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Communication Process

Definition of Communication:
Communication is the process of sharing ideas, thoughts and feelings. Communication
involves the exchange of information using a code (writing, speaking, viewing, etc.).
Both the encoder (sender) and decoder (receiver) understand the communication code.

Communication Model


(Sender of message) (What is said) (Receiver of message)

(How it is said)

Effective communication requires attention to all of the elements of communication and

to the relationships among these elements:
Stimulus: what is the stimulus that motivated sending the message?
Encoder and decoder: Who are they? What are their backgrounds?
Audience: consider your audience's age, interests, disabilities, strengths, etc.
Message: what is being communicated?
Situation: what is the context that the message is being presented in (ex. School,
arena, home, etc.)?
Medium: how has the message been transmitted (speaking, music, Braille,
sculpture, inter-net, note, story, etc.)?
Purpose: what is the purpose of the message?
Human: both verbal and non-verbal (signs, symbols, hand signing, music, art,

Levels or Types of Communication

Casual: very friendly, relaxed, often not correct language usage, use of slang
(chats, discussions with peers, friendly letters).
Informal: less relaxed, more correct language usage (thank-you letters, invitations,
classroom discussions).
Formal: very proper and correct language usage (speeches, meetings, debates,
essays, and business letters).

Communication Facilitators

Improve the communication process (common knowledge and experience, good

rapport and understanding, clarity of expression, common vocabulary, and good
organization in written communication).

Communication Barriers

Prevent effective communication (lack of empathy or common background

experiences, vague vocabulary, illegible writing, emotional distraction, physical

Preventing Communication Barriers

Establish an appropriate communication environment (you can clearly hear or see

the encoder).
Eliminate barriers: misspellings/mispronunciations, illegible writing, inaudible
speech, sentence errors, overworked words, inaccurate word choice, clich6s,
slang, inappropriate usage, bias, non-verbal barriers.

Fiction Notes
Two Main Kinds of Fiction

Short Story: a narrative (story) of 50 pages or less. Characteristics of most short

stories: few characters; a conflict or struggle between 2 opposing forces; plot and
theme are quite simple; setting is not very detailed- usually fiction, story centers
around one episode; and the story begins close to, or even at, the climax.

Novel: a narrative (story) of more than 50 pages. Characteristics of most novels:

several well developed characters; central conflict and several minor conflicts;
several parallel plot lines so the story centers around many episodes- multiple and
detailed settings with an extended time span; plot line will have several minor
climaxes as well as a major climax near the end of the novel.

Types (Genres) of Fiction:

Adventure, animal/nature, character study, fantasy, historical, mystery, romance,

science fiction, war, western, horror, comedy, etc.

Elements of Fiction

Characters: the "who" in the story. In a good story, the characters seem true-to-
life and are motivated by realistic happenings and ideas. Each character should
have qualities and traits that set him apart as a unique individual. The following
are the main types of characters:

o Protagonist: the main or leading character, often the "good guy".

o Antagonist: the protagonist's opponent, often the "bad guy".

o Neutral Characters: necessary for the plot, but are not for or against the
protagonist. They provide information and color for the story.

Setting: the time and place of the story. The setting should be believable and
contribute to the mood or atmosphere of the story.

Time Span of a story is the amount of time in the characters' lives that the story

Atmosphere or Mood the feeling or emotion the story gives the reader. There is
usually one dominant mood that continues throughout a short story. There are
often several moods in a novel. Words like mysterious, angry or funny describe

Theme: the message or main idea of the story. It is the author's implied message
and is generally an accepted truth about life. The theme is written in I or 2
sentences. A theme for Snow White would be, "Evil will eventually be defeated by
goodness and kindness."

Conflict: the protagonist's struggle in the story.

o Internal Conflict-character verses self

o External Conflicts-character verses character, character verses

environment (nature, society, supernatural, or unknown)

Point of View: the position from which the story is told.

o First Person Point of View: the story is told through one of the
characters. "I" tells the story.

o Third Person Point of View: the narrator tells the story (he/she), but
chooses one character to see the action. The reader sees and knows only
what the one character sees and knows.

o Omniscient Point of View: the narrator tells the story by moving from
one character to another. He is said to be God-like because he knows the
thoughts and feelings of all the characters.

Plot: the logical sequence of events in a story. Most stories have a similar plot

o Introduction: the reader meets the main characters and discovers the

o Initial Incident: the reader realizes that the protagonist has a conflict or
problem that will be central to the story.

o Rising Action: a series of events that happen to the protagonist as he tries

to solve his problem. The events lead to the climax and build in
excitement up to the climax. This is the longest part of a story.

o Climax: the crisis or highest point of interest in the story. As the most
exciting part of a story, it is quite short and appears near the end. All of the
action in the story leads to this high point.

o Outcome: is the result of the climax. These are brief events that tie up
loose ends.

o Denouement: a twist or surprise ending. It is the final event that

completely unravels the plot. Not every story has a denouement, some end
with the outcome.

Plot Diagram: shows the reader's interest rate as he progresses through a

typical short story.


Rising Outcome or
Action Falling Action


Initial Incident

Level Time Span

Prose Techniques used in Storytelling

o Foreshadowing: the author gives hints of what will happen later in the
story. He hints at, but never gives away, the action that will later
happen. This technique is used to build up suspense.

o Flashback: an author sometimes takes the reader back in time in a

character's life to give us insight into the character's personality or life.

o Symbolism: an author may use a symbol to stand for something else.

A rose is a symbol of love; black is a symbol of death; a wolverine is
the symbol of Wilson's sports teams.

Genres: there are 2 main genres or kinds of poetry.
Narrative Poems tell stories or narrate an event. They are usually quite long.

Lyric Poems do not tell stories.

Narrative Poems
o Ballads are like short stories that have been made into poems. They
have characters, a setting and a conflict, just like a short story. Ballads
are often sung and are usually written in 4 line stanzas. The following
example is from "The Cremation of Sam McGee" by Robert Service:

There are strange things done in the midnight sun by the men who
moil for gold;
The Arctic trails have their secret tales that would make your blood
run cold;
The Northern Lights have seen queer sights, but the queerest they ever
did see
Was that night on the marge of Lake LeBarge I cremated Sam McGee.

Lyric Poems
o Limericks are 5 line humorous poems that have a rhyme scheme
aabba. For example:

A gentleman dining at Crewe

Found quite a large mouse in his stew,
Said the waiter, "Don't shout And wave it about
Or the rest will be wanting one, too!"

o Haiku is an ancient form of Japanese poetry. It is always 3 lines long:
the first and third lines have 5 syllables, and the second has 7.
Altogether, there are only 17 syllables in a haiku. The writer expresses
an emotion, indicates a season and makes a word picture or image.
For example:

Raindrops are lonely

They come to earth to visit,
But we close our doors.


Crack! Slowly a chick

Emerges from his small world
Into another.

o Concrete Poems actually use words and letters to make pictures on

the page. The shape should enhance the meaning of the poem. For

Diamante is a diamond shaped poem showing the contrast

between opposites. It may have any number of lines. Each line
length is increased by one word. The middle line introduces
and idea opposite to the idea developed up to that point. Each
line following the middle decreases by I word until the last
line, which is the opposite of the first word. For example:

Distant, huge,
Glowing, turning, going
Space, mystery ------------ energy, life
Growing, circling, building
Tiny, basic


Acrostic: write the letters of the name or object vertically. Add

words or phrases, starting with the letters, to describe the name
or object. For example:

G reat E Ian
R ambunctious I maginative
A wesome G iving to others
D aring H ope for the future
E xciting T errific

Dial-a-Poem: write your phone number vertically and using

words tih that number of syllables, create a poem. For example:

7 Look through the misty forest

5 Things are so quiet
2 The trees
3 Seem to dance
0 ...
9 Along with the mist so quietly
1 Peace

Found Poem: using letters and words cut out of magazines and
newspapers, create a poem. Add magazine pictures to illustrate
the poem.

Free Verse Poems are more contemporary and have no set

pattern. They have a variety of line lengths and often do not
rhyme. For example: "Fog" by Carl Sandburg

The fog comes

on little cat feet.

It sits looking
over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on.

Figures of Speech are like tricks that a writer uses to make his writing more
interesting and enjoyable.

Simile is a comparison between 2 things using the words "like" or "as". For
example: The turtle's shell was like a boat for the perching bird. The hang-glider
looked as if he was a soaring bird.

Metaphor is a comparison where one thing is said to be the other. The words
"like" or "as" are not used in metaphors.
For example: The cat's eyes were jewels.
The girl's face shone sun-bright.

Personification gives human qualities to non-human animals or objects. For

example: Time stood still
The trees bowed their heads in the bitter wind.

Onomatopoeia suggest sounds. They are often called "sound effect" words. For
example: Snap! Crackle! Pop! Rice Krispies!

Alliteration is the repetition of a sound in several words. For example: She sells
sea shells at the sea shore.

Hypberbole is an exaggerated statement that is impossible to believe. For

examples: "Is this the face that launched a thousand ships?"
"I am so hungry that I could eat a horse!"


Steps in the Writing Process


Gather ideas about the topic-pictures, films, discussion, reading, etc.

Consider your audience.
Select an appropriate form-story, poem, news article.
Create a thought web that shows separate paragraphs for the introduction, 3 body
paragraphs and the conclusion.

Rough Draft

Write the first draft quickly without worrying too much about mechanics and

Proof-reading and Editing

Look at your work critically for organization-rearrange sentences and paragraphs

for best order. Ensure that you have topic sentences and supporting details for
each paragraph.
Add details.
Delete off topic ideas.

Edit for mechanical errors-spelling, punctuation, and grammar and sentence

Good Draft

Re-write your rough draft keeping in mind the changes you made in proofreading
and editing.

Final Proof-reading and Editing

Re-read you good draft to eliminate careless errors.


Share your work with the intended audience.

Styles of Writing

Narrative: tells a story; has characters; uses conversation to develop characters;

usually fiction. Short stories and novels are examples of narrative writing.

Descriptive: describes someone or something in great detail; uses vivid

descriptive language; focuses of the description using the 5 senses (sight, taste,
sound, touch and smell). Description is often embedded in narrative writing. A
detailed paragraph about the setting of a story is an example of descriptive

Expository: explains how or why something is done. It uses clear, concise

language with very little descriptive language. A social studies textbook is an
example of expository writing.

Persuasive: convinces someone of your opinion or to take a specific action.

Facts, rather than opinions are used to support persuasive arguments. Writing a
letter to convince your parents to purchase a Ferrari is an example of persuasive


Parts of a Paragraph

The topic sentence introduces the main idea of the paragraph and catches the
reader's attention.

Supporting details give specific information related to the topic and serve the
writer's purpose. Eliminate any off-topic ideas.

The concluding sentence wraps up the paragraph and leaves the reader feeling
that the main idea of the paragraph was completed.

Creating a Paragraph Thought Web

Main Idea

“Grade 7 is Awesome”

Topic Supporting Details Concluding Sentence

Awesome Responsibility Freedom Fun Only thing better

lifestyle is attending grade 8.
Dealing with be with bigger
money friends adventures

babysitting traveling better sports


Parts of a Composition

The introduction reveals the composition topic and captures the reader's interest.
It is usually 4-6 sentences long and reveals the main supports for the topic. Try to
use an interesting question, fact, startling statement to capture the reader's interest.

The body contains all of the supporting details for the composition. It is organized
into paragraphs. Each paragraph has a topic sentence and explores one main idea.
There are no headings in the body. Ensure that all paragraphs support the main
idea of the composition. The body is the longest part of the composition.

The conclusion wraps up the main ideas of the composition. It leaves the reader
feeling satisfied that he knows the most important details of the topic. Try to end
with a "clincher" sentence that re-captures the reader's attention. The conclusion is
similar to the introduction in that it often re-states the topic and highlights the
most important details.

Creating a Composition Thought Web


Surviving 8:00a.m. Classes


I can survive Talk Chewing Gum Food You can survive

Keeps mind off Gossip is Keeps mouth Chocolate Good

sleep interesting busy has caffeine techniques

Eat chocolate Whisper Blow bubbles Share Gum

Whisper Involve Snap gum Appreciation You can

Teacher do it