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1.A client is being discharged home after a routine hip replacement surgery.

The nurse is instructing the client


on how to prevent postoperative complications. What statements by the client would indicate the need for
further teaching? Select all that apply.

Limiting fiber is necessary to avoid diarrhea.


I should empty my bladder when I feel the urge.
Avoiding pain medication will prevent constipation.
I should drink plenty of liquids like iced tea or coffee.
I should continue with my physical therapy and walking.

2.The nurse is caring for a Vietnamese client diagnosed with tuberculosis. The client speaks limited English.
What should the nurse do to ensure the client and family receives the most accurate information? Select all that
apply.

Provide culturally sensitive education.


Encourage family members to obtain a tuberculosis skin test.
Provide written instructions in English for the client to reference.
Encourage the client and family to wash all dishes by hand to prevent the spread of infection.
Urge all family and close contact community members to seek and complete treatment to
enhance compliance.

3.A client with anxiety has just been seen by the health care provider and has been prescribed alprazolam. The
client asks the nurse how long it will take for the medication to build up a steady state in her body. If the half
life of this medication is approximately 11 hours, approximately how long will it take for this medication to
build up and reach a steady state? _____ hours

4.The nurse is observing the cardiac monitor of a client and notes this cardiac rhythm (refer to figure). What is
the initial nursing action?

Check for a pulse


Notify the health care provider
Obtain a 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG)
Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
5.A mother brings her 9-month-old child to see the pediatrician and has concerns that the child may have a
developmental delay because the child cannot roll over yet. for the nurse should ask the mother about which
risk factors associated with a developmental delay? Select all that apply.

Age
Race
Income
Chronic illness
Low birth weight
Environmental exposure to toxins

6.The nurse in a pediatric unit is planning the staff assignments for children with developmental delays. When
planning the assignment, the nurse decides to assign those children who have social or emotional delays
amongst different nurses. Which children should be assigned to different nurses? Select all that apply.

A child with autism


An infant with fetal alcohol syndrome
A child with attention deficit disorder
A child with generalized anxiety disorder
A child with expressive language disorder

7.The client has been prescribed amoxiciilin 250 mg three times daily for sinusitis. The medication is supplied
in a 500 mg tablet. How many tablet(s) would the nurse prepare every 8 hours to administer the correct dose?
Fill in the blank. Record the answer using one decimal place. _____________ tablet(s)

8.The nurse is caring for a client admitted to the hospital for shortness of breath and edema in both lower
extremities. The client is prescribed furosemide 40mg by the intravenous route once daily. What information in
the chart would warrant the nurse to verify continuing the prescription with the health care provider (HCP)?
Refer to chart.

History and Laboratory Findings Medications


Physical
Expiratory rales on Blood pressure Lisinopril 20mg
auscultation 145/94 mmHg orally daily
Peripheral Vascular Serum Potassium 3.5 Atorvastatin 10mg
Disease (PVD) mEq/L (3.5 mmol/L) orally at bedtime

Expiratory rales
Atorvastatin prescription
Peripheral vascular disease
Potassium level of 3.5 mEq/L (3.5 mmol/L)
9.A nurse employed at a nursing home is caring for a client who has recently been transferred from the hospital
to the nursing home. The client is confused and is acting out. The nurse suspects the client is suffering from
relocation stress. The nurse should include which helpful actions in the plan of care? Select all that apply.

Encourage friends and family to visit frequently.


Establish a trusting relationship with the client as soon as possible.
Change rooms frequently to prevent the client from becoming bored.
Ensure the client is an active part of decision making regarding their care.
Allow the client to move around the halls as desired to decrease the confusion and acting-out.

10.The nurse is caring for a client in the hospital and is reconciling the clients home medications. The client is
taking Lactobacillus,
a probiotic over-the counter medication. The nurse is discussing the supplement with the client. What statement
by the client would warrant the need for further teaching? Select all that apply.

I can take my probiotic at any time of day or night.


Probiotics can be found in yogurt and some juices.
I should take this supplement to prevent gas and bloating.
Because Im lactose intolerant, a probiotic would not benefit me.
This supplement will help me avoid getting diarrhea from antibiotics.

11.The nurse educator is presenting a lecture on child neglect. Which statement by one of the students indicates
that the teaching has been effective? Select all that apply.

A sign of neglect are bruises on the childs body.


Neglected children show aggression after age 10.
Neglect is parental failure to meet a childs basic needs.
Neglected children often have learning problems and low self-esteem.
Neglect occurs when a parent does not seek medical attention for a sick child.

12.The nurse is obtaining the medical history from an older client with a black eye and bruising to the head. The
nurse suspects that the client has been abused, and that there may be a history of abuse. Which statement by the
client indicates the need for further questioning by a social worker? Select all that apply.

Perhaps I somehow did this to myself.


I tripped over a rug and now I have a black eye.
I got into a car accident yesterday and the airbag deployed.
Well, I dont remember anything that would have caused the injuries.
Sometimes my grandson becomes angry with me when I cant give him money.
13.The nurse is meeting with an older client who was brought into the health care facility for evaluation.
According to the family member, the client has lost a large amount of weight recently and does not eat much.
Which actions would be the most important for the nurse to take? Select all that apply.

Assess the client's eyesight.


Question the client about urinary habits.
Obtain a list of the client's medications.
Determine the fit of the client's dentures.
Assess the client for mental status changes.

14.The nurse is caring for a malnourished client with dementia and a history of rheumatoid arthritis, and is
creating a plan of care for the clients nutrition. Which nursing actions are most appropriate for increasing the
client's caloric intake? Select all that apply.

Provide pain medications as needed.


Play soft, calming music during mealtimes.
Serve the food at the appropriate temperature.
Provide the client with six small meals per day.
Encourage the client to eat quickly, to prevent fatigue.

15.The nurse is educating a client on obesity. Which statements by the client indicate a need for further
teaching? Select all that apply.

"Type II diabetes is a complication of obesity".


"I will likely develop obstructive sleep apnea".
"Physical inactivity is one of the causes of obesity".
"My heart and lungs are mildly affected by obesity".
"It is unlikely that I will develop peripheral artery disease".

16.The nurse is attending a teaching sessionatt on communicating with the ill child. Which statement by the
nurse indicates that the teaching has been effective? Select all that apply.

"I will strive to maintain honesty and trust with each child".
"Children are often reluctant to ask questions, when they fear the answers".
"Providing as much information as possible will help ease the child's fears".
"Complete honesty may cause problems for some family and staff members".
"To prevent misunderstandings, I should ask the child to explain what is known".
17.A client is being assessed for post-partum depression. Which actions by the client would indicate a need for
follow-up by the nurse? Select all that apply.

Not responding to the infants cries.


Crying after talking with spouse on the phone.
Stating that family was not supportive of the pregnancy.
Making statements about being fat and unattractive now.
Stating that that the infant latched on properly during a feeding.

18.The nurse is evaluating a client who is four weeks post-partum. Which statement by the client would indicate
a need for intervention? Select all that apply.

"I feel like giving up."


"My husband never helps me with the baby."
"My baby will not stop crying and I can't take it anymore."
"I wish I could get more than four hours of sleep at a time."
"My milk has come in and my baby is nursing every 2 hours."

19.The client is being discharged home after the delivery of a healthy infant. The nurse is educating the client
on how to prevent postpartum depression. Which activities are the most appropriate for the nurse to suggest?
Select all that apply.

Exercise on a regular schedule


Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet
Try to sleep when the baby sleeps
Dont overcommit yourself to activities that will be tiring
Stay home with the baby as much as possible, to promote bonding

20.The nurse is preparing to discharge a child who was treated in the emergency department. Which should the
nurse consider when planning medication discharge instructions for the client's parents? Select all that apply.

Provide the child's parents with a simple dosing schedule.


Create a medication schedule that fits the parents lifestyle.
Assist the childs parents in obtaining the medication at an affordable cost.
Ensure that the child's family is able to read the written discharge instructions.
Refer the family to the pharmacist with questions about medication side effects.
21.The nurse is preparing to administer blood to a client. Which actions by the nurse are the most appropriate
before administration of the blood? Select all that apply.

Assess laboratory values.


Obtain and assess vital signs.
Evaluate the clients venous access.
Identify the client by room number and bed.
Check the health care providers prescriptions with another nurse.

22.The nurse is evaluating a medication prescription written by the health care provider. Which pieces of
information should the nurse verify has been included in the prescription? Select all that apply.

The specific dosage


The clients home address
The generic medication name
The length of time for the administration
The route and frequency of administration

23.The nurse is caring for a postoperative client with a patient controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. When creating
the clients plan of care, which opiate-induced side effects should the nurse monitor? Select all that apply.

Sedation
High blood glucose
Increased appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Elevated cardiac enzymes

24.The nurse is providing discharge instructions to a client with rheumatoid arthritis who is taking leflunomide.
Which instructions should the nurse give to the client? Select all that apply.

You may lose your hair.


It is ok to drink alcohol.
Diarrhea is a common side effect.
It has been shown that leflunomide can cause birth defects.
Leflunomide is a potent medication that is generally tolerated.
25.The nurse is caring for a client who has been admitted to the intensive care unit with acute pulmonary
edema. After assessing the client, the nurse administers furosemide as prescribed. Which actions by the nurse
are the most important after administering the medication? Select all that apply.

Assess lung sounds


Measure urine output
Obtain and monitor vital signs
Document the clients meal intake
Assess the client for pitting edema

26.The nurse preceptor is orienting a new nurse on an acute medical-surgical unit and educating the nurse on
peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Which statement by the new nurse indicates an understanding of
a PICC? Select all that apply.

The tip of the PICC line sits in the superior vena cava.
Insertion of the PICC line occurs in the operating room.
PICCs can accommodate infusions of all types of therapy.
PICCs with a lumen size of 14 Fr or larger can be used for blood sampling.
PICCs are the most appropriate for clients who require short-term antibiotics.

27.The nurse is assigned to care for a client who needs an intravenous (IV) catheter inserted and will receive an
IV infusion of a vesicant medication. When creating a plan of care for the client, which interventions should the
nurse include in the plan? Select all that apply.

Assess the skin integrity


Monitor the site frequently
Place the IV at an area of flexion
Educate the client about the signs and symptoms of infiltration
Understand the vesicant potential before administering the infusion

28.The nurse is preparing to administer oral potassium chloride to a client. What should the nurse keep in mind
about this medication? Select all that apply.

Potassium has a strong, unpleasant taste.


Potassium can only be mixed with water.
Potassium may be taken in a liquid or solid form.
Potassium chloride can cause nausea and vomiting.
Potassium may be given as an intramuscular (IM) injection.
29.The nurse is caring for a client with a latex allergy. Upon entering the clients room, the nurse should plan to
take which action as the priority?

Perform a skin assessment


Perform a physical assessment
Ask if the client needs pain medication
Remove the banana from the clients breakfast tray

30.The nurse has been assigned to care for an older client with a hip fracture who had surgical repair. After
receiving report, the nurse learns that the health care provider has prescribed meperidine for pain management.
Which action should the nurse take first?

Prepare the medication


Verify the dosage of meperidine
Assess the clients pain score before administration.
Clarify the medication prescription with the health care provider.

31.The nurse is caring for a client recovering from an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endovascular stent
graft. What priority actions should the nurse include in the plan of care? Select all that apply.

Assess for pedal pulses


Monitor urinary output
Administer analgesics as needed
Keep the head of the bed elevated to at least 60 degrees
Encourage use of an abdominal pillow when coughing or deep breathing

32. The nurse notices that an older clients skin is very dry. What actions would be appropriate for the nurse to
implement into the care plan? Select all that apply.

Ensure adequate hydration


Wait 15 minutes after bathing to apply lotion
Instruct the client to avoid caffeine and alcohol
Rub skin surfaces dry in order to remove dead skin
Use lavender scented lotion, which can help add moisture to the skin
33.The nurse is caring for an older Japanese American man being treated in the oncology unit for prostate
cancer. In order to provide culturally competent care, the nurse should include what actions in the care plan?
Select all that apply.

Address client by first name to promote a trusting relationship


Routinely assess for pain, as Japanese Americans often remain stoic
Provide personal space boundaries if client is in a semi-private room
Allow for family to visit and participate in the decision-making process
Encourage the client to verbally express their feelings and thoughts often

34.The nurse is caring for a client in the emergency department who is being treated for major burns and smoke
exposure. What information in the medical chart would warrant the nurse to call the Rapid Response Team
immediately? Refer to chart.

Medical Assessment Findings Laboratory Values


History
Asthma Hoarse voice Sodium 131 mEq/L (131
mmol/L)
Diabetes Blood pressure 98/62 Blood glucose 68 mg/dL (3.7
mellitus mmHg mmol/L)

Asthma
Hoarse voice
Blood pressure of 98/62 mmHg
Blood glucose of 68 mg/dL (3.7 mmol/L)

35.The nurse is caring for a 55-pound child on the pediatric medical surgical unit being treated for Lyme
disease. The health care provider has prescribed ceftriaxone (Rocephin) intramuscular 50 mg/kg/day in two
divided doses. The nurse should administer how many milligrams per dose? Fill in the blank. ________ mg

36.The nurse is caring for a client with joint pain and is educating the client on pharmacological management of
pain with acetaminophen. What statements made by the client would indicate a need for further teaching?
Select all that apply.

This medication is safe to take with my warfarin.


I should avoid eating grapefruit while taking this medication.
I should not take this medication more often than 3 times per day.
To prevent a stomach ache, I should take this medication with food.
I should report any skin itching or yellowing of the skin to my healthcare provider.
37.The nurse is providing discharge education to a client that was admitted for treatment with Addisons crisis
and is reviewing the medication hydrocortisone. What statements made by the client would indicate teaching
was effective. Select all that apply.

I should take this medication twice a day.


Weight gain is common and I should expect it.
If I forget a dose, I should take two pills the next time.
I may notice my cheeks become fat and rounded but this is okay.
If I notice any swelling or fluid retention, I should notify my healthcare provider.

38. The nurse is caring for a client in active labor. The nurse notices that the fetal heart rate pattern is
demonstrating late decelerations. Which position should the nurse assist the client into? Refer to figures 1-4.


39.A client is being treated on the medical surgical unit for a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The client will be
discharged home on oral anticoagulants. What information in the clients medical record would warrant the
need for teaching? Refer to chart.

History and Laboratory Findings Medications


Physical
Iron-deficient Sodium 142 mEq/L Lisinopril 10 mg
anemia (142 mmol/L) orally daily
10 pack year Positive D-Dimer Vitamin D 400 IU
history of smoking daily

Sodium result
D-Dimer result
Vitamin D 400 IU daily
10 pack year history of smoking

40.The post-operative client is experiencing moderate pain and requests pain medication from the nurse. The
prescription reads: morphine 4 mg intravenous (IV) push every three hours as needed. The morphine is supplied
in an ampule of 10 mg/mL. How many milliliters should the nurse administer? Fill in the blank and record
your answer using the one decimal place. ________ mL

41.The nurse is caring for an older client who is being treated for malnutrition. Which actions by the nurse
would be the most appropriate when providing for this clients care and comfort? Select all that apply.

Ask if the client lives alone.


Evaluate the fit of the clients dentures.
Educate the client on how to choose healthy foods.
Determine if the client qualifies for any food services.
Recommend that the client choose over-the-counter medications for ailments.

42.The nurse is planning care for a client who is confused. The nurse should include which actions in the
clients care plan? Select all that apply.

Allow a pet visit


Play soft, calming music
Toilet the client every 2 to 3 hours
Evaluate the client for signs of pain
Apply restraints as needed if the client becomes agitated
43.The nurse is working in the emergency department when a client with heat exhaustion is brought in. Which
actions would be the appropriate in order to effectively treat the client? Select all that apply.

Remove any restrictive clothing.


Administer salt tablets to the client.
Apply cool water soaks to the client.
Give the client an oral rehydrating solution.
Apply ice packs to the clients neck and groin.

44.The nurse is caring for a client who has just come in to the emergency department to receive treatment. The
client reports a bite from a brown recluse spider. The nurse assesses the bite mark and notes that it is possibly
infected. Which actions should the nurse take? Select all that apply.

Apply ice to the site.


Contact a surgeon immediately.
Apply a non-sterile dressing to the site.
Cleanse the area with a topical antiseptic.
Assess the date of the clients last tetanus shot.

45.The nurse is educating a client on how to prevent altitude sickness. Which statements indicate that the
teaching has been effective? Select all that apply.

I will drink plenty of water.


I will wear sunscreen and high quality goggles.
I will plan a quick ascent when changing to a higher altitude.
I will refrain from consuming alcohol when I am at a high altitude.
I will pay attention to the manifestations of altitude-related illnesses.

46.The nurse is educating a childs parents on using the behavior modification technique of discipline. Which
statement should the nurse make to the parents?

All behaviors should be acknowledged.


Rewards are given at the end of the training period only.
Negative behaviors are recorded where the child can see them.
Corporal punishment should not be used to encourage good behaviors.
47.The nurse is caring for a client who has been diagnosed with bladder cancer. Which action should the nurse
take as a priority when planning psychosocial care for this client?

Assess all urine for the presence of blood


Question the client about insurance coverage
Assess the clients ability to cope with the diagnosis
Ask the client if there is a history of cancer in the family

48.A client has come to the emergency department complaining of burning with urination. What should the
nurse consider a priority when providing care in order to maintain the clients psychosocial integrity?

Use medical terminology when speaking to the client.


Provide the client with as much privacy as possible during the examination.
Explain to the client that all questions will be answered at the time of discharge.
Administer medications as soon as they are prescribed by the health care provider.

49.The nurse is educating an older client on sources of stress. Which statements by the client indicate that the
teaching has been effective? Select all that apply.

Relocating to a nursing home causes stress.


Financial hardships can be a cause of stress.
A lifestyle change such as retiring can cause stress.
A history of anxiety can be a source of stress in the older person.
The birth of a new grandchild is often a source of stress for the older person.

50.The nurse is caring for a client with bipolar disorder. When creating a care plan for this individual, which
should the nurse include? Select all that apply.

The client will understand what bipolar disorder is.


The client will ask the nurse to refill the prescriptions each month.
The client will be able to manage the symptoms of bipolar disorder.
The client will perform activities of daily living (ADLs) independently.
The client will state the importance of taking medications as prescribed.
51.The nurse is creating a plan of care for a client that will undergo a total joint replacement. What should the
nurse include in the clients plan of care? Select all that apply.

Teach interventions to reduce client anxiety


Educate the client on what to expect after surgery
Complete a physical assessment before the surgery
Include the clients family in discussions about the surgery
Allow time for the surgeon to address questions after the surgery

52.The nurse is caring for a client with a blood pressure of 80/54 mmHg. Which actions should the nurse take
because of the risk of hypovolemic shock? Select all that apply.

Insert a large-bore intravenous (IV) line


Anticipate administering blood products
Keep intravenous fluids to be administered cold
Anticipate administering Ringers lactate solution
Perform assessments and monitor the client closely

53.The nurse is providing care to a client. After assessing the client, the nurse determines that the clients self-
ability to change position is compromised. Which actions should the nurse take to reduce the risk of skin break
down? Select all that apply.

Assess the skin daily


Implement a turning schedule
Decrease the risk for skin shearing
Keep the clients skin clean and dry
Document skin breakdown prevention measures in the plan of care

54.The nurse is creating a plan of care for a client with a respiratory infection. Which actions should the nurse
include in the plan of care to prevent the spread of infection? Select all that apply.

Clean the clients room daily


Wash hands when they are soiled
Wear gloves when giving a bath to the client
Keep fingernails short and without nail polish
Place a mask on the clients face when transporting to other departments
55.The nurse is caring for a client with cancer who has a sealed implant of a radioactive source. Which actions
should the nurse take to promote safety for staff and visitors? Select all that apply.

Keep the clients door closed


Limit each visitor to 1 hour per day
Wear a lead apron while providing care
Assign the client to a semi-private room
Remove dressings and linens from the room as they are soiled

56.The nurse provides information to a unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) about caring for a client with
neutropenia. Which statements by the UAP indicate that teaching has been effective? Select all that apply.

I should practice good hand washing.


The client needs mouth care at least every 12 hours.
The client may not have a high fever if infection occurs.
Any sores or skin irritations should be reported right away.
I need to take precautions to protect myself from the clients illness.

57.The nurse is caring for a client who expresses an interest in alternative therapies to reduce the risk of illness
and disease. What noninvasive activities should the nurse recommend to the client? Select all that apply.

Yoga
Meditation
Biofeedback
Acupuncture
Herbal therapy

58.The nurse is educating a new registered nurse (RN) about the Healthy People 2020 goals. Which statements
by the RN indicate that teaching has been effective? Select all that apply.

Healthy People 2020 aims to promote healthy behaviors.


Healthy People 2020 aims to make health care more affordable.
Healthy People 2020 aims to improve the health of the geriatric population.
Healthy People 2020 aims to eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and
preventable death.
Healthy People 2020 aims to create social and physical environments that promote good
health for all.
59.The nurse is completing a health history on a client who is 12 weeks pregnant. Which findings should alert
the nurse to the risk of potential parenting problems? Select all that apply.

The client reports feeling depressed


The client has new health insurance
The client states that she likes hospitals
The client states that the father is not supportive
The client is homeless and often stays in local shelters

60.When conducting the preoperative interview with the client, the client reports an allergy to shellfish. Which
agent is most likely to cause an allergic reaction in this client?

Latex
Medical tape
Providone-Iodine
Intravenous (IV) fluids

61.Which actions should the nurse take to adequately prepare a client for a thoracentesis? Select all that apply.

Explain the procedure to the client


Instruct the client not to move during the procedure
Teach the client to take slow, deep breaths during the procedure
Tell the client to expect a stinging sensation from the anesthetic
Inform the client that it is common to feel pressure from the needle insertion

62.The nurse is providing discharge teaching to the client who had a thoracentesis about the manifestations of a
pneumothorax. Which statements should the nurse make to the client to help the client recognize
signs/symptoms of a pneumothorax? Select all that apply.

Frequent coughing should be reported.


Be sure and report any bluish color to the skin.
A pneumothorax can cause a feeling of air hunger.
Discomfort on the unaffected side should be evaluated immediately.
Presents of a slanted trachea in the neck region need to be reported.
63.The nurse is caring for a client on a ventilator. Which symptoms should alert the nurse to the possibility of
absorption atelectasis? Select all that apply.

Crackles in the lungs


Diminished lung sounds
Decrease in blood pressure
Increase in red blood cell count
High oxygen saturation readings

64.The nurse is caring for a client with heat stroke, who is being cooled with a cooling blanket. Which actions
should the nurse take to ensure that the intervention is effective? Select all that apply.

Administer antipyretics
Rapidly lower the core temperature
Monitor temperature continuously until it is stable
Monitor for patency of the airway and prepare for intubation if necessary
Prepare to insert an intravenous line for administration of fluids as needed

65.Which interventions should be included in the care of a client with a chest tube? Select all that apply.

Change the chest tube each shift.


Assess the insertion site for signs of infection.
Assess the water seal chamber for a continuous, strong bubbling.
Keep the drainage system lower than the level of the clients chest.
Alert the health care provider (HCP) if drainage in the tube stops in the first 24 hours.

66.The nurse is providing care to a client with chronic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Which assessments
findings should alert the nurse to the onset of an acute arterial occlusion? Select all that apply.

Cyanosis of the skin in the affected extremity


Skin temperature cool to touch in the affected extremity
Client complaints of problems moving the affected extremity
Complaints of sudden and severe pain in the affected extremity
Bounding pulse in the affected extremity below the level of the occlusion
67.Which manifestations are specifically noted in a client with right-sided heart failure.? Select all that apply.

Ascites
Hepatomegaly
Breathlessness
Dependent edema
Neck vein distention

68.The client with heart failure is preparing to be discharged from the hospital. Which interventions should the
nurse include in the clients discharge teaching plan? Select all that apply.

Teach the client coping strategies


Develop a regular exercise program
Educate the client about dietary restrictions
Give the client a minimal role in the self-management program
Provide the client with a list of current medications and dosing times

69.The nurse is educating a client on how to self-manage care at home, following an admission to the hospital
for heart failure. Which statements by the client indicate that teaching has been effective? Select all that apply.

I will weight myself daily.


I will wear my oxygen at night as prescribed.
I will follow up with my health care provider (HCP) as scheduled.
I will report new signs and symptoms to my home care nurse when she visits.
I have my medications and dosages written down for easy review and administration.

70.The client has been diagnosed with valvular disease. Which interventions should the nurse be prepared to
discuss with the client? Select all that apply.

Surgical management
Required dietary changes
Medication management
Placing limits on physical activity
Monitoring for an irregular heart rhythm