MSc works;
11 STSM reports.

6.2. Conferences and Workshops

1st COST 270 Workshop on Reliability of Optical Networks, Systems
and Components, Dec. 12-13, 2001, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
2nd COST 270 Workshop held in connection with SPIE Photonics
Fabrication, Oct. 28-Nov. 1, 2002 Brugge, Belgium.
WG2-SG2 organised a one-day workshop on Modified reliability and
performance of applied optical fibres hosted by BAM (Berlin,
Germany) and held on 28th February 2003.
3rd COST 270 Workshop held in conjunction with SPIE Photonics
Europe, Apr. 27-29, 2004, Strasbourg, France.
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WG2 organised a one-day workshop on Demarcation Theory hosted

by EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland) and held on 14th March 2005.
WG1 organised RONEXT, held in conjunction with ICTON 2005, Jul.
03-07, 2005, Barcelona, Spain.
4th COST 270 Workshop held in conjunction with SPIE Photonics
Europe, Apr. 03-07, 2006, Strasbourg, France.
WG1 organised RONEXT II, held in conjunction with ICTON 2006,
Jun. 18-22, 2006, Nottingham, UK.

The workshops abstracts (with exception of the abstracts of RONEXT II, not
available at time of printing) are given in ANNEX 1.

6.3. Web site

The COST 270 website can be found at It was set up
in November 2001 and has been updated regularly. The following information is
available at the website :
COST in general, COST-TIST and other optical networking actions ;
the MoU of the action, contact addresses, short description of the
action ;
invitations to meetings, minutes and access to the documents of the
action ;
workshops, invitations, scientific missions, reports etc. ;
rules and forms for action ;
links to reliability related organisations, standardisation bodies,
reliability library, definitions and acronyms ;
literature list for COST270 works and reliability related publications.
This website will be maintained for two years after the official end of the Action.

6.4. Scientific and Technical Cooperation

A number of national projects (i.e. projects that benefit from national funding)
were successfully launched as a result of the activities supported by COST 270. These
projects are very shortly described below. The Action also promoted scientific
cooperation with other COST actions through information exchange and presentations
of the activities of COST 270 at events organised by these fellow actions. The
information exchange with these other actions is also briefly dealt with below.

National government funded project related to COST 270 activities

RAMON : Reliability, Availability and Maintainability of Optical Networks
(M. Held, EMPA, Switzerland).
Analysis and Optimization of Dependability of next generation components
and networks based on all optical and wireless transmission.
ROC : Reliability of passive optical fiber components (H. Limberger, IOA-
EPFL, Switzerland).
Research on reliability aspects of Fibers Bragg Gratings (FBG), and of passive
optical components like e.g connectors, fixed attenuators, etc.; Influence of
optical power.
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RAOC : Reliability of Amplifying Optoelectronic Components (Opto Speed

AG, Switzerland), replaced by RESUP (see below).
RESUP : Reliability of Superluminescent Optoelectronic Components, (L.
Occhi, EXALOS AG, Zurich, Switzerland).
Investigation of reliability and lifetime phenomena of superluminescent light
emitting diodes (SLEDs).
Investigation of influence of environmental factors, particularly extreme
temperatures and aging on Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) in tight-
buffered single-mode optical fibers of commonly used types (ITU-T G.652
and G.655) (M. Marciniak, NIT, Warsaw, Poland).
Design and Reliability Analysis of Resilient Networks with the DiR
(Differentiated Reliability) Paradigm; OTKA - Hungarian Scientific Research
Fund (L. Jereb, Univ. of West Hungary).
The objectives are:
1. to improve existing optimization methods for fault tolerant, dynamic-optical
networks with multi-layer dedicated, shared and mixed protection schemes;
2. to extend the available network analysis approach based on multi-layer
network model and stratified sampling for DiR network environment;
3. to introduce new mathematical approaches into the above design and analysis
Planning and Implementing Reliable IP over WDM networks, Bilateral
intergovernmental Science&Technology cooperation between Italy (Pisa,
Torino, Trento) and Hungary (Budapest, Sopron), (L. Jereb, Univ. of West
Hungary, Sopron and Z. Pandi, BUTE, Budapest, Hungary).
The project contains :
1. resource provisioning and traffic engineering;
2. single-layer resilience;
3. multilayer resilience;
4. implementation of a control plane.

COST 266 " Advanced Infrastructure for Photonic Networks"

A presentation summarizing the activities in COST WG1 entitled Reliability
of Optical Components and Devices in Communications Systems and Networks was
given by M. Held (EMPA, Switzerland) at the COST 266 Workshop on Advanced
Optical Networks WAON 2003 held in conjunction with the 7th International
Conference on Telecommunications - ConTEL 2003 in Zagreb (June 2003). Te
activities and possible cooperation members of actions 266 and 270 in a future action
291 Towards Digital Optical Networks were discussed at the MCM meeting of
COST266. This action was presented by a COST 266/291 delegate (C. Mas, AIT,
Greece) at the 8th COST 270 MC&WG meeting in Berlin.

COST 291 TDON "Towards Digital Optical Networks"

M. Marciniak (NIT, Poland) and L. Wosinska (KTH, Sweden) attended the
second meeting of COST 291 (Milan, Italy, February 2005). COST 291 had its first
workshop collocated with ICTON05 and RONEXT (Reliability Issues in Next
Generation Optical Networks, COST 270 WG1 workshop) in Barcelona in July 2005.
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COST 299 FIDES "Optical Fibres Dedicated to Society"

F. Berghmans (SCKCEN, Belgium) and W. Habel (BAM, Germany)
participate in this recently started action. COST 270 was regularly informed about the
status of and activities planned in COST 299.

6.5. Transfer of results

The results of obtained within COST 270 are transferred at first to the
participants of the action via the internal communication (presentations, discussions
and documents) at meetings and workshops, as well as via email and via the website . All the presentations at the WG and MC meetings were
delivered in a plenary session, with the abstracts of the presentations being recorded
in the meeting minutes. The presentation files were annexed to these meeting minutes
and remained available at any time with the secretary of the action. The website also
contributes to the transfer of results to those not directly involved in the activities of
the action. The meeting minutes are publicly available on the website but not the
presentations files for intellectual property reasons.
The organisation of the COST 270 workshops co-located with major events
organised by international professional organisations such as SPIE and IEEE-LEOS
(see list below) also allowed to reach a broad international audience.
SPIE Photonics Fabrication (28th Oct. 1st Nov. 2002, Brugge, Belgium)
SPIE Photonics Europe 2004 (26th 30th Apr. 2004, Strasbourg, France)
SPIE Photonics Europe 2006 (03rd 07th Apr. 2006, Strasbourg, France)
ICTON 2005 (03rd 07th July 2005, Barcelona, Spain)
ICTON 2006 (18th 22nd June 2006, Nottingham, UK)
The proceedings of the COST 270 workshops organised during these major
events are traceable and remain available throughout the years, either for purchase
with the organisation involved or through national and international library services.
The proceeding informations (as of June 2006, available at and are listed below.

Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 4940

Reliability of Optical Fiber Components, Devices, Systems, and Networks
Editor(s): Hans G. Limberger, M. John Matthewson
ISBN: 0-8194-4735-8
Publication Date: Apr 2003; 236 pages; 22 papers; Softcover
Prices: $53 / $70 (SPIE Member/List)

Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 5465

Reliability of Optical Fiber Components, Devices, Systems, and Networks II
Editor(s): Hans G. Limberger, M. John Matthewson
ISBN: 0-8194-5388-9
Publication Date: Sep 2004; 282 pages; 29 papers; Softcover
Prices: $60 / $80 (SPIE Member/List)

Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 6193

Reliability of Optical Fiber Components, Devices, Systems, and Networks III
Editor(s): Hans G. Limberger, M. John Matthewson
ISBN: 0-8194-6249-7, Publication Date: May 2006; 420 pages; Softcover
Prices: $70 / $90 (SPIE Member/List)
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International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2005)

IEEE Product No.: EX1100
ISBN: 0-7803-9236-1, 2005/Softbound/924pp
List Price: $276.00, IEEE Member Price: $138.00

International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2006)

IEEE Product No.: EX1326
ISBN: 1-4244-0235-2, 2006/Print on Demand/800pp
List Price: $370.00, IEEE Member Price: $185.00

Finally, an important exchange of information and results has also been

achieved via liaisons and close informal relationships of the participants to relevant
standardisation bodies as well as through contacts with EU funded initiatives (see
paragraph 6.6).

6.6. Contacts in the ERA

Several members of COST 270 were also participating to EU funded
initiatives of the 6th Framework Programme. Information exchanges have been
organised through these participants.

e-Photon/ONeNetwork of Excellence (

The Network of Excellence e-Photon/ONe focuses on the Broadband for all
strategic objective of the IST 1st call, targeting network-oriented and system-oriented
aspects of the optically enabled broadband. It builds upon existing coordination
activities among universities and research centres active in optical networking and
transmission. Indeed, the proposal was formed merging two previous potential
proposals in the same technical area called e-Photon and ONe. e-Photon was a
broader consortium, including most major universities, research institutes and
companies active in research on optical telecommunications and, in particular, on
enabling photonic technologies. It was an initiative of eiTT, the European Institute of
Telecommunication Technologies, which is a core group of 5 major University groups
specialised in optical (and wireless) telecommunication. Members of eiTT (Technical
University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark; Universitt Duisburg-Essen,
Germany; Technical University of Eindhoven, the Netherlands; Ghent University,
Belgium; Politecnico di Torino, Italy) are already involved in a number of integration
activities, leveraging their geographical proximity. ONe (the acronym stands for
Optical Networks) was a consortium founded inside the IST DAVID project,
gathering most major European research activities on optical networking. e-
Photon/ONe brings together those e-Photon and ONe partners and their respective
research groups with a proven excellence record that are active on photonic
broadband research topics most relevant for the 1st call.
L. Wosinska (KTH, Sweden) is a member of e-Photon/ONe and has mutually
reporting on the common subjects of interest.

NEMONetwork of Excellence on Micro-Optics (http://www.micro-
Micro-optics is a generic technology that allows the manipulation of light and
the management of photons with micron- and sub-micron-scale structures and
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components. Micro-optics is therefore the corner-stone enabling technology to

interface the macroscopic world we live in with the microscopic world of opto- and
nano-electronic data processing circuits. It is recognized as the key-link between
photonics and nano-electronics, the two dominating information technologies in
tomorrows society. This Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics NEMO aims at
providing Europe with a complete Micro-Optics food-chain, by setting up centers for
Optical Modelling and Design; Measurement and Instrumentation; Mastering,
Prototyping and Replication; Hybrid Integration and Packaging; Reliability and
Standardization. A first objective of the NEMO network is to make these service and
technology centres accessible to academic research institutes, SMEs, and large
companies to enhance the competitiveness of photonic-based products and the durable
embedding of novel photonic functionalities in a myriad of products.
A second objective is to use these service and technology centres to support
the networks six long-term application-oriented research topics on micro-optics:
Mid-Infra-Red micro-optics, Sub-wavelength structured optical surfaces, Platforms
for optical MEMS, Non-conventional micro-optical elements, Micro-optical
structures for sensing, and Micro-optic interconnects. These long-term research topics
aim at widening the scope of present-day research and at introducing novel concepts
and components, thus creating new photonic functionalities applicable in virtually any
region of the optical spectrum and beyond. With its long-term research NEMO is
targeting a wealth of novel optical and photonic applications to increase the quality of
daily life.
F. Berghmans (SCKCEN, Belgium) is leading work package 5 Centre for
Reliability in NEMO and was appointed for bilateral reporting in COST 270 and
NEMO on the reliability activities conducted in both initiatives.

The expenses paid by the institutes/companies actively contributing to COST
270 for activities that are relevant to this COST action vary considerably depending
on the activity level of the institute/company. It is therefore very difficult to calculate
the amount of person-months dedicated to COST 270 tasks and the resulting company
costs. A realistic estimate of the average expenditure is about 12.000 per company
per year. Taking into account the number of institutes and companies that actively
contributed to COST 270, this results in about 250.000 /year. How this expenditure
per institute/company has evolved over the 5 years of activity of COST 270 is
difficult to estimate due to the status of the IT-telecom conjecture and the resulting
decrease of the reliability activities. However, in the last year of the action one could
observe a prudent market revival and renewed interest in the COST action and in
reliability issues in general.
The evolution of the COST 270 budget and expenses are given in Table 7-1
and Table 7-2, respectively.
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Secretariat Workshops Meetings STSM Totals

1st January 2001
to 25 13 37 6 81
30th June 2002
1st July 2002
to 15 10 23 8 56
30th June 2003
1st July 2003
to 15 7 29 5 56
30th June2004
1st July 2004
to 14 5 36 8 63
30th June 2005
1st July 2005
to 9 5 40 10 64
6th June 2006
Totals 78 40 165 37 320
Table 7-1. Evolution of the budget of COST 270 (in kEURO).

Secretariat Workshops Meetings STSM Totals

1 January 2001
to 27,94 7,45 36,11 1,50 73,00
30th June 2002
1st July 2002
to 17,91 0 9,71 3,46 31,08
30th June 2003
1st July 2003
to 18,00 3,05 12,68 3,36 37,09
30th June2004
1st July 2004
to 14,12 1,61 31,13 6,31 53,17
30th June 2005
1st July 2005
to 7,85 8,62 34,56 1,52 52,55
6th June 2006
Totals 85,82 20,73 124,19 16,15 246,89
Table 7-2. Evolution of the expenses of COST 270 (in kEURO).

The self-evaluation of the action is shortly described below in the form of a
strength-weakness analysis.

Despite the downturn of industry resources dedicated to reliability assessment
a number of remarkable results were achieved in fibre Bragg grating reliability, high
optical power effects, free space optical communication links and reliable schemes for
transparent networks.
The action benefited from a smooth and efficient organization. Successful
STSMs allowed for support of research activities of both young and experienced
scientists. The topics for the collaborations were well-defined.
COST 270 had a strong visibility and obtained world wide attention.
Collaborations with non-COST countries (USA, Canada,..) have been organised. The
Action had both formal and informal liaisons to standardization bodies. These
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standardisation bodies welcomed several recommendations from the Action and the
definitions of new standards supported by COST 270 are in progress. In conclusion
one can say that in spite of the short lifetime of a COST action compared to the time
necessary for standards to evolve, the Action had a strong impact on standardisation
The Action also allowed obtaining support for different national projects in
Poland, Switzerland and Hungary. A number of subjects of interest were dealt with in
PhD works as well.
As for networking, collaboration with other COST actions and EU networks
were set up. The Action provided a great opportunity to meet researchers in the field
and offered potential for future EU collaborations.

The Action suffered in an early stage from the strong downturn on the
telecommunication market which affected optical communications and reliability
related activities in particular. This caused a number of industrial players and
component manufacturers to leave the action.
In terms of logistics the Action was slightly slowed down at the time of the
transfer of the management of COST from the European Commission to the European
Science Foundation, which also almost coincided with a change of secretary and
grantholder within COST 270. It has also been difficult to remove inactive members
from the management committee and a certain out-of-sight out-of-mind mentality had
the tendency to cause some discontinuity in the activities.
As for the organisation of the activities it turned out to be very difficult to
synchronise the activities of the two working groups WG1 on networks and WG2 on
components. This has nevertheless been continuously improved as the action
progressed but there could still have been more cross-fertilization between both
working groups.
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9.1 Evaluation panel and evaluation procedures

The evaluation panel was composed by:

Dr Alain Brenac
Association Nationale de la Recherche technique (ANRT)
Tel.: +331 55 35 25 70
Fax: +331 55 35 25 55

Dr Jean-Claude Bouley
GET/Telecom Paris - Ecole Nationale Suprieure des Tlcommunications
Communication & Electronics Department
Tel. : +331 45 81 74 14
Fax : +331 45 89 00 20
e-mail: jean-

Dr. Afonso Ferreira

Science Officer for ICT
COST Office
Avenue Louise 149
1050 Brussels
Tel: +32 (0)2 533 38 15
Fax: +32 (0)2 533 38 90

The Rapporteur attended the last meeting of the action in Strasbourg in April
2006 which was the occasion for an extensive discussion on the final outputs of
COST 270. An oral synthesis of conclusions was given to Dr Bouley who wrote
down a draft of the evaluation report in July.
A finalisation meeting between the two experts was organised early September
and the Rapporteur issued that commonly agreed final version of the evaluation
report (very close to the first draft indeed) for comments by the Scientific Officer.

9.2 Results versus objectives

The scientific results obtained in each working group (WG1 on the networks and
WG2 on the components) contribute to a better comprehension of the origin of the
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ruptures of connection between the users of the same optical network. As well is
in the field of work of modelling of the availability or reliability of the networks,
or in that of the studies of degradation of the characteristics of the components of
the physical layer, all the results are in perfect adequacy with the objective of
improvement of the quality of the optical networks and system which constitutes
the major objective of this action COST 270.
More precisely, the principal results of the WG1 are as follows:
o New tools for simulation of the availability of all connections of the same
network were developed while being based on the data of reliability
borrowed from the literature. This work applied to the topology of a Pan-
American network, made the object of several communications in reviews
and international conferences of which one as an invited paper to the
Transparent Optical Networks Conference held in July 2004
o A new method of control of the reliability of the networks was shown by
carrying out the follow-up of the amplitude of the optical signal in the course
of time. Its evolution makes it possible to determine with more certainty the
moment of the disappearance of the signal as well as the localization of this
fault in the network. It was shown that this technique can prove very
advantageous to guarantee the quality of service of connections.
o Measurements of reliability of the terrestrial links optical in free propagation
were also taken on the ground (La Turbie in the south of France). Two
STMS made it possible to take measurements of attenuation in the visible
spectrum (650 nm) and in close IR (850 and 950 nm) and under different
conditions of fog. An original technique of improvement of the reliability of
the connections was shown by superimposing a signal microwave with
carrying optics. This activity made the object of ten communications and
publications in international conferences and reviews.
o other very interesting results were also obtained. For example, the first
elements of a data base of the reliability of the components and subsystems
optical were defined. With this intention, the principal points of weakening
of the physical layer of transparent networks WDM were identified.

Concerning the activities of the Components Group (WG2), we note the following
facts and outstanding results (given in a preferential order):
o With current progress of the available optical powers of the monomode laser
sources (>13 dBm), the studies of the effect of the optical power on
degradations of the performances of fibres and the passive components
(connectors, filter of Bragg) are completely judicious. The weak thresholds
of catastrophic destruction (22 dBm) measured on fibres subjected to weak
radius of curvature show the importance of taking into account these
phenomena in the design of transmission systems with great reliability. This
same remark is also valid for the drifts observed on the components with
networks of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) components and the optical
o The work carried out on the validity, the relevance and the generalization of
`DET `for the evaluation of the lifetime of the components constitutes a
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beautiful example of the impact which can carry out within a COST. Thanks
to the good co-operation between the various teams, the field of application
of this technique of evaluation has been able to extend itself to the optical
connectors and super-luminescent diodes. An international workshop
gathering the largest specialists in this specific field was organized. Co-
operative and informal work carried out within this framework then made it
possible to confirm that the recommendation of the IEC 62005-2-1
generalizing this measurement technique was too vague to become an
international standard.
o The work carried out on fibre also made it possible to highlight impossibility
to completely remove its coating, with the mechanical, chemical traditional
processes and by illumination UV. These results which should challenge the
optical manufacturers of connectors would deserve more deepening to
evaluate their impact on the reliability and the outputs of manufacture of
these products. A work of characterization of the PMD of fibres made it
possible to establish a correlation between the design of the buffer and the
cycles of temperatures applied at the time of the studies of reliability.
o Thanks to an excellent co-operative work carried out between the partners,
the constraints exerted on fibre in a connector could be precisely evaluated.
By introducing into the connector a fibre provided with a Bragg grating, it
indeed was possible to measure the spatial distribution of the constraints
exerted by the ferrule by measuring the Bragg frequency shift by low
coherence interferometry (OLCR). This original technique made it possible
to show the importance of the techniques of manufacture on the distribution
of the constraints.
o Finally many work of study of the stability of Bragg Filters also made it
possible to look further into the effects of optical irradiation on the
characteristics of the filters. Manufacturing methods ensuring a great
stability were also tested as well in fibres as in the optical guides containing
polymers. Finally series of common samples circulated between the partners
in order to optimize the techniques and to define methods of common

In conclusion, as one can see it through this short summary, the results obtained
through this action COST 270 are rich and numerous. On the scientific level, all
these studies contribute to an impressing number of communications and
publications in the conferences and international reviews. In addition, the actors
knew to give a world dimension to their work one organizing a great number of
Workshops and Conferences (8 on the whole period) implying the best
international specialists in the field. Lastly, as it hereafter will be seen the impacts
of this action within the organizations of standardization or within the research
programs Community were remarkable.

9.3 Outcome and achievements

The results and the achievements of action COST 270 can be summarized in the
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following way:
o Constitution of a European network industrial and academic partners
sensitized with the problems of reliability of the key components of the
systems and optical networks
o Scientific and technical Contributions indisputable as regards identification
of new mechanisms of degradation of the components (optical Power,
technique of manufacture), of method of measurement and characterization
qualifying the reliability of the connectors, on the relevance of the
determination of the lifetime of the components by the DET, in modelling of
the survivability of the optical networks and in the first contributions to the
study of the incidence of the atmospheric conditions on the transmission
optics in free propagation
o Establishment of many connections allowing the dissemination of the results
within the many organizations of standardization (CENELEC, ETSI, IEC,
o Drafting of a number impressive of publications, communications and
organization of workshops and conferences allowing an excellent
dissemination of the results and a visibility and sensitizing of the problems of
reliability to the international scientific community
o Realization of a regularly updated Web site disseminating all information
necessary to an excellent co-operation and coordination between all the actors

9.4 Impact of the Action

The activities of research undertaken in this action contributed to develop a better

knowledge of the phenomena of degradation of the optical components and their
incidence on the reliability of the optical networks. The close connections
maintained with the industrialists implied in the actions or taking part in the
various workshops made certainly it possible to take into account the results and
the recommendations suggested in the methods of realization or measurements of
the components. They finally contributed an important share to the improvement
of reliability and survival of the optical networks.

9.5 European added-value

The big amount of scientific publications will largely contribute to the

development of the knowledge in the field of the optical components reliability
and their degradation mechanisms. In addition, some results should already
impact the methods and procedures of standardization, other ones will prepare
future actions of standardization in this field. Many national projects dealing with
reliability and availability of optical networks have been successfully launched
during the cooperation
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9.6 Coordination and management

After a rather difficult start of this Action for some months, a new Chairman was
appointed and things rapidly improved from Year 2, important results being
apparent first in the WG1 activities, followed by major achievements in different
fields of WG2. The intrinsic difficulty however remained in the course of the
action to have a real coordination between the 2 working groups. The MC made
real efforts to overcome that difficulty but the two populations of researchers in
the concerned fields: system technologists and components specialists have
probably backgrounds and concerns too far from each other to enable an effective
interaction in the research tasks going beyond a simple exchange of information
on their respective fields during the meetings.

9.7 Dissemination of results

The 334 communications, publications and reports carried out during the period
covered by the project ensured a good dissemination of work through the
international scientific community. The 8 organized workshops whose 3 in
connection with conferences SPIE and 2 with ICTON also very largely
contributed to the diffusion of resulted within a wide scientific framework. The
participations in the already quoted organizations of standardization also allowed
good takings into account of work in this work.

9-8 Strengths and weaknesses

The totality of means implemented to disseminate results towards the
scientific communities and the standardization bodies constitutes the essential
and major force of this action. Its weakness is probably the absence of synergy
between the components and network activities as mentioned above. A better
taking into account of the reliability data produced by WG2 in the studies of the
WG1 was surely difficult to implement due to the large diversity of the actions
carried out on the components. Moreover, as the component activities were more
technologically oriented and not addressing so much their long term evolution,
the overlap between component and networks activities was too small. One can
also regret that not enough actions were developed on the active components
(laser, modulators), the reason being probably due to the crisis of the
telecommunications sector at the beginning of the work which impeded to get
good samples from the main industrial actors.

9.9 Recommendations
The evaluators strongly recommend developing the lifetime measurements on the
already investigated components so that to create a database likely to help system
and network specialists to make their models running with parameters extracted
from real values. A second recommendation is that some continuity be ensured
with the starting action COST 299 by teams present in both actions. In particular
the main breakthroughs obtained in COST270/WG2 could be utilised as feeding
inputs for the WG4 reflexions in COST 299.
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10. DC remarks
A lot of valuable work has been accomplished in COST 270 in both Working Groups
in the investigation of optical systems for communication networks and optical
component degradation mechanisms. This Action has strongly contributed to create a
living academic and industrial European network specialised on reliability issues by
initiating a common database that may be accessed by fibre manufacturers. They have
made a good use of the STSM instrument and widely disseminated their results in
various scientific events and publications. They also maintained efficient contacts
with standardization bodies at the forefront of the research in the domain. Also, the
consortium regularly deployed an outstanding effort of transparent and very
informative scientific dissemination also when reporting, whereas the number of
companies and institutes from non-COST countries with which information was
exchanged as indicated in Table 4.3 shall be stressed as well. The DC concludes that
COST 270 has carried out a really good work.
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Workshop contents and abstracts
Introduction to Reliability Engineering, Marcel Held
Reliability engineering is a rapidly evolving discipline, whose purpose is to develop methods and tools
to predict, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability, maintainability, and availability of components,
equipment, and systems, as well as to support development and production engineers in building in
reliability into products.
The expectation today is that complex equipment and systems are not only free from defects and
systematic failures at the time when they are put into operation, but also to perform the required
function failure free for a stated time interval. However, the question of whether a given item will
operate without failures during a stated time period cannot be simply answered by yes or no on the
basis of compliance tests. Experience shows that only a probability for this occurence can be given.
This probability is a measure of the item's reliability.
The fundamental terms of reliability engineering are defined such as: probability, reliability, failure
rate, mean time to failure, useful life, mean time to restoration, availability, maintainability.
Reliability analysis tools such as reliability block diagrams, failure rate prediction, fault mode and
effects analysis, and fault trees are presented.

Survivability mechanisms in optical layer and self-healing topologies,

Lena Wosinska
A high availability of telecommunication services has traditionally been expected and is being equally
important for both end users and contracted service providers. The importance of network reliability
will grow with the steadily increasing network capacity. For optical networks carrying multiples of 10
Gbps channels per fiber, a failure of a single link will interrupt a vast number of services running on-
line, and thus making the connection availability a factor of greatest significance. Capacity restoration
mechanisms are available at several network layers, depending on the architecture (IP over ATM over
SDH over DWDM on one side versus IP over DWDM on the other). In any case, various restoration
mechanisms, such as dedicated facility restoration (i.e., link protection or path protection) and
dynamic facility restoration, are available in the optical network layer.
To avoid misunderstanding the set of definitions will be provided: network port, optical link, optical
path (or lightpath), protection, link protection, path protection, physical topology, virtual topology (or
logical topology), network survivability, asymptotic availability, asymptotic unavailability, connection
availability, and connection failure.
Network survivability mechanisms, self-healing network topologies, and reliability models will be

Design and Dimensioning Issues in Survivable Data-centric Optical

Networks, Didier Colle, Sophie De Maesschalck, Chris Develder, Adelbert
Groebbens, Mario Pickavet, Piet Demeester
There are some well-known facts that steer the development of next-generation Optical Transport
Networks (OTNs). First of all, the ongoing explosive traffic volume growth proofs that society more
and more relies on communication networks. Thus the importance of the reliability of these networks
also keeps growing. Secondly, the data portion of the traffic volume will be extremely dominant in a
few years time and one may expect an evolution towards (MPLS-capable) IP directly over Optical
networks (with an optical layer that will be more and more optimised for the transport of data traffic).
Thirdly, there is a trend to shorten the provisioning time of lightpaths through an OTN. This is
achieved by introducing a control plane in the optical domain, leading to a so-called Automatically
Switched Optical Network (ASON). Generalised-MPLS (G-MPLS) - the extension of the MPLS
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paradigm to labels which are not only represented by an integer, but also by a time-slot, a wavelength,
a waveband, etc - is one of the most important alternatives to establish an optical network control
The goal of this talk is to investigate how to make such data-centric optical network survivable. We
will mainly focus on the application of MPLS recovery techniques, in both the electrical and optical
domain (MP An important question is in which layer (electrical or optical) to deploy such recovery
mechanisms. Our capacity dimensioning results confirm that the dedication of optical protection may
result in a significant cost penalty (especially for local protection). The Backup Tree concept, which
fits rather well in the G-MPLS paradigm, is a technique to improve the cost efficiency of the optical
(G-MPLS) protection. Although it is possible to provide fast and cost-efficient MPLS protection
switching at the MPLS-capable IP layer, we have found that this may severely interfere with the
behaviour of TCP, used for the transport of data traffic. Taking into account this and the fact that the
optical layer cannot protect against router failures, there is no clear answer to the question in which
layer to provide the recovery. Therefore, we have studied the case where both layers provide network
recovery. A capacity dimensioning has been performed for three alternatives to transport the IP spare
resources in the optical network (i.e., as protected traffic similar to the working traffic, as unprotected
traffic or as extra traffic).
The talk will also discuss how to profit from the ASON functionality in reacting to a failure condition.
Consider for example the case that a router fails. This may lead to a disconnection of the logical
topology. In order to restore the connectivity, the quasi-immediate setup of new lightpaths may be
requested from the optical network.
In conclusion the talk will discuss some alternatives to provide survivability in a data-centric optical
network and these alternatives will be evaluated mainly with respect to their capacity requirements.

P-cycles: Network protection with ring-speed and mesh-efficiency, Dominic Schupke

P-cycles represent a surprisingly long-overlooked but advantageous new option for network protection.
Their main feature is that they retain ring-like switching characteristics but, under appropriate design
optimization, yield networks that are virtually as efficient as mesh-restorable networks. The p-cycle
concept thus breaks the long-standing quandary between the basic ring and mesh alternatives, and does
so by combining the best of both ring speed and mesh efficiency and flexibility. p-cycles permit ring-
like switching speeds because only two nodes do any real-time actions and yet because they cover an
important family of "straddling" failures, not covered by rings, they are as efficient as certain mesh-
restorable networks.
The presentation and paper convey the basic ideas of how p-cycles work and their adaptation to IP and
WDM layers for either link or node-failure protection, including the option for self-organizing
formation of p-cycles to protect time-varying demand patterns. An overview of ongoing research on p-
cycle theory, availability, design optimization, and implementation is summarized in closing. The
relevance to COST working groups is that p-cycles represent a simple yet highly effective third option
for optical network planners to consider. The timing for COST influence on the direction of both
researchers and equipment developers could be significant.

COST/Recilience Issues at Emerging Optical Networks- Differences from SDH Core

Networks, Andreas Antonopoulos
Along the developments in the optical networking world we have seen a significant effort been placed
in the exploration of the value of resilience and the analysis of technological enhancements in the
emerging technologies to allow for improved resilience. Protection techniques coupled with
architecture and feature approaches have recently become a hot issue in the positioning of optical
In the presentation, the resilience options evolving in the Optical Layer will be discussed and the
emerging cost/resilience trade-offs will be analysed. The shift of such trade-offs as the optical
networking will be progressing will be projected. The differences with resilience issues in the SDH
world will be presented in detail and how this differences influence architecture, design and protection
options will be discussed
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Free-space Optics: Reliability and Availability in Service Provider Applications,

Stephen Patrick
Free-space optic technology is being used increasingly to connect service provider 'last-mile' network
connections, and in 2G/3G cellular networks to provide 'backhaul' from remote cell sites. Despite
offering unlimited bandwidth for unlicensed, line-of-sight connections, the required availability of
service providers is typically '5 nines', or 99.999%.
Reliability of Free-space Optics is typically influenced by atmospherics including weather, line-of-
sight blockage, and equipment reliability. Detailed study of atmospheric effects and planning tools to
predict 'per-link' availabilities for a given region, ring, star and mesh network architectures, 1+1
resilient switch-over, wireless (radio) back-up, and technologies to improve fundamental equipment
reliability are all important ingredients in achieving reliable service using Free-Space Optics.
Case Studies include Broadband IP service providers, Metro networks and Cellular providers in
Europe, Middle East, Africa and Far East with discussion on environment and infrastructure

Reliability of Passive Components: Service Environments, Failure Modes and Predictive

Methodologies, Bruce G. LeFevre, M. LuValle and S. Kannan.
This paper will deal with reliability of passive components on several levels. The first part, an
overview of the topic, will include: reliability concepts and definitions, related concepts (qualification,
HALT testing and screening), accelerated testing and life stress models, estimating reliability and
lifetime and reliability standards. The second part will survey the types of passive components in use,
their service environments and the dominant failure mechanisms. The third part will deal with specific
examples and will include the effect of high power on passive components.

Reliability Concerns and Effects of High Optical Power on Photonic Materials and
Components, Michael DeRosa
Todays long haul optical telecommunication systems are using DWDM and optical amplification to
send more information over greater distances than ever before. This results in high optical power
levels in fiber systems over a multitude of wavelengths that can induce irreversible degrading effects in
materials. Therefore, high power reliability of photonic components has become a major concern. In
this presentation I will discuss several fundamental effects known to occur in optical materials due to
high pulsed and continuous wave laser power. I will also review relevant studies that have been
reported in the literature regarding high power degradation in fiber optic-based technologies.

Reliability of high power 980nm pump lasers, Sebastian Arlt

Highly reliable 980-nm pump lasers are key components of Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs)
used in submarine, long-haul terrestrial, and metropolitan optical networks. Submarine networks
commonly specify failure rates lower than 100 FIT, i.e., less than 2% fails during 29 years at operating
conditions, which is a factor 5 less than for terrestrial long-haul and metropolitan systems. Extensive
accelerated life tests have to be performed to test such ultra-stringent reliability.
To satisfy the demand for higher pump power with the same reliability requirements we have recently
qualified our third submarine chip generation called G06. The accelerated life test of the G06
qualification program consists of multiple stress test cells with more than 2000 laser diodes
accumulating over 2 million device hours. We demonstrate that no additional aging effects occur
during the life test, and thus the scaling of the device lifetime to operating conditions is valid. Based on
this data we demonstrate world-leading reliability performance of 80 FIT at 325 mW ex-facet power
and 25 C.

Optical Interface under High Optical Power, Francois Caloz

Abstract not available
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Impact of silica glass microstructure on transmission properties of Ge-doped single-mode
fibers, Tarja T. Volotinen, Anu E. Konkarikoski, C. B. Arvidsson, Thomas K. Ericsson
The impact of silica glass structure on the transmission properties of Ge-doped single-mode optical
fibers was studied. Test fibers with significantly different fictive temperatures (Tf) and residual stresses
were drawn by varying cooling rate. Tensile or compressive residual stresses were achieved in core of
the fibers. The results show that: (1) Both residual stress and Tf have an impact to the transmission
properties, in particular, the stress in core. (2) A greater complexity was found in the relationship
between transmission properties and glass structure than has been shown earlier. E.g. Rayleigh
scattering was found to decrease and loss imperfection factor to increase with increasing Tf within one
of the fiber series. Thus Tf can not alone be used to characterize the fiber glass structure. (3)Rayleigh
scattering is dependent on both Tf and residual stress, in particular on core stress and probably on the
structure of core glass. A relatively low Rayleigh scattering was found in fibers with Tf as high as
1600C. (4) Zero dispersion- and cut-off wavelengths are modified by residual stress.

Historical overview and latest results: 30 years of silica glass fiber reliability,
Charles R. Kurkjian
In this paper we present a brief historical review, including a discussion of some of the advances we
think have been made in the area of mechanical reliability of lightguide fibers. Fatigue and aging of
these fibers are reviewed in detail. It is shown that these processes are fundamental to the silica glass
itself, at least under normal environmental conditions. It is suggested that the single most important
outstanding issue is the determination of the presence of fatigue and/or aging limits. If these limits are
shown to exist in general, or at least under certain conditions, a major simplification of lifetime
analysis will have been accomplished.

Mechanical properties of fluoride glass fibers, Marcel Poulain, Nicolas Gougeon,

Gwenael Maz
Fluoride glass fibers are used for various passive and active applications. Current fibers are made from
fluorozirconate glasses. Their intrinsic strength is smaller than that of silica fibers and their surface
may be damaged by liquid water. The discrepancy between the reported values of the fiber strength
reflects the major part of the extrinsic defects in the failure mechanism. The surface of the glass
preform determines fiber strength to a large extent and numerous defects are induced during fiber
processing. These defects are largely correlated to the chemical action of water. Dynamic fatigue
measurements have been carried out. They show that the average strength depends on fiber length even
though when a proof test is made prior to measurement. Fiber strength is not constant for all fiber
segments originating from the same preform. Atmospheric humidity also influences fiber strength and
dried fiber show much larger failure stress. Aqueous solutions corrode surface fiber resulting in the
significant decrease of the fiber strength. Structural relaxation may occur in fibers under stress inducing
permanent bending and reduction of applied stress. Fibers hermetically packaged are more reliable and
some of them have been used in outdoors conditions for years. While surface has to be protected from
water in any case, controlling extrinsic defects should lead to the large improvement of the fluoride
fiber strength.

Long term stability of aerial optical cables with respect to gigabit/s data rates, Marcel
Held, Rolf Brnnimann, Philipp M. Nellen
For the extension of existing optical fiber links to higher data transfer rates in the multi-gigabit range
and the expected higher power density due to DWDM one must consider possible limitations of the
deployed cables. Many investigations have identified polarization mode dispersion PMD as a crucial
parameter especially for cables exposed to environmental stresses. Three aerial optical fiber cable links
were characterized by measuring PMD, optical time domain reflectometry OTDR, polarization-OTDR,
and bit error rate BER. Measurement results over several days are correlated to temperature data from
weather stations along the cable lines.
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Strength of silica fibers in various moisture conditions, Nicolas Gougeon, Marcel

Poulain, Rochdi El Abdi
The reliability and the expected lifetime of silica fibers are closely related to the chemical action of
water molecules on silica. Strength and dynamic fatigue behaviour of silica optical fibers were
measured in very dry atmosphere. Bare and coated fibers were compared to characterize the influence
of the polymer. Dynamic mechanical tests were implemented using a two point bending set-up. The
stress corrosion susceptibility parameter has been evaluated. At the higher stressing rate the slope of
the dynamic fatigue curve was found to drop significantly. This behaviour is usually observed for
specially damaged fibers tested at very high speed.

Strength evolution of optical fiber submitted to static stress, Nicolas Gougeon, Marcel
Poulain, Rochdi El Abdi
The strength of silica optical fiber is closely related to the activity of water at its surface. However,
observations have shown that the polymeric coating is also a key factor contributing to the mechanical
properties of the fiber. While the main role of the coating is to inhibit crack growth from the surface
Griffith flaws, it also reduces the water concentration at the glass surface through diffusion processes.
Dynamic and static mechanical tests were implemented using a tensile test bench and a static fatigue
test under uniform curve. The incidence of aging treatments at 65C and 85C was investigated on two
standard silica optical fibers (with polyacrylate and fluorinated coatings). Fatigue under static tension
was also investigated using a vertical static tensile bench. Microscopic observations helped the
understanding of the failure mechanism. It appears that the cyclic variations of the failure stress
phenomenon, with respect to the aging time, are the result of the silicate gel which migrates towards
the polymer coating.

Temperature dependence of strength and fatigue of fused silica fiber in the range 77 to
473 K, John Matthewson, Charles R. Kurkjian, Christopher D. Haines, Navin Venugopal
The strength of optical fiber at low temperature is an important parameter since it approximates the
inert strength, i.e. the starting strength of the material before degradation by fatigue. Published data
suggest that the fatigue may abruptly slow below some temperature. However, published data are
limited to strength vs temperature or fatigue in liquid nitrogen. We report strength and fatigue data for
both bare (stripped) and metal coated fused silica optical fiber at temperatures down to 77 K. While
fatigue slows as the temperature is reduced (i.e. the stress corrosion parameter increases with falling
temperature) fatigue is still measurable at 77 K. This is the case even for hermetic metal coated fiber
with extremely low water activity at the glass surface. The results confirm that fused silica exhibits
"intrinsic" fatigue, i.e. fatigue in the absence of moisture.

Environmental effects on fatigue and lifetime predictions for silica optical fibers,
M. John Matthewson
This paper reviews the dependence of strength and fatigue of fused silica optical fiber on the
environmental parameters temperature, humidity and pH. It is shown that the stress corrosion
parameter, n, is not a constant but depends on the nature of the environment. Further, different kinetic
forms for the stress corrosion kinetics lead to different interpretations of experimental results. Since
lifetime predictions are very sensitive to the value of n and the kinetic form, it is important to know
which form is correct. It is shown that the empirical power law form that is almost exclusively used by
the fiber optics industry provides a good fit to fatigue data for high strength fiber, but an exponential
form provides a more self-consistent description of fatigue in different environments.

Novel characterization and reliability method for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers based on
the use of photonics transmission simulation, Werner Heckel, Hans-Juergen Schmidtke,
Bjoern H. Heppner, Ulrich Peller, Erich Leitgeb, J. Horwath
This paper describes a novel and efficient method for parameter extraction and characterization of
Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA). In DWDM systems gain and noise behavior of EDFAs depend
on the number and distribution of transmission channels. Hence, characterization of EDFAs for
reliability evaluations requires a costly measurement setup of up to 80 or even more wavelength
selected laser sources. Our novel method uses photonic transmission simulation to drastically reduce
the measuring efforts. Using only a few characteristic measurements with one tunable laser, the gain
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and noise behavior of amplifiers can be simulated for any number and distribution of transmission
channels in DWDM systems. The simulation of the photonic transmission is based on the commercial
simulation package WDMTransmissionMaker by VPI systems. We utilize black-box models for fiber
amplifiers which can take into account all linear optical effects like e.g. gain-flattening filters or
dynamic gain equalizers. The predictions of the simulations for different single-stage as well as double-
stage amplifiers comply with the experiments within the measurement accuracies and help to
understand new up-coming optical amplifier technologies and to ensure more reliable optical system
designs. The measuring effort for qualification and reliability evaluations can be significantly reduced
by using the novel characterization method.

Characterization of carbon CVD coatings near atmospheric deposition pressure, Craig

A. Taylor, Wilson K. Chiu
Pyrolytic carbon coatings show excellent hermetic properties and can be applied to optical fibers
during the draw process by thermally activated chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This study
investigates the relationship between carbon growth rates, microstructure, and deposition conditions at
600 torr chamber pressure. The films are grown from methane, propane and butane precursors on
stationary 3 mm quartz rods. Hydrocarbon precursor gas concentrations are varied between 10% and
100% in N2, and surface temperatures are varied between 800 and 1500C. X-Ray Photoelectron
Spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
(SIMS) are used to determine the film composition, and to inspect for a SiC transition layer between
the carbon and the glass. The carbon films are analyzed for thickness, carbon phase, and surface
roughness using ESEM and Raman Spectroscopy.

High average power effects in optical fibers and devices, Raman Kashyap
Optical fibers are susceptible to catastrophic damage at relatively low optical powers of less than 1
watt. This threshold, exceeded by several times, and in some instances by a factor of ten in todays
amplified wavelength division multiplexed optical communication systems, poses a dormant problem
for many optical devices, fiber-connectors and optical fiber links. This paper presents perspectives on
this issue based on research performed on the subject.

Requirements and strategy for reliability tests of MEMS-based technologies in optical

networks, Hans-Juergen Schmidtke
The technology of tomorrow's telecommunication networks will be flexible, scalable and integrated. In
addition, there is a visible trend towards purely optical networking to avoid costly electronic
regeneration. The move towards optical networking drives the development of new optical components
to exceed current technical and physical boundaries. These new optical components include Photonic
Optical Cross-connects (PXC) and Tuneable Lasers (TL), which can be realized by Micro Electro-
Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based technology. MEMS technology allows the integration of optical
switches with very high density. At the same time introducing MEMS technology is a step back from
having no moving parts to mechanics. The trade-off between the risks and the advantages must be
addressed. Typical optical requirements for the function of MEMS based technologies are introduced,
and a strategy to prove the reliability is shown.

Reliability issues of Raman amplifiers and lasers, Sergei L. Semjonov

A brief overview of some possible degradation mechanisms of Raman amplifiers and lasers is
presented. It is demonstrated that further investigations are required to clear up all the open questions
related with mechanical and optical reliability of such devices and their components.

Architecture aspects of optical networks: a Swisscom approach, Marcel Schiess, Hans

Jakob Bosshard
Swisscom Fixnet Ltd. has evaluated a new platform for the broadband transport requirements. This
new platform will be a combination of advanced SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) and WDM
(Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technology and the principal goal is to cover the bandwidth
segment between STM-1 and STM-64. In addition new forthcoming data services e.g. Gigabit Ethernet
can be delivered on the same platform infrastructure between remote areas. This paper describes the
drivers for the project as well as the requirements at the start of the evaluation process of the transport
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platform. The requirements include technical, operational and financial aspects. The main focus will
then be the discussion of the core, metro or regional area architecture. Various scenarios have been
analyzed and compared. The main conclusions have been that the number of "flexibility points" should
be kept lower than in traditional SDH-network due to cost reasons in a broadband environment with
packet oriented services. Furthermore, the WDM technology is not economically reasonable for a low
number of channels in the regional area. The paper then summarizes these lessons learned from the

Reliability issues of free-space communications systems and networks, Heinz A.

Free space optics (FSO) is a high-speed point-to-point connectivity solution traditionally used in the
enterprise campus networking market for building-to-building LAN connectivity. However, more
recently some wire line and wireless carriers started to deploy FSO systems in their networks. The
requirements on FSO system reliability, meaing both system availability and component reliability, are
far more stringent in the carrier market when compared to the requirements in the enterprise market
segment. This paper tries to outline some of the aspects that are important to ensure carrier class system

Availability calculation and simulation of optical network systems, Marcel Held,

Philip M. Nellen, Lena Wosinska
Highly reliable and available systems in all-optical networks require the implementation of various
types of redundancy. For reliability and availability analysis systems can be described by reliability
block diagrams or diagrams describing system state transitions. Analytical calculations for
characteristic reliability and availability parameters such as mean time to failure or average availability
for complex, repairable systems containing redundancies rapidly become costly and intractable. Monte
Carlo simulation and Markov process calculations are therefore deployed. Results of simulations and
calculations show sufficient accuracy and high flexibility for sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis is
the quantitative identification of system parts dominating the overall system availability by
systematical variation of calculation input data, i.e. failure and repair rates. This gives valuable input
for possible system optimization comprising technical and economical aspects. This contribution
investigates mean time to failure, mean unavailability and mean down time of an optical cross connect
described by a complex reliability block diagram. In addition a sensitivity analysis is performed. All
Monte Carlo simulations and Markov calculations are done by using a commercial software tool.

Reliability in fiber optical sensor applications, Philipp M. Nellen, Rolf Brnnimann,

Marcel Held, Urs J. Sennhauser
Fiber optic sensors are potentially very well suited for condition monitoring of environment, materials,
structures, and facilities. However, there is a long way from a laboratory prototype to a reliable
industrial sensor system. Based on the examples of two fiber Bragg grating systems, both used for long
term monitoring of strain and temperature on bridges, general sensor system reliability will be
discussed. In addition, specific reliability considerations and lifetime tests, especially for optical fibers
and Bragg gratings, coatings, and adhesives will be presented.

Passive optical components: from degradation data to reliability assessment,

Tiziana Tomasi, Ilaria De Munari, Valeria Lista, Marco Villa
The past decade has seen a huge increase of demand for fast data communication; this stimulated the
optical research towards the design and development of both terrestrial and submerged long-haul full-
optical transmission systems. More specifically, the submarine systems are required to be highly
reliable: minimum lifetime of 25 years with very low maintenance, which implies the request for long
term reliability for each component. In this work a reliability estimation approach based on hi-rel
optical component degradation study is discussed. Results of a long-term test performed on optical
isolators for submarine applications are reported. The experimental optical bench set-up, based on
switching matrixes, developed at Pirelli Reliability Labs is also presented.
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Reliability and failure analysis of fiber optical network components, Philipp M. Nellen,
Marcel Held
This paper describes analysis tools and characterization techniques for photonic components related
materials analysis as well as functionality and reliability testing. Field failures and breakdowns of
optical fibers and cables, fiber Bragg gratings, connectors, semiconductor lasers, opto-couplers, micro-
optical elements, and others have to be analyzed and failure causes and mechanisms have to be found
in order to improve future components. On the other hand, new materials used and new components for
future all-optical networks may lead to new failure mechanisms, which have to be analyzed and
modeled for lifetime predictions. In this paper some basic principles of instruments and techniques
used for reliability and failure analysis rather than a deep treatise are given and may guide the reader to
find appropriate methods for a specific problem. Illustrative examples are provided.

Reliability assessment of planar fiber optic splitters, Manuel Schmidt, Dirk Samiec,
Norbert Fabricius, Roland Fuest
In recent years reliability has become a key topic for network providers because of the increasing
complexity and economic importance of their systems. In order to avoid high costs resulting from
downtimes of the system and maintenance it is mandatory to include reliability considerations already
in the design of networks. This requires a precise knowledge of the expected lifetime of the
components of the network. A method for the quantitative assessment of the reliability of passive fiber
optic components is described in the IEC standard 62005-2, Part 2. In this paper, we present the
reliability assessment of planar fiberoptic 1x8-splitters as an example for the application of the above
mentioned IEC standard. The failure rates resulting from wear out mechanisms are determined by a life
test matrix with accelerated aging induced by extreme climatic conditions and extrapolation to service
conditions. With 6000 hours under 85C/85% r.h. without any failure the tested components also
exceed the requirements given in Telcordia GR 1221. In addition to climatic tests, vibration and impact
tests have been performed in order to prove the mechanical integrity of the splitters. A second failure
class besides wear out failures are random failures which occur at a constant rate. Due to the nature of
random failures they can not be accelerated in any kind of laboratory tests. Thus the random failure rate
of the components is calculated from field data. The observation of 16,000 devices with a total of more
than 300 million service hours shows a FIT-rate for random failure which is below 10 FIT.

Stress corrosion factors of fused fiber components, Patrick Cigana, Francois Seguin
Stress corrosion factors were obtained for the waist region of a fused fiber component using the
dynamic fatigue method at ambient temperature and humidity. The n-value obtained is 23.3, which is
comparable to that of pristine fiber. The ultimate tensile strength of the waist is much higher than that
of the mechanically stripped fiber used to manufacture the components, indicating that flaws and
defects are actually repaired during the fusion process. Component lifetime and reliability are

Mechanical properties of chalcogenide glasses: a review, Gilberto M. Camilo

The Chalcogenide glasses offers a range of infrared transmitting materials to the optical fiber
technology and this review attempts to bring together the currently available data on the mechanical
properties of these fibers. Information is presented on glass composition and mechanical qualities,
mechanical characterization techniques, and coating technology. Different studies have shown that
changes in composition have little influence on mechanical properties of Chalcogenide glasses, and so
other techniques will have to be employed in order to improve the mechanical performance. Among
those techniques are compressive surface stress and multi-coating polymers.
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Analysis of optical fiber failures under bending and high power, G. Scott Glaesemann,
Ching-Kee Chien, Donald A. Clark, Jeffery Coon, Steven E. DeMartino, Stephan L. Logunov
The failure of tightly bent optical fiber under high optical power is observed dynamically with fine
time resolution and explained in terms of the behavior of the polymer coating and underlying glass. An
abrupt rise in coating temperature stimulates the viscoelastic deformation of the glass. The abrupt
bending of the glass is explained by the ability of highly quenched silica to deform at low temperatures.
There is no evidence of thermal runaway of the glass core. Coating decomposition is self limiting with
no visible flame.

An overview of fiber failures in cables and interconnecting devices, Osman S. Gebizlioglu

Failure analysis of fiber optic cables, components and devices from manufacturing operations,
installation and field deployment has been important in reliability assurance for fiber optic
communications networks. In this overview presentation, we consider optical fiber transmission
failures in fiber optic cables and optical transmission impairments accompanied by mechanical failures
in cable assemblies and interconnecting devices. In either case, failure analyses involve detailed
characterization of optical and/or mechanical performance under varying environmental conditions
such as temperature and humidity. In the case of optical transmission failures of fiber optic cables, we
show that the environmental history of the cables and the thermomechanical response of buffer tube
materials are of critical
importance in understanding low-temperature transmission loss due to thermally-induced fiber
microbending. In optical transmission impairments accompanied by fiber mechanical failures of cable
assemblies and interconnecting devices, the environmental history along with manufacturing practices
used in the production of cable assemblies determine the performance and reliability in the field. For
cable assemblies with fiber mechanical failures, fiber break source analysis (fractography) has many
challenges in the analysis of fiber breaks where fiber fracture surfaces are readily accessible. However,
it has been practically impossible to perform break source analyses in cases where fiber fracture
surfaces are not accessible within cables and interconnecting devices. Thus, in this presentation, we
review a series of failure analyses performed to identify the cause(s) of high insertion loss and
reflectance failures of cable assemblies. An essential component of these failure analyses was the
development of new methods for accessing fracture surfaces of broken fibers within connectors. These
new methods involve chemical and thermal treatments to preserve all features of fracture surfaces and,
therefore, evidence of failure origins.

Aging behavior of optical fibers in aqueous environments, Eric A. Lindholm, Jie Li, Adam
Hokansson, Brian Slyman, David Burgess
Silica optical fibers drawn from a common preform and coated with specialty coatings were exposed to
zero-stress aging in various aqueous environments for approximately ten months. The strength of the
fiber samples was tracked with two-point bend testing. The onset of an aging knee was observed for
some fiber samples while other coatings offered enhanced protection from the effects of moisture-
induced strength degradation.

Simulation of the effect of adhesion and cross-sectional nonuniformity of coatings on the

thermal tuning of fiber Bragg gratings, Jinu Paul, Liping Zhao, B.K.A. Ngoi, Zhong Ping
Fang, Toh K. Yong, Zhaowei Zhong
Polymeric coatings are often used to develop various thermally tunable FBG based devices. Coatings
on FBGs can be intended for protection, improvement of thermal sensitivities, special spectral shaping
etc., and the quality of the coating on the FBG deserves special attention. For example, the adhesion of
the polymeric coatings to the silica based optical fiber plays an important role in the wavelength
response characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings during thermal tuning. In this paper, we theoretically
investigate the effect of adhesion and the non-uniformity of the coating thickness on the thermal tuning
process of FBGs. Experiments were done to qualitatively analyze the influence of adhesion. However
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practically it is very difficult to quantify the percentage adhesion and quality of coatings for
experimental verification. Therefore a methodology based on finite element analysis has been utilized
for theoretical investigation of the effect of adhesion of polymeric coating on the performance of FBG
based thermally tuned devices. Three-dimensional finite element simulations were carried out. Spring
elements are used to inter connect the nodes of the meshed models of optical fiber and coating. The
effect of adhesion is studied as a function of spring stiffness. The effect of non-uniformity in the
coating thickness in the circumferential direction was also studied.

A model for inert strength reduction in carbon-coated optical fibers, Srinath S.

Chakravarthy, Wilson S. Chiu
The inert strength of carbon-coated optical fibers (hermetic fibers) has been observed to be less than
that of standard polymer coated optical fibers. A scaled version of the of the carbon-coated optical fiber
was developed in the laboratory and used in an experimental investigation of the mechanical properties
of this system. The microstructure and phase similarity between the scaled system and the optical fiber
was established using Raman spectroscopy. The mechanical properties, residual stress in the film and
the fracture toughness of the scaled system were determined using nano-indentation. A fracture
mechanics model was developed to explain the mechanism of this strength reduction. The model, based
on the cracking of thin films in residual tension, will be used to predict growth of flaws from the
carbon film and penetrating into the substrate. The model can be applied to all brittle coatings where
delamination of the coating is not observed. Conditions under which cracks in the carbon film
propagate into the substrate were investigated using a recently developed superposition scheme.
Possible methods of crack arrest will be discussed.

Reliability qualification of optical connectors, Guido Pompe, Aleksandar Opacic,

Ton Bolhaar
The demand of telecom operators for a 15 year lifetime of their systems is imposing a big challenge on
component manufacturers. It means that also for optical connectors - which are used in large numbers
in DWDM systems - the wear-out region must not be reached even after 25 years. However, how can it
be shown that a connector will live for more than 25 years? Different approaches are possible:
Collection of field data can supply information on the statistical failure rates at operating temperature.
Accelerated aging tests (often simply called reliability tests) try to simulate aging under defined
conditions. Our focus is on the reliability qualification according to the PAS (publicly available
specification) IEC 62005-9-2 which is based on the co-work of Siemens with the connector
manufacturers and assemblers Corning, Diamond, Huber+Suhner, Molex and TycoElectronics. This
standard should now be overworked with the help of the results of the first common testing program
which has recently been carried out by the Siemens ICN "Center for Quality Engineering".

Effect of environmental conditions on fatigue of weak silica-clad optical fibers,

Sergei L. Semjonov, G. Scott Glaesemann, Donald A. Clark, Mikhail M. Bubnov
Static fatigue of bare indented fibers in different environments was studied. It was found that the n-
value in different pH-solutions did not significantly change and was higher than that for strong fibers
and lower than that for bulk samples in similar conditions. All lifetime reduction with a pH increase
was due to a change of the B-value. The results obtained were used for evaluation of the lifetime of
weak fibers for different service environments.

Investigations on 4x4 polymer couplers for airborne environment, Thomas Klotzbuecher,

M. Sprzagala, Anne Koch, Ulrich Teubner
Due to the potential of high data rates up to several Gb/s, low electromagnetic interference sensitivity
and weight reduction capabilities, in future, optical data transmission will become standard in
airplanes. The requirements on the necessary optical components that have to be operated in airborne
environment in general are extremely high. In addition, airframe manufacturers are interested in low
cost components. An example for such an optical component is a star coupler for data distribution, in
particular, a device made on base of polymers. The applicability of such 4x4 polymer star couplers
under extreme environmental conditions was investigated. The investigations were made at
temperatures from -40 to +80 C and up to 98 % humidity. Different types of housings were tested
(polymer, metal, ceramic). It was found that housing of the polymer couplers is required necessarily,
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since non-housed components exhibit a large insertion loss increase of up to 0.5 dB during temperature
variation. Best results were achieved with metal or ceramic housings exhibiting a maximum insertion
loss increase of approximately 0.1 dB. However, due to a large difference of thermal expansion
coefficients of filling and housing material, respectively, ceramic housings mechanically failed (crack
formation) and thus metal housings are first choice. The results were also compared to those achieved
for commercial 4x4 multimode couplers made of glass and based on fused bi-conical taper technology.

Mechanical properties of optical fibers for tunnel displacement monitoring in a wet

environment, Pifeng Miao, Stephen N. Kukureka, Nicole Metje, David N. Chapman, Chris
D. Rogers
The effects of the fabrication procedure for fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) on the mechanical properties of
fibres were investigated by dynamic fatigue tests in two-point bending in a wet environment. The
results show that both chemical stripping and continuous wave UV irradiation reduced the mechanical
resistance of the fibre.

Long-term reliability requirements of fiber optic systems for remote sensing applications,
Scott McCulloch, Gary Burnell, Tom Boon, Robert R. Maier, James Barton, Peter Harrison,
Euan Rigg, Julian Jones
Sensors based on optical fibre materials will be required to tolerate a restrictive combination of
physical and environmental parameters for several remote monitoring applications at AWE. These
include changes in atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, vibration, shock and acceleration,
with the sensors being required to operate reliably for periods of up to 30 years with minimal
intervention for maintenance. In addition, it is necessary that the sensors can function in the presence of
ionising radiation. The sensors are being developed for a number of challenging in-situ physical and
chemical measurements. These include remote gas composition analysis, monitoring shape change in
compliant materials and the movement of metallic and polymeric components using sensors based on
fibre Bragg gratings and interferometric techniques. Reliability issues include the long-term
mechanical and optical performance of standard and novel glasses, optical fibres and cables,
connectors, couplers, optical switches and Bragg gratings. The durability of materials used in the
construction of fibre optic sensing components also requires to be assessed in addition to the epoxy and
metallic coatings used to bond these components to a variety of material substrates.

Reliability study of photodiodes for their potential use in future fusion reactor
environments, Marco Van Uffelen, Ivan Genchev, Francis Berghmans
Future thermonuclear fusion reactors need remote-handled equipment for maintenance tasks, since the
stringent environmental conditions prohibit direct human interventions. Fiber-optic technology is
considered since many years as a potential reliable alternative to conventional electronic transmission
lines. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of transmitting analog data with a hybrid opto-
electronic link at 850 nm, up to total doses of several MGy. For bidirectional communications under
these severe conditions, however, we still need to characterize the corresponding photo detector'
response and design an adapted radiation tolerant amplifier. Moreover, the neutron sensitivity needs to
be assessed as well, since this could prevent them to be stored inside the bioshield during the plasma
burns. We therefore assessed the radiation response of commercially available p-i-n type Si-detectors,
on line, at a constant temperature of about 60C, first under gammas rays up to a total dose of about 10
MGy, and also under neutrons up to a fluence of about 71015/cm2. Similar tests were also performed
with InGaAs photodiodes, in order to assess their use in radiation tolerant coarse wavelength division
multiplexing (CWDM) transmission architectures. Our results indicate that the response of the
detectors under gamma radiation remains almost unchanged. The displacement damage caused by the
neutrons steadily increases with the neutron fluence, both in terms of an increased dark current and a
reduced photo response. In this paper we also present temperature dependent measurements and hence
assess to what extend both ionizing and particle radiation affect the photodiodes reliability.
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Estimation of lifetime distributions on 1550-nm DFB laser diodes using Monte-Carlo

statistic computations, Yannick Deshayes, Frederic Verdier, Laurent Bechou,
Bernard Tregon, Yves Danto, Dominique Laffitte, Jean Luc Goudard
High performance and high reliability are two of the most important goals driving the penetration of
optical transmission into telecommunication systems ranging from 880 nm to 1550 nm. Lifetime
prediction defined as the time at which a parameter reaches its maximum acceptable shirt still stays the
main result in terms of reliability estimation for a technology. For optoelectronic emissive components,
selection tests and life testing are specifically used for reliability evaluation according to Telcordia GR-
468 CORE requirements. This approach is based on extrapolation of degradation laws, based on
physics of failure and electrical or optical parameters, allowing both strong test time reduction and
long-term reliability prediction. Unfortunately, in the case of mature technology, there is a growing
complexity to calculate average lifetime and failure rates (FITs) using ageing tests in particular due to
extremely low failure rates. For present laser diode technologies, time to failure tend to be 106 hours
aged under typical conditions (Popt=10 mW and T=80C). These ageing tests must be performed on
more than 100 components aged during 10000 hours mixing different temperatures and drive current
conditions conducting to acceleration factors above 300-400. These conditions are high-cost, time
consuming and cannot give a complete distribution of times to failure. A new approach consists in use
statistic computations to extrapolate lifetime distribution and failure rates in operating conditions from
physical parameters of experimental degradation laws. In this paper, Distributed Feedback single mode
laser diodes (DFB-LD) used for 1550 nm telecommunication network working at 2.5 Gbit/s transfer
rate are studied. Electrical and optical parameters have been measured before and after ageing tests,
performed at constant current, according to Telcordia GR-468 requirements. Cumulative failure rates
and lifetime distributions are computed using statistic calculations and equations of drift mechanisms
versus time fitted from experimental measurements.

Long-term aging with highly stable performances of 1.55-m DFB lasers for microwave
optical links, Patrick Resneau, Michel Krakowski
At the present time, due to their improved spectral characteristics accompanied by low noise and high
linearity of current-light output power features, 1.55 m DFB lasers are key components of analog
microwave fibre optical links. These devices are the most frequently used as both the optical source
and RF/optical modulator. Especially in the case of direct intensity modulation links, stringent
requirements repose on these devices together in terms of performances and reliability, the latter being
a crucial issue for the viability of the optical links. This paper deals with the investigation on the
reliability of 1.55 m strained quantum well ridge DFB lasers. Long term ageing tests were performed
during 12,000 hours at 80C ambient temperature and a constant bias current of 140 mA corresponding
to 10 mW output power. These tests ended, none failure or decrease of the optical power was observed.
A detailed evaluation based on crucial parameters for direct microwave modulation as static
characteristics, emission spectra and relative intensity noise (RIN) has revealed only negligible changes
after ageing.

DiR: a resource-efficient framework for achieving reliable connectivity, Marco Tacca,

Andrea Fumagalli
Differentiated Reliability (DiR) is a concept that was recently introduced by the authors. The DiR
concept can be applied to provide multiple reliability degrees (or classes) at the same network layer,
using a desired protection scheme, e.g., dedicated path protection switching. According to the DiR
concept, each connection is guaranteed a minimum reliability degree, or equivalently a maximum
downtime ratio, that is chosen by the client. The reliability degree chosen for a given connection is thus
determined by the application requirements, independently by the actual network topology, design
constraints, robustness of the network components, and span of the connection. In this paper, two
protection schemes are used to provide DiR in a WDM network with arbitrary topology: the path
protection scheme and the partial path protection scheme. With either scheme, differentiation of
reliability is successfully achieved. It is noted that the latter scheme is 10% more resource efficient than
the former scheme in providing the desired reliability level. The former scheme is however less
complex to manage than the latter.
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Impact of OXC failures on network reliability, Zsolt Pandi, Andrea Fumagalli, Marco
Tacca, Lena Wosinska
The paper studies the impact of OXC equipment failure in WDM networks with dynamic end-to-end
optical circuit provisioning. At the OXC level, equipment reliability is calculated using proven
component level reliability models. At the network level, end-to-end optical circuits are provisioned
with various levels of reliability, thus offering differentiated reliability to applications. The desired
reliability level is obtained via shared path protection (SPP) switching, that provides efficient resource
utilization. A selection of representative OXC architectures is examined to assess the influence of
various switching technologies on the overall network level reliability. The selected OXC architectures
are compared in terms of both the cost of switching equipment and the ability of the network to
accommodate incoming circuit requests, while satisfying their required reliability level.

Deploying optical performance monitoring in TeliaSonera's network,

Torbjorn K. Svensson, Per-Olov E. Karlsson
This paper reports on the first steps taken by TeliaSonera towards deploying optical performance
monitoring (OPM) in the companys transport network, in order to assure increasingly reliable
communications on the physical layer. The big leap, a world-wide deployment of OPM still awaits a
breakthrough. There is required very obvious benefits from using OPM in order to change this
stalemate. Reasons may be the anaemic economy of many telecom operators, shareholders pushing for
short-term payback, and reluctance to add complexity and to integrate a system management.
Technically, legacy digital systems do already have a proven ability of monitoring, so adding OPM to
the dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) systems in operation should be judged with care.
Duly installed, todays DWDM systems do their job well, owing to rigorous rules for link design and a
prosperous power budget, a power management inherent to the system, and a reliable suppliers
support. So what may bring this stalemate to an end? -A growing number of appliances of OPM, for
enhancing network operation and maintenance, and enabling new customer services, will most
certainly bring momentum to a change. The first employment of OPM in TeliaSoneras network is
launched this year, 2004. The preparedness of future OPM dependent services and transport
technologies will thereby be granted.

Analysis and optimization of connection availabilities of optical networks with different

protection strategies, Ling Zhou, Marcel Held, Lena Wosinska

This work is motivated by interest in analyzing and optimizing availability of optical networks under
different protection strategies. Methodology dealing with availability calculation, protection strategies,
spare capacity, redundancy and sensitivity analysis is described. A case study calculates the availability
of all connections within a long haul US-network using three protection strategies: path protection,
span protection and protection-cycles. The distributions of connection down time of the three
protection strategies are given. The availability optimization potential is estimated based on analysis of
its sensitivity on reliability input data. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are compared
from the availability and spare capacity requirement points of view.

Wavelength selection for the free space optical telecommunication technology, Maher C.
Al Naboulsi, Herve Sizun, Frederique de Fornel
The principal disadvantage of using Free Space Optical (FSO) telecommunication systems is the
disturbing role played by the atmosphere on light propagation and thus on availability and reliability of
the link. Atmospheric effects on the electromagnetic waves transmission differ according to the used
wavelength. Among these effects, fog is a very important factor in the electromagnetic radiation
degradation and especially for the visible and infrared waves. Relationship between the fog
characteristics (liquid water content, density, visibility...) and the transmitted signal attenuation for a
given wavelength should be known in order to predict the FSO systems performance and link
availability. The lasercom literature shows the complexity of the problem related to different types of
fog and its inhomogeneity over the propagation path. The problem of atmospheric attenuation for laser
radiation in visible and infrared regions was reviewed from an empirical and theoretical point of view.
We describe the optical properties of fog calculated from the Mie scattering theory and the particle size
distribution. We investigate the laser system performances in presence of fog in 0.4 to 15 m spectral
band from Fascod computation (advection and radiation fog) and from other particle size distributions
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available in the literature. We compare the extinction coefficient (function of the wavelength) for
different particle size distributions in order to see whether the various types of fog may be represented
and covered by the models proposed in Fascod. Finally, we consider some particular laser wavelengths
(0.69, 0.78, 0.85, 1.55, 5 and 10 m) used and proposed for the FSO technologies in order to study and
compare the effect of fog on equipments operating at these wavelengths.

A new quality of service FSO software, Mourad Chabane, Maher C. Al Naboulsi, Herve
Sizun, M. O. Bouchet
Free space Optical links (FSO) in visible and infrared wavelengths constitute an interesting alternative
to new transmission channels for cordless phone, data-processing networks and high definition
television. One finds a choice of varied manufacturers and they propose products whose performances
are characterized by a raised rate of transmission, from 2 Mbps to 10 Gbps. But the announced ranges
are very important, from 100 to 10 000 meters, in spite of the fact that many manufacturers try to
indicate the possible ranges according to time, these indications completely miss standardization and
are hardly exploitable because, generally, it is very difficult to know the percentage of time during
which a value is reached or exceeded. Availability and reliability of a FSO link depend on used
systems but also on climatic and atmospheric parameters such as rain, snow or fog. It is the purpose of
our study. Its finality is software which integrates: - Results of a bibliographical search (geometrical,
aerosols, rain, snow, fog, scintillation, and environment solar light attenuation), - European integrated
surface weather data, hour per hour, over several years (1995-1999). The result is the presentation of
the Quality of Service Light version software which allows predicting; starting from the data of
equipment (power, wavelength, receiver sensibility), geographical situation of a site in Europe
(geographical coordinates, altitude, height/ground) and climatic and atmospheric parameter (relative
humidity, ground rugosity, albedo, solar radiation, etc) the availability of a FSO link for the following
period (year, the most unfavourable month, 8am to 8pm period and 8 pm to 8 am period. The
interruption probabilities for each type of attenuation are also mentioned (aerosols, scintillation,
ambient solar light, rain, snow, etc).

Infrared wireless indoor: a new multimedia communication concept, M. O. Bouchet, M.

Y. Dutertre, Michel Monerie
Currently the wireless networks are replacing the connection cables via radio or infrared waves.
Emission/reception terminals are installed to cover zones in relation with a quality of service. Thus
users can be connected to the local area network thanks to an adapter that emits and receives on this
network. There are technological radio solutions : Bluetooth, WiFi, and optics constituted by an
infrared base and modules. Infrared technology has important advantages: Transmitted data security,
radio and medical immunity, etc. Nevertheless, the optical systems seem to present a limit because the
network management is based on only one wavelength and several users. The solution suggested, scope
of this document, is at a crossroads with the telecoms with optical fibre, optics in free space and data
processing domains. Indeed, it is a question, of using WDM technology and transmitting these various
wavelengths in free space, using optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and optical modules, which are
compatible in wavelength. Each mission/reception module has a defined and personal wavelength, with
a link with the terminal identification (addresses MAC or IP). This approach has full duplex data rate
for a minimum of a dozen Mbps per user for a broadcasting, and hundred Mbps for a line of sight
system. The application field for the suggested system is potentially included in the following networks
types: WirLAN, WirDAN or WirPAN.

Optical Ethernet span protection using an XML-based multiprotocol framework Barbara

Martini, Fabio Baroncelli, Filippo Cugini, Luca Valcarenghi, Piero Castoldi
Optical Access Networks based on Optical Ethernet (OE) architectures represent a simple and low cost
solution for eliminating the bandwidth bottleneck between high speed Local Area Networks and optical
Metropolitan Area Network core. Transparent optical Network Elements (NE), e.g. optical switches,
can be successfully introduced in current OE networks to provide an adequate level of resilience and
reduce the overall network cost. However network control and management plane must be extended to
administrate the optical network elements. This paper shows a hardware and software implementation
of a 1:1 optical span protection scheme for OE network based on optical switches triggered by failure
detection. Detection is obtained by three different methods based either on hardware or software
mechanisms. Link state is updated both at the switch controller and control manager through,
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respectively, Link Management Protocol (LMP) and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
messaging implemented by a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) Multi Protocol Framework
(XMPF). Experimental results show that a recovery time in the millisecond range can be achieved and
network state is correctly synchronized in all the network elements.

Round-robin for fiber Bragg grating metrology during COST270 action,

Alberto Fernandez Fernandez, Andrei Gusarov, Francis Berghmans, Kyriacos Kalli, Valentin
Polo, Hans Limberger, Martijn Beukema, Philipp Nellen
The study of the effect of high optical power on FBGs among different laboratories whitin the
COST270 action required to verify the consistency and convergence of Bragg grating measurements
obtained by the laboratories involved in COST270. This papers reports and discusses the results
obtained during a round-robin for fibre Bragg grating metrology initiated within the COST270 action.
This action was undertaken in order to minimize measurement scattering and to reduce the uncertainty
in the interpretation of following COST270 round-robin measurements on the effect of high optical
power on FBGs. This exercise dealed with the spectral characterization of FBGs written in standard
telecommunication optical fibre (CORNING SMF-28) provided by the coordinating laboratory (Ecole
Polytechnique Federale de Lausane, Institut d'Optique Appliquee).

Mechanical and thermal properties variant of polymer optical fibers,

Nirmal K. Waalib-Singh, Mark Sceats
Building on recent work, this paper describes the viscoelastic behavior of microstructured polymer
optical fiber (MPOF). Previously published fixed frequency dynamic mechanical and thermal
properties of the two types of POFs; a commercial, C-type and MPOF fiber prototype B are compared
here with multi-frequency data. As expected of viscoelastic materials, results reveal a rate dependent
behavior of the fibers where storage modulus (E') increases with frequency at each temperature and the
glass transition (Tg) shifts to higher temperatures. A lack of a clear (Tg) and least amount of separation
between low- and high-temperature transitions at different frequencies in the C fiber clearly indicate
the speciality of the fiber; it exhibits extensive elongation or rather strain-softening beyond the draw-
temperature-under-load (DrTUL), which is a highly desired property for optimized hot-drawing. Strain-
hardening as exhibited by the MPOF B is a brought-forward effect of the mechanical and thermal
histories from its macroscopic deformation during preform structuring and fiber-forming. Polymer
entanglements that cause an increase in storage modulus and 'resistive' contraction from 60 to 105C
are most likely to be networked in an orderly manner. Demonstrated again in both types of fiber,
DrTUL is critical for load bearing drawing.

Effects of heat treatment and HF etching on the strength of silica lightguides, Charles R.
Kurkjian, M. John Matthewson, J. M. Rooney
Often lightguide fiber processing involves steps that may cause degradation of very high strength or
flaw-free, perfect fiber. A very obvious type of degradation is the development of abrasion flaws
during handling. Also, heating of a fiber to moderate temperatures (~300-600C), for instance during
the soldering of pigtails, has been shown to result in strength degradation of strong fiber. It has been
suggested that the use of HF etching may be a reasonable technique for the elimination of many types
of strength-lowering defects. In this paper we discuss early results from the literature on the effects of
heating and HF etching on the strength of silica glass and present new results on both.

Evaluation of optical path adhesive's behavior in high-power photonics applications

Stephan L. Logunov, Michael E. DeRosa, Xinghua Li
In this paper we present the result of a sensitive experimental technique used to provide information
about the limitations of using organic polymers for fiber-optic high power applications. Optical path
adhesives are commonly used in fiber optics assemblies due to their mechanical and optical properties.
However, their use in high power applications creates certain concerns about short-term and long-term
stability of the adhesive material. We developed an approach for evaluating the effects of high power in
optical path adhesives used in applications for fiber-optic devices. We extended far field experimental
technique for analysis on a thin polymer layer placed on the tip of an optical fiber exposed to a wide
range of optical powers. We found that this technique can be used for both thermo-optical effects
evaluation and electronic non-linear contributions to the refractive index of the material. We show how
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this method permits separation of these two effects, and long term behavior of polymer materials in
such applications. This approach could be used for evaluation of wide range polymer materials in

High availability of hybrid wireless networks, Erich Leitgeb, Michael Gebhart, Ulla
Birnbacher, Wolfgang Kogler, Peter Schrotter
Free Space Optical (FSO) links offer high bandwidth and the flexibility of wireless communication
links. However, the availability of FSO links is limited by weather patterns like fog and heavy
snowfall. Microwave based communication links operating at high frequencies (40 - 43 GHz) have
similar characteristics like high data rates and needed line-of-sight. Link availability for microwave
systems is limited by heavy rain. Combining FSO links with microwave links within a hybrid
FSO/microwave communication network has the advantage of added redundancy and higher link
availability. Measurements over a period of one year show a combined availability of 99.93% for the
climatic region of Graz (Austria) which proves that the combination of both technologies leads to a
highly available wireless connection offering high bandwidth.

Reliability of high-NA UV non-solarizing optical fibers, Bolesh J. Skutnik, Tilmann

Trebst, Alexander Harschack
A number of spectroscopic techniques make use of UV absorbance and luminescence measurements
e.g. to characterize materials, for use in medical/pharmaceutical applications, for forensic and sensor
applications, etc. Remote detection or monitoring, especially for hazardous environments, benefit from
the use of optical fibers. Furthermore many high power applications in medicine and industry are
looking to use UV wavelengths. All silica compositions are better able to provide transmission of uv
wavelengths, however there have been limitations on their use. Numerical aperture and solarization of
the fibers are main concerns. Fibers have been recently developed which can be used for extended
periods of time at wavelengths from 193 to 400 nm without serious degradation of their transmission
properties (non-solarizing) and with significant broader numerical apertures,[NA] of 0.26-0.30
allowing sampling of larger areas and greater collection of transmitted or reflected beams from
materials under test. Mechanical and spectral properties for these new fibers will be presented and
compared with the standard all silica fibers. This will include reliability test results at selected UV
wavelengths. Possible application areas which would particularly benefit from these high NA, UV non-
solarizing optical fibers will be suggested.

3-port polarization-independent optical quasi-circulator with holographic spatial walk-off

polarizers, Jing-Heng Chen, Kung-Huang Chen, Po-Jen Hsieh, Der-Chin Su
An alternative type of 3-port polarization-independent optical quasi-circulator by utilizing a pair of
holographic spatial walk-off polarizers (HSWPs) is proposed. This device consists of a reflection
prism, three polarization beamsplitters cubes, a pair of HSWPs, a Faraday rotator, and a half-wave
plate. The operating principles, the characteristics and the performances of this device and HSWPs are
discussed. In order to show the validity, the prototype device operating in 1300nm is assembled and
tested experimentally. The merits of this design include polarization-independence, compactness, high
isolation, and easy fabrication. It should also be possible to design the device operating at 1550 nm
wavelength range.

The combined effect of temperature and humidity on the fatigue parameters and
reliability of optical fiber, Janet L. Mrotek, M. John Matthewson
The lifetime of an optical fiber depends on its environment. Previous work extensively measured and
characterized the separate effects of humidity and temperature on the fatigue parameters using three
different kinetics models, but the combined effect has not been determined in detail. In this work, the
details of how the fatigue parameters vary with temperature in a humid environment were investigated.
It was found that the kinetics model parameters were different from values obtained elsewhere in liquid
water. This may be the result of differences in the apparent activation energy for fatigue in liquid and
vapor environments.
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Demarcation mapping for reliability assurance: 1) Single mechanism maps,
M. J. LuValle
The demarcation approximation Ea=kTlog(*t), was developed as an approximate time transformation
to analyse data arising from a distribution of activation energies. In this talk examples using this and
similar analytical forms to design experiments for a variety of tasks. The examples were:
Identifying a hidden degradation mode in a fiber Bragg grating with a much lower vibrational
frequency then indicated by the master curve. (Arrhenius model, distribution of activation
Designing a qualification screen for anti reflective coatings (Arrhenius model, single unknown
activation energy
Designing laboratory tests to duplicate field failures that factory HAST tests for moist heat
failure had not identified. (Temperature-Humidity stress)
Designing tests to determine the safety of thermal cycling based environmental stress screens.
Question answered does the thermal cycling lower the reliability of the product? (Thermal
cycling screen based on Coffin Manson model)

Reaction Reaction rates of FBG rates of FBG writing and writing and erasure erasure,
distribution of , distribution of trap", B. Poumellec
After a brief historical introduction on the basis of the kinetics in disordered media, we introduce the
problem of accelerated testing and underline the necessity of a flexible approach for predicting lifetime
and aging of various real systems.
We describe the modelling of the dynamic evolution of fiber Bragg gratings, either for writing or for
erasure, and review the assumptions for which we consider to groups : those used for the demarcation
energy approximation and those used for dynamic computation.
After this theoretical part, we deal with the method for analyzing the experimental results : how to
determine the distribution function, how to find the attempt frequency and how to use the master curve
when it exists. We compare master curves and attempt frequencies for different FBGs.
Then, the relation of the erasure with the writing is discussed with the important implication on the
FBG stability. This part is followed by a first warning on the problems encountered when some of the
assumptions are no more valid, and by a second one for paying attention to the difference between the
local theoretical analysis and the Fourier analysis of the FBG.

Demarcation Mapping for reliability assessment: 2)Application to complex problems such

as connectors and for ultrahigh reliability, M. J. LuValle
Two examples of more complex problems using demarcation mapping were presented.
For connectors, using an experiment designed by Gair Brown of NSWC it was possible to identify that
for connectors as manufactured for that experiment, thermal cycling in constant relative humidity
induced hysteresis in a subset of the connectors, leading to their failure. A Coffin Manson model could
be used along with the associated demarcation maps (Example 4 of M. J LuValles first talk) if it were
possible to identify how partial vapour pressure of water and temperature changes each contribute to
producing plastic strain in the connector during the cycles. For ultra-high reliability, a new concept,
evanescent process mapping was introduced. Evanescent process mapping identifies kinetic processes
in a neighbourhood of a given kinetic model. Then using computational demarcation maps on the
processes in that neighbourhood, it is possible to assess the risk that the model being used to
extrapolate reliability is incorrectly specified With these extensions of demarcation mapping, it is
possible to trade off cost of various experiments with risk of deploying a new system, to find
combinations which minimize the expected loss. This last is not appropriate for normative standards
yet because the theory is not yet sufficiently developed.
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Reliability of Bragg gratings in optical fibers or planar waveguides, M. Lancry

A full knowledge of the stability of photo-induced change in the refractive index n of waveguide has
both scientific and practical interest. Indeed, most applications require the possibility of forecasting
(and monitoring) possible spontaneous degradation of the photo-induced index change. To this aim,
one usually begins by writing Bragg Gratings (BGs) in the waveguide of interest and soon after
performs accelerated BG aging. Then, one uses a physically stated model for predicting the grating
lifetime from the experimental raw data. This way of doing proves to raise some tricky points. To
summarize, the sources of difficulties fall into two main categories.
Firstly, the stability depends on numerous parameters such as the material composition, the details of
the waveguide and grating fabrication, the optical power density, and the type of laser and the contrast
of the fringe pattern used to write the BGs. Thus, ideally, it proves necessary to carry out an annealing
experiment for each specific case. Moreover, as a BG essentially consists in a non homogeneous
change in refractive index transversely and along the axis of a pre-constrained waveguide, one has to
take numerous precautions to extract the relevant data from those measured during the accelerated
annealing. For example, temperature-induced reversible changes in both the modulation nmod and the
effective index nmean (i.e. the purpose of the measurements involving BGs) can spoil the analysis of
isothermal annealing experiments. Moreover the estimations of nmod and nmean from the BG
reflectivity and the Bragg wavelength shift are coupled together as a result of the guided nature of the
propagation along the core of the waveguide. Accordingly, to palliate these difficulties, one has to
correct the raw data using iterative methods.
Secondly, as they concern an extrapolation, the models start from a number of over-simplified basic
assumptions that do not necessarily match the experimental reality. For example, the key assumption of
most models is that the decay in the change of refractive index comes from that in the population of a
trapped species and that this change is driven by only one elementary distributed reaction. Accordingly,
these hypotheses are connected with a local change in index and not with nmod or nmean.
Obviously, if there are several parallel limiting reactions (for example, thermally-induced diffusion of
chemical species) with different rate constants or if the change in refractive index depends on the
strength of the
exposure, the analysis looks more complex for achieving lifetime prediction. In the latter case, one can
be warned of the existence of a problem because the stabilities of nmod and nmean are not the same.
In conclusion, care must be taken in analyzing the stability of UV-induced index change through the
decay of a BG because mainly two quantities, nmod and nmean, define it and nmod and nmean
can exhibit different stability. More specifically, it proves to be necessary to have a good knowledge of
the BG initial contrast and to perform accelerated testing on both the Bragg wavelength and the
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Failure-Independent Path Protection with p-Cycles: Efficient, Fast and Simple Protection
for Transparent Optical Networks, Wayne D. Grover, Adil Kodian
Failure Independent Path-Protecting (FIPP) p-cycles are an extension of the basic p-cycle concept
which retains the property of pre-cross-connection of protection paths while achieving end-to-end
failure-independent path protection switching against either span or node failures. An issue with the
current method of shared-backup path protection (SBPP) in a transparent optical network is that spare
channels for the backup path must be cross-connected on-the-fly upon failure. It takes extra time and
signaling to make the required cross-connections but, more importantly, until all connections are made
it is not actually known if the backup optical path has adequate transmission integrity. Thus, pre-failure
certainty about optical path integrity is an important reason to have backup paths fully pre-connected
before failure. FIPP p-cycles support the same failure-independent, end-node activated switching of
SBPP but with fully pre-connected protection paths. FIPP p-cycles may therefore be especially
attractive for transparent optical networks. FIPP p-cycle network designs also exhibit capacity
efficiency that is characteristic of path-oriented schemes. We think it is the only scheme known with
these very high efficiencies, failure independence, and the property of fully pre-cross-connected
protection paths.

Optimised Availability of Transparent Optical Infrastructure for the Next Generation

Networking, Marian Marciniak
We propose a hybrid optical network model with optimised availability. The model assumes the use of
dedicated wavelengths available in a DWDM system to transmit different kinds of traffic, as
connection traffic for real time (voice, video) including Radio-over-Fibre, and connectionless packet
traffic. Thus the whole available bandwidth can be fully exploited. We discuss how the optimised
availability model complies with the ITU next generation networking and cybersecurity goals for the
Study Period 2005-2008.

Multi-Domain Issues of Resilience, David Larrabeiti, Ricardo Romeral, Ignacio Soto,

Manuel Uruea, Tibor Cinkler, Jnos Szigeti, Jnos Tapolcai
This paper gives an overview and classification of issues related to resilience in a multi-layer multi-
domain network environment. Then the work focuses on the Internet inter-AS context, where the
introduction of G/MPLS capabilities for traffic engineering may enhance the way traffic is exchanged
today. This paper shows that, in this context, network resilience based on fast re-routing can be
achieved, complementing existing inter-domain link protection strategies, by using alternative disjoint
multi-domain backup paths through other domains. Furthermore, the paper proposes a specific method
to apply MPLS label stacking to make such backup paths scalable to larger clusters of inter-protected
domains by means of MPLS transit. This transit can be used as a temporary solution before BGP routes
are stable. Finally, the latest standardisation activity on the provision of such multiple path information
for BGP is also reviewed.

P-cycles in Multi-failure Network Survivability, Hongxia Wang and H. T. Mouftah

We introduce a new mechanism to provide multi-failure survivability based on p-cycles. This
mechanism called MFS (MultiFailure Survivability Scheme) consists of two stages: off-line centralized
calculation and on-line distributed selection. Simulation results show that MFS has high probability to
survive multiple failures without adding any extra capacity.

Dependability Differentiation in Optical Packet Switched Networks", Harald verby,

Norvald Stol, Steinar Bjrnstad
Dependability is a crucial issue in future Optical Packet Switched (OPS) networks. In this paper, we
present the rationale for a dependability differentiated OPS network. A general model that supports
orthogonal differentiation of performance related and dependability related quality-of-service
parameters as well as an example of how to differentiate dependability is presented.
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Traffic Grooming Applied to Network Protection: Throughput and Grooming Port Cost
Analysis", N.S.C. Correia, M.C.R. Medeiros
The use of traffic grooming techniques for WDM network protection is analysed. This approach is
shown to use network resources efficiently while providing fast recovery times and good scaling since
protection is being provided at the optical layer. The maximum throughput and minimum grooming
port cost problems are mathematically formulated and results compared with traditional WDM
protection. The results show that the number of wavelengths can be reduced while keeping the number
of grooming ports used by the traditional lightpath protection approach.

Reliability of FSO Links in Next Generation Optical Networks, Erich Leitgeb, Sajid
Sheikh Muhammad, Christoph Chlestil, Michael Gebhart, Ulla Birnbacher
Free Space Optical (FSO) links can be used to setup FSO communication networks or to supplement
radio and optical fibre networks. Hence, it is the broadband wireless solution for closing the last mile
connectivity gap throughout metropolitan networks. This paper gives an overview of free-space laser
communications in principles and applications. Investigations in cooperation with COST 270 and
SatNEx and improvements for the future systems will form the core of the publication.

"Reliability of Indoor and Short Range FSO, A. C. Boucouvalas

Not available

Design, Availability and Reliability Analysis on an Experimental Outdoor FSO/RF

Communication System, Ahmet Akbulut, H. Gokhan Ilk, Fikret Ar
This work highlights the characteristics of an experimental outdoor free space optical (FSO)
communication system combined with a redundant radio frequency (RF) link that provides high
availability and uninterrupted communication even in adverse weather conditions. The system provides
wireless connection between the two of the five campuses of Ankara University. The rationale behind
the selection of design parameters is given and the structure of the hybrid system is outlined. Results,
regarding the link availability of the system, which has been operational for over 2 years, are presented.

Channel Modeling for Terrestrial Free Space Optical Links, S. Sheikh Muhammad, P.
Khldorfer, E. Leitgeb
With recent advances and interest in Free Space Optics (FSO) for commercial deployments, a proper
understanding of optical signal propagation in different atmospheric conditions has become essential,
and thus arises the need to rationalize the effects of atmospheric channel on terrestrial FSO links. In
this paper, we present the preliminary results of our effort to simulate the atmospheric free space
terrestrial optical channel with precise mathematical models of the most deterrent attenuators.
Attenuations due to fog, rain, snow and scintillation are considered. Thus, the channel model acquired
is a first step towards developing a comprehensive model predicting the performance of a terrestrial
FSO link operating under natural weather conditions.

Low-cost Resilience Schemes for the Optical Ethernet, Filippo Cugini, Luca Valcarenghi,
Piero Castoldi, Michele Guglielmucci
Optical Ethernet (OE) architectures represent a simple and low cost implementation for the layer 2
transport of IP packets directly over the Optical Layer. The limiting factor for the widespread
deployment of low cost OE architectures is represented by the lack of some Operation, Administration
and Maintenance (OA&M) features, such as resilience. Optical layer protection represents a low-cost
resilience scheme for OE links. This paper presents the experimental results of low-cost protection
implementations based on different failure detection and protection activation schemes for IP over OE
networks. Specifically, a dedicated span protection scheme and an evolution for shared protection
based on GMPLS signaling in transparent domains is presented. Experimental results show that
recovery times in the millisecond range are achieved.
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QoS-Aware Connection Resilience for Network-Aware Grid Computing Fault Tolerance,

Luca Valcarenghi, Piero Castoldi
Current grid computing fault tolerance leverages IP dynamic rerouting and schemes implemented in the
application or in the middleware to overcome both software and hardware failures. Despite the
flexibility of current grid computing fault tolerant schemes in recovering inter-service connectivity
from an almost comprehensive set of failures, they might not be able to repristinate also connection
QoS guarantees, such as minimum bandwidth and maximum delay. This phenomenon is exacerbated
when, as in global grid computing, the grid computing sites are not connected by dedicated network
resources but share the same network infrastructure with other Internet services. This paper aims at
showing the advantages of integrating grid computing fault tolerance schemes with Next Generation
Networks (NGNs) resilient schemes. Indeed, by combining the utilization of Generalized Multi-
Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) resilient schemes, such as path restoration, and application or
middleware layer fault tolerant schemes, such as service migration or replication, it is possible to
guarantee the necessary QoS to the connections between grid computing sites while limiting the
required network and computational resources.

Fault Management for Next-Generation IP-over-WDM Networks, Amitava Mukherjee

and Lena Wosinska
In this paper, we present a broad outline for fault management for next generation IP-over-WDM
network. This system contains three different components namely fault detection, fault recovery and
fairness service provisions for different needs. We also review various fault detection and fault
recovery schemes for WDM networks.

The Service Oriented Optical Network (SOON) Project, Barbara Martini, Fabio
Baroncelli, Piero Castoldi, Americo Muchanga, Lena Wosinska
The Service Oriented Optical Network is a project committed to introduce the concept of service
virtualization in optical metro/core networks, by improving the Automatic Switched Transport
Network (ASTN) architecture thanks to the introduction of an extra functional layer, namely Service
Plane, designed according to the ITU-T Intelligent Network Conceptual Model. An implementation of
the Service Plane is presented highlighting the software architecture and the technology details. In
particular it is applied to a testbed that implement a VPN topology request from a client application.

Optimal Monitor Placement Scheme for Single Fault Detection in Optical Network,
Puspendu Nayek, Sayan Pal, Buddhadev Choudhury, Amitava Mukherjee, Debashis Saha,
Mita Nasipuri
This paper presents monitor placement scheme for single node fault detection in optical network. A
single fault at a node may generally produce single/many alarms; as a result it becomes very difficult to
detect the exact origin of failure. Our two-phased scheme minimizes the placement of the number of
monitors to detect the origin of fault in polynomial time. We demonstrate the performance of our
scheme on 14-node NSFnet.

On Temporary Inconsistency of the Link State Database with Prompt Update Policies,
Zsolt Pndi, Lena Wosinska
Link state databases maintained in parallel at each node in networks that require link state information
for proper operation try to reflect real-time changes of the network state. Information dissemination,
however, by its very nature introduces latency in the update of link state information at different nodes,
which may in turn lead to faulty decisions that entail additional delay perceived by user traffic. The
paper presents a probabilistic model based on simple assumptions in order to derive an upper bound on
the probability that such a link state database inconsistency occurs.

Temperature Dependence of PMD in Optical Fibres and Cables, Krzysztof Borzycki

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) is a major limitation to upgrade of existing optical fiber plant
with higher capacity equipment. This paper presents results of experiments aimed at establishing
dependence of PMD with temperature and aging, primarily for tight-buffered fibres used in indoor
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cables and certain Optical Ground Wires (OPGW). Fibres in standard 0.9 mm tight buffers and cables
with such fibres showed large increase of PMD at low temperatures. The OPGW has, however
exhibited good stability of PMD during temperature cycling between -40C and +85C and accelerated
aging at +85C.


"Strength-probability-time diagrams using power law and exponential kinetics models for
fatigue", M. John Matthewson
Strength-Probability-Time (SPT) diagrams provide an intuitively pleasing method for presenting
reliability data based on extrapolations from accelerated fatigue testing data. If power-law crack growth
kinetics are assumed the calculations required to generate the SPT diagram are particularly simple.
However, if exponential or other more complex forms are used, this is not the case. If the accelerated
data are for dynamic fatigue measurements (strength as a function of stressing rate) the SPT diagram
can only be determined after numerical integration of the crack growth equations, followed by non-
linear regression to the fatigue data. However, we have developed software to perform this task. In this
paper we describe the methods used and show sample results of lifetime predictions using SPT
diagrams. Also, the effect of using different crack growth kinetics models on predicted lifetimes is

"The mechanical reliability of optical fibre for long-term applications

Y. M. S. El-Shazly", S. N. Kukureka
Optical fibre is often required for long-term applications in harsh environments, eg. underwater cables
or aerial cables in snowy areas. However, stress corrosion or the growth of cracks present on the
surface of the glass results in the failure of the fibres, especially if they are to be deployed in humid
areas and bearing a static stress. The presence of a fatigue limit, a stress under which the crack does not
grow has not been established in pure silica glass, in contrast to borosilicate and the soda-lime glasses.
A method to check the presence of a fatigue limit was developed by Gupta1 by studying the relation
between the power and exponential laws of crack growth. Here, dynamic fatigue tests were carried out
to estimate the fatigue parameters. The limiting stress is found and is compared to static fatigue results
from tests carried out under hot water to accelerate the corrosion process. The extrapolation of the
static fatigue stress for a time of 25 years predicts a failure stress that is higher than the fatigue limit.

"Mechanical reliability studies of optical fibres under high-dose gamma radiation",Marco

Van Uffelen, Yehia El Shazly, Stephen Kukureka, Gerard Kuyt, Elise Regnier, Piet Matthijsse,
Francis Berghmans
In addition to the numerous assessments presented in literature of the radiation-induced optical
property changes in optical fibres, we investigate the impact of MGy dose levels on the mechanical
properties of different single and multimode fibres. We compare the tensile test and two-point bending
test results obtained by two different laboratories with commercially available optical fibres before and
after irradiation up to 15 MGy. Our results show a significant strength reduction of about 50 % at high
dose levels, relevant for particular applications in nuclear power facilities and in large nuclear physics
experiments. This strength reduction seems to depend on both the coating materials and the test
conditions, as suggested by the roughening of the outer glass surface of the optical fibre, observed with
atomic force microscope (AFM) images.

"Effect of loading mode on the measurement of fatigue parameters in optical fibers", Y. M.

S. El-Shazly, S. N. Kukureka
The dynamic fatigue test is often preferred to the static fatigue test to measure stress corrosion
parameters due to the short time required to conduct tests. The results can be interpreted using the
power law or the exponential law for crack growth. However, the results are usually interpreted using
the power law which can be analytically integrated in the dynamic fatigue form in contrast to the
exponential law which cannot be integrated analytically. Nowadays, the two-point bend machine is
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used widely to carry out dynamic fatigue tests. Two loading modes are available for this machine:
constant plate speed and constant stress rate. In the constant plate-speed mode the mobile plate moves
with constant speed towards the other plate thus increasing the stress at the apex of the bent fibre in a
non-linear profile. The constant stress-rate mode, which is the more advanced, requires that the mobile
plate moves at a variable speed to maintain a constant rate of stress increase at the apex of the optical
fibre. In this paper we examine dynamic fatigue tests on optical fibre in water at different temperature
using both the constant stress-rate and the constant plate-speed loading-profiles. Then we analyze the
results using the power law and the exponential law for crack growth. The parameters for stress
corrosion are then used to predict static fatigue behaviour of the optical fibre and are compared with
experimental results of static fatigue carried out in two-point bend under water.

"Silica optical fibre behaviour to chemical exposure to hydrofluoric acid vapours", Irina
Severin, Marcel Poulain, Rochdi El Abdi
Reliability of standard single mode silica optical fibre and hermetic coated fibre has been investigated
through chemical exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapours into a hermetic closed disposal for
different durations. Dynamic fatigue tests were implemented using a two-point bending testing device.
Three series of samples subject to HF attack for variable times were compared. Standard fibres tested
immediately after exposure show a broader distribution of fibre strength accompanied by the drastic
decrease of the failure stress. Drying treated standard fibres prior to testing has also led to a broader
distribution and a slight decrease of failure stress by comparison to as-received fibres. Drying in oven
prior to mechanical measurement makes handling difficult and results in brittle fibres that exhibit much
lower strength and broader distribution of failure stress. Polymer reacts with hydrogen fluoride, which
induces viscosity changes, but it returns to solid state after thermal treatment. This is consistent with
SEM observations. Same experiments have been implemented on the hermetic coated fibre. No
significant change in the Weibull distribution and the mean fibre strength was observed after 6 days of
chemical exposure to HF vapours. By comparison to standard commercial fibre, the hermetic coated
fibre appeared extremely durable in harsh chemical conditions.

"Evaluation of higher order PMD effects using Jones matrix analytical models: a
comparative study", M. F. Ferreira
A comparative study among the Jones matrix analytical models with high-order PMD is presented. The
models that make use of an exponential expansion arrested up to second order or consider the
dispersion vector as a Taylor series expansion do not give good results in the approximation of high-
order PMD effects, because of the nonlimited behavior with respect to frequency of the modulus of
their dispersion vectors. On the other hand, the analytical model which describes the dispersion vector
as rotating on a circumference in the Stokes space is found to be the most accurate. Moreover, it can be
used to obtain an analytical expression of the pulse broadening, which is often chosen as a quality-
system parameter.

"Space flight requirements for fiber optic components: qualification testing and lessons
learned", Melanie N. Ott, Xiaodan Linda Jin, Richard Chuska, Patricia Friedberg, Mary
Malenab, Adam Matuszeski
"Qualification" of fiber optic components holds a very different meaning than it did ten years ago. In
the past, qualification meant extensive prolonged testing and screening that led to a programmatic
method of reliability assurance. For space flight programs today, the combination of using higher
performance commercial technology, with shorter development schedules and tighter mission budgets
makes long term testing and reliability characterization unfeasible. In many cases space flight missions
will be using technology within years of its development and an example of this is fiber laser
technology. Although the technology itself is not a new product the components that comprise a fiber
laser system change frequently as processes and packaging changes occur. Once a process or the
materials for manufacturing a component change, even the data that existed on its predecessor can no
longer provide assurance on the newer version. In order to assure reliability during a space flight
mission, the component engineer must understand the requirements of the space flight environment as
well as the physics of failure of the components themselves. This can be incorporated into an efficient
and effective testing plan that "qualifies" a component to specific criteria defined by the program given
the mission requirements and the component limitations. This requires interaction at the very initial
stages of design between the system design engineer, mechanical engineer, subsystem engineer and the
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component hardware engineer. Although this is the desired interaction what typically occurs is that the
subsystem engineer asks the components or development engineers to meet difficult requirements
without knowledge of the current industry situation or the lack of qualification data. This is then passed
on to the vendor who can provide little help with such a harsh set of requirements due to high cost of
testing for space flight environments. This presentation is designed to guide the engineers of design,
development and components, and vendors of commercial components with how to make an efficient
and effective qualification test plan with some basic generic information about many space flight
requirements. Issues related to the physics of failure, acceptance criteria and lessons learned will also
be discussed to assist with understanding how to approach a space flight mission in an ever changing
commercial photonics industry.`

"Reliability studies of micro-optical components in NEMO", F. Berghmans, M. Van

Uffelen, S. Eve, E. Ernst, A. Last, D. Rabus, N. Huber, O. Kraft, A. Andrei, L. Nieradko, K.
Krupa, M. Jozwik, C. Gorecki, L. Hirsinger, P. Delobelle, P. Kniazewski, L. Salbut, M.
We discuss on-going reliability studies of micro-optical components and assemblies as conducted in
the EU FP6 Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics "NEMO". We focus on three case studies
including first biaxial fatigue testing of micro-optical components, second reliability testing and quality
control of MEMS and third micro-interferometric tomography for measuring optical fibre refractive
index changes. For each of these case studies we discuss the dedicated measurement and
characterization methods as well as first results and the perspectives for future research.

"Strength prediction of microstructured optical fibers", Srinath S. Chakravarthy, Wilson K.

S. Chiu
The stresses in a microstructured optical fiber are determined in tension and in bending. A model for
the failure process in porous structures with applications to weak microstructured optical fibers with
large flaws is proposed. The model assumes that a continuous crack front splits on contact with a hole
and then propagates such that the direction of the front in contact with the boundary of the hole is
normal to it. Three-dimensional finite perturbation analysis of Bower and Ortiz1 is extended to model
the interaction of cracks with a periodic array of holes. Crack propagation in the cross-section is
examined using the modified finite perturbation method. Test cases are presented for the stress
intensity factor distribution in elliptical cracks, and periodic perturbations in straight cracks. During
crack front interaction, the front can split upon contact with the hole or an array of holes, and then
travel around them.

"An overview of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) product requirements and qualification

programs", Osman S. Gebizlioglu, Ernest J. Gallo
North American deployments of FTTP architectures have been rapidly increasing. While the FTTP
market is being driven by major telecommunications service providers, equipment suppliers have been
scrambling to bring products to market that will ensure them a piece of this high-stakes market. In this
invited presentation/paper, we propose to examine the technical requirements that are needed to
support the new FTTP network with a host of new products that have been in development. To enable
service providers select the best new products for FTTP deployment, product selection needs to be
based on the analysis and testing of new products for performance and reliability, Telcordia, in its
traditional role of telecommunications standards development, has been publishing generic
requirements (GR) documents that have been used by suppliers, service providers and the industry at
large. Product qualification programs based on the established performance and reliability
requirements/standards have been designed to evaluate products to determine if they can 1) withstand
the rigors of the outside plant deployment environment and perform for extended periods of time, 2) be
upgradeable, and 3) craft friendly. The outside plant is a tough environment to live in. A product must
perform under the extreme conditions of cold down -40C (-40F) and hot up to 46C (115F) with
high humidity of 95%, rain, snow, sleet, vibration due to traffic, lightning, heating due to solar loads,
high winds, ice, sand storms, and products are even tested to demonstrate if they can continue to
operate in an earthquake, a wild fire and a shotgun blast. All FTTP products are not only expected to
perform, but they must meet stringent optical performance criteria of low insertion loss and reflectance
/ return loss at a broad range of wavelengths from 1310, 1490, 1550 and 1625 nm. While the upstream
(from the customer to the CO) voice and data transmission is currently planned over 1310-nm
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wavelength, the downstream (from the CO to the customer) voice and data transmission is offered over
1490 nm, the video (analog, digital and HDTV) transmission will be offered over 1550-nm wavelength,
and the 1625-nm will be reserved for overhead, surveillance, and management functions. This paper
will cover some of the new products that will be needed and the requirements that would apply. The
FTTP deployments require the placement of a number of new products in the FTTP network from the
CO to the customer premises. These new products are designed to be installed in an efficient manner
with acceptable cost to the service provider in the outside plant and to perform the required functions.
One such new product is an HFOC (Hardened Fiber Optic Connector). The HFOC products provide
drop connections to customers from fiber distribution networks. They may be placed in pedestal
closures, aerial and buried closures, or equipment located at a Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) enclosure
or optical network termination (ONT) unit near customer premises. Current versions of this HFOC
product have been based on a well-known and widely used SC fiber optic connector. Simply described,
it consists of an SC connector in a protective shell made of a polymeric (plastic) material, and it allows
highly efficient connections between the distribution cables from the FDH (Fiber Distribution Hub)
where optical signal on a feeder cable from the CO is split for transmission over distribution cables and
drop cables in locations near customer premises. In addition to the description of new products, the
paper will review the environmental, mechanical and optical test criteria. Attendees would benefit from
the knowledge of products and requirements needed to support FTTP deployment.

"Efficient pump beam coupling in EDFA with two mutually pumped phase conjugate
mirrors", Shugo Kano, Atsushi Okamoto, Yoshihisa Takayama, Kunihiro Sato, Hideyuki
In the bidirectional pumped Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA), we propose the new method with
two Mutually Pumped Phase Conjugate Mirrors (MPPCMs) to couple the pump beam into the fiber.
This method makes it possible to couple the pump beam into the propagation mode of the fiber without
high precision adjustment by the characteristic of MPPCM. Additionally, high precision readjustment
is not required when a LD, fiber or lens is exchanged due to failures. In our method, it is important to
obtain high diffraction efficiency of MPPCM for high coupling efficiency between the pump beam and
the fiber. Diffraction efficiency of MPPCM depends on the intensity ratio of two incident beam
intensities inside the PRC. We analyze the coupling efficiency for the intensity ratio of two pump
beams, and show the optimum intensity ratio of two pump beams. Then, we perform an experiment to
couple the pump beam (Ar+ laser 514.5nm) to the fiber (multimode fiber of 62.5m core diameter). In
the experiment, coupling efficiency higher than 35% was confirmed. Moreover, in our method, the
time to complete the coupling depends on the beam intensities in the early stage of the process.
Therefore, we also propose the 4f imaging system to achieve a faster coupling at the early stage, and
design the optical system to improve the time to complete the coupling in our method.

"Internal defect localization in 980 nm ridge waveguide lasers", L. Daz, H. J. Eichler, K.

Weich, A. Klehr, U. Zeimer
High power lasers emitting at 980 nm are essential for pumping sources of erbium-doped fiber
amplifiers (EDFAs). These are used in longer distance telecommunications. Stability and reliability of
the modules are two key characteristics. The present paper investigates 'sudden random failures' of
double quantum-well 980 nm high power ridge waveguide lasers implemented in EDFAs. For the
inspection of the external and internal status of the device we used optical spectrum modulation
experiments, electroluminescence measurements, scanning electron microscopy and
cathodoluminescence investigations. The localization of internal defects is the main point of this work.
Two different 'sudden random failures' were found: catastrophical optical mirror damage (COMD) and
internal dark line defect (DLD) formation.

"Improving the response of a SOA wavelength converter in the counter propagating mode
using a fiber Bragg grating", Mrio de Pinho Alho, Jr., Maria Thereza Miranda Rocco
All-optical wavelength conversion using cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier is
one of the simplest and most common techniques to perform such operation. However, the finite gain
recovery time of the amplifier causes severe distortion and pattern dependence at high bit-rates. The
present work shows that it is possible to reduce the pattern dependence of the output converted signal
using a fiber Bragg grating operating on its transmission edge. A wavelength converter using the non-
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linear effect of cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier can be assembled in the co-
propagating and counter-propagating modes. The advantage of the counter-propagating mode is the
possibility of an assembly without an optical filter in the output of the converter to filter the input
signal, however this scheme introduces crosstalk in WDM systems, due to the residual facets
reflectivity of the semiconductor optical amplifier. In this paper we analyze by simulation using
commercial software, the improvement in the frequency response of a wavelength converter based on
cross gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier in the counter-propagating mode using a fiber
Bragg grating. The simulation results show that, with the fiber Bragg grating in the output of the
converter, the pattern dependence of the converted signal is reduced. This paper also shows the
advantages and disadvantages of the counter-propagating mode.

"Improvement of radiation resistance of multimode silica-core holey fibers", A. F.

Kosolapov, S. L. Semjonov, A. L. Tomashuk
Initial and radiation-induced optical loss spectra of multimode pure-silica-core holey fibers drawn at
different regimes are analyzed and compared with those of a conventional POD-fiber with the same
KU-1 silica in the core. It is shown that by filling the holes with H2 gas during fiber drawing, it is
possible to fully suppress the drawing-induced 630 nm absorption band and to lower the amplitude of
the radiation-induced 610 nm absorption band. The results of an experiment are discussed in which H2
gas was conducted through the holes of a multimode pure-silica-core holey fiber immediately in the
process of its -irradiation. The dose evolution of the 610 nm absorption band and of the short-
wavelength ( 550 nm) absorption associated with hydrogen incorporation into the glass network is
analyzed. It is concluded that H2 gas is efficient at suppressing the 610 nm band in pure-silica-core
holey fibers, but can cause a loss increase in the short-wavelength region, in case its pressure in the
holes is not sufficiently high.

"Radiation-induced loss predictions for pure silica core polarization-maintaining fibers",

Michael J. Lu Valle, E. Joseph Friebele, Frank V. Dimarcello, Gary A. Miller, Eric M.
Monberg, Lucie R. Wasserman, Patrick W. Wisk, Man F. Yan, Elizabeth M. Birtch
We examined the room temperature radiation-induced optical attenuation of silica-core, polarization-
maintaining fibers with boron stress rods. The fibers were exposed to 55 MeV protons to equivalent
doses between 100 krad and 1 Mrad at dose rates of 2 to 100 rad/s. Spectra from 1250-1725 nm were
recorded during both exposure and ~2,800 h recovery. The spectral response over time indicates two
separate populations of defects that affect loss. Explicit kinetic modeling indicates that the growth of
the induced loss is consistent with a power law in dose rate, and recovery is consistent with low (1st or
2nd) order annealing with a distribution of activation energies and a single attempt frequency for each
population. For predicting the radiation-induced loss in exposure conditions of much lower dose rate
and much longer time, our theory and numerical simulations indicate that the best experiments for
reducing risk in our extrapolations include higher temperature anneals, and, unavoidably, longer
exposures at lower dose rate.

"Passive component reliability analysis of issues relating to stoichiometric defects in

glass", SriRaman Kannan
Stoichiometric defects in glasses play a critical role in determining its optical properties. Defect types
in silica and germanosilicates are briefly reviewed. Passive components in fibers based on
stoichiometric defects, such as Bragg and long period gratings have been developed and used
extensively in high reliability applications. Approach to analyze thermally associated changes in these
gratings over time is outlined. The applicability of the approach to other defect related phenomena such
as hydrogen induced loss in optical fibers is also described.

"Annealing and temperature coefficient study of type IA fibre Bragg gratings inscribed
under strain and no strain: implications to optical fibre component reliability", Kyriacos
Kalli, George Simpson, Helen Dobb, Michael Komodromos, David Webb, Ian Bennion
The annealing properties of Type IA Bragg gratings are investigated and compared with Type I and
Type IIA Bragg gratings. The transmission properties (mean and modulated wavelength components)
of gratings held at predetermined temperatures are recorded from which decay characteristics are
inferred. Our data show critical results concerning the high temperature stability of Type IA gratings,
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as they undergo a drastic initial decay at 100C, with a consequent mean index change that is severely
reduced at this temperature However, the modulated index change of IA gratings remains stable at
lower annealing temperatures of 80C, and the mean index change decays at a comparable rate to Type
I gratings at 80C. Extending this work to include the thermal decay of Type IA gratings inscribed
under strain shows that the application of strain quite dramatically transforms the temperature
characteristics of the Type IA grating, modifying the temperature coefficient and annealing curves,
with the grating showing a remarkable improvement in high temperature stability, leading to a robust
grating that can survive temperatures exceeding 180C. Under conditions of inscription under strain it
is found that the temperature coefficient increases, but is maintained at a value considerably different to
the Type I grating. Therefore, the combination of Type I and IA (strained) gratings make it possible to
decouple temperature and strain over larger temperature excursions.

"A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long period
gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc", T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main,
A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion
Long period gratings have been inscribed in standard single mode fibre using a fs laser system, a fusion
arc and a UV laser and a comparative study carried out of their thermal behaviour. The fs laser induced
gratings can survive temperatures in excess of 800 C, however the inscription process can induce
considerable birefringence within the device. Annealing studies have been carried out showing that
below 600 C, all three grating types show a blue shift in their room temperature resonance
wavelengths following cyclic heating, while above 600 C, the UV and arc induced LPGs exhibit a red
shift, with the fs LPG showing an even stronger blue shift. High temperature annealing is also shown to
considerably reduce the birefringence induced by the fs inscription process.

"Fiber performance in hydrogen atmosphere at high temperature", Sergey L. Semjonov,

Alexey F. Kosolapov, Ivan V. Nikolin, Rogerio Ramos, Vladimir Vaynshteyn, Arthur Hartog
Optical losses induced in fibers at 300oC and in hydrogen atmosphere were studied. A non-linear
dependence of hydrogen penetration through the carbon coating on hydrogen pressure was observed. It
was demonstrated that carbon coating could not defend the fiber from hydrogen penetration for a long
time period. At some time, the hydrogen presence in the fiber core resulted in high optical losses in all
spectral range in the case of Ge-doped fibers. It was found that the short-wavelength loss edge (SWE)
in a Ge-doped fiber co-doped with a small amount of phosphorus was significantly smaller than that in
Ge-doped fibers without co-doping. Nevertheless, P-codoping effect did not decrease optical losses
related with SWE completely.

"Analysis and fabrication by electric-arc technique of high performance bandpass filters

based on phase-shifted long period fiber gratings", Abdelrafik Malki, Georges Humbert
Bandpass filters based on -phase-shifted long-period fiber grating have been theoretically analyzed
and experimentally fabricated by the electric-arc technique. Calculations and numerical simulations,
based on coupled mode theory associated with the F-matrix method, have shown that the isolation of
lateral rejected bands is maximum when the total length of the grating is optimised and the -phase-
shift inserted when the transmission at the desired resonance wavelength is -6.9dB. Two -phase-shifts
are introduced at optimised positions to obtain a large bandwidth of the badpass filter. We have
fabricated the first bandpass filters that have lateral rejected bands isolation higher than 20 dB and
bandpass filters with very large flat-top bandwidths (FWHM =19.5 nm) around 1538 nm peak, the
fabricated filters are characterized by a very low insertion loss (<0.5 dB).

"Reliability of fibre Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibre", H. Dobb, K. Carroll, D. J.

Webb, K. Kalli, M. Komodromos, C. Themistos, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, M. A.
van Eijkelenborg, M. Arresy, S. Kukureka
In this paper we report on investigations of some of the factors that have a bearing on the reliability and
repeatability of polymer fibre Bragg gratings. The main issues discussed are the fibre preform
composition, the fibre drawing conditions and the thermal history of the fibre grating.
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"Effect of optical fiber coating abrasion on aging behavior", Eric A. Lindholm, Rich
Heinemann, Brian Slyman, David Burgess
Optical fibers with different protective coatings were abraded then submerged in 50C water for
twenty-eight days. The strength of the abraded and control fibers exposed to zero-stress aging was
tracked over time with tensile strength testing. Although the abrasion test represented a severe model of
fiber handling, no appreciable strength degradation was detected on the fiber before or after zero-stress

"Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and
dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers", A. B. Wojcik, M. J. Matthewson, K. T.
Castelino, J. Wojcik, A. Walewski
Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments are typically exposed to high
temperatures and elevated humidity. This calls for better performing protective coatings. Recently
developed sol-gel derived inorganicorganic hybrid materials called hybrid glass offered improved
protective performance as compared to standard dual polymer coated fibers [1]. In this paper we
examine the effectiveness of online UV curing for the protective ability of hybrid glass coatings. For
this purpose two types of UV-curable hybrid glass candidates representing two different concentrations
of acrylate groups were applied online to silica fibers as single and dual coats. Samples of fibers were
collected and subjected to dynamic fatigue testing by two-point bending. The stress corrosion
parameter, n, as well as the strength of the fibers were determined. Both the strength and n were higher
for fibers with two layers of coating as compared to single coatings even when the thickness of both
one and two layer coatings was the same. This may be caused by the greater degree of cross linking of
the inorganic component when the coating is exposed twice to the heat generated in the UV chamber.
Coating materials with reduced acrylate group content had higher values of the fatigue parameter n but
at the same time reduced strength.

"Improved understanding of high-power damage phenomena at fibre bends through

analytical temperature mapping", John V. Wright, Edmund S. R. Sikora, David J.
McCartney, Kristan Farrow
The full characterisation of a fibre's sensitivity to high power damage is time consuming and
expensive. The fibre's initial equilibrium temperature under bending is a practical metric that can be
used to mitigate the risk of damage by keeping this temperature below that which causes accelerated
ageing of the coating. Modelling of the temperature distribution can be used to filter fibre and coating
designs before proceeding with more expensive experimental evaluation. The inclusion of stress terms
that modify the refractive index in the BPM analysis of bend loss enables the bend loss to be modelled
more accurately. This together with the appropriate thermal boundary conditions on the fibre surface
substantially improves the accuracy of computing the temperature distribution within the coatings of a
bent fibre.

"Optical discharge in silica-based fibers: high-speed propagation under kW-range laser

radiation", A. A. Frolov, I. A. Bufetov, V. P. Efremov, M. Y. Schelev, V. I. Lozovoy, V. E.
Fortov, E. M. Dianov
The fast mode of optical discharge propagation in optical fibres was observed. In contrast to the known
fibre fuse effect such optical discharge propagation is accompanied by fibre cracks and velocity
reaches3km/s under the intensity 40W/ m2.

"Single-mode fiber for high-power applications with small bend radii", G. Scott
Glaesemann, Michael J. Winningham, Scott R. Bickham
A fiber design is proposed that addresses bend loss, high power and handleability concerns for fibers
deployed in high power devices and associated pigtails. If bending is tight enough to leak power from
the core into the glass cladding, a coating with a sufficiently low index traps this potentially dangerous
power in the cladding. The coating is also designed to keep cladding power from damaging
downstream devices and terminations. Loss due to tight bends is minimized by use of a glass design
with a small mode-field diameter. This glass design further suppresses the high power failure mode.
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Over the high power coating is a thick layer of a toughened polymer coating which provides a
significant increase in mechanical protection over most commercial coatings.

"Spectral modification of type IA fibre Bragg gratings by high power near infra-red laser",
Kyriacos Kalli, A. George Simpson, Kaimin Zhou, Lin Zhang, David Birkin, Tim Ellingham,
Ian Bennion
We report the first experimental measurements on the spectral modification of Type IA fibre Bragg
gratings, incorporated in an optical network, which result from the use of high-power, near infrared
lasers. The fibre grating properties are modified in a controlled manner by exploiting the characteristics
of the inherent 1400nm absorption band of the optical fibre, which grows in strength during the Type
IA grating inscription. If the fibre network is illuminated with a high power laser, having an emission
wavelength coincident with the absorption band, the Type IA centre wavelength and chirp can be
modified. Furthermore, partial grating erasure is demonstrated. This has serious implications when
using Type IA gratings in an optical network, as their spectrum can be modified using purely optical
methods (no external heating source acts on the fibre), and to their long-term stability as the grating is
shown to decay. Conversely, suitably stabilised gratings can be spectrally tailored, for tuning fibre
lasers or edge filter modification in sensing applications, by purely optical means.

"Implications of high power losses in IR femtosecond laser inscribed fiber Bragg

gratings", K. T. O'Mahoney, A. S. Main, D. J. Webb, A. Martinez, D. A. Flavin
We report on high power issues related to the reliability of fibre Bragg gratings inscribed with an
infrared femtosecond laser using the point-by-point writing method. Conventionally, fibre Bragg
gratings have usually been written in fibres using ultraviolet light, either holographically or using a
phase mask. Since the coating is highly absorbing in the UV, this process normally requires that the
protective polymer coating is stripped prior to inscription, with the fibre then being recoated. This
results in a time consuming fabrication process that, unless great care is taken, can lead to fibre strength
degradation, due to the presence of surface damage. The recent development of FBG inscription using
NIR femtosecond lasers has eliminated the requirement for the stripping of the coating. At the same
time the ability to write gratings point-by-point offers the potential for great flexibility in the grating
design. There is, however, a requirement for reliability testing of these gratings, particularly for use in
telecommunications systems where high powers are increasingly being used in long-haul transmission
systems making use of Raman amplification. We report on a study of such gratings which has revealed
the presence of broad spectrum power losses. When high powers are used, even at wavelengths far
removed from the Bragg condition, these losses produce an increase in the fibre temperature due to
absorption in the coating. We have monitored this temperature rise using the wavelength shift in the
grating itself. At power levels of a few watts, various temperature increases were experienced ranging
from a few degrees up to the point where the buffer completely melts off the fibre at the grating site.
Further investigations are currently under way to study the optical loss mechanisms in order to optimise
the inscription mechanism and minimise such losses

"Power transmission limits of different glass fibers with antireflective coating", St. Meister,
C. Theiss, Ch. Scharfenorth, H. J. Eichler
Five different multimode optical fibers have been coated with an antireflective coating to minimize
transmission losses. The transmission, the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and the laser-
induced damage threshold (LIDT) were determined for the fibers. The measurements are performed at
1064 nm with 24 ns pulse duration. Fiber transmissions reach up to >99.5% for optimal laser beam
coupling. A damage threshold of up to 125 J/cm2 could be achieved. The fiber coatings were
investigated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

"Optimization of path availability of span-restorable optical networks", Ling Zhou, Marcel

High availability tops the list of features desired for building a network. Various factors influencing
path availability of optical networks with span restoration are investigated from the network design
point of view. Network redundancy, number of backup routes, and dual span failure restorability can
have important effects on path availability. A formulation to improve average path availability of a
network by maximizing dual failure restorability is developed. We also introduce a practical method to
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optimize spare capacity and path availability of a network at the same time. A case study analyzes how
much average dual-failure restorability can be improved in a long haul network with span restoration.
Conclusions deduced from the computational and analytical results can help network planners to design
a network with high performance and optimized cost and availability.

"Performance and reliability predictions of 1550 nm WDM optical transmission links using
a system simulator", L. Bechou, L. Mendizabal, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, Y. Deshayes, J. M.
Dumas, D. Laffitte, J. L. Goudard, Y. Danto
This paper reports simulation results of transmission performances after introduction of DFB laser
diode parameters variations versus time extrapolated from accelerated tests. Simulations are performed
using a system simulator to study the consequence of degradations of the laser diode on system
performances (eye diagram, quality factor - Q and binary error rate - BER). The studied link consists in
4x2.5 Gbits/s WDM channels with direct modulation and equally spaced by 0,8 nm around the 1550
nm central wavelength. In this paper, only one channel is assumed to be degraded considering an only
one activation energy. Simulation results clearly show that variation of basic parameters such as bias
current or central wavelength induces a penalization of dynamic performances of the complete WDM
link. Consequences on adjacent channels are pointed out underlying the relation between the variations
of eye diagram parameters (height, noise, cross-talk, jitter) and the Q-factor decrease. Variations of
optical spectrum density at the output of the demultiplexer are also analyzed showing penalties on the
final cross-talk. Different degradation kinetics of aged laser diodes from a same batch have been also
implemented to build the final distribution of Q-factor and BER after 25 years finally demonstrating
the low impact of such variations. The strong interest of this approach is to evaluate the robustness of a
dedicated-technology and to become a complementary tool of actual reliability-testing methods and
physics of failure in the context of new reliability modeling approach. We have also highlighted the
relevance of failure criteria established by actual qualification standards for high-rate optical
telecommunication systems.

"Inter-layer communication for faster restoration in a 10 gigabit Ethernet-based network",

Amrico Muchanga, Antoine B. Bagula, Lena Wosinska
The restoration time in high capacity optical networks has to be kept as short as possible in order to
avoid a huge loss of data. This paper discusses several methods to improve restoration time in optical
networks and we propose mechanisms of implementing such inter-layer communication in order to
decrease restoration time for a 10 Gigabit Ethernet based network

"Influence of fiber parameters on the performance of a SCM_QPSK transmission system",

Arnaldo P. Togneri, Marcelo E. Segatto, Maria Jos Pontes, Maria Thereza M. Giraldi,
J.C.W.A. Costa
The performance of a Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) optical fibre system using QPSK modulation is
analysed in this paper. Our results will show that it is possible to increase the system bandwidth by
controlling the input optical power. Various fibre dispersion values and subcarrier channel spacing are
used in order to check the bandwidth increase proportional to the optical power. The transmission
bandwidth was studied in terms of fibre dispersion and input optical power. The frequency response
was measured and computed. Limitations imposed by nonlinear distortions mainly due to interplay
between dispersion and self-phase modulation are verified as well. The analysis to the SCM_QPSK
transmission system such as the subcarrier channel spacing, signal input power, available frequency
bandwidth under the fibre specifications and system conditions operation will be explored in a specific
application. It means applying this technique after setting the requirements necessary to the operation
of an optical ground-wire (OPGW) already installed system. The results showed an increase of the
transmission bandwidth as the optical power increases. For QPSK modulation, power penalties smaller
than 1 dB were obtained only for channel spacing higher than 1.2 multiplied by the symbol rate.
Experimental measurements obtained in the literature were used to validate our results. Eye opening
and received eye diagrams will be evaluated in order to have a simpler receiver layout and make the
entire system more reliable, since it will become more robust to error disturbance, maintenance is
easier and system upgrades will be facilitated.
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"Analysis of connection availability in optical networks with multi-failure assumption",

Xiang Lu, Zhe Wang, Lena Wosinska
Optical networks carry an increasing amount of traffic due to the rapid growth of IP and multimedia
services. Therefore the impact of network failures on this traffic and thus user services is growing fast.
In addition some network services are heavily dependent upon the availability of communication
resources. Consequently, network operators have to deal with the steadily growing availability
requirement. Thus, survivability mechanisms need to be provided in the networks to meet the
connection availability requirement. There are several protection schemes that can be applied to
improve connection availability in the network. Shared Path Protection (SPP) scheme is selected in this
paper due to its efficiency in resource utilization. In many works the SPP scheme has been studied to
solve a single failure problem. However, in large networks the occurrence of multiple concurrent
failures cannot be neglected [1]-[3]. In this respect we studied the SPP scheme for mesh optical
transport networks with multiple failure scenario and developed connection availability model with
multiple failure assumption instead of traditional single failure assumption. In this paper we present the
analytical model for connection availability in SPP mesh network with multiple failure assumption.
Our model is more general than the traditional model adopted for single failure assumption and also is
more general than the work for two protection paths. We also developed a simulator to evaluate our
analytical model. The results show that the connection unavailability obtained by simulations is very
close to the theoretical value, which approve that our algorithm is accurate.

"Upgrading the transmission capacity of local area networks by improving the receiver
performance", Daniel Naves de Luces Fortes, Maria Jos Pontes, Maria Thereza Miranda
Rocco Giraldi
In this paper we analyze by simulation a measured amplified single channel 40 Gb/s communication
system composed by standard fiber. Two different commercial simulation tools are used to perform the
calculations. Experimental results were reproduced in such distinct simulation environments that
allowed calibrating and predicting the system performance when new parameter settings are taken into
evaluation. The simulation results indicate that at least 10 dB less power is required to achieve the
same BER simply using an optimized receiver. That result enabled to have the same BER and also
allowed removing the EDFA. Since one device such as an EDFA could be eliminated of the layout,
with less optical power being required in the receiver, fiber spans as short as lengths that eliminate the
dispersion compensation have been considered.

"Hybrid approaches for the design of mesh and hierarchical ring optical networks",
Marcelo E. Segatto, Elias Oliveira, Marcelo O. Lima, Fbio O. Lima, Renato T. de Almeida
This paper discusses some novel strategies to tackle the difficulty problem of finding a good logical
network topology with minimum traffic congestion. We apply our strategy on solving two typical
topologies structures: the Mesh and the Self-Healing Rings. The typical strategies for solving the
logical topology design for both structures are those based on the use of mixed-integer linear
programming. However the literature shows that these approaches can be frustrating, time consuming
and costly. As an alternative to these strategies, our approach combines the capability of meta-
heuristics of finding good solutions in a very short computational time and provides the mixed-integer
linear programming with good upperbounds in order to pruning great chunk of the searching space. In
this work we show that our approach is promising as we are able to solve large problems in a
reasonable amount of time for both type of topologies we studied.
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A robust XML-based approach for network protocols implementation, F. Baroncelli, B.
Martini, P. Castoldi
Formal specifications for network protocols are needed during the implementation process to guarantee
full inter-working among protocol software of different vendors. XML is emerging as a robust
supporting technology for the definition of protocol specifications thanks to its hierarchical structure,
its inherent support for data validation, and to the large software library availability over the principal
software platforms.
This work proposes XML-based Multi Protocol Framework (XMPF), a new software protocol engine
that we have designed and developed to be configured by protocol specifications contained in native
XML files. XMPF is a software tool but its architecture protocol engine also that can support
concurrently different protocols without the need to write specific code for each of them. The approach
allows to reduce the deployment time and, at the same time, to improve the software stability and
protocols consistency. In addition, no extra code is needed for data validation because of the intrinsic
checks offered by the XML library.

Plug and play networking with optical nodes, Cerutti, A. Fumagalli, R. Hui, P. Monti, A.
Paradisi, M. Tacca
Plug and play optical (PPO) nodes can be used to ease the deployment of optical networks. PPO nodes
must be able to learn abort the signal propagation properties of the surrounding optical fibers and make
their wavelength routing decisions based on the collected data. This paper discusses what are the open
challenges that must be overcome to provide cost effective and performing ad hoc networking solutions
based on PPO nodes.

"Multilevel digital pulse interval modulation scheme for optical wireless communications,
F. Ghassemlooy, N. Aldibbiate
Selecting a modulation technique is one of the key technical decisions in the design of any
communication systems. For optical wireless systems (in this case indoor) the two main criteria are
power and bandwidth efficiencies. Modulation schemes which have a high bandwidth requirement are
more susceptible to intersymbol interference, and consequently incur a greater power penalty, whereas
modulation scheme with short pulses (high bandwidth) meet the low average requirement required by
the eye safety. For the IM/DD indoor optical wireless systems there are a number of modulation
techniques that can be grouped into two general categories, baseband and sub-carrier modulation.
Baseband modulation schemes are widely used (in optical as well as electrical systems) that includes
the entire family of pulse time modulation techniques. In this paper a new pulse time modulation
technique known as Multilevel-Digital Pulse Interval Modulation (M-DPIM) will be introduced and its
performance will be compared with other PTM schemes.

Redundancy, Restorability and Path Availability in Optical Mesh Networks, M. Held, L.

A new calculation method to estimate path availability under dual failure scenarios for networks
designed for 100% restorability against single span failures is presented. This method is applicable to
all survivability schemes and considers their respective restoration or protection effect. A case study
calculates the availability of all service paths within a long haul network under four
protection/restoration strategies: dedicated automatic protection switching, shared backup path
protection, span restoration and protection-cycles. The availability optimization potential is estimated
based on measures for standard network redundancy and dual failure restorability. Assets and
drawbacks of survivability schemes are compared from the availability and capacity efficiency point of

The influence of dense fog on optical wireless systems, analysed by measurements in Graz
for improving the link-reliability, E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, B. Flecker, Ch.
Chlestil, M. Gebhart, T. Javornik,
Free Space Optics (FSO) has gained considerable importance in this decade of demand for high
bandwidth transmission capabilities. FSO can provide the last mile solution, but the availability and
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reliability issues concerned with it have acquired more attention, and a need for thorough
investigations. In this work, we present our results about light attenuation at 950 and 850 nm
wavelengths in continental city fog conditions with peak values up to 120 dB/km. We compare them
with the attenuation under dense maritime conditions with peak values up to 480 dB/km. The results of
the described measurements are important for the international European co-operations COST 270 and
SatNEx, because dense fog is the most limiting factor on Optical Wireless applications. The properties
of fog were measured and modelled first for applications in geodesy and meteorology mainly.
Examples for these are the description of the Mie scattering principle, Koschmieders law and the
Kruse model. High data rate wireless optical communication, which did gain considerable importance
in telecommunication within the last decade could take advantage of these existing models, as fog is
the most important factor limiting link availability. However, light propagation in fog has properties in
the spatial, spectral and in the time domain, which are of importance to free-space optic data
communication. In 2004 (within a short term scientific mission of COST 270) measurements of very
dense maritime fog and low clouds were made in the mountains of La Turbie, close to the coast of
southern France. Using the same equipment, the measurements were continued for the conditions of the
continental city Graz, Austria. This campaign was done in the winter months from 2005 to 2006 within
the work-package .Clear Sky Optics. and allows us to compare fog properties for different
environments, and the impact of snowfall.

Routing issues in transparent optical networks, R. Martinez, Carolina Pinart, Jaume

Comellas, Gabriel Junyent
Future optical networks are moving from static point-to-point connections towards dynamic
wavelength-routed networks using all-optical, reconfigurable switching nodes. By doing so, lightpaths
are dynamically routed/switched entirely over the optical layer, eliminating current expensive
electronic regenerators. However, the lack of OEO transponders (i.e., transparency) makes it necessary
to consider the degrading effects of the physical transmission of optical signals accumulated along the
path. An efficient strategy to face up this problem and to provide quality-enabled services is to take
into account physical impairments during the path computation process (ICBR algorithm). In the work
we present a feasible solution which combines ICBR algorithms and the intelligence of a distributed
GMPLS-based control plane to set up optical connections with the required QoS in the optical signal.
In addition, analytical discussions are given for the assessment and validation of the solution.

Fault management in transparent optical networks, R. Rejeb, M.S. Leeson, and R.J.
All-Optical Networks (AONs) are a relatively new technology for very high data rate communications,
flexible switching and broadband application support. More specifically, they provide transparency
features allowing routing and switching of data without interpretation or regression of signals within
the network. AONs contain only transparent optical components and therefore differ to a large extent
from the optical networks currently used. In particular, the behaviours of AON components and
architectures bring forth a new set of challenges for network security. As a result, AONs have unique
features and requirements in terms of security and quality of service that require a highly targeted
approach in terms of network management. This paper presents and analyzes an algorithm for fault
management in AONs. This algorithm utilizes fewer monitoring information than is required by other
approaches. As a direct consequence, it offers the benefit of relaxing the high cost and complexity of
signal quality monitoring for future AON management solutions.

Topology-aware replica placement heuristics in the global grid, L. Valcarenghi, P.

Quality of Service (QoS) Aware fault tolerance is defined as the capability of overcoming both
hardware and software failures while maintaining communications QoS guarantees. An integrated fault
tolerant scheme combining service replication and path restoration has the potential of maximizing the
percentage of recovered connections while minimizing the required service replicas. Previous studies
focused on evaluating the optimal performance achievable by the integrated fault tolerant schemes
through a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. This study concentrates on developing
heuristics to place service replicas with topology awareness. The aim of this study is to evaluate
whether topology-aware heuristics can approximate MILP optimal solutions.
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Connection Availability in WDM Mesh Networks with Multiple Failures, L. Wosinska,

Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) technology has revolutionized wide-area networks. As the
amount of traffic carried is very large, any single failure can be catastrophic. Thus, survivability of a
network that refers to a networks capability to provide continuous service in the presence of failures
has become crucial in such networks. Communication networks are usually designed to survive single
failure. However, in large networks the occurrence of multiple concurrent failures cannot be neglected.
Therefore, in this paper we study connection availability in WDM networks assuming failures of any
multiplicity. Shared Path Protection (SPP) scheme is an efficient network recovery mechanism in terms
of network resource utilization and in many related works the SPP scheme has been studied to solve a
single failure problem. We apply SPP scheme and propose an analytical model for calculation of
connection unavailability in WDM mesh networks with multiple failure assumption.
We have evaluated our model by simulations and show that the connection unavailability obtained by
simulations is very close to the theoretical value obtained by our algorithm, which proves the accuracy
of our model.

Reliability for Future Ubiquitous Network Societies Challenges and Opportunities, M.

In this contribution the technological, economical and societal factors that would possibly influence a
mass deployment of ubiquitous information and communication technologies are discussed. The
guidelines for new research directions in reliability of optical networks, systems and components are
formulated in order to meet the specific requirements of the future Ubiquitous Networking.

Techniques for Link Security in Outdoor Mobile Laser Optical Wireless, F. Ari, F. Ozek,
O. Ozturk, O. Geren
In this experimental work two techniques are suggested to maintain the link security, ie. covertness and
privacy, for mobile laser optical wireless systems. First technique is based on the use of four-quadrant
detectors for shortening the acquisition time. The second benefits the ambient light to increase the level
of communication privacy during the tracking phase. Alternative techniques given in the literature are
also cited.

All-Optical Label Stripping: A Network Recovery Perspective, Ruth Van Caenegem,

Didier Colle, Mario Pickavet, Piet Demeester
In all-optical label stripping, the optical packets are, by use of all-optical labels, directed through the
optical network without passing them through electronics whenever a forwarding decision is necessary.
Ideally this approach has the ability to route packets/bursts independently of bit rate, packet format and
packet length. Still AOLS encounters new troubles. The lack of all-optical memory makes the AOLS
nodes very complex and resource consuming. This is of great importance when providing the all-
optical network with resilience. We focused on different protection/restoration schemes (real-time or in
advance, local or end-to-end) that could be used in combination with all-optical packet-switching
networks. We investigated how the presence of back-up facilities in the network affects the label length
and number of labels needed throughout the network (i.e., the router's dimensions).

Failure Aware Diverse Routing: A Novel Algorithm to Improve Availability in

ASON/GMPLS Networks, Luis Velasco, Salvatore Spadaro, Jaume Comellas, Gabriel
The average increment and the increasing variability of the traffic to be carried by ASON/GMPLS
transport networks will require on-demand bandwidth provisioning in the near future. In this scenario
dynamic routing based on traffic engineering techniques is a key issue.
This paper deals with dynamic routing in ASON/GMPLS networks based on using network failures
information. We define three routing strategies which differ in the use of failure information. Their
performance is evaluated by simulation in terms of request blocking probability and availability.

Efficient OXC Monitoring Based on Time-Delay Recognition, Zhengfeng Qian, Guo-Wei

Lu, and Shuo-Yen Robert Li
Optical cross connects (OXCs) are critical components of all-optical networks. As OXC malfunction
leads to data loss or misrouting, surveillance of OXCs is essential to network reliability. A recent OXC
supervisory scheme based on different time-delay recognition identifies the state of I/O connection
through the OXC, including any possible effect of link failure or misrouting. For large-scale OXCs,
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however, this approach requires excessively long delay fibers, which raises feasibility issues such as
power amplification and length of surveillance period. This paper proposes a modified scheme for
reducing the length of delay fibers without downgrading the performance.

A Novel Path-Protecting p-Cycle Heuristic Algorithm, Feng Zhang and Wen-De Zhong,
We propose a novel path-protecting p-cycle heuristic algorithm for survivable WDM network design.
Numerical studies show that p-cycle based path protection for span and node failure recovery is
capacity efficient and robust.

Recovery Time Analysis of WDM Protection Schemes, N.S.C. Correia, M.C.R. Medeiros,
The recovery time to restore services after the occurrence of a failure is a key issue in networks. In this
article analytical expressions for the recovery time of traditional WDM protection and a novel
protection scheme called primary-shared path-based are presented and performance comparison is
done. The primary-shared path-based protection scheme is an approach that uses traffic grooming for
protection, increasing the efficient use of network resources.

Reliable Optical Wireless Links within UAV Swarms,Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P.

Schmitt, S. Sheikh Muhammad, K. Zettl, W. Rehm
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) flying in swarm formations carrying a variety of sensors for
monitoring and surveillance is in fact a future application for both civil and military use. Different
requirements of guidance and control of UAV were already identified; however, the communication
facilities between mobile platforms and air-to-ground links are restricted to low bit rate radio based
technology. In the near term data rates in the area of 100 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s will be needed to handle
multiple sensor information in real-time and in parallel. Thus, UAV equipped with Free Space Optics
(FSO) will emerge as a challenging new needs for large data transfer in real time. With data rate
capabilities of up to 2.5 Gbit/s the FSO surpass all possible microwave and RF solutions.

Availability of Translucent Networks Based on WSS Nodes, Comparison with Opaque

Networks, Annalisa Morea and Isabelle Boyer Heard,
In this paper, we compare port unavailability relating to translucent and opaque optical networks.
Translucent networks are based on unprotected and protected WSS (Wavelength-Selective Switch)
nodes architectures. For opaque networks, standard nodes architectures are used. For the translucent
networks, three representative conditions in terms of traveled kilometers and number of traversed
nodes are described. This study reveals that, translucent networks are more interesting than opaque
ones when the WSS nodes are protected; for the nodes architectures, the traffic matrix, and the failure
rates considered in this study, translucent networks are on average 16% more available than opaque
networks. When the WSS nodes are not protected, opaque networks are more advantageous for all
ULH conditions. The difference is emphasized with the increase of the WSS failure rate which was
increased from 2000 to 10000 FIT.
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Publication list
Individual publications of the participants

[1] D. Coric, R. Chatton, H.G. Limberger and R.P. Salath, "High resolution liquid level
sensor based on fibre bragg gratings in attenuation fiber and low-coherence
reflectometry", 18th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS18,
Cancun, Mexico, Octobre 2006.
[2] R. Chatton, H.G. Limberger and F. Colpo, "Characterization of distributed strain
fields inside fiber optic connectors", to be submitted to Journal of Lightwave
Technology, 2006.
[3] Z. Pandi, A. Fumagalli, M. Tacca and L. Wosinska, "Impact of OXC failures on
network reliability", in Proc. of SPIE Photonics Europe, Strasbourg, France, April
[4] B. Martini, F. Baroncelli, P. Castoldi, A. Muchanga, and L. Wosinska, "The Service
Oriented Optical Network (SOON) Project", in Proc. ICTON'05, Barcelona, July
[5] A. Mukherjee and L. Wosinska, "Fault Management for next-generation IP-over-
WDM Networks", Invited, in Proc. ICTON'05, Barcelona, July 2005
[6] A. Muchanga, L. Wosinska, and F. Orava, "Inter-layer Communication for Improving
Restoration time in Optical Networks", in Proc. Optical Fiber
Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC/NFOEC'05,
Anaheim, CA, March 2006
[7] A. Muchanga, A. B. Bagula, and L. Wosinska, "Improving Restoration Time in
Optical Networks", in Proc. of SPIE Photonics Europe, Strasbourg, France, April
[8] L. Xiang, Zhe Wang and Lena Wosinska, "Analysis of Connection Availability in
Optical Networks with Multi-failure Assumption", in Proc. of SPIE Photonics Europe,
Strasbourg, France, April 2006
[9] L. Wosinska, "Connection availability in WDM mesh networks with multiple
failures", (Invited paper), in Proc. of International Conference on Transparent Optical
Networks, ICTON/RONEXT'06, Nottingham , UK, June 2006
[10] F. Callegati, J. Aracil, L. Wosinska, N. Andriolli, D. Careglio, A. Giorgetti, J. Fdez-
Palacios, C. Gauger, O. Gonzales de Dios, G. Hu, E. Karasan, F. Matera, H. Overby,
C. Raffaelli, L. Rea, N. Sengezer, M. Tornatore, and K. Vlachos, "Research on
Optical Core Networks in the e-Photon/ONe Network of Excellence", in Proc.
INFOCOM'06, Barcelona, April 2006
[11] E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, B. Flecker, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, T. Javornik,
"The influence of dense fog on Optical Wireless systems, analysed by measurements
in Graz for improving the link-reliability", (Invited) Proceedings of IEEE Conference
ICTON 2006, Nottingham, UK, 18-22 June, 2006
[12] F. Curti, G.M. Tosi Beleffi, D. forin, M. Guglielmucci, "Study of the performance of
an All Optical 2R Regenerator based on the Multi Wave Mixing induced phase
modulation of an auxiliary carrier", OFC/NFOEC 2006, Anaheim, California, US,
March 5-10, 2006
[13] A. Galtarossa , L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, L. Schedato, M. Guglielmucci,
"Experimental validation of a method for low-PMD measurement", OFC/NFOEC
2006, Anaheim, California, US, March 5-10, 2006
[14] H. Dobb, K. Carroll, D.J. Webb, K. Kalli, G-D Peng, A. Argyros, M. Large and M.
Van Eijkelenborg, "Reliability of fibre Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibre",
Photonics Europe, 2006
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[15] H. Dobb, K. Carroll, D.J. Webb, K. Kalli, M. Komodromos, C. Themistos, G-D Peng,
A. Argyros, M. Large, M. van Eijkelenborg, "Grating based devices in polymer
optical fibre", Photonics Europe, 2006
[16] K. O'Mahoney, A. Main, D.J. Webb, "Implications of losses at high optical powers in
Bragg gratings written by femtosecond laser pulses in coated fibre", Photonics
Europe, 2005
[17] T. Allsop, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, M. Dubov, K. Kalli, D.J. Webb, I.
Bennion, "A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed
long-period gratings inscribed by Femtosecond laser, UV and Fusion-Arc",
Photonics Europe, 2006
[18] K. Kalli, G. Simpson, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, D. Birkin, T. Ellingham, I. Bennion,
"Spectral modification of type IA fibre Bragg gratings by high power near infra-red
lasers", Measurement Science and Technology, 2006
[19] K. Kalli, G. Simpson, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Tailoring the temperature and
strain coefficients of type I and type IA dual grating sensors the impact of
hydrogenation conditions", Measurement Science and Technology, 2006
[20] K. Kallli, G. Simpson, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, D. Birkin, T. Ellingham, I. Bennion,
"Spectral modification of type IA fibre Bragg gratings by high power near infra-red
lasers", SPIE Photonics Europe, April, 2006
[21] K. Kalli, G. Simpson K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "The impact of hydrogenation
conditions on the temperature and strain discrimination of type I and Type IA Bragg
grating sensors", SPIE Photonics Europe, April, 2006
[22] K. Kalli, G. Simpson, H. Dobb, M. Komodromos, D. Webb, I. Bennion, "Annealing
and temperature coefficient study of Type IA fibre Bragg gratings inscribed under
strain and no strain implications to optical fibre components reliability", SPIE
Photonics Europe, April, 2006
[23] G. Rego, A. Fernandez Fernandez, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, J. Luis
Santos and H. Manuel Salgado, Effect of ionizing radiation on the properties of arc-
induced long-period fiber gratings, Applied Optics, 44, pp. 6258-6263, 2005.
[24] C. Caucheteur, H. Ottevaere, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, G. Statkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk,
F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont and P. Mgret, Superimposed Bragg gratings written
into polarization maintaining fiber, SPIE Proceedings, 5952, pp. 174-183, 2005.
[25] H. Ottevaere, M. Tabak, A. Fernandez Fernandez, F. Berghmans and H. Thienpont,
Optical fiber sensors and their application in monitoring stress build-up in dental
resin cements, SPIE Proceedings, 5952, pp. 201-213, 2005.
[26] L. Glebov, L. Glebova, E. Rotari, A. Gusarov and F. Berghmans, Radiation-induced
absorption in a photo-thermo-refractive glass, SPIE Proceedings, 5897, p. 172-177,
[27] P. Kniazewski, R. G. Krajewski, M. Kujawinska, M. Van Uffelen, F. Berghmans and
H. Thienpont, Application of microinterferometric tomography as an evaluation tool
for phase micro-objects, SPIE Proceedings, 5776, pp. 596-604, 2005.
[28] 1M. Van Uffelen, I. Genchev and F. Berghmans, Radiation effects on Si and InGaAs
p-i-n photodiodes, ESA Workshop on Optical Wireless On-board Communications,
ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 29-30 September 2004. (CD ROM)
[29] M. Van Uffelen, A. Giraud and F. Berghmans, High gamma dose assessment of a
multimode analogue fibre optic transmitter, Proc. RADECS 2004, pp. 143-146, 22-
24 September 2004, Madrid, Spain.
[30] I. Severin, M. Poulain, R. El Abdi, "Silica optical fibre behaviour to chemicak
exposure to hydroflorhydric acoid vapors", Proc. SPIE 6193, 2006
[31] I. Severin, R. El Abdi, M. Poulain, "Phenomena associated to aging of silica fibers",
Proc. SPIE 5970, 2005
[32] I. Severin, R. El Abdi, M. Poulain, G. Amza, "Fatigue testing procedures of silica
optical fibres", J. Optoelect. Adv.Mater. 7, pp. 1581-1587, 2005
[33] I. Severin, R. El Abdi, M. Poulain, "Aging study of silica optical fibers under acid
environment", Proc. SPIE 5855, pp. 172-175, 2005
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[34] N. Gougeon, K.C. Sangle boeuf, C. TistereBorda, . El Abdi, M. Poulain, "Indentation
behavior of aged silica fibers", Fiber and Integrated Optics, Vol. 24, 2005
[35] M. Silva-Lopez, A. Fender, W.N. MacPherson, J.S. Barton, J.D.C. Jones, D. Zhao, H.
Dobb, D.J. Webb, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Strain and temperature sensitivity of a
single mode polymer optical fiber", Opt. Lett. Vol. 30, pp. 3129-3131, 2005
[36] H. Dobb, D.J. Webb, K. Kallli, A. Argyros, M. Large and M. van Eijkelenborg,
"Continuous-wave ultraviolet light induced fiber Bragg gratings in few- and single-
mode microstructured polymer optical fibers", Opt. Lett. Vol. 03, pp. 3296-3298,
Dec. 2005
[37] D. J. Webb, M. Aressy, A. Argyros, J.S. Barton, H. Dobb, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A.
Fender, J.D.C. Jones, K. Kalli, S. Kukureka, M.C.J. Large, W. MacPherson, G.D.
Peng, M. Silva-Lopez, "Grating and interferometric devices in POF", Invited paper
in Proceedings of 14th International Polymer Optical Fibre Conference, Hong Kong,
September, 2005
[38] H. Dobb, D.J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M.C.J. Large, M.A. Van Eijkelenborg,
"UV light induced fibre Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer optical fibre",
Proceedings of 14th International Polymer Optical Fibre Conference, Hong Kong,
September, 2005
[39] G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Scaffardi, A. Bodoni, L. Poti, M. Guglielmucci, "10 GHz
to 2.5 THz Optical Frequency Multiplication", ECOC 2005, Glasgow, UK,
September, 2005
[40] F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, M. Guglielmucci, "Low-cost Resilience
Schemes for the Optical Ethernet", IEEE RONEXT Workshop 2005, ICTON
Conference, Barcelona, Spain, July 3-7, 2005
[41] F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, M. Guglielmucci, "Low-cost Resilience
Schemes for the Optical Ethernet", Journal for Optical Networking, (OSA-JON), Vol.
4, No. 11, November, 2005
[42] D.M. Forin, F. Curti, G.M. Tosi Beleffi, M. Guglielmucci et al, "All Optical 2R
Regenerator Based on Induced Phase Modulation on an Auxiliary Caarier",
CLEO/QUELS 2005 (Poster Presentation), Baltimore, USA, 2005
[43] G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D.M. Forin, M. Guglielmucci et al, "Performance
evaluation of an All-Optical Clock Recovery and data Resampling stage for NRZ
Data signals", CLEO/QUELS 2005 (Oral Presentation), Baltimore, USA, 2005
[44] G. Bonaventura, F. Montalti, M. Guglielmucci, "Evolution of the ITU-T
standardization of optical fibres and cables", IWCS 2005 (International Wire Cable
Symposium), USA, October 2005
[45] G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Scaffardi, A. Baconi, L. Poti, M. Guglielmucci, "250-
times repetition frequency multiplication for 2.5 THz clock signal generation",
Electronics Letters, October 2005
[46] Sheikh Muhammad S., Kamalakis T., Leitgeb E., Koudelka O., Kandus G., Javornik
T., "Terrestrial Free Space Optical Links for High Bandwidth Connectivity",
Proceedings of the 9th Multi Topic IEEE conference 2005 (INMIC 2005), Karachi,
Pakistan, 23. - 25. December, 2005
[47] Gebhart M., Leitgeb E., Sheikh Muhammad S., Flecker B., Chlestil Ch., Al Naboulsi
M., Sizun H., de Fornel F.,"Measurement of Light attenuation in dense fog conditions
for Optical Wireless Links", Proceedings of SPIE's Optics & Photonics conference,
San Diego (USA), 1. - 7. August 2005
[48] E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, G. Kandus, T. Javornik,
"Importance of Reliable Optical Wireless Links in the Evolving Broadband Network",
(Invited) Proceedings of 9th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
Informatics (WMSCI 2005), Orlando, USA, 10-13 July 2005
[49] S. Sheikh Muhammad, P. Khldorfer, E. Leitgeb, "Channel Modeling for Terrestrial
Free Space Optical Links", Proceedings of IEEE Conference ICTON 2005,
Barcelona, 3-7 July, 2005
Doc. No: C270-303
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[50] E. Leitgeb, S. Sheikh Muhammad, Ch. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, U. Birnbacher,
"Reliability of FSO Links in Next Generation Optical Networks", (Invited)
Proceedings of IEEE Conference ICTON 2005, Barcelona, 3-7 July, 2005
[51] Z. Pandi, M. Tacca, A. Fumagalli, "Efficient Computation of Multi-Component
Failure Stratum Probabilities", IEEE Communications Letter, Vol. 9, No. 10, pp.
939-941, October, 2005
[52] T. Karasz, Z. Pandi, T. Jakab, "Network Consolidation How to Improver the
Efficiency of Provisioning Oriented Optical Networks", Proceedings of DRCN 2005
Conference, Island of Ischia, Italy, October, 2005
[53] T. Karasz, Z. Pandi, "Optimal reconfiguration of provisioning oriented optical
networks", Proceedings of HET-NETs 2005 Conference, Ilkley, United Kingdom,
July, 2005
[54] Z. Pandi, A. Gricser, "Analysis of the Trade-off between Availability and Backup
Resource Sharing", Proceedings of IEEE ICTON 2005 Conference, Barcelona, Spain,
July, 2005
[55] Z. Pandi, L. Wosinska, "On Temporary Inconsistency of the Link State Database with
Prompt Update Policies", Proceedings of IEEE ICTON 2005 Conference, Barcelona,
Spain, July, 2005
[56] A. Muchanga, L. Wosinska, F. Orava, and J. Haralson, "Requirements for
Interdomain Routing in Optical Networks", in Proc. Optical Fiber
Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineering Conference OFC/NFOEC05,
Anaheim, CA, USA, March 2005
[57] M. Marciniak, "Convergence of Optical and Wireless Broadband Communication
Networks - Electromagnetic Modelling Opportunities", Invited Lecture, An IEE
Seminar on Electromagnetic Modelling in Optoelectronics, Strathdon Hotel,
Nottingham, UK, 22nd March 2005
[58] Zs. Pndi, . Gricser, "Availability Analysis of Shared Protection Schemes for On-
line Connection Provisioning", in Proc. IV Workshop in G/MPLS Networks, Girona,
Spain, April, 2005
[59] Zs. Pndi, "Multiple Failure Resilience in WDM Networks", (presentation) Fourth
Hungarian WDM Workshop, Budapest, Hungary, March, 2005
[60] . Gricser, Zs. Pndi, "Segment Protection in GMPLS Networks", (in Hungarian)
Hradstechnika, February, 2005
[61] Zs. Pndi, M. Tacca, A. Fumagalli, "A Threshold Based On-line RWA Algorithm with
Reliability Guarantees", ONDM 2005 Conference, February 2005, Milan, Italy, 2005
[62] Leitgeb E., Birnbacher U., Sheikh Muhammad S., Koudelka O., Kandus G., Gebhart
M., Schrotter P., Chlestil Ch., Merdonig A., "Hybrid Wireless Networks combining
WLAN, FSO and Satellite Technology for Disaster Recovery", Proceedings (accepted)
of the IST Mobile and Wireless Communications Summit 2005, Dresden, Germany
19th 23 rd of June 2005
[63] Sheikh Muhammad S., Chlestil Ch., Leitgeb E., Gebhart M., "Reliable Terrestrial
FSO Systems for Higher Bit Rates", Proceedings (accepted) of the 8th International
Conference on Telecommunications (ConTel 2005, IEEE-conference), Zagreb,
Croatia, 11th 13th of June 2005
[64] F. Drr, H.G. Limberger, R.P. Salath, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, A.S.
Bozhkov, and E.M. Dianov, "Annealing-induced stress changes in UV-irradiated
germanium-doped fibers, Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass
Waveguides", OSA Topical Meeting (BGPP'2005), 2005
[65] N. Gougeon, R. El Abdi, M. Poulain, "Evolution of strength of silica fibers under
various moisture conditions", Optical Materials, Vol. 27, pp. 75-79, 2004
[66] T. Volotinen, "Achieving long lifetimes and extremely low failure rates for silica
optical fibres in communications networks", SPIE Conference 5465-COST270
Workshop in Starsbourg, 27 April 2004 (Invited talk)
Doc. No: C270-303
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COST 270 Final Evaluation Report
[67] L. Wosinska and M. Held, "Optimization of Optical Networks: Price and Value of
Reliability", Invited paper, International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks
ICTON'04, July 2004
[68] L. Wosinska, J. Haralson, L. Thylen, J. berg, and B. Hessmo, "Benefit of
Implementing Novel Optical Buffers in an Asynchronous Photonic Packet Switch", In
Proc. Europeen Conference on Optical Communication ECOC'04, September 2004
[69] A. Muchanga, L. Wosinska, F. Orava, and J. Haralson, "Inter-Domain Routing in
Optical Networks", In Proc. Optical Networks and Technologies OpNeTec'04,
October 2004
[70] M. Marciniak, "Reliability aspects of the future hybrid optical network and Quality of
Service issues for real time and packet traffic", in Proceedings of the SPIE - The
International Society for Optical Engineering, Volume 5582 - Advanced
Optoelectronics and Lasers, pp. 165-170, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, USA, 2004
[71] I. Goncharenko, M. Marciniak, "Photonic crystal fibre characterisation with the
method of lines", Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology, No.
1/2004, pp. 106-111, 2004
[72] K. Borzycki, "Labeling of signals in optical networks and its applications", Journal of
Telecommunications and Information Technology, No. 2/2004, pp. 73-88, 2004.
[73] M. Marciniak, "Towards broadband global optical and wireless networking", Journal
of Telecommunications and Information Technology, No. 3/2004, pp. 65-70, 2004.
[74] M. Marciniak, "Broadband Optical and Wireless Networking for Personal
Information Services" (Invited), 7th International Conference Evolution of
telecommunication transport networks. Construction, Development and Management,
Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine, May 24-26, 2004
[75] M. Marciniak, "Broadband Mobile Multimedia Networks and Services - a COST 273
perspective (Invited), NEXWAY Workshop on the Prospects of Personal Wireless
Communications (PPWC-04), Warsaw, Poland, 18 June 2004
[76] M. Marciniak, "NEXWAY White Paper on Towards Broadband Global Optical and
Wireless Networking", National Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw, Poland,
June 2004
[77] M. Marciniak, "Towards global optical and wireless networking" (Invited), 6th
International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks / Global Optical &
Wireless Networking Seminar ICTON/GOWN 2004, Invited Paper We.A1.4,
Conference Proceedings Vol. 2, pp. 13-16, Wroclaw, Poland, July 4-8, 2004
[78] A. Witkowska, M. Marciniak, "Nonlinear PCF as dispersion compensator in high-
bitrate fiber links", 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks
ICTON 2004, Paper We.P.20, Conference Proceedings Vol. 2, pp. 234-237,
Wroclaw, Poland, July 4-8, 2004
[79] M. Jaworski, M. Marciniak, "Simulation and optimization of spectral-efficient
DWDM systems", 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks
ICTON 2004, Paper We.P.22, Conference Proceedings Vol. 2, pp. 240-243,
Wroclaw, Poland, July 4-8, 2004
[80] M. Buryk, K. Borzycki, M. Jaworski, M. Marciniak, "Investigation of PMD in old
optical fibres and cables and PMD effects on network upgrades to higher bit rates",
6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2004, Paper
We.P.24, Conference Proceedings Vol. 2, pp. 244-247, Wroclaw, Poland, July 4-8,
[81] M. Marciniak, "Broadband optical and wireless networking, - an evolutionary
approach", 6th International Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optical Networks
Modeling LFNM2004, Invited Paper, Conference Proceedings pp. 101-106,
Kharkov, Ukraine, September 6 - 9, 2004
[82] M. Marciniak, "Towards Broadband Global Optical and Wireless Networking", 1st
European Mobile eConference 2004, ,
30th August - 31st October, 2004
Doc. No: C270-303
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[83] M. Marciniak, "Towards Broadband Global Optical and Wireless Networking",
COST 273 Temporary Document TD(04) 164, presented at the 11th Management
Committee Meeting of COST Action 273 Towards Mobile Broadband Multimedia
Networks in Duisburg, Germany, September 20-22, 2004.
[84] M. Marciniak, "Global Optical and Wireless Networking emerging opportunities
for electromagnetic research", 10-th International Conference on Mathematical
Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET*04), Invited Paper ESP-6,
Dniepropetrovsk, Ukraine, September 14 - 17, 2004
[85] M. Marciniak, "Optical fibre communication evolution and research opportunities"
(Invited Paper), 5th International Scientific and Technical Conference on
QUANTUM ELECTRONICS (QE-2004), Byelarussian State University, Minsk,
Belarus, November 1518, 2004
[86] M. Marciniak, "Towards Global Optical and Wireless Networking", in: NEXWAY
IST -2001-37944 Network of Excellence in Wireless Applications and technology,
Deliverable Number 2.3, 2nd Edition, Scenario Oriented Roadmaps 11/2004
[87] M. Marciniak, "Evolution of Telecommunications Networks Towards Global Optical
and Wireless Networking", The George Green Institute for Electromagnetics
Research, 2nd George Green Lecture, University of Nottingham, UK, , 13th December 2004
[88] M. Marciniak, "Towards Global Optical and Wireless Networking", SYPMOTIC
2004 -NEXWAY Workshop, 23 October 2004, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 23
October 2004
[89] Leitgeb E., Gebhart M., Birnbacher U., Schrotter P., Merdonig. A., Truppe A.,
"Hybrid wireless networks for civil-military-cooperation (CIMIC) and disaster
management", Proceedings at SPIE's European Symposium on Optics and Photonics
for Defence and Security, Vol. 5614, pp. 139-150, London, UK, 25th 28th of
October 2004
[90] Leitgeb E., Gebhart M., Birnbacher U., Sheikh Muhammad, Chlestil Ch.,
"Applications of Free Space Optics for Broadband Access", Proceedings at OpNeTec
(Conference on Optical Networks and Technologies), pp. 579-586 (Springer-book),
Pisa, Italy, 18th -20th of October 2004
[91] Leitgeb E., Gebhart M., Sheikh Muhammad S., Fasser P., Birnbacher U., Merdonig.
A., Horwath J., "Terrestrial Free Space Optics for use in space", Proceedings at
ESA-Workshop on Optical Wireless On-board Communications, ESTEC, Noordwijk,
29th / 30th of September 2004
[92] Gebhart M., Schrotter P., Birnbacher U., Leitgeb E., "Satellite Communications, Free
Space Optics and Wireless LAN combined: Worldwide broadband wireless access
independent of terrestrial infrastructure", Proceedings at 12th IEEE Mediterranean
Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON 2004), pp. 449-452, Dubrovnik, Croatia,
12th - 15th of May 2004
[93] R. Krhenbhl, R. Loser, A. Opacic, R. Haberhauer, G. Pompe, Performance and
Safety Investigation on Optical High-Power Connectors, paper Th2.3.4, ECOC
[94] E.S.R. Sikora, D.J. McCartney, K. Farrow, R. Davey, J.V. Wright, System impact of
high power damage at fibre bends, paper We4.P005., ECOC 2004
[95] M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard and F. Berghmans,
Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear
Science, vol. 51, pp. 2763-2769, 2004
[96] B. Brichard, A. Fernandez Fernandez, H. Ooms, F. Berghmans, M. Decrton, A.
Tomashuk, S. Klyamkin, M. Zabezhailov, I. Nikolin, V. Bogatyrjov, E. Hodgson, T.
Kakuta, T. Shikama, T. Nishitani, A. Costley, G. Vayakis, Radiation-hardening
techniques of dedicated optical fibres used in plasma diagnostic systems in ITER,
Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 329333, pp. 14561460, 2004
[97] W.N. MacPherson, R.R.J. Maier, J.S. Barton, J.D.C. Jones, A. Fernandez Fernandez,
B. Brichard and F. Berghmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell and L. Farr, Dispersion
Doc. No: C270-303
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COST 270 Final Evaluation Report
and refractive index measurement for Ge, B-Ge, doped and photonic crystal fibre
following irradiation at MGy levels, Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 15,
pp. 1-6, 2004
[98] M. Van Uffelen, I. Genchev and F. Berghmans, Radiation effects on Si and InGaAs
p-i-n photodiodes, ESA Workshop on Optical Wireless On-board Communications,
ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 29-30 September 2004
[99] M. Van Uffelen, A. Giraud and F. Berghmans, High gamma dose assessment of a
multimode analogue fibre optic transmitter, Proc. RADECS 2004, pp. 143-146, 22-
24 September 2004, Madrid, Spain
[100] A. Fernandez Fernandez, B. Brichard, H. Ooms, C. Van Ierschot, F. Berghmans, M.
Fokine and M. Popov, Behaviour of chemical composition gratings in very harsh
mixed gamma neutron environments, Proc. RADECS 2004, pp. 97-100, 22-24
September 2004, Madrid, Spain
[101] B. Brichard, A. Gusarov, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, F. Berghmans, M. Van Uffelen,
Optical characteristics of erbium-doped fibres operating in a gamma radiation
field, Proc. RADECS 2004, pp. 139-141, 22-24 September 2004, Madrid, Spain
[102] A. Gusarov, L. Vermeeren, B. Brichard, A. Fernandez Fernandez, H. Ooms, M.
Decrton, and F. Berghmans, In-situ in-reactor testing of fusion materials and
components, 23rd Symposium on Fusion Technology, 20 - 24 September 2004,
Venice, Italy, submitted
[103] A. Giraud, M. Van Uffelen and F. Berghmans, Use of electronic and optoelectronic
industrial systems for maintenance tools of ITER Fusion experimental reactor, 23rd
Symposium on Fusion Technology, Venice, Italy, 20 - 24 September 2004
[104] S. Girard, B. Brichard, J. Baggio, J-L. Bourgade, M. Decrton and F. Berghmans,
Vulnerability of optical fibers for plasma diagnostics of laser megajoule, 23rd
Symposium on Fusion Technology, Venice, Italy, 20 - 24 September 2004
[105] M. Van Uffelen, I. Genchev and F. Berghmans, Wavelength dependence of the
response of InGaAs pin photodiodes under gamma radiation, SPIE Proceedings
5554, pp. 132-143, 2004
[106] A. Fernandez Fernandez, G. Rego, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, J.L. Santos, H.M.
Salgado and F. Berghmans, Evaluation of long-period fiber grating temperature
sensors in nuclear environments, Second European Workshop on Optical Fibre
Sensors, SPIE Proceedings 5502, pp. 88-91, 2004
[107] B. Brichard, A. Fernandez Fernandez, H. Ooms, P. Borgermans and F. Berghmans,
True dose rate enhancement effect in phosphorous-doped fibre optic radiation
sensors, Second European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, SPIE Proceedings
5502, pp. 184-187, 2004
[108] A.G. Simpson, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Blank beam fabrication
of regenerated type IA gratings, Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 15, pp.
1665 1669, 2004
[109] A.G. Simpson, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Formation of type IA
fibre Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibre, Electronics Letters, Vol. 40,
pp. 163 164, 2004
[110] M. Al Naboulsi, H. Sizun and F. de Fornel, Fog Attenuation Prediction for Optical
and Infrared Waves, Optical Engineering , vol. 43, pp. 319-329, 2004
[111] M. Gebhart, P. Schrotter, U. Birnbacher and E. Leitgeb E, Satellite
Communications, Free Space Optics and Wireless LAN combined: Worldwide
broadband wireless access independent of terrestrial infrastructure, Proceedings of
the 12th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON 2004) 12-15
May 2004, Dubrovnik, Croatia
[112] W. Habel, Fiber optic sensors for deformation measurements: criteria and method
to put them to the best possible use, (Invited paper) 11th Annual Intern. Symposium
on Smart Structures and Materials. 14-18 March 2004. San Diego/USA. Paper 5384-
23, San Diego 2004, in print
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[113] L. Berguiga, Y.Haidar, F. de Fornel, L.Salomon, A. Gouronnec, P.Pinot and C.
Zerrouki, Utilisation des microscopies en champ proche pour la caractrisation de
surface de faible rugosit, application l'tude de la fiabilit de composants, C2I,
Cachan, France, 2004.
[114] M. Al Naboulsi, H. Sizun and F. de Fornel, Effect of the Wavelength Choice on the
Availability of an Optical Wireless Communication Systems, Mediterranean
Microwave Symposium, Marseille, France, 2004
[115] E.S.R Sikora, D.J. McCartney, K. Farrow, R. Davey, Impact of high optical power
on fibre reliability, Proc. SubOptic 2004, March 29th- April 1st, Monaco, France,
[116] A. Fernandez Fernandez, B. Brichard and F. Berghmans , In Situ Measurement of
Refractive Index Changes Induced by Gamma Radiation in Germanosilicate Fibers,
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 15, pp. 1428-1430, 2003.
[117] M. Van Uffelen, A. Fernandez Fernandez, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans and M.
Decrton, Radiation tolerance qualification for maintenance tasks in the future
fusion reactors: from fibre-optic components to robust data links, Fusion
Engineering and Design, vol. 69, pp. 191-195, 2003
[118] E.S.R Sikora, D.J. McCartney, K. Farrow, R. Davey, Reduction in fibre reliability
due to high optical power, Electronics Letters, vol.39, pp. 1043-44, 2003
[119] M. Gebhart, E. Leitgeb, U. Birnbacher and P. Schrotter, Ethernet access network
based on free space optic deployment technology, Proceedings of the SPIEs
Photonics West, Laser and Applications in Science and Engineering (LASE 2004)
Symposium, 24-29 January 2004, San Jose, USA
[120] E.S.R Sikora, D.J. McCartney, K. Farrow, R. Davey, Impact of high optical power
on fibre reliability, Proc. SubOptic 2004, March 29th- April 1st, Monaco, France,
[121] M. Poulain, N. Gougeon, G. Maz, "Mechanical properties of fluoride glass fibers",
Proc. SPIE 4940, 2003
[122] N. Gougeon, M. Poulain, R. El Abdi, "Strength evolution of silica fibers submitted to
static stress", Proc. SPIE 4940, 2003
[123] N. Gougeon, M. Poulain, R. El Abdi, "Strength of silica fibers in various moisture
conditions", Proc. SPIE 4940, 2003
[124] M. Gebhart, E. Leitgeb and J. Bregenzer, Atmospheric effects on Optical Wireless
links, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Telecommunications
(ConTel 2003) 11-13 June 2003, Zagreb, Croatia
[125] W. Kogler, P. Schrotter, U. Birnbacher, E. Leitgeb and O. Koudelka, Hybrid
Wireless Networks High Availability with combined Optical / Microwave Links,
Proceedings of the tcmc2003 (telecom. and mobile computing), 11-12 March 2003,
[126] E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, P. Fasser, J. Bregenzer. and J. Tanczos, Impact of
atmospheric effects in free-space optics transmission systems, Proceedings of the
SPIEs Photonics West, Laser and Applications in Science and Engineering (LASE
2003) Symposium, 25-31 January 2003, San Jose, USA
[127] E. Leitgeb, J. Bregenzer, M. Gebhart, P. Fasser and A. Merdonig, Free-space
optics: Broadband wireless supplement to fiber networks, Proceedings of the SPIEs
Photonics West, Laser and Applications in Science and Engineering (LASE 2003)
Symposium, 25-31 January 2003, San Jose, USA
[128] J. Bregenzer, E. Leitgeb, P. Fasser, H.-J. Schmidtke and W. Heckel, Improvement of
the performance of high-capacity WDM-transmission systems due to non linear
optical effects, Proceedings of the SPIEs Photonics West (Laser and Applications
in Science and Engineering (LASE 2003) Symposium, 25-31 January 2003, San Jose,
[129] L. Wosinska, L. Pedersen and T. Svensson, Improving Connection Availability in
Optical Networks, Proceedings of NFOEC03, September2003, Orlando, USA
Doc. No: C270-303
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[130] M. Held, L. Wosinska, Ph. M. Nellen and Ch. Mauz, Consideration of connection
availability optimization in optical networks, Proceedings of Int. Workshop on the
Design of Reliable Communication Networks, DRCN 2003, October, 2003, Banff,
[131] L. Smoczynski and M. Marciniak, "Flexible fibre-wireless network capacity
reconfiguration for mobile broadband transmission in 60 GHz band", The 5th IFIP
Working Conference on Optical Network Design & Modelling ONDM 2003,
Conference Proceedings Volume I, pp. 247-252, Budapest, Hungary, February 3-5,
[132] M. Klinkowski and M. Marciniak, "Services differentiation in MPLS Photonic Packet
Networks", The 5th IFIP Working Conference on Optical Network Design &
Modelling ONDM 2003, Conference Proceedings Volume I, pp. 283-290, Budapest,
Hungary, February 3-5, 2003
[133] S. Bjrnstad, M. Nord, D. R. Hjelme, N. Stol, F. Callegati, W. Cerroni, C. Raffaelli,
P. Zaffoni, C. M. Gauger, C. Develder, J. Cheyns, E. Van Breusegem, E. Baert, D.
Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, M. Lackovic, D. Careglio, G. Junyent, M.
Klinkowski, M. Marciniak and M. Kowalewski, "Optical Burst and Packet
Switching: Node and Network Design, Contention Resolution and Quality of Service.
Results from the study in COST 266", 7th International Conference on
Telecommunications - ConTEL 2003, Conference Proceedings pp. 775-782, Zagreb,
Croatia/June 11-13, 2003
[134] M. Marciniak, "From circuit- to packet-switched or to hybrid network?", 5th
International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, Workshop
on All-Optical Routing, Invited Paper Mo.B2.5, Conference Proceedings Vol. 1, pp.
47-50, Warsaw, Poland, June 29 - July 3, 2003
[135] M. Marciniak, "Towards hybrid real-time & photonic packet network", Conference
on the Optical Internet & Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology
COIN/ACOFT 2003, Invited Paper WeA1-1, Conference Proceedings pp. 461-464,
Melbourne, Australia, July 13-16, 2003
[136] M. Marciniak, "Reliability aspects of the future hybrid optical network and Quality of
Service issues for real time and packet traffic", Invited Paper, Proceedings of the
International Conference on Advanced Optoelectronics & Lasers CAOL 2003,
Volume 1, pp. 63-68, Alushta, Crimea South Coast, Ukraine, 16-20 September 2003
[137] M. Marciniak, "Hybrid Circuit- and Packet-Switched Network - the Only Direction of
Transport Network Evolution?", 6th Conference "Evolution of Transport Networks
ETN 2003, 27-31 May 2003, Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine
[138] L. Smoczynski and M. Marciniak, "Radio-Over-Fibre 60 GHz Broadband Access",
International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP 2003, Nefertiti
Workshop on Broadband Optical/Wireless Access, CD publication, Budapest,
Hungary, 9 September 2003
[139] B. Brichard, A. Fernandez Fernandez, H. Ooms, M. Van Uffelen and F. Berghmans,
Study of the radiation-induced optical sensitivity in erbium and aluminium doped
fibres, Proceedings of RADECS 2003, pp. 35-38, 15-19 September 2003,
Noordwijk, The Netherlands
[140] M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard and F. Berghmans,
Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres, Proceedings of RADECS 2003,
15-19 September 2003 , Noordwijk, The Netherlands
[141] A. Fernandez Fernandez, B. Brichard and F. Berghmans, Long-term radiation
effects on fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors in mixed gamma neutron fields,
Proceedings of RADECS 2003, 15-19 September 2003, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
[142] F. Berghmans, B. Brichard, A. Fernandez Fernandez, M. Van Uffelen, Reliability
issues for optical fibre technology in nuclear applications, Proceedings of 5th
International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2003, vol. 1 , pp. 252 -
257 , Warsaw, Poland
Doc. No: C270-303
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[143] T.Volotinen et al, "Impact of silica glass structure on transmission properties of Ge-
doped single-mode fibers", Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4940, p. 1 13, 2003.
[144] S. Lebid, W. Habel, and W. Daum, How reliably measure composite-embedded
FGB sensors under the influence of transverse and point-wise deformations?,
Proceedings of OFS-16, 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Fiber Sensors, 2003, Nara, J., 13-
17 October, pp. 46-49, 2003
[145] S. Lebid, T. Gutmann, And W. Habel, W., "Characterisation of high-performance
composites by using structure-integrated FGB sensors, Proceedings International
Conference on Materials Testing (Test 2003), Nuremberg 13-15 May 2003, pp. 59-
64, 2003
[146] M. Held, Ph.M. Nellen, L. Wosinska, Availability Optimization by Sensitivity
Analysis of Fiber Optical Network Systems", in. Proc. of ESREL 2003, European
Safety and Reliability Conference, Maastricht, The Netherlands, vol. 1, pp 791-799,
[147] M. Held and L. Wosinska, Availability Optimization in Optical Networks, 7th
International Conference on Telecommunications, Workshop on All Optical
Networks, Zagreb, Croatia, June 12-14, 2003
[148] L. Wosinska, L. Pedersen and T. Svensson, "Improving Connection Availability in
Optical Networks", in Proc. NFOEC'03, September 2003, Orlando, USA, 2003
[149] M. Held, L. Wosinska, Ph. M. Nellen and Ch. Mauz, "Consideration of connection
availability optimization in optical networks", in Proc. Int. Workshop on the Design
of Reliable Communication Networks, DRCN 2003, October, 2003, Banff, Canada,
pp. 173-180, 2003
[150] H. Sizun, M. Al Naboulsi O. Veyrunes and O. Bouchet, Free space optical
communication links: Bibliographical study and experimentation, European
workshop on integrated radio communication systems, Angers, France, 2002
[151] M. Al Naboulsi, H. Sizun and F. de Fornel, Prdiction de l'attnuation d'un
rayonnement laser dans le brouillard dans la rgion spectrale 0.69 1.55 m, 17-
imes colloque international Optique Hertzienne et Dilectriques, Calais, France,
[152] M. Al Naboulsi, H. Sizun and F. de Fornel, Fog attenuation of a laser radiation in
the 0.69 to 1.55m spectral region, European Conference on Wireless Technology,
Munich, Germany, 2003
[153] M. Chabane, M. Al Naboulsi, H. Sizun and O. Bouchet, QoSLight: A new quality of
service FSO software, Proc. SPIE, vol. 5247, pp. 362-372, 2003
[154] E.S.R Sikora, D.J. McCartney, K. Farrow, R. Davey, Reduction in fibre reliability
due to high optical power, ECOC'03, Tu.1.7.4, 2003
[155] P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, R.P. Salath, Local Characterization of Fiber Bragg
Gratings Complex Coupling Coefficient, Optics Letters, vol. 28, p. 598, 2003
[156] N. Gougeon, R. El Abdi and M. Poulain, Mechanic Reliability of Silica Optical
Fibers. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids.Vol.316, pp. 125-130, 2003
[157] N. Gougeon, R. El Abdi and M. Poulain, Mechanical Behaviour of Silica Fibers in
Various Moisture Conditions, Conference OPTIFAB. SPIE - The International
Society for Optical Engineering, Rochester, U.S.A 19-22 May 2003
[158] L. Smoczyski, M. Marciniak, Flexible fibre-wireless network capacity
reconfiguration for mobile broadband transmission in 60 GHz band, The 5th IFIP
Working Conference on Optical Network Design & Modelling ONDM 2003,
Conference Proceedings Volume I, pp. 247-252, Budapest, Hungary, February 3-5,
[159] M. Klinkowski, M. Marciniak, Services differentiation in MPLS Photonic Packet
Networks, The 5th IFIP Working Conference on Optical Network Design &
Modelling ONDM 2003, Conference Proceedings Volume I, pp. 283-290, Budapest,
Hungary, February 3-5, 2003
Doc. No: C270-303
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[160] J. Bregenzer, E. Leitgeb, P. Fasser, H.-J. Schmidtke, W. Haeckel, Improvement of
the performance of high-capacity WDM-transmission systems due to nonlinear
optical effects, LASE2003, SPIE Photonics West, San Jose, USA, January 2003
[161] E. Leitgeb, J. Bregenzer, M. Gebhart, P. Fasser, A. Merdonig, Free-space optics:
Broadband wireless supplement to fiber networks, LASE2003, SPIE Photonics
West, San Jose, USA, January 2003
[162] E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, P. Fasser, J. Bregenzer, J. Tanczos, Impact of atmospheric
effects in free-space optics transmission systems, LASE2003, SPIE Photonics West,
San Jose, USA, January 2003
[163] H. Sizun, M. Al Naboulsi O. Veyrunes and O. Bouchet, Les liaisons optiques
atmosphriques: tude bibliographique et experimentation, 4-ime journes
d'tudes, Propagation lectromagntique dans l'atmosphre du dcamtrique
l'angstrom, Rennes, France, 2002
[164] P. Kronenberg, P. Giaccari, H.G. Limberger, P.K. Rastogi , Relative humidity sensor
using optical fiber Bragg gratings, Optics Letters, vol. 27, p. 1385, 2002
[165] P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, R.P. Salath, Local Coupling Coefficient
Characterization of Fiber Bragg Gratings by Optical Low Coherence
Reflectometry, Summer School on "Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and
Glasses (POWAG 2002)", June 2002, St. Petersburg, Russia
[166] N. Gougeon, R. El Abdi, M. Poulain, "Influence of hydration and dehydration on
stength of silica fiber", Proc. SPIE 4833, 2002
[167] N. Gougeon, L. Rousseau, R. El Abdi and M.Poulain, Effect of Coating Dryness on
Strength of Optical Fibers. 5th International Conference on Application of Photonic
Technology Vol. 4833- pp.1045-1049, June 2-6 2002 Quebec City (Canada)
[168] N. Gougeon, R. El Abdi and M. Poulain, Strength Evolution of Optical Fiber
Submitted to Static Stress, 2nd COST270 Workshop on Reliability of Optical Fibers
Components, Devices, Systems and Networks, Brugge, Belgium, SPIE Proceedings,
vol.4940, 2002
[169] N. Gougeon, L. Rousseau, R. El Abdi and M. Poulain, Strength od Silica Fiber in
Various Moisture Conditions, 2nd COST270 Workshop on Reliability of Optical
Fibers Components, Devices, Systems and Networks, Brugge, Belgium, SPIE
Proceedings, vol.4940, 2002.
[170] M. Poulain, N. Gougeon and G Maze, Strength and Reliability of Fluoride Glass
Fibers, 2nd COST270 Workshop on Reliability of Optical Fibers Components,
Devices, Systems and Networks, Brugge, Belgium, SPIE Proceedings, vol.4940,
[171] N. Evanno, M Poulain and A Gouronnec Optical Fibers Lifetime in Wet
Environment, SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, USA, SPIE Proceedings, vol.
4215, 2002
[172] V. Lista, P. Garbossa, T. Tomasi, M.Borgarino, F.Fantini, L. Gherardi, A. Righetti,
M. Villa, Degradation Based Long-Term Reliability Assessment for Electronic
Components in Submarine Applications, ESREF 2002, the 13th European
Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Rimini (Italy) 7th to 11th October
[173] T. Tomasi, I. De Munari, V. Lista, L. Gherardi, A. Righetti, M. Villa, Passive
optical components: from degradation data to reliability assessment preliminary
results, ESREF 2002, the 13th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron
Devices, Rimini (Italy) 7th to 11th October 2002
[174] Franois Caloz, Daniel Ernst, Patrick Rossini, Laura Gherardi, Lisa Grassi, Jean
Arnaud, Reliability of optical connectors - Humidity behavior of the adhesive,
ESREF 2002, the 13th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices,
Rimini (Italy) 7th to 11th October 2002
[175] Herv Sizun, Maher Al Naboulsi, Olivier Veyrunes, Olivier Bouchet, Les liaisons
optiques atmosphriques: tat de l'art, exprimentation et premiers resultants,
Doc. No: C270-303
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Propagation lectromagntique dans l'atmosphre du dcamtrique l'angstrm, 13-
14-15 mars 2002, Rennes, France
[176] Herv Sizun, Maher Al Naboulsi, Olivier Veyrunes, Olivier Bouchet, Free-space
optical communications links: bibliographical study and experimentation, European
Workshop on Integrated radio communications systems, 6-7 mai 2002; Chateau de
Pignerolles, Angers, France
[177] J.-C. Prunot, G. Normand, C. Boirobert ; A. Mihaescu, P. Besnard; P. Pellat-Finet ; F.
de Fornel ; F. Bourgart, P. Guignard, INDEED Communication infrarouge haut
dbit dans le contexte indoor , Les Objets Communicants, Chapitre 16, Herms
ed., Paris, 2002
[178] F. de Fornel, R. Moussa, L. Salomon ; Ch. Boisrobert ; H. Sizun ; Ph. Guignard,
Matriaux artificiels pour les communications scurises, Les Objets
Communicants,: Chapitre 17, Herms ed., Paris 2002
[179] X. Chapeleau , D. Leduc, C. Lupi , R. Le Ny and C. Boisrobert, Group delay and
spectral response of free space optics Mux/Demux measurement using OLCR,
Proceedings of SOFM'02, Boulder, USA, 2002
[180] X. Chapeleau, D. Leduc, C. Lupi, C. Boisrobert, R. Le Ny and P. Graindorge, OLCR
characterization of a free space optics DWDM, SPIE proceedings of 19th Congress
of the ICO, Florence, 2002
[181] X. Chapeleau, D. Leduc, M. Wicks, R. Le Ny and C. Boisrobert, High accuracy
relative group delay measurements of a chirped grating (NIST Telecom Round
Robin), Proceedings of SOFM'02, Boulder, USA, 2002
[182] X. Chapeleau, D. Leduc, C. Lupi and M.Wicks, R. Le Ny and C. Boisrobert, Mesure
prcise du temps de groupe relatif d'un rseau de Bragg du NIST, JNOG 2002,
[183] M. Marciniak, M. Klinkowski, and M. Kowalewski, Advanced optical infrastructure
for the emerging optical internet services, SSGRR 2002s - International Conference
on Advances in Infrastructure for e-Business, e-Education, e-Science, and e-Medicine
on the Internet, Official conference proceedings CD presentation, L'Aquila, Italy, July
29-August 4, 2002
[184] M. Jaworski, M. Marciniak, Initial Pulse Modulation Method for SBS Counteracting
in Long Distance Optical Fiber CATV Link, XXVIIth General Assembly of the
International Union of Radio Science URSI 2002, Conference CD publication paper
1724, Maastricht, NL, Aug 17-24, 2002
[185] M. Marciniak, Optical transparency and optical opacity in future all-optical packet
switched network, XXVIIth General Assembly of the International Union of Radio
Science URSI 2002, Conference CD publication paper 1719, Maastricht, NL, Aug
17-24, 2002
[186] L. Wosinska and G. Karlsson, Photonic packet switch for high capacity optical
networks, in Proc. NFOEC'02, Dallas, USA, September 2002
[187] Lena Wosinska, Scalability limitations of self-healing optical networks due to
reliability constraints, in Proc. RVK'02, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2002
[188] E. Leitgeb, J. Bregenzer, P. Fasser, M. Gebhart, "Free Space Optics : Extension to
Fiber Networks for the Last Mile, IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Glasgow, UK,
November 2002
[189] J. Bregenzer, E. Leitgeb, P. Fasser, W. Heckel, H.-J. Schmidtke, Impact of
dispersion effects in high capacity DWDM transmission systems, Proceedings of the
IEEE / LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Optical Passive Components WFOPC, 2002
[190] M. Poulain, N. Evanno and A. Gouronnec, Static fatigue of silica fibers, Photonics
West, San Jose, January 2002
[191] L. Berguiga, C. Lupi, N. Hyon, L. Salomon, G. Normand, R. Le Ny, E. Tanguy, D.
Leduc, M. Auvray, J.C. Bizeul, A. Gouronnec, F. de Fornel, C. Boisrobert, Mi.
Poulain, Ma. Poulain, "Accelerated aging and life tests of optical fibers", Proc. SPIE
4215, pp. 60-71, 2001
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[192] L. Wosinska and Luc Onana Almia, "Study of channel availability in a Metropolitan
Area Wavelength Switched Optical Network", The Proceedings of the 11th IEEE
Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 2001, pp 64-67
[193] L. Wosinska and Lars Pedersen, "Scalability Limitations of Optical Networks due to
Reliability Constraints", the Proceedings of NFOEC01, 2001
[194] P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger and P. Kronenberg, "Influence of Humidity and
temperature on polyimide-coated fiber Bragg- gratings", OSA Topical meeting on
Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, 2001, paper BFB2
[195] L. Wosinska, L. Thylen, and R.P. Holmstrom, Large Capacity Strictly Non-Blocking
Optical Cross-Connects Based on Micro-Electro-Opto-Mechanical Systems
(MEOMS) Switch Matrices. Reliability Performance analysis, IEEE/OSA Journal of
Lightwave Technology, Vol.19, No.8, pp.1065-1075, 2001
[196] E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, P. Fasser, Reliability of Free Space Laser Communications
Investigations at the TU Graz, Proceedings of the 8th Annual WCA Technical
Symposium, CD-Rom, 2002.
[197] H.-J.Schmidtke, W. Heckel, B.-H. Heppner, U. Peller, J. Horwath, E. Leitgeb,
EDFA Models for Network Simulation Purposes, Proceedings of the 9th IEEE
International Symposium on El. Devices for Microwave and Optoel. Appl., pp. 291-
295, 2001
[198] E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, P. Fasser, Free Space Optical Access, Proceedings of
tcmc2001 (telecom. and mobile computing), CD-Rom, 2001
[199] G. de Carvailho, Y. Messaddeq, S.J. Ribeiro, R. B. Martins, B.J.G. de, Aragaao and
M. Poulain, Mechanical reliability of optical fibers with controlled flaw size, 18th
International Congress on Glass, Edinburgh, July 2-6, 2001
[200] M. Poulain, N. Gougeon, N. Hyon, R. ElAbdi and N. Evanno, Mechanical strength
of aged optical fibers, Vth Brazilian Symposium on glass and International
Symposium on Non Crystalline Solids, Iguacu, August 15-18, 2001
[201] L. Berguiga, C. Lupi, L. Salomon, G. Normand, F. de Fornel, C. Boisrobert, A.
Gouronnec, M. Poulain, Reliability of optical fibers: aging and characterization,
Vth Brazilian Symposium on glass and International Symposium on Non Crystalline
Solids, Iguacu, August 15-18, 2001
[202] G. de Carvailho, Y. Messaddeq, R. B. Martins, B.J.G. de Aragaao, M. Poulain and N.
Gougeon, Mechanical reliability of optical fibers with controlled flaw size, Vth
Brazilian Symposium on glass and International Symposium on Non Crystalline
Solids, Iguacu, August 15-18, 2001
[203] N. Gougeon, L. Rousseau, R. ElAbdi and M. Poulain, Influence of coating dryness
on strength of optical fibers", International workshop on flow and fracture in
advanced glasses, Rennes, France, October 21-25, 2001
[204] M. Poulain, N. Evanno and A. Gouronnec, Strength and aging of silica fibers",
International workshop on flow and fracture in advanced glasses, Rennes, France,
October 21-25, 2001
[205] G. de Carvailho, Y. Messaddeq, S.J. Ribeiro, R. B. Martins, B.J.G. de Aragaao and
M. Poulain, Mechanical reliability of optical fibers with controlled flaw size",
International workshop on flow and fracture in advanced glasses, Rennes, France,
October 21-25, 2001
[206] R.M. Percival, E.S.R. Sikora, R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic Damage and accelerated
ageing in bent fibres caused by high optical powers", Electronics Letters, vol. 36 pp.
36-38, 2000
[207] L. Wosinska and T. Svensson, "Analysis of Connection Availability in All-Optical
Networks", The Proceedings of NFOEC00, 2000, p. 409 419
Doc. No: C270-303
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COST 270 Final Evaluation Report
Invited presentations

[1] L. Wosinska, "Connection availability in WDM mesh networks with multiple

failures", (Invited paper), in Proc. of International Conference on Transparent Optical
Networks, ICTON/RONEXT'06, Nottingham , UK, June 2006
[2] M. Held, Reliability Engineering: basics and applications for opto-electronic
components and systems, New Micro-Components and Sensors, SPIE Photonics
Europe 2006, Strasbourg, France.
[3] A. Mukherjee and L. Wosinska, "Fault management for next generation IP-over-
WDM networks", in Proc. of International Conference on Transparent Optical
Networks, ICTON/RONEXT'05, Barcelona , Spain, July 2005
[4] F. Berghmans, Reliability of Components for Fiber Optic Sensors, SPIE 12th Int.
Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials 2005, San Diego, USA
[5] F. Berghmans, Reliability of Components for Fiber Optic Sensors, Int. Conf. on
Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-17) 2005, Bruges, Belgium.
[6] H. G. Limberger, Recent Reliability issues of passive optical fiber components,
Workshop on fibres and optical passive components (4th IEEE/LEOS), WFOPC
[7] M. Marciniak, Convergence of Optical and Wireless Broadband Communication
Networks - Electromagnetic Modelling Opportunities, Invited Lecture, An IEE
Seminar on Electromagnetic Modelling in Optoelectronics, Nottingham, UK, 22nd
March 2005.
[8] L. Wosinska, M. Held, Optimization of Optical Networks: Price and Value of
Reliability, International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON'04, July
[9] M. Marciniak, Broadband Optical and Wireless Networking for Personal
Information Services, 7th Int. Conf. Evolution of telecom. transport networks.
Construction, Development and Management, Yalta, Ukraine, May 2004.
[10] M. Marciniak, Broadband Mobile Multimedia Networks and Services - a COST 273
perspective, NEXWAY Workshop on the Prospects of Personal Wireless
Communications (PPWC-04), Warsaw, Poland, 18 June 2004.
[11] M. Marciniak, Towards global optical and wireless networking, 6th International
Conference on Transparent Optical Networks / Global Optical & Wireless
Networking Seminar ICTON/GOWN 2004, Conf. Proc. Vol. 2, pp. 13-16, Wroclaw,
Poland, July 2004.
[12] M. Marciniak, Broadband optical and wireless networking, - an evolutionary
approach, 6th International Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optical Networks
Modeling LFNM2004, Conference Proceedings pp. 101-106, Kharkov, Ukraine,
September 6 - 9, 2004.
[13] M. Marciniak, Global Optical and Wireless Networking emerging opportunities
for electromagnetic research, 10-th International Conference on Mathematical
Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET*04), ESP-6, Dniepropetrovsk, Ukraine,
September 14 - 17, 2004.
[14] M. Marciniak, Optical fibre communication evolution and research opportunities,
5th Int. Sci. and Tech. Conf. on QUANTUM ELECTRONICS (QE-2004),
Byelarussian State Univ., Minsk, Belarus, Nov. 2004.
[15] W. Habel, Fiber optic sensors for deformation measurements: criteria and method
to put them to the best possible use, 11th Annual Intern. Symp. on Smart Structures
and Materials. Paper 5384-23, San Diego/USA, March 2004
[16] M. Marciniak, "From circuit- to packet-switched or to hybrid network?", 5th
International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, Workshop
on All-Optical Routing, Mo.B2.5, Conf. Proc. Vol. 1, pp. 47-50, Warsaw, Poland,
June 29 - July 3, 2003
Doc. No: C270-303
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COST 270 Final Evaluation Report
[17] M. Marciniak, "Towards hybrid real-time & photonic packet network", Conference
on the Optical Internet & Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology
COIN/ACOFT 2003, WeA1-1, Conf. Proc. pp. 461-464, Melbourne, Australia, July
13-16, 2003
[18] M. Marciniak, "Reliability aspects of the future hybrid optical network and Quality of
Service issues for real time and packet traffic", Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Advanced
Optoelectronics & Lasers CAOL 2003, Volume 1, pp. 63-68, Alushta, Crimea South
Coast, Ukraine, 16-20 Sept. 2003

Related PhD/ habilitation/MSc works

[1] Z. Pandi, PhD 2006, BUTE, Hungary

[2] A. Muchanga, PhD 2006, KTH, Sweden
[3] L. Zhou, PhD 2006, EMPA, Switzerland
[4] A. Bagula, PhD 2006, KTH Sweden
[5] A Fernandez Fernandez, PhD 2006, ULB - FPMs, Belgium
[6] C. Pinart, PhD 2005, CTTC, Spain
[7] K. Borzyki, PhD 2005, NIT, Poland
[8] M. Al Naboulsi, PhD 2005, Univ. Bourgogne, France
[9] M. Gebhart, PhD 2004, TU Graz, Austria
[10] P. Giaccari, PhD 2003, EPFL, Switzerland
[11] G. Studer, MSc 2005, EPFL, Switzerland
[12] L. del Rio , MSc 2005, KTH, Sweden
[13] Z. Wang MSc 2005, KTH, Sweden
[14] J. Haralson, MSc 2004, KTH, Sweden
[15] S. Hayward, MRes Dissertation 2003, Aston University, UK
[16] B. Cowie, MRes Dissertation 2003, Aston University, UK.
[17] E. Leitgeb, Habilitation 2003, TU Graz, Austria.