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MATHEMATICS 4 (GEOMETRY)

Introductory Lesson for Angles

Lesson 1: PRELIMENARIES

Chapter 1: Undefined Terms

Objectives:
Enumerate the undefined terms in geometry;
Define and differentiate the undefined terms in geometry; and
Illustrate the undefined terms.

Geometry is the study of shapes and their characteristics and measurements. Geometry
comes the Latin word geo means earth and metron means measurement. The different
geometric shapes are formed by connecting several points and lines.

Introduction
Point, line and plane are the undefined terms that provide the starting place for geometry.
When we defined words, we ordinarily use simpler words, and these simpler words are in turn
defined using yet simpler words. This process must eventually terminate; at some stage, the
definition must use a word whose meaning is accepted as intuitively clear. Because that meaning
is accepted without definition, we refer to these words as undefined terms. These terms will be
used in defining other terms.

POINT
A location in space, a pinhole, a tiny dot on paper and tip of a sharp paper are illustration
or model of a point. So, when we say point, we actually represented it by a dot with no dimension,
no length, no width, and no thickness. We are naming point by using a capital letter English
Letter.

A
Figure 1: point A

LINES
When we talk of a line, we mean straight line. It has no width, and no thickness, but it
has length since arrowheads at the ends of the portion of the line indicate that the line is
infinitely long, that is, it extends on both directions. We are naming lines by using any two
points on the line of letters from the English Alphabet.

M A Y
Figure 2: line MAY / line MY / MY
SUBSET of LINES
Subsets of lines are:
a. Line Segment
b. Ray

Line Segment
It is a part of a line that has a definite length determined by its endpoints. The symbol for
a line segment is .

C D

Figure 3: line segment CD / CD

Ray
A part of a line begins with an endpoint and extend infinitely in one direction.

E F

Figure 4: ray EF / EF

PLANES
A plane is another undefined term. You can think of a plane as a flat surface that extends
infinitely along its length and width. It has length and width but has no thickness. A sheet of a
paper, a blackboard, the top of a table, and a wall are some examples of concrete models of a
plane.
B
A

C
B

Figure 5: Plane B / plane ABC

SUMMARY

ACTIVITY
Chapter 2: Parallel, Perpendicular, and Intersecting Lines

A B C

Intersecting Lines
These are the lines that intersect from one another. Figure A, line AB and line BC
intersect with each other.

Parallel Lines
These are lines that extends both sides infinitely but they do not meet nor intersect.
Figure B, line FG is parallel to line HI. In symbols,

FG || HI

Perpendicular Lines
These are lines that meet or intersect and can create a small square at their point of
intersection. Figure C, line JM is perpendicular to line KL. In symbols,

JM KL
ACTIVITY
Chapter 3: Collinear and Coplanar Points

M A Y

Non-collinear Points points that do not lie on a same line.

R A Y
Figure 7: Points R, A, and Y are non-collinear points.

Non-Coplanar Points points that do not lie on a same plane.

E H

G
F
Figure 8: Points F, E, G and H are non-coplanar points.

Figure 9:
Points B, C, and D are collinear points but non-coplanar points.
Points A, B, and C are non-collinear points but coplanar points.
Point C is the point of intersection of line AC and line BD.
SUMMARY