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We have argued that design-based research methods can compose a coherent methodology that

bridges theoretical research and educational practice. Viewing both the design of an intervention and
its specic enactments as objects of research can produce robust explanations of innovative practice
and provide principles that can be localized for others to apply to new settings. Designbased research,
by grounding itself in the needs, constraints, and interactions of local practice, can provide a lens for
understanding how theoretical claims about teaching and learning can be transformed into effective
learning in educational settings.

The design and development of this application is based on Design and Development Research (DDR)
and ADDIE instructional design model that has five phases namely, Analysis, Design, Development,
Implementation and Evaluation. Meanwhile, the authoring process and mobile content application
development is using web-based Appy Pie, Adobe Photoshop and Camtasia software. The prototype of
this application packaged in the form of Android applications and envisioned to enable the learning of
Microeconomics courses on mobile devices, support ubiquitous, collaborative, and social learning for
students. Furthermore, the application eases access to learning resources. In this article we discuss the
analysis, design and development activities related to the first mobile application prototype.

Permasalahan kajian ini dipaparkan melalui kajian awal yang dijalankan terhadap tenaga pengajar yang
mengajar modul Mikroekonomi di samping pengalaman dan pemerhatian pengkaji terhadap pelajar
yang mempunyai pencapaian yang rendah dalam modul Mikroekonomi dan laporan prestasi akademik
pelajar terhadap subjek tersebut. Satu kajian analisa keperluaan (study need analysis) telah dijalankan
dalam kalangan pengajar dan pelajar bagi mencari kekangan-kekangan semasa dalam P&P
Mikroekonomi di sebuah Politeknik di Malaysia. Dapatan kajian awal yang dijalankan menunjukkan
beberapa masalah atau kekangan telah dikenalpasti, antaranya adalah seperti minat dan motivasi pelajar
yang agak rendah dalam mempelajari Mikroekonomi kerana beranggapan modul Mikroekonomi
sebagai 'mata pelajaran pemusnah' dan menganggap ianya modul atau mata pelajaran yang sukar
berbanding dengan modul-modul lain. Menurut pelajar, modul ekonomi bukan sahaja memerlukan
kemahiran dalam pengiraan tetapi juga perlu bijak memahami dan mengaplikasikan teori serta
berkemahiran dalam melakar dan menghuraikan keluk.

REKA BENTUK KAJIAN

Terdapat pelbagai model yang boleh diterapkan dalam suatu perisian yang ingin dibina. Model
ASSURE, Model Orientasi Produk, Model Reka Bentuk Pengajaran Dick dan Carrey dan Model
ADDIE adalah di antara contoh model yang boleh diaplikasikan dalam perisian atau aplikasi. Untuk
penghasilan perisian pembelajaran ini, pengkaji telah memilih model reka bentuk ADDIE sebagai
panduan bagi memastikan proses pembangunan berjalan secara teratur dan terarah. Model ADDIE
dipilih kerana ia adalah antara model reka bentuk instruksi yang menjadi asas kepada model-model
reka bentuk instruksi yang lain (Jamaluddin & Zaidatun, 2003). ADDIE adalah singkatan daripada
Analysis (analisis), Design (reka bentuk), Development (pembangunan), Implementation (perlaksanaan)
dan Evaluation (penilaian). Rajah 1 menunjukkan aliran metodologi pembangunan aplikasi
pembelajaran mudah alih Mikroekonomi (MobiEko) (DPB 1023).

Table 2.4 Empirical studies on the Design-Based Research for technology supported learning among
special education setting

No Author Title Year Sample Focus Variables


Studies

1. Sunagul Design and Use 2017 autism social skills


Sani-Bozkurt, spectrum
of Interactive
Sezgin Vuran, & disorder target
Yavuz Akbulut Social Stories
(ASD) behaviors
Anadolu
for Children
University,
Turkey with Autism satisfaction

Spectrum
Disorder (ASD)
3. Greis F. Mireya PAR: A 2013 PDD satisfactory
Silvaa, Alberto Collaborative (Pervarsive results both in
Raposoa, Maryse Game for Developmental teaching and
Suplinob Multitouch computer-ani learning social
Tabletop to mated tutor skills and
Support Social for language collaboration
Interaction of learning among users.
Disorders
Users with
Autism

4. Bosseler, A.and Development and 2003 Autism computer


Massaro , D.W. evaluation of a -animated
computer-animate tutor for
d tutor for language
vocabulary and learning
language learning
in children with
autism

5. Chein, W. Multitouch Tabletop 2012


Technology for People
with Autism Spectrum
Disorder

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.
17.

Focus: R - Reading; B-Blogging; OL - Online Learning; ML-Mobile Learning ; S-Speaking;


L-Listening; G-Grammar

Variables Studied : S- Satisfaction; P-perception; Readiness;G-generic Skills; M-Motivation;


GS-Gained Scores; RC-Reading Comprehension; A-Acceptance

16.
Bosseler,A.andMassaro,D.W.2003.Developmentandevaluationofacomputer-animatedtutorforvocabular
yandlanguagelearninginchildrenwithautism.In:
Journalofautismanddevelopmentaldisorders.v.33,pp.653-672.Springer.DOI=10.1023/B:JADD.0000006
002.82367.4f.

Hagiwara, T. & Myles, B. S. (1999). A multimedia social story intervention: Teaching skills to children
with autism. Focus an Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 14(2), 8295.

Herbert, M. (2010). Finding new solutions for ELL assessments. Retrieved December 10, 2013 from
http://www.districtadministration.com/article/finding-new-solutions-ellassessments

Hoadley, C. M. (2005). Design based research methods and theory building: A case study of research
with SpeakEasy. Educational Technology, 45(1), 42-47.

Houghton, H. A. & Willows, D. M. (1987). The psychology of illustration: Vol. 2, Instructional issues.
New York: Springer-Verlag.