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VENTURIMETER

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the coefficient of discharge for venturimeter and to calibrate it.

THEORY:
Venturimeter is a device used for the measurement of discharge in a pipeline and is based on
Bernollis theorem. The instrument consist of a short piece of pipe which contracts up to a
section called as throat and then again enlarges upto the diameter as shown in the fig. The
conical portions joining the inlet and the throat and the outlet are called as converging cone
and diverging cone respectively.
By contracting the passage of flow at the throat, the velocity of the flow and hence the
velocity head is increased. This increase in the velocity head causes change in the pressure
head. The pressure difference thus created is measured generally by a U tube manometer
(differential) and the discharge through the pipe is calculated by the formula.

Q = CDA2 [2 g h / 1 4 ]

Q = Discharge
CD = coefficient of venturimeter (theoretically it is equal to one)
h = Difference of head in terms of water column between inlet and throat.
= Ratio of throat diameter to pipe diameter [d2/d1]
A2 The area of inlet which can be found out from inlet diameter d1
Actually the coefficient CD is never unity and hence it is determined experimentally. The
above formula can be written in the from:
Q = M Hn
The constant M and n can be found out by plotting the result of the experiment on log-log scale.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Type of manometer = Piezometer
2. Inlet Diameter of venturimeter d2 =
3. Throat Diameter of venturimeter d1 =
=
Dimensions of the measuring tank
length L=
width W=
OBERVATION TABLE:

Sr. No Height difference in the Discharge measurement


limbs of manometer (Depth of water collected in certain time)
h in cm Depth of water collected Time
D in cm t in sec
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

SAMPLE CALCULATION:

(use g = 981 cm/sec2)


Area of inlet A1 = (/4)d12 = ..cm2

Area of throat A2 = (/4)d22 = . cm2


=
Theoretical discharge Qth = Q = CDA2 [2 g h / 1 4 ]

= .cm3/s

Surface area of tank S = L W = = cm2

Volume of water collected V = SD = .= cm3


APPARATUS:
A flow table with self-circulating system, measuring tank, stopwatch, differential manometer,
venturimeter etc

PROCEDURE:
2. Venturimeter is set up on the flow table and connected to the inlet pipe.
3. The manometer is then connected to the respective pressure tapping, making sure that no
air bubble is entrapped in the tube.
4. The flow of the water is then adjusted for the required pressure difference and the
pressure difference is noted.
5. The flow is collected in measuring tank for known say 5 or 10 cm.
6. Time required to collect the water in measuring tank is noted.
7. The procedure is repeated for different values of pressure head by changing the
discharge.
8.
RESULT:

Coefficient of venturimeter cD =

CONCLUSION:

1. Discharge formula, Q = H
2. The calibration plot between actual discharge and differential head can be used for
measurement of discharge whenever this venturimeter is used.

REMARK:

Coefficient of venturimeter varies between --------to--------.


Actual discharge Qa = V/t = = cm3/s

Coefficient of venturimeter K = Qa/Qth =

TABULATED CALCULATION:

Sr. No. Theoretical Volume of Actual Coefficient of


discharge Qth water collected discharge orificemeter
cm3/s V Qa CD
cm3 cm3/s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Average value of CD =