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LUBRICATION

LUBRICATION
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
LUBRICATION SYSTEM

- FUNCTION OF LUBRICATION
- CHARACTERISTICS OF LUBRICANTS
- SYSTEM COMPONENTS
- LEAK DIAGNOSIS
LUBRICATION(Elantra)

HLA

CAMSHAFT(IN) CAMSHAFT(EX)

MAIN OIL GALLERY(CLY)


OIL PRESSURE
OIL FILTER

OIL PUMP

OIL STRAINER OIL PAN


LUBRICATION(Sonata)

Oil
Filter

Oil
OilScreen
Screen
FUNCTION OF LUBRICATION

The power plants used in today's vehicles convert fossil fuels


to mechanical power. Side effects of this conversion process
are heat and friction.
Heat is created either from the combustion process or from
the friction of the rubbing, sliding, or rotation of metal engine
components against one another. It is impossible to eliminate
all of the friction but oil will eliminate most of the damaging
friction. Oil will do its best to keep the moving engine parts
from coming in direct contact and creating heat due to friction.
When friction occurs, the oil will absorb much of the heat and
convey it to another area for cooling.
FUNCTION OF LUBRICATION

The oil also does a few other little favors like improving sealing
of the piston rings to prevent combustion leakage, washing
away abrasive metal or dirt particles from friction surfaces, and
retaining their characteristics in cold or hot operating conditions.
REDUCE WEAR AND POWER LOSS

Oil molecules can be thought of as tiny ball bearings that roll


over each other to eliminate friction in rotating or sliding parts.
The primary responsibility of oil is to prevent wear of engine
parts as much as possible. Oil use in automobile engines needs
two qualities to do its job. One is to create a hydro-dynamic film
of oil for parts to rotate or slide on. This eliminates metal contact
and prolongs engine life. Two, when high pressure squeezes
out the oil lubricant, some sort of additive is deposited on parts
when oil flows over them.
REDUCE WEAR AND POWER LOSS

Sliding Metal
Surface

Oil Molecules

1 2 3
Stationary surface

1. Residual Oil Only, shaft Rests on bearing


2. Oil Rotating, Journal Shaft Rotation
3. Oil has wedged shaft up Bearing and journal will not touch
COOLING

As oil flows throughout the engine, it picks up heat from engine


parts it comes in contact with. This oil will eventually find its way
to the oil pan where it is cooled by air passing over the outside
of the oil pan.
It is important to have this transfer of heat from the oil to outside
air in order to keep the lubricant at an ideal temperature to
maintain performance.
SHOCK ABSORPTION

The shock load of the piston and connecting rod assembly


as it bottoms out on the power stroke is absorbed by the
film of oil on the connecting rod and crankshaft main
bearings. This shock force can be upwards of two tons and
can cause a pounding noise which is cushioned and
quieted by the film of oil.
COMBUSTION CHAMBER SEALING

Oil sprayed on cylinder walls not only provides lubrication,


but it also improves cylinder sealing. This improved sealing
helps prevent combustion gases from escaping past the
piston compression rings. The oil compensates for small
unevenness between the piston ring and cylinder wall by
filling in the gaps.
CLEANSING

As the oil circulates, it picks up particles of dirt, carbon, metal


particles, and various other foreign particles. As the oil finds its
way back to the pan, the heavier particles will go to the bottom
where they could be picked up and circulated through the lube
system. The pick-up screen prevents the large contaminants
from going into the lube system and the oil filter blocks out the
small particles that could potentially cause engine damage.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS

OIL PAN
The oil pan seals the crankcase of the engine and is also the engine
oil reservoir. The pan has an added responsibility of cooling the
engine oil. Air passing over the outside of the pan will cool the oil
(radiator) and help keep it within operating temperature range of about
220。F.
Baffles are sometimes added to the oil pan to help prevent oil from
washing away from oil pickup under extreme turns, acceleration or
deceleration conditions.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS

OIL SCREEN
The oil screen is a tube assembly attached to the suction side
of the oil pump. The other end of the oil screen tube has an
integral screen filter to help filter out large particles that could
damage the oil pump.
The screen sits on the bottom of the oil pan and ideally should
be submersed in the oil at all times to prevent air from entering
the lubrication system.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Front case gasket

oil filter

oil screen

oil pan
OIL PUMP

The oil pump is the heart of the lubricating system. The pump draws
oil from the oil pan, through the pickup tube, pressurizes the oil and
sends it on to the oil filter.

Bearing cap cavity


OIL PUMP

An integral part of most oil pumps is a pressure relief valve. This


valve will control high pressure so the oil filter or other engine
components would not be damaged. The pressure is determined by
the spring tension. Any additional pressure would not be beneficial
and would instead result in parasitic losses because of the extra
engine power used to drive the pump. Oil pumps are usually driven
off the camshaft, but there are cases when the pump will be driven
off an intermediate shaft or crankshaft. The two most commonly
used styles of pumps are the gear pump and the rotor pump. Both
are positive displacement pumps which are necessary to insure lube
pressure at low engine speeds.
OIL FILTER
Although the oil pickup tub has a screen that filters out large
particles, the oil filter is still responsible for the bulk of the filtering
duties. Most filters today filter out particles between 20-30 microns
or 0.008 to 0.0012 inch. The filtering medium in the filter is pleated
paper or fibrous material that is enclosed in a spin-on, throw-away
type assembly.
Oil enters the filter on the outside of the filtering element and flow
towards the center. The reason it flows that way is because there is
more filtering area exposed to the oil, and it is able to hold
increased amounts of contaminant also resulting in longer life. If
the filter ever becomes plugged and unable to flow a sufficient
supply of oil, a by-pass valve will open.
OIL FILTER
inlet check valve

This is a built-in safety


feature that will prevent an
engine catastrophe. This
by-pass will open when
there is a pressure
differential of 5 to 15 psi
between the outside and
inside of the filtering
element.

Bypass valve
FILTER ADAPTER

The filter adapter is mounted on the engine block or oil pump,


if the pump is externally mounted. The adapter has two
functions. One is to retain the oil filter. The second purpose is
to prevent the oil filter from draining back through the engine
galleries when the engine is not running. To do this function,
it has a spring loaded check valve that comes unseated at
approximately 1-2 psi. This is to keep the oil filter filled at all
times so when the engine is started there will be an almost
instantaneous supply of oil to the engine.