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The Power of Words in a Translators Hands

To say that the force of words may be constructive or destructive is to

admit that there is no stronger force to heighten or to harm the most
precious of the gifts Universe has: humankind! Translators, through their
toiling with words and translations as a result of endless toiling may and
will best reflect the small distance between success and disaster. Words,
their essence and their power have been a topic of debate for centuries
and they have been more thoroughly analyzed beginning with the second
half of the 20th century when semantics, pragmatics, discourse analysis
became well-articulated fields of research and academic disciplines.
As prospective translators, to fully grasp the force of words, you are
recommended to study at least five words a day, in the two languages you
know and you intend to master. In your study practice focus on such
details as:
- the correct pronunciation(s) of the words on your list (distinguish
between British and American English, if possible or necessary);
- etymological notes and some possible derivatives;
- examples of collocations of these words with other lexical units;
- idiomatic structures, sayings and proverbs which include the words
of the day.

1. Suggested readings:
Crystal, D. (1992) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Crystal, D. (2007) Words, Words, Words, Oxford: Oxford University Press
McArthur, Th. (1996) The Oxford Companion to the English Language,
Oxford: Oxford University Press
2. Suggested web pages:

3. Recommended dictionaries
1. *2003. Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs, Oxford: Oxford University Press
2. *Oxford Dictionary of Synonyms, Oxford: Oxford University Press
3. *Oxford Collocations Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press


SECTION A. Translate into Romanian

Text. 1.
What, we may profitably ask, is the simplest measure of culture in the
modern world? Can we estimate it from a close study of art or literature,
or law? Or, does it depend in the first place upon the general standard of
literacy and education?
Doubtless, it depends to some extent upon all of these things but it
reflects most clearly the degree of liberality and tolerance exercised by
men in their ordinary intercourse day by day, and the extent of their
willingness to allow freedom of opinion and choice to others.
If we look around us and find that forbearance and latitude are
everywhere apparent in the community in which we happen to find
ourselves, we may fairly conclude that the standard of culture in that
particular society is high. If, on the other hand, we observe that these
same qualities are on the decline and that regimentation and intolerance
are increasing, no impressive manifestations of art and architecture, no
efficient organization of education and government, can compensate us
for the loss of culture itself.
The unmistakable hallmarks of culture are liberality and tolerance.
All languages have the same purpose to communicate thoughts
and yet, they achieve this single aim in a multiplicity of ways. It appears
that there is no feature of grammar or syntax that is indispensable or
universal. The ways of dealing with matters of number, tense, case,
gender, and the like are wondrously various from one tongue to the next.
Many languages manage without quite basic grammatical or lexical
features, while others burden themselves with remarkable complexities.

Word work and translational creativity

1. Find all the meanings of the following words: culture, hallmark, and fair.

2. Write a lexical card for and introduce all the words which may be
derived from: literacy, liberality, wondrous, forbearance.

3. Find the Romanian equivalents for: to spin a yarn, to speak of the devil,
in a manner of speaking. Find two idioms in English authentic texts.
Text 2.


Having read the proofs of the present translation of my work, Die
Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung, I can testify that the publishers have
supplied an excellent, accurate, and faithful rendering of it, as their
previous translations of essays of mine gave me every reason to expect.
My thanks are due to all concerned, and especially to Mr. McCormack,
whose intelligent care in the conduct of the translation has led to the
discovery of many errors, heretofore overlooked. I may, thus, confidently
hope, that the rise and growth of the ideas of the great inquirers, which it
was my task to portray, will appear to my new public in distinct and sharp
E. Mach.
Prague, April 8th, 1893.

Text 3.
Since the appearance of the first edition of the present translation of
Machs Mechanics* the views which Professor Mach has advanced on the
philosophy of science have found wide and steadily increasing acceptance.
Many fruitful and elucidative controversies have sprung from his
discussions of the historical, logical, and psychological foundations of
physical science and in consideration of the great ideal success which his
works have latterly met with in Continental Europe, the time seems ripe
for a still wider dissemination of his views in English-speaking countries.
The study of the history and theory of science is finding fuller and fuller
recognition in our universities, and it is to be hoped that the present
exemplary treatment of the simplest and most typical branch of physics
will stimulate further progress in this direction.
The text of the present edition, which contains the extensive
additions made by the author to the latest German editions, has been
thoroughly revised by the translator. All errors, either of substance or
typography, so far as they have come to the translator's notice, have been
removed, and in many cases the phraseology has been altered. The
subtitle of the work has, in compliance with certain criticisms, also been
changed, to accord more with the wording of the original title and to bring
out the idea that the work treats of the principles of mechanics
predominantly under the aspect of their development (Entwickelung).


To avoid confusion in the matter of references, the main title stands

as in the first edition. The author's additions, which are considerable, have
been relegated to the Appendix. This course has been deemed preferable
to that of incorporating them in the text, first, because the numerous
references in other works to the pages of the first edition thus hold good
for the present edition also, and secondly, because with few exceptions
the additions are either supplementary in character, or in answer to
criticisms. A list of the subjects treated in these additions is given in the
Table of Contents, under the heading "Appendix" on page xix. Special
reference, however, must be made to the additions referring to Hertz's
Mechanics (pp. 548-555), and to the history of the development of
Professor Mach's own philosophical and scientific views, notably to his
criticisms of the concepts of mass, inertia, absolute motion, etc., on pp.
542-547, 555-574, and 579-583. The remarks here made will be found
highly elucidative, while the references given to the rich literature dealing
with the history and philosophy of science will also be found helpful.
As for the rest, the text of the present edition of the translation is
the same as that of the first. It has had the sanction of the author and the
advantage of revision by Mr. C. S. Peirce, well known for his studies both
of analytical mechanics and of the history and logic of physics. Mr. Peirce
read the proofs of the first edition and rewrote Sec. 8 in the chapter on
Units and Measures, where the original was inapplicable to the system
commonly taught in this country.
Thomas J. McCormack. La Salle, ILL., February 1902

Ways with ideas or topics for discussion

1. Work in pairs, exchange opinions with your partner about your practice
of reading the preface of any book you intend to read. The following
questions could of help to boost your discussion:

What is this text about?

To what extent is a translator a person entitled to writing a preface to the
book s/he translated?
Is the translator an author or a person moving a message from one
language into another? Give reasons for your answer.

2. Work in pairs, discuss the two prefaces with your partner and choose
the one you prefer. Argue your answers in front of your class mates.


Text 4.
(a) Translators must negotiate with the ghost of a distant author,
with the disturbing presence of foreign text, with the phantom of
the reader they are translating for. Translation is a negotiation to
such an extent that translators must also negotiate with publishers,
because a translation may be more or less domesticated or
foreignised according to the context in which the book is published,
or the age of its expected readers. (Eco 2003: 173)
(b) Semiotics, philosophy and cultural anthropology can discuss such
discrepancies for years but a translator has continually to face
them, here and now and every day. In doing so translators avoid
ontological problems (unless they are translating a philosophical
text): they simply compare languages and negotiate solutions that
do not offend common sense (and if there are subtle connections
between common sense and ontology, this is a subject for further
philosophical debate). Translators simply behave like polyglots,
because in some way they already know that in the target language
a given thing is expressed so and so. They follow their instinct, as
does every fluent bilingual person. (Eco 2003: 182)

Ways with specialisms

In his essay On Linguistic Aspects of Translation (1959), Jakobson
discusses about types of translation. Match his types of translation in column A
to their possible explanations and exemplifications in column B:

a. Intralingual translation/ 1. an interpretation of verbal signs by means
rewording of other signs of non-verbal sign systems
b. Interlingual translation/ 2. an interpretation of verbal signs by means
translation proper of other signs of the same language
c. Intersemiotic 3. an interpretation of verbal signs by means
translation/ transmutation of some language
i) we rephrase an expression or text in the
same language to explain or clarify something
we might have said or written
ii) when a written text is translated into
music, film or painting
iii) when a text in an alpha language is a
turned into a text in a beta language

Text 5.

(a) When a translation domesticates a literary work, it will be fluent

for the reader in the target language; this is accomplished by
altering the text so that cultural and linguistic references match the
target language culture. These alterations are often substantial
changes. Translators may restructure sentences to have less drastic
variability in length, for example. Additional words, phrases and
sentences will be inserted into the translation that did not occur in
the original, usually as a means to explain some cultural content
that would be unknown to the target readers. This gives the
appearance that the work was written in the target language by an
author from the target culture/country.
(Murakami 2013: 56)

(b) The other strategy, according to Venuti, is to foreignize a work

When a translation is foreignized, the fact that the translation has
occurred is apparent. While the syntax must still work in the target
language to be readable, alterations are kept to a minimum. If the
original piece contains run-on sentences for artistic effect, the
translation will as well. Cultural references will not be changed to
target language equivalents. This translation method will ensure it
is obvious to the reader that the work was first written in another
language. (idem)

Ways with specialisms

Match the English structures with their Romanian correspondents for each of the
examples below and decide whether they are instances of domestication (D) or
foreignization (F):

English structure Romanian correspondent D/F

to rain cats and dogs tu his, eu cea
in the day break a fi ngropat n munc
to be up to ones eyebrows in work a ploua cu gleata
to be lying through ones teeth a fi la munca de jos
to freeze solid cnd se crap de ziu
you zig I zag a veni de peste mri i ri
to do the donkey work a mini de nghea apele
to come from far and wide a nghea bocn


1. Translate into Romanian:

(a) These two translation strategies are comparable to the more

general free and literal translation approaches, but are further
defined in that it is specifically the cultural content which is being
either freely altered in order to make it more consumable for the
target readers or more literally transposed to the translation
product. (Murakami 2013: 56)

(b) The old terms such as literal, free and faithful translation are
discarded by Nida in favour of two basic orientations or types of
equivalence (Nida 1964: 159): (1) formal equivalence and (2)
dynamic equivalence. [...] Formal equivalence focuses attention on
the message itself, in both form and content ... One is concerned
that the message in the receptor language should match as closely
as possible the different elements in the source language.
(Introducing Translation Studies : 41)

(c) Dynamic equivalence is based on what Nida calls the principle of

equivalent effect, where the relationship between receptor and
message should be substantially the same as that which existed
between the original receptors and the message (Nida 1964: 159).
The message has to be tailored to the receptors linguistic needs
and cultural expectation and aims at complete naturalness of
expression. Naturalness is a key requirement for Nida. He defines
the role of dynamic equivalence as seeking the closest natural
equivalent to the source-language message.
(Introducing Translation Studies : 42)

(d) In communicative as in semantic translation, provided that

equivalent effect is secured, the literal word-for-word translation is
not only the best, it is the only valid method of translation.
(Newmark 1981: 39)


SECTION B. Translate into English

Text 6.
Portretul traductorului romn
Prestatorul de servicii de traducere (PST) romn este, de obicei, traductor
independent, autorizat de Ministerul de Justiie (63% dintre rspunsuri).
Aceast stare de fapt (73% dintre respondeni sunt traductori
independeni) coincide cu statisticile internaionale care indic o
preponderen a traductorilor independeni (75% din numrul total de
PST activi la nivel mondial). PST-ul romn se dedic acestei profesii cu
norm ntreag sau cu jumtate de norm, dup orele de serviciu (angajat
pe post de traductor sau pe un post fr legtur cu traducerile).
Traductorul romn ofer o gam relativ diversificat de servicii, dar
aproape toi efectueaz traduceri scrise n limba romn sau ntr-o limb
strin, precum i traduceri notariale sau revizia traducerilor efectuate de
teri. Interpreii romni sunt nevoii, din cauza condiiilor pieei, s ofere i
alte servicii, cum ar fi traduceri scrise. PST-ul romn se ocup n mic
msur cu servicii cu un grad nalt de specializare i tehnologizare, cum ar
fi localizarea, subtitrarea sau technical writing-ul. Nici n privina alegerii
clientelei, PST-ul romn nu pare s se adreseze unei anumite categorii de
clieni, cei mai muli avnd categorii de clieni foarte diverse.

Text 7.
Totui, o proporie mai semnificativ a clienilor sunt firme de traduceri, n
timp ce printre clienii direci se remarc persoane fizice, juridice,
notariate, cabinete de avocatur i, mai rar, instituii publice sau edituri.
PST-ul romn i caut clienii mai ales pe piaa intern, numai o mic
parte activnd pe piaa global. Cu toate acestea, numrul mare de
juctori de pe piaa intern, precum i condiiile de pia, l determin pe
PST-ul romn s ncerce din ce n ce mai mult s ptrund pe piaa global
pentru a-i lrgi baza de clieni i pentru a obine tarife mai bune. PST-ul
romn se afl ntr-o constant cutare de clieni noi, aceast strategie
producnd rezultate n anul 2007.

Textul 8.
Astfel PST-ul romn a constatat o cretere uoar a numrului de clieni,
care s-a oglindit ntr-o cretere uoar a cifrei de afaceri n 2007 fa de

aceeai perioad a anului 2006. Se observ c prestatorii care au decis s

ptrund pe piaa global au obinut rezultate pozitive i un numr mai
mic de respondeni au constat scderi ale numrului de clieni pe piaa
extern fa de cea intern. De asemenea, prestatorii de servicii care se
dedic profesiei de traductor cu norm ntreag au obinut rezultate net
superioare celor care nu pot acorda dect un timp redus acestei activiti.
Aceste rezultate pozitive i ndeamn pe prestatorii de servicii de traduceri
romni s concluzioneze c, n 2007, s-a nregistrat o cretere uoar a
pieei de traduceri interne i externe fa de aceeai perioad a anului
2006. Traductorul romn este ncreztor n evoluia viitoare a pieei de
traduceri, considernd c tendina actual de cretere uoar se va
schimba n bine sau se va menine. Aceste concluzii coincid cu statisticile
internaionale care arat c, la nivel global, piaa de servicii de traducere a
crescut anual cu 5-7%, unele ri raportnd creteri de 7-10%, i se
ateapt ca, n viitor, aceast cretere uoar la nivel global s se menin
n jurul valorii de 7,5%, cel puin pn n anul 2011. Sectorul de traduceri
din rile europene din zona non-euro a prezentat n ultimii ani o
dezvoltare peste medie, favorizat de fora de munc ieftin, de costurile
sczute, precum i de dezvoltarea economic a regiunii. Considerm c
sectorul de traduceri din Romnia va urma aceeai traiectorie, existnd un
potenial de dezvoltare considerabil.
(Cobli, C., Tendine de evoluie ale pieei de traduceri din Romnia, 2008: 20)

Text 9.
Traducerea lucrrii s-a fcut pe baza terminologiei oficializate n Romnia
prin standardele de specialitate; s-a inut ns seama i de limbajul tehnic
utilizat n mod curent n practica proiectrii i executrii instalaiilor.
Cu ocazia traducerii s-a considerat util s se fac n limitele convenite cu
autorii i Editura Springer - i o adaptare a lucrrii pentru condiiile tehnice
din ara noastr. Adaptarea a constat n principal n precizarea n text. Prin
note de traductor (N.T.), a principalelor date tehnice privind
caracteristice unor elemente de instalaii i prevederile unor prescripii de
proiectare i de execuie specifice pentru ara noastr.
Dat fiind tradiia lucrrii, s-a cutat s se pstreze forma de prezentare
ct mai apropiat de ediia german i din aceast cauz s-a pstrat
clasificarea tablei de materii din textul original precum i semnele


convenionale ale elementelor de instalaii, introducndu-se suplimentar

numerotarea tabelelor din text.
(Rietschel/Raiss, Tehnica nclzirii i ventilrii, Ed. tehnic, Bucureti, 1967: 10)

Text 10.
Aproape toat lumea consider azi c un defect general al
discursului public romnesc i mai cu seam al celui din mass-media e
gradul crescut de subiectivitate; se observ c autorii i stpnesc cu greu
propriile porniri, simpatii i antipatii i nu reuesc dect rareori s gseasc
echilibrul adevratului profesionism, tonul neutru al informaiei;
personalitatea fiecruia este supradimensionat, vorbitorul este tentat s
dea verdicte, lecii, s cread c opiniile sale sunt de cel mai mare interes
pentru potenialii interlocutori. Comparaia ntre diverse tipuri de texte
publicistice romneti i corespondentele lor din presa strin e un prilej
de a sesiza diferene i de a ntri opiniile de mai sus.
(Rodica Zafiu, Diversitate stilistic n romna actual, EUB, 2001)

Text 11.
Nevoia de reglementare n domeniu decurge din importana i necesitatea
de a clarifica rolul i locul traductorului i al interpretului, att n sistemul
judiciar, ct i pentru nevoi oficiale. Meninerea sistemului eclectic
existent nu corespunde situaiei actuale, cnd importana activitii de
traducere i interpretariat a crescut, orice inadverten putnd afecta
buna desfurare a unor activiti n care intervin tot mai multe persoane
ce cunosc limbi diferite.
Activitatea de traduceri i interpretare se desfoar, n prezent,
fr supravegherea i controlul necesare, ncercrile de a nfiina structuri
profesionale asociative nu au avut rezultate corespunztoare, iar faptul c
notarii, prin Uniunea Naional a Notarilor Publici ncearc s
reglememnteze activitatea de traduceri nu d rezultate, notarii neavnd
autoritatea i competena necesare.
(Extras din Legea traductorilor i interpreilor, Expunere de motive, p. 1)

Textul 12.
Profesia de traductor autorizat este menionat n legea 200/2004 i n
HG 1921/2004 ca profesie liberal reglementat. Nici unul din cele dou
acte normative nu menioneaz profesia de traductor/interpret, aa cum
a fost introdus la propunerea notarilor publici. De fapt, cele dou profesii

sunt de sine stttoare, avnd norme proprii de exercitare. Mai mult, cele
dou reglementri vorbesc despre profesii liberale reglementate, dar
legea 178/1997, privind traductorii, modificat i completat prin Legea
281/2004, se refer numai la autorizarea i plata traductorilor, nu
reglementeaz i activitatea acestora, fapt care face necesar legea de
fa. n present, autorizarea traductorului se d pe baza studiilor
filologice universitare i pe baza unui examen scris organizat de Ministerul
Culturii, pe baza cruia se obine un certificate de traductor/interpret,
lucru absolute incorect, avnd n vedere diferenele majore dintre cele
dou profesii.
n rile care utilizeaz sistemul de traduceri i interpretariat pe
baz de autorizaie, acesta se refer numai la personae care sunt folosite,
n acest scop, de ctre instituiile judiciare, notari i organe oficiale. La
selecie, se are n vedere nivelul de pregtire al persoanelor respective,
disponibilitatea i capacitatea de comunicare, s aib studii superioare, de
preferin n filologie, eventual i de drept.
Traductorii i interpreii care nu lucreaz n sistemul juridic, sunt
autorizai i funcioneaz pe baza dreptului comun.
Astfel de reglementri exist n ri ca Frana, Italia, Irlanda, Spania,
Brazilia, Belgia, Olanda, n aparatul ONU, dar i n ri din Europa Central
i de Est.
(Extras din Legea traductorilor i interpreilor, Expunere de motive, p. 1)

Text 13.
Pe msur ce lucram mpreun cu Tatiana, la versiunea n limba romn a
crii de fa, am avut revelaia urmtorului fapt: acesta este manualul de
leadership al schimbrii adaptive a educaiei n Romnia! Acum tim cum
se face, ca la carte. Din acest moment, ca membri responsabili i
competeni ai societii, putem orchestra i nfptui eficient schimbarea
adaptiv a Educaiei pe baza unui model solid documentat, din care
invm s gestionm cu succes o extraordinar provocare de leadership.
Drept pentru care am decis s comit, asumndu-mi-l, un gest fr
precedent pentru mine, n seria volumelor ngrijite pn acum: acela de a
pune explicit aceast carte n serviciul celui mai complex dintre proiectele
transformrii Romniei de azi, transformarea colii ca sistem. i voi face
acest lucru propunndu-v drept cheie de lectur a textului lui Dean
Williams tema colii pe bune. coala pe bune nseamn o coal
autentic, adic o coal care cultiv valori, folosete i place.

Fie c ne place sau nu, fie c suntem de acord sau nu, patru
indicatori importani din surse independente ntre ele plaseaz Romnia n
lume i n Europa aa cum ne arat tabelul urmtor.
(Dean Williams, Leadership real, traducerea Chera Tatiana, pref. De Sta Marian, Codex,
Bucureti 2005: xii)

Text 14.
Privit ca activitate subsumat, terminologia este frecvent
considerat n acelai timp, o activitate necesar preliminar precum i un
sub-produs al traducerii specializate.
Este evident c un traductor care nu are o anumit specializare nu
are viitor. Dotat cu surse de consultare terminologic importate sau
produse de el nsui, de cte ori face o traducere specializat, traductorul
profesionist profit pentru a-i mbunti baza terminologic. O baz
terminologic asigur calitatea unei traduceri, n primul rnd,
omogenitatea acesteia. Un text specializat este extrem de recurent din
punct de vedere terminologic. Exist sisteme de traducere asistat, aa
numitele sisteme cu memorie de traducere, care asigur productivitatea
activitii de traducere, cci asigur posibilitatea echivalrii automate n
limba-int (a segmentelor recunoscute cci sunt deja consemnate n
n acelai timp, terminologia este un produs al traducerii cci
traducerea este un loc strategic pentru neologie (crearea de noi termeni).
Traductorii sunt printre primii confruntai cu noii termeni n limba-surs
i cu noile concepte, pentru care meseria i constrnge s propun un
echivalent (o perifraz sau un neologism). Traductorii sunt neografi
avizai, ei au o contiin lingvistic i aptitudinea de a forma neologisme
corecte. Neologismele create de traductor apar imediat ntr-un context
real de comunicare, adic mediul care favorizeaz o propagare natural a
noilor termeni.
(Busuioc, Ileana, Mdlina Cucu, Introducere n ,



1. Translate the following texts in pairs and discuss with your

partner about their degree of difficulty:

(a) Calculatoarele sunt n mod frecvent folosite la rezolvarea

problemelor tiinifice, tehnice i economice. Ele sunt capabile s
efectueze rapid calculele, s dea rezultate cu mare precizie, s
memoreze o mare cantitate de informaie i s efectueze calcule
lungi i complicate fr intervenia omului. O imagine a tipurilor de
probleme pe care le poate rezolva un calculator rezult din
urmtoarele exemple.

(b) Autorul Amintirilor a intrat de timpuriu n curentul de generos

patriotism al romnilor bucovineni. El renvie atmosfera iluminist a
primei jumti a secolului al XIX-lea, creat n jurul unei familii de
crturari umaniti aa cum au fost boierii Hurmuzachi. Cu deosebit
respect i pioenie povestete memorialistul despre V. Alecsandri,
Costache Negri i alii...
(Iraclie Porumbescu 1978: 16)

(c) Categoriile de obiectiv i subiectiv n viaa social au coninutul i

funciile lor specifice n cercetarea i explicarea fenomenelor sociale,
a determinismului social. Noiunile de condiii sociale obiective i
factor subiectiv se definesc n legtur cu activiatatea uman
transformatoare, servesc explicrii structurii societii, dar mai ales a
procesului schimbrii ei prin aciunea oamenilor.
(V. Popescu, Determinismul social. Obiectiv i subiectiv n procesul
dezvoltrii sociale)

(d) Dac semantica i lexicografia au, din acest punct de vedere, o

situaie oarecum privilegiat deoarece s-a subliniat necontenit
importana contextului (dei nu s-a aplicat suficient referirea la
context ca metod) -, n schimb n lucrrile de gramatic nu numai c
s-a studiat foarte puin rolul contextului i influena lui
determinativ, ci, ceva mai mult, n gramatici se amintete rar despre
importana contextului.
(Tatiana-Slama Cazacu, Limbaj i context, Ed. tiinific, 1959: 300)



2. Match the English proverbs in column A to their Romanian

equivalents in column B and decide whether each matching is an
instance of domestication (D), foreignization (F) or full
equivalence (F.E.).

A B D/F/F.E.
a) There is many a slip 1.n orice zvon este i o
between cup and lip. smn de adevr.
b) There is a kernel of truth in 2.Vecinul apropiat este mai
any rumour. bun dect fratele din alt sat.
c) The cup calls the kettle 3.Un mr pe zi te ferete de
black. doctor.
d) An apple a day keeps the 4.Multe se pot ntmpla ntr-
doctor away. un interval de timp foarte
e) A near friend is better than 5.Rde hrb/ciob de oal
a far-dwelling kinsman. spart.

3. Underline the correct word to fill in the blanks and provide the
best translation of the texts below:

Dei o parte din mulime ddu In spite of /despite/although a

crezare acestor vorbe frumoase, part of the crowd/multitude/mob
cteva sute de nemulumii nu se believed these beautiful words, a
lsar nelai de minciunile lui few hundreds of dissatisfied
Josephus. Acetia se apropiar de /discontented /deluded wouldnt
casa lui pregtindu-se s-i dea foc.
leave themselves cheated/ taken
in/mocked by Josephuss lies. They
came close to his house getting
ready to set it on fire/fire it/light
Josephus reui s-l atrag n cas Josephus succeeded in bringing the
pe capul turbulenilor. head/captain/conductor of the
turbulent into the house.

Din ordinul su, acesta fu biciuit Out of his order he was whipped to
pn la snge, i se tie o mn i bleeding, had one of his hands cut
astfel mutilat fu aruncat n mijlocul off and thus mutilated he was
mulimii care se mprtie cuprins thrown in the middle of the crowd
de groaz. who dissipated/scattered/spread
away/ran away seized with

Dac un ritm mai rapid este Whether/if/that a more rapid

eficient pentru Cehia, mi se pare rhythm is efficient/efficacious for
normal, dar nu cred c trebuie s the Czech republic seems normal to
ne comparm cu Cehia sau s me, but I hardly/dont think we
privatizm att de repede numai should compare with the Czech
ca s fim ca ei. republic or to privatize that/so
soon only to be like them.
Privatizrile rapide au Fast/rapid/hasty privatizations
nsemnate efecte sociale de care have significant/ meaningful social
trebuie inut cont. effects which should be
considered/ kept in mind.
i dac problemele care apar And if the problems which occur
pot fi evitate, viitorul poate fi mai can/may be avoided, the future
sigur. may/can be more secure.

De civa ani buni, la For quite a few years/ some quite

Universitatea Harvard, am long years, at Harvard University, I
privilegiul s triesc o experien have/have had the chance/
pedagogic de excepie, din care opportunity/honour/privilege to
nv continuu lecia intens a be living/live/share an exceptional
iubirii fa de Educaie, i unde, pedagogic experience/experiment
mpreun cu mentorii i colegii mei out of which I have been
conjugm n fapt, cu bucurie, un continuously/endlessly/continually
verb de cpti: a ne psa. Nou learning the intense lesson of love
ne pas de discipolii pe care i of Education, and where, together
avem n grij. i atunci rspunsul with my mentors and colleagues/
lor nu se las deloc ateptat, la fel mates, we actually joyfully
de intens i autentic. conjugate a basic/fundamental/
blatantly important verb: to care.
We do care about the disciples we
have been entrusted with/held
responsible for/given to work
with. And then their

answer/reply/retort is not
late/belayed at all, equally
intense/dense/solid and authentic.