FLUID

MECHANICS
Manila Review Institute
Chemical Engineering Review
junolano@yahoo.com
Dr. Servillano Olano, Jr
Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics
Branch of engineering science that has to
do with the behavior of fluids (liquids,
gases and vapors)
Branches of Fluid Mechanics
1. Fluid Statics
Fluids in equilibrium state of no shear stress
2. Fluid Dynamics
Portions of the fluid are in motion relative to
the other parts
Fluid Statics
Nature of Fluids
A fluid is a substance that does not
permanently resist distortion.
Some physical properties of fluids:
a) Density or relative density
b) Viscosity
c) Surface tension
Types of Fluids
1. Incompressible
Density is not affected by changes in
temperature and pressure
2. Compressible
Density varies appreciably with
temperature and pressure
Pressure Concept
For a static fluid, the pressure at any point
is independent of direction.
Fluid Mechanics
English SI
Length, L ft., inch meter (m)
Mass, M lb
m
, slugs Kg
Time, T seconds (s), hr s
Force, F lb
f
newton (N)
Density, ρ lb
m
/ft
3
, slug/ft
3
Kg/m
3
Systems of Units
Relationship between Force and Mass: F=ma
2
2
32.16
ENGLISH:
32.16
c
ft
g lbf
s
F m lbm lbm lbf
lbm ft g lbm
lbf s


| | | |

| |
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹



= = =


2 2
SI: 9.806 ( )
m m
F mg kg kg newton N
s s

= ⋅ = ⋅ =


Fluid Statics and Applications
Hydrostatic Equilibrium
Force balance:
- ( ) - 0
0
c
c
g
pS p dp S Sdz
g
g
dp dz
g
ρ
ρ
| |
+ =
|
\ ¹
| |
+ =
|
\ ¹
Fluid Statics and Applications
2 1
1 2
constant
( )
c
c
p g
z
g
p p g
z z
g
ρ
ρ ρ
+ =
− = −
Hydrostatic Equilibrium,
for constant density (most liquids)
0
0
c
c
pM g
dp dz
RT g
dp gM
dz
p g RT
| |
+ =
|
\ ¹
+ =
Barometric Equation
For an ideal gas, ρ = (pM/RT).
Substituting,
Fluid Statics and Applications
Integrating between levels 1 and 2:
( )
( )
2
2 1
1
2 1
2
1
ln
exp
c
c
p gM
z z
p g RT
gM z z
p
p g RT
= − −
− | |
= −
|
\ ¹
(Called the barometric equation)
Fluid Statics and Applications
2. Simple Manometers
Pressure balance at level 0:
ρ ρ ρ
ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ
z
g
g
H
g
g
p p
g
g
H
g
g
a
g
g
z p
g
g
a
g
g
H p
c
m m
c
c
m m
c c c c
m
∆ + − = −
+ + ∆ + = + +
) (
2 1
2 1
Simplifying gives:
Fluid Statics and Applications
Two-fluid U-tube Manometer
Pressure balance at point 0:
|
¹
|

\
|
= ∴
=
− + − = −
+ + = + +
A
a
H h
hA a H but
g h g H p p
g H h p g H h p
m
m
A B B m m
m m B B m A
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2 1
2 1
ρ ρ ρ ρ
ρ ρ ρ ρ
Viscous forces in a fluid
Rheological Properties of Fluids
Evaluation of Fanning friction factor
Fluid Dynamics and Applications
Evaluation of surface roughness factor
Flow of Incompressible Fluids
3. Turbulent flow in pipes and closed channels
(correlation equations)
(Values of α and β are close to unity)
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) ) 40 0 0 4
1
60 0 06 4
1
8
5
1
9
15
8
1
2
2
. f N log .
f
. f N log .
f
f
k
f
k k
f
Re
Re
− −− − = == =
− −− − = == =
+ ++ + = == =
| || |
¹ ¹¹ ¹
| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
− −− − + ++ + = == =
β ββ β
α αα α
k = 0.40
Von Karman eq
Nikuradze eq.
Flow of Incompressible Fluids
Other Correlations for f:
Blassius Formula: (for smooth tubes)
Colebrook Equation:
Churchill Equation:
Evaluation of F
f
(for fittings and valves)
Entrance section of a pipe
For fully developed velocity profile:
For laminar flow:
For turbulent flow:
Re
e
N .
D
L
0575 0 = == =
50 ≅ ≅≅ ≅
D
L
e
L
e
Coverage Chart
Classification of Pumps
Examples of Pumps
A. Centrifugal pumps
Dynamic pumps
B. Reciprocal pumps
Positive displacement pumps
C. Gear pumps
D. Axial flow pumps
Simple Centrifugal Pump
Examples of Pumps
Examples of Pumps
Examples of Pumps
Characteristic Curves
Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps
Guide in the selection of Pumps
System head vs Available head
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
Head available at the pump inlet to keep the
liquid from cavitating or boiling
Where: p
s
= pressure at suction point
p
v
= vapor pressure of the liquid
If NPSH <= 0, cavitation will occur
Note: NPSH(available) should be greater than NPSH(required)
ρ ρ
ρ ρ
v
c
s
c
a
v s
a
p
F
g
v
g
g
z
p
NPSH
p p
NPSH
− ∑ − − + =
− =
)
2
(
2
1
1
Flow Meters
a) U-Tube Manometer
p
1
– p
2
= H
m

m
- ρ)
or
where: H
m
= manometer reading
∆H = differential head
ρ
m
= density of manometer liquid
| || |
| || |
¹ ¹¹ ¹
| || |


\ \\ \
| || |
− −− −
ρ ρρ ρ
ρ ρρ ρ
= == =
ρ ρρ ρ
− −− −
= == = ∆ ∆∆ ∆ 1 H
p p
H
m
m
2 1
Pitot Tube
If tube opening is placed at the center,
(for incompressible
fluids)
where
v c p max
H g 2 C v ∆ ∆∆ ∆ = == =
| || |
| || |
¹ ¹¹ ¹
| || |


\ \\ \
| || |
− −− −
ρ ρρ ρ
ρ ρρ ρ
= == = ∆ ∆∆ ∆ 1 H H
m
m v
Flow Meters
a) Pitot Tube (measurement of local velocity)
By MEB Eq:
ρ ρρ ρ
− −− −
= == =
c 1 2
p
g ) p p ( 2
C v
Pitot Tube
To get average velocity, v
av
:
Where
see Fig. 2.10-2 G, to get vav
For gases at velocities > 200 fps, see Eq. 10-8,
Perry.
( (( ( ) )) )
max Re, Re
max
av
N or N f
v
v
= == =
µ µµ µ
ρ ρρ ρ
= == =
max
max Re,
Dv
N
Flow Meters
c) Head Meters (Orifices, venturi meters,
nozzles)
Head Meters
Evaluation of Y: f (type of fluid)
For liquids, Y = 1.0
For gases, see Fig. 10-16, Perry
Evaluation of C (discharge coefficient)
Types of Taps:
Rotameters (or Area Meters)
Force Balance:
where
v
f
= velocity of float
ρ
f
= density of float
A
f
= max. cross-sectional area of float
) p ( A
g
g
) ( v
f
c
f f
∆ ∆∆ ∆ − −− − = == = ρ ρρ ρ − −− − ρ ρρ ρ
c f
f f
g A
g ) ( v
p
ρ ρρ ρ − −− − ρ ρρ ρ
= == = ∆ ∆∆ ∆
Rotameters
In most cases, the geometry of the rotameter is not
known, so a calibration curve using water is
prepared. To determine flowrates for other liquids
or gases, the above relation is used.
In terms of velocity
For an identical flowmeter
(a linear relationship)
f
f f
o R 1 1 1
A
v ) ( g 2
A C A v
ρ ρρ ρ − −− − ρ ρρ ρ ρ ρρ ρ
= == = ρ ρρ ρ
o
'
R 1
A C v ≈ ≈≈ ≈
Rotameters (or Area Meters)
Substituting in the General Equation:
Since 1 - β
4
≅ 1.0
For values of C
R
, see textbook or other references
) 1 ( A
v ) ( g 2
A C m
4
f
f f
o R
β ββ β − −− −
ρ ρρ ρ − −− − ρ ρρ ρ ρ ρρ ρ
= == =
f
f f
o R
A
v ) ( g 2
A C m
ρ ρρ ρ − −− − ρ ρρ ρ ρ ρρ ρ
= == =
Flow in Open Channels and Weirs
1. Rectangular Weir
(Modified Francis Weir Formula)
) g 2 h )( h 2 . 0 L ( 415 . 0 q
5 . 1
o o
− −− − = == =
φ φφ φ
= == =
tan
g 2 h 31 . 0
q
5 . 2
o
2. Triangular Weir Notch
Note: Both equations apply only for water
Discussion of Problems
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