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Review Handout from Dr. Olano

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- Fluid Mechanics

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FLUID

MECHANICS

Dr. Servillano Olano, Jr

junolano@yahoo.com

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics

Branch of engineering science that has to

do with the behavior of fluids (liquids,

gases and vapors)

Branches of Fluid Mechanics

1. Fluid Statics

Fluids in equilibrium state of no shear stress

2. Fluid Dynamics

Portions of the fluid are in motion relative to

the other parts

Fluid Statics

Nature of Fluids

A fluid is a substance that does not

permanently resist distortion.

a) Density or relative density

b) Viscosity

c) Surface tension

Types of Fluids

1. Incompressible

Density is not affected by changes in

temperature and pressure

2. Compressible

Density varies appreciably with

temperature and pressure

Pressure Concept

For a static fluid, the pressure at any point

is independent of direction.

Fluid Mechanics

Systems of Units

English SI

Length, L ft., inch meter (m)

Mass, M lbm, slugs Kg

Time, T seconds (s), hr s

Force, F lbf newton (N)

Density, ρ lbm/ft3, slug/ft3 Kg/m3

Relationship between Force and Mass: F=ma

ft

32.16 2

g s = lbm lbf = lbf

ENGLISH: F = m lbm lbm

gc lbm ⋅ ft

32.16 2

lbf ⋅ s

SI: F = mg kg ⋅ 9.806 m 2 = kg ⋅ m 2 = newton( N )

s s

Fluid Statics and Applications

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Force balance:

g

pS - ( p + dp )S - ρ Sdz =0

gc

g

dp + ρ dz = 0

gc

Fluid Statics and Applications

Hydrostatic Equilibrium,

for constant density (most liquids)

pg

+ z = constant

ρ gc

p2 g p1

− = ( z1 − z2 )

ρ ρ gc

Barometric Equation

For an ideal gas, ρ = (pM/RT).

Substituting,

pM g

dp + dz = 0

RT gc

dp gM

+ dz = 0

p gcRT

Fluid Statics and Applications

Integrating between levels 1 and 2:

p2 gM

ln = − ( z2 − z1 )

p1 gc RT

p2 g M ( z 2 − z1 )

= ex p −

p1 gcRT

(Called the barometric equation)

Fluid Statics and Applications

2. Simple Manometers

Pressure balance at level 0:

g g g g g

p1 + H m ρ + aρ = p 2 + ∆ zρ + aρ + H m ρm

gc gc gc gc gc

Simplifying gives:

g g

p1 − p2 = H m ( ρ m − ρ ) + ∆zρ

gc gc

Fluid Statics and Applications

Two-fluid U-tube Manometer

Pressure balance at point 0:

p1 + (hρ A + H m ρ B ) g = p2 + (hρ B + H m ρ m ) g

p1 − p2 = H m ( ρ m − ρ B ) g + h( ρ B − ρ A ) g

but H m a = hA

a

∴h = Hm

A

Rheological Properties of Fluids

Fluid Dynamics and Applications

Evaluation of Fanning friction factor

Evaluation of surface roughness factor

Flow of Incompressible Fluids

3. Turbulent flow in pipes and closed channels

(correlation equations)

(Values of α and β are close to unity)

f 9

α = 1 + 2 15 − f

8k k k = 0.40

5

β = 1+ 2 f

8k

1

f

(

= 4.06 log N Re f )− 0.60 Von Karman eq

1

f

(

= 4.0 log N Re )

f − 0.40 Nikuradze eq.

Flow of Incompressible Fluids

Blassius Formula: (for smooth tubes)

Colebrook Equation:

Churchill Equation:

Evaluation of Ff (for fittings and valves)

Entrance section of a pipe

Le

For laminar flow:

Le

= 0.0575 N Re

D

Le

≅ 50

D

Coverage Chart

Classification of Pumps

Examples of Pumps

A. Centrifugal pumps

Dynamic pumps

B. Reciprocal pumps

Positive displacement pumps

C. Gear pumps

D. Axial flow pumps

Simple Centrifugal Pump

Examples of Pumps

Examples of Pumps

Examples of Pumps

Characteristic Curves

Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps

Guide in the selection of Pumps

System head vs Available head

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

Head available at the pump inlet to keep the

liquid from cavitating or boiling

ps pv

NPSH a = −

ρ ρ

2

p1

g vs pv

NPSH a = ( + z1 − − ∑ F) −

ρ gc 2gc ρ

Where: ps = pressure at suction point

pv = vapor pressure of the liquid

If NPSH <= 0, cavitation will occur

Note: NPSH(available) should be greater than NPSH(required)

Flow Meters

a) U-Tube Manometer

p1 – p2 = Hm (ρm - ρ)

or

p1 − p 2 ρm

∆H = = H m − 1

ρ ρ

∆H = differential head

ρm = density of manometer liquid

Pitot Tube

If tube opening is placed at the center,

fluids)

where ∆ H v = H m ρ m − 1

ρ

Flow Meters

a) Pitot Tube (measurement of local velocity)

v = Cp

ρ

Pitot Tube

To get average velocity, vav:

v av

= f (N Re or N Re,max )

v max

Dv max ρ

Where N Re, max =

µ

For gases at velocities > 200 fps, see Eq. 10-8,

Perry.

Flow Meters

c) Head Meters (Orifices, venturi meters,

nozzles)

Head Meters

Evaluation of Y: f (type of fluid)

For liquids, Y = 1.0

For gases, see Fig. 10-16, Perry

Evaluation of C (discharge coefficient)

Types of Taps:

Rotameters (or Area Meters)

Force Balance:

g

v f ( ρ f − ρ ) = A f ( − ∆p )

gc

where

vf = velocity of float

ρf = density of float

Af = max. cross-sectional area of float

v f (ρ f − ρ )g

∆p =

Af gc

Rotameters

In most cases, the geometry of the rotameter is not

known, so a calibration curve using water is

prepared. To determine flowrates for other liquids

or gases, the above relation is used.

In terms of velocity

2 g ρ (ρ f − ρ ) v f

v 1 A 1ρ 1 = C R A o

Af

'

v1 ≈ C A o

R

(a linear relationship)

Rotameters (or Area Meters)

Substituting in the General Equation:

2gρ(ρ f − ρ ) v f

m = CR Ao

A f (1 − β 4 )

Since 1 - β4 ≅ 1.0

2 g ρ (ρ f − ρ ) v f

m = CRAo

Af

Flow in Open Channels and Weirs

1. Rectangular Weir

1 .5

q = 0 .415 ( L − 0 .2 h o )( h o 2g )

2. Triangular Weir Notch

0 .31 h o2 .5 2 g

q=

tan φ

Note: Both equations apply only for water

Discussion of Problems

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