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Manila Review Institute

Chemical Engineering Review

FLUID
MECHANICS
Dr. Servillano Olano, Jr

junolano@yahoo.com
Fluid Mechanics
 Fluid mechanics
 Branch of engineering science that has to
do with the behavior of fluids (liquids,
gases and vapors)
 Branches of Fluid Mechanics
1. Fluid Statics
 Fluids in equilibrium state of no shear stress
2. Fluid Dynamics
 Portions of the fluid are in motion relative to
the other parts
Fluid Statics
Nature of Fluids
A fluid is a substance that does not
permanently resist distortion.

Some physical properties of fluids:


a) Density or relative density
b) Viscosity
c) Surface tension
 Types of Fluids
1. Incompressible
 Density is not affected by changes in
temperature and pressure
2. Compressible
 Density varies appreciably with
temperature and pressure
 Pressure Concept
 For a static fluid, the pressure at any point
is independent of direction.
Fluid Mechanics
Systems of Units

English SI
Length, L ft., inch meter (m)
Mass, M lbm, slugs Kg
Time, T seconds (s), hr s
Force, F lbf newton (N)
Density, ρ lbm/ft3, slug/ft3 Kg/m3
Relationship between Force and Mass: F=ma
 
 ft
32.16 2 
 g  s  = lbm  lbf  = lbf
ENGLISH: F = m   lbm  lbm 
 gc   lbm ⋅ ft   
32.16 2 
 lbf ⋅ s 
SI: F = mg  kg ⋅ 9.806 m 2  = kg ⋅ m 2 = newton( N )
 s  s
Fluid Statics and Applications

Hydrostatic Equilibrium
Force balance:
 g 
pS - ( p + dp )S - ρ Sdz  =0
 gc 
 g 
dp + ρ   dz = 0
 gc 
Fluid Statics and Applications
Hydrostatic Equilibrium,
for constant density (most liquids)
pg
+ z = constant
ρ gc
p2 g p1
− = ( z1 − z2 )
ρ ρ gc
Barometric Equation
For an ideal gas, ρ = (pM/RT).

Substituting,

pM  g 
dp +   dz = 0
RT  gc 
dp gM
+ dz = 0
p gcRT
Fluid Statics and Applications
Integrating between levels 1 and 2:

p2 gM
ln = − ( z2 − z1 )
p1 gc RT
p2  g M ( z 2 − z1 ) 
= ex p  − 
p1  gcRT 
(Called the barometric equation)
Fluid Statics and Applications
2. Simple Manometers
Pressure balance at level 0:
g g g g g
p1 + H m ρ + aρ = p 2 + ∆ zρ + aρ + H m ρm
gc gc gc gc gc

Simplifying gives:

g g
p1 − p2 = H m ( ρ m − ρ ) + ∆zρ
gc gc
Fluid Statics and Applications
Two-fluid U-tube Manometer
Pressure balance at point 0:
p1 + (hρ A + H m ρ B ) g = p2 + (hρ B + H m ρ m ) g
p1 − p2 = H m ( ρ m − ρ B ) g + h( ρ B − ρ A ) g
but H m a = hA
a
∴h = Hm 
 A
Rheological Properties of Fluids

Viscous forces in a fluid


Fluid Dynamics and Applications
Evaluation of Fanning friction factor
Evaluation of surface roughness factor
Flow of Incompressible Fluids
3. Turbulent flow in pipes and closed channels
(correlation equations)
(Values of α and β are close to unity)
f  9 
α = 1 + 2  15 − f 
8k  k  k = 0.40
5
β = 1+ 2 f
8k
1
f
(
= 4.06 log N Re f )− 0.60 Von Karman eq

1
f
(
= 4.0 log N Re )
f − 0.40 Nikuradze eq.
Flow of Incompressible Fluids

Other Correlations for f:


Blassius Formula: (for smooth tubes)

Colebrook Equation:

Churchill Equation:
Evaluation of Ff (for fittings and valves)
Entrance section of a pipe
Le

 For fully developed velocity profile:


For laminar flow:
Le
= 0.0575 N Re
D

For turbulent flow:


Le
≅ 50
D
Coverage Chart
Classification of Pumps
Examples of Pumps

A. Centrifugal pumps
Dynamic pumps
B. Reciprocal pumps
Positive displacement pumps
C. Gear pumps
D. Axial flow pumps
Simple Centrifugal Pump
Examples of Pumps
Examples of Pumps
Examples of Pumps
Characteristic Curves
Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps
Guide in the selection of Pumps
System head vs Available head
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
 Head available at the pump inlet to keep the
liquid from cavitating or boiling
ps pv
NPSH a = −
ρ ρ
2
p1
g vs pv
NPSH a = ( + z1 − − ∑ F) −
ρ gc 2gc ρ
Where: ps = pressure at suction point
pv = vapor pressure of the liquid
If NPSH <= 0, cavitation will occur
Note: NPSH(available) should be greater than NPSH(required)
Flow Meters
a) U-Tube Manometer

p1 – p2 = Hm (ρm - ρ)

or
p1 − p 2  ρm 
∆H = = H m  − 1 
ρ  ρ 

where: Hm = manometer reading


∆H = differential head
ρm = density of manometer liquid
Pitot Tube
If tube opening is placed at the center,

v max = Cp 2g c ∆H v (for incompressible


fluids)

where ∆ H v = H m  ρ m − 1 
 ρ 
 
Flow Meters
a) Pitot Tube (measurement of local velocity)

By MEB Eq: 2(p 2 − p1 )g c


v = Cp
ρ
Pitot Tube
To get average velocity, vav:
v av
= f (N Re or N Re,max )
v max
Dv max ρ
Where N Re, max =
µ

see Fig. 2.10-2 G, to get vav


For gases at velocities > 200 fps, see Eq. 10-8,
Perry.
Flow Meters
c) Head Meters (Orifices, venturi meters,
nozzles)
Head Meters
Evaluation of Y: f (type of fluid)
 For liquids, Y = 1.0
 For gases, see Fig. 10-16, Perry
Evaluation of C (discharge coefficient)
Types of Taps:
Rotameters (or Area Meters)
 Force Balance:

g
v f ( ρ f − ρ ) = A f ( − ∆p )
gc

where
 vf = velocity of float
 ρf = density of float
 Af = max. cross-sectional area of float

v f (ρ f − ρ )g
∆p =
Af gc
Rotameters
 In most cases, the geometry of the rotameter is not
known, so a calibration curve using water is
prepared. To determine flowrates for other liquids
or gases, the above relation is used.
 In terms of velocity
2 g ρ (ρ f − ρ ) v f
v 1 A 1ρ 1 = C R A o
Af

 For an identical flowmeter


'
v1 ≈ C A o
R
(a linear relationship)
Rotameters (or Area Meters)
 Substituting in the General Equation:
2gρ(ρ f − ρ ) v f
m = CR Ao
A f (1 − β 4 )

 Since 1 - β4 ≅ 1.0
2 g ρ (ρ f − ρ ) v f
m = CRAo
Af

 For values of CR, see textbook or other references


Flow in Open Channels and Weirs
1. Rectangular Weir

(Modified Francis Weir Formula)


1 .5
q = 0 .415 ( L − 0 .2 h o )( h o 2g )
2. Triangular Weir Notch

0 .31 h o2 .5 2 g
q=
tan φ
Note: Both equations apply only for water
Discussion of Problems
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