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15 Past Simple o Present Perfect

Observa los diferentes usos de estos tiempos:


PAST SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT
Para acciones que ocurrieron en un momento Para experiencias que han ocurrido en algn
preciso del pasado: momento indeterminado o que han sucedido
When did Margaret go to India? Last June. recientemente:
(Cundo fue Margaret a la India? El pasado Margaret has been to India.
junio.) (Margaret ha estado en la India.)
I met John at 4 oclock. Ive just met John.
(Conoc a John a las 4 en punto.) (Acabo de conocer a John.)
Para acciones completamente acabadas: Para situaciones que comenzaron en el pasado
I lived in India in 1980. pero que continan en el momento presente:
(Viv en la India en 1980.) Ive lived in India since then.
(Viv/He vivido en la India desde entonces.)
Se acompaa con expresiones de tiempo Se acompaa con ever/never, yet, already.
pasado (yesterday, last X, X ago). Have you ever taken a Maths test? (Te has
I took my Maths test yesterday/several examinado de matemticas en alguna ocasin?)
days ago. (Me examin de matemticas I havent taken my Maths test yet. (Todava no
ayer/hace varios das.) me he examinado de matemticas.)
Fjate que ago se coloca detrs del perodo I have already taken my Maths test.
de tiempo, y no delante: (Ya me he examinado de matemticas.)
twelve years ago (hace doce aos)
Se usa en contestacin a la pregunta When A menudo las expresiones de tiempo llevan las
(cundo) o How long ago (cunto tiempo preposiciones since/for, y las preguntas se hacen
hace que): con How long (desde cundo):
When did you buy that car? How long have you had that car?
(Cundo compraste ese coche?) (Desde cundo tienes ese coche?)
How long ago did you buy that car? Ive had it for a few months.
(Cunto tiempo hace que compraste ese coche?) (Lo tengo desde hace unos cuantos meses.)
I bought it a few months ago. Ive had it since January. (Lo tengo desde enero.)
(Lo compr hace unos cuantos meses.)
Se usa tambien en contestacin a la pregunta
How long, para un perodo de tiempo acabado.
How long did you have that car?
(Cunto tiempo tenas ese coche?)
I had that car for two years.
(= no lo tengo todava)
Recuerda que no es posible contestar con Fjate que no es posible utilizar las expresiones
las expresiones de tiempo de la columna de tiempo de la columna izquierda:
derecha para referirse a un perodo de tiempo NO:
acabado: When have you bought it?
NO: I bought it since January/for a few months. Ive had it yesterday/last month/a few months ago.

36 ESO Gramtica Oxford


SpGram_ESO_U09-16.qxd 5/2/06 11:45 AM Page 37

Ejercicios
A Pon el verbo entre parntesis en su tiempo correcto (Past Simple o Present Perfect).
A: I 0 saw (see) Jack last night.
B: Oh really. I 1 (not/see) him for months. How is he?
A: We 2 (go) to the theatre last Saturday.
B: 3 (you/enjoy) the play?
A: Yes, it 4 (be) very good.
A: I 5 (never/hear) of this group before. Are they famous in your
country?
B: Yes, they are very popular. They 6 (be) famous in my country for years.
A: What 7 (you/do) last weekend?
B: I 8 (stay) at home. I 9 (need) a rest.
A: 10 (you/ever/win) a competition?
B: Yes, I 11 (win) a photographic competition in 1992.
A: So, John is your best friend. 12 (you/meet) him when you were at
university?
B: Yes. We 13 (be) friends for more than ten years.
B Completa este texto sobre el metro de Londres utilizando el tiempo correcto de los
verbos entre parntesis. Utiliza el Past Simple o el Present Perfect.

The London Underground


London 0 has had (have) an underground train system since the 19th century.
The London Underground 1 (start) in 1863, when engineers and
workers 2 (build) the Metropolitan railway. This railway line
3 (go) from Paddington Station to Farringdon Street Station. It
4 (be) a very short line. Eight more lines 5 (open)
since then. The worlds first electric railway 6 (open) in 1890. This line
7 (go) from the city centre to South London. The most modern line is
the Jubilee line. It 8 (open) in 1977. Since the London Underground
9 (begin), many other cities, like New York and Moscow,
10 (build) their own systems.
C Corrige las siguientes frases.
0 I have played tennis last week. I played tennis last week.
1 They have finished work yet.
2 When you bought that umbrella?
3 Look! I have buy a new umbrella.
4 I have bought three CDs last week.
5 She didnt saw that film.
6 She hasnt never seen that film.

Gramtica Oxford ESO 37

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