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Current Urban Studies, 2017, 5, 236-274
ISSN Online: 2328-4919
ISSN Print: 2328-4900

Unification of Archaeological Sites in Greece: A

Design Approach Based on Public Participation
and Sustainability Criteria

Kiriaki M. Keramitsoglou1,2, Efthymia M. Mylonopoulou2, Vasiliki I. Georgiou2,

Angelos L. Protopapas1,3, Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis2
School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Patra, Greece
Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Business and
Environmental Technology Economics Lab, Xanthi, Greece
Department of Civil Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece

How to cite this paper: Keramitsoglou, K. Abstract

M., Mylonopoulou, E. M., Georgiou, V. I.,
Protopapas, A. L., & Tsagarakis, K. P. (2017). The simultaneous involvement of aesthetic variables and economic, social and
Unification of Archaeological Sites in Greece: environmental objectives in urban design and planning is quite rare, and dif-
A Design Approach Based on Public Partic-
ficult to be implemented and interpreted within a local context. The top-down
ipation and Sustainability Criteria. Current
Urban Studies, 5, 236-274. approach has been the most common strategy employed in urban planning, whereas sustainability principles call for more participatory methods. This
study presents a design approach to the unification of archaeological sites in
Received: March 13, 2017
Accepted: June 27, 2017
the town of Didimoticho, Greece, based on public participation and sustaina-
Published: June 30, 2017 bility criteria. A fully structured questionnaire was used to define aesthetic
parameters. Six options were designed and then evaluated by the local com-
Copyright 2017 by authors and
munity. Thus, taking into account the local conditions, a list of Must and a list
Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative of Wants were established according to selected sustainability criteria, which
Commons Attribution International are significant tools for the Kepner-Tregoe model application. The proposed
License (CC BY 4.0). methodology revealed the optimal design solution. This systemic participatory
approach applicable to urban design and planning can be implemented in
Open Access
other cases as well.

Genius Loci, Historic Landscapes, Multicriterion Model, Natural Landscapes,
Pavement Design, Sustainable Planning

1. Introduction
Being an integral part of a places natural and cultural heritage, landscapes play
an important role at cultural, environmental, economic and social level. Climatic

DOI: 10.4236/cus.2017.52014 June 30, 2017

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

and environmental changes, rapid socio-economic growth, uncontrolled urba-

nization and globalization threaten and cause a rupture in the close relationship
between a local community and its space (Antrop, 2005; Karpodini-Dimitriadis,
2009; Van Eetvelde & Antrop, 2004). These developments gave rise to the need
to conserve and protect the holistic and complex character of landscapes; as a
result questions are raised in relation to the concept of sustainability such as
what should be preserved and protected, at what level and what the time span
should be. The response was given by the Convention of Florence (ELC, 2011),
which except for the importance of sustainable development of tangible inherent
qualities and values of landscapes such as natural resources, biodiversity, habi-
tats, water and cultural heritage, introduced the importance of intangible values
such as picturesqueness, aesthetics, identity and spirit of the place. The Conven-
tion essentially aimed to bridge past with future landscapes, but without any
specific references to how this could be actually achieved (Antrop, 2000, 2005,
2006; ELC, 2011; Van Damme, Leinfelder, & Uyttenhove, 2012; Von Haaren,
2002). This might pose a problem which local communities should resolve.
This problem has been expressed, especially at local level, by organized actions
taken by the inhabitants of the town of Didimoticho, highlighting the need for
planning studies and projects which would take into account the parameters that
define the current role and interaction of the archaeological sites and monu-
ments with the daily life of the town but also the inhabitants need for quality
public open spaces. This need led to the idea that the unification of archaeologi-
cal sites would help their promotion, protection and involvement in everyday
town life.
The aim of this paper is to put forward a proposal for the paving of the unifi-
cation zone of the archaeological sites; the proposal is based on sustainability
criteria and public participation in the design process and looks into the connec-
tion of two acropolises, Kales and Plotinopolis, with a street of 1600 meters in
length, mostly running in parallel with the southern and south-eastern side of
the castle Kales walls and the flow of the river Erythropotamos (Figure 1).
Two principal research problems had to be solved: the definition of aesthetic
parameters and sustainability criteria in accordance with local conditions. Fur-
thermore, given that 1) it is essential, yet difficult to understand aesthetic factors
within a local context and therefore taking them into account in sustainable de-
sign is rarely the case (Anonymous, 2012; Dreiseitl, 2013; Meyer, 2008); 2) the
top-down approach is the most common strategy employed when designing a
public space (Anuar & Saruwono, 2012; Hidle & Leknes, 2012; Mahdavinejad &
Abedi, 2011), although literature on this issue argues that public participation in
local planning is an ethical practice, which should be encouraged, taking into
account local cultural conditions and the power structure of the local communi-
ty (Arnstein, 1969; Baum, 1998; Friedmann, 1998; Rydin & Pennington, 2000;
Tauxe, 1995); and 3) integrating social, economic and environmental aims into
planning simultaneously is difficult to be achieved in practice (Campbell, 1996;
Echenique, Hargreaves, Mitchell, & Namdeo, 2012). Our contribution is a case

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Figure 1. Kales Castle-Plotinopolis route; Monuments: 1. Pentazono, 2. Kalioportes Gates, 3. Ourouts Pasas Baths, 4. the Tower
of Princess, 5. the VagiazitMosque, 6. Pyrostia, 7. Byzantine Museum.

study that looks into the application of a participatory methodology which con-
nects aesthetics and the three aforementioned dimensions of sustainability.

1.1. Historic Landscapes and the Modern City

Schulz was the first to introduce the term of genius loci, the spirit of place as
perceived by people in a certain place and, defined the landscapes as romantic,
cosmic, classic and complex according to their distinct characteristics structured
by tangible and intangible forms (Schulz, 2009). Historic landscapes bear com-
plicated features related to space and time. They reveal a unique spirit of place
(genius loci) that shapes their identity. These particular landscapes and their
monuments have a symbolic value and function as landmarks that allow orienta-
tion both in space and time. Monuments register a permanent, lasting trace in
space, which keeps alive the thoughts and acts of those who built them, and
create links between space and its people, and between history and memory.
Monuments also establish the historical consistency of places. Changing their
features and consistency would inevitably lead to loss of identity (Antrop, 2000;
Kozyraki & Tsalikidis, 2005; Stavridis, 2006). In light of the Nara Document of

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Authenticity, a broader understanding of the tangible and intangible values of

the cultural heritage within the local context can assist practical decision-making
in heritage conservation. Raising public awareness of the history and the mean-
ing of the values represented by cultural properties themselves inspires public
respect for the role monuments and historic sites play in contemporary society
(ICOMOS, 1994).
However, inaccessible archaeological sites, silent monuments and the absence
of daily interaction between modern space and people can lead to oblivion, wear
and obsolescence. Management that tends to separate culture from nature and
history from contemporary reality contributes significantly to the disintegration
of the historic landscape and the gradual erasion of its identity; it further con-
siders human beings only as passing visitors rather than as active participants
(Kozyraki & Tsalikidis, 2005). Therefore, any attempt to understand and protect
historic landscapes should not only reconstruct past forms of the landscape, but
also start with the contemporary environment and include local features, com-
plexity and diversity of landscape to allow local communities to carry out their
own assessment. Modern design of historic landscapes should be characterized
by variability and adaptability so as to meet constant development and changes
should highlight and preserve the natural and cultural diversity and uniqueness
of the place; in other words, preserve the spirit of place. Moreover, certain
elements as topography, water, vegetation, climate, rocks and historical monu-
ments are assessed by local residents and consequently design is based on how
they understand their own place and how they intend to preserve or change it
(Karpodini-Dimitriadis, 2009; Kozyraki & Tsalikidis, 2005; Pellegrino, 2006;
Stephenson, 2010). Recent research has shown that the participatory approach in
design is a sustainable values-driven process and can be applied successfully
(Echenique et al., 2012; Schilling & Logan, 2008).
When designing interventions in historic landscapes, the challenge is ob-
viously to address the creation of new elements of landscape which arise from
the reality and diversity of the needs of contemporary human and other living
beings; to integrate new design ideas, modern materials and new structures; or
add new functions into existing ones, without subverting the identity of the
landscape (Marcucci, 2000; Von Haaren, 2002). The unification of archaeologi-
cal sites and thus of historic landscapes is a design proposal that aims to inte-
grate them into modern city life, securing historical continuity and preserving
the character of the city, while protecting and enhancing the landscapes by
creating a unified network that apart from the dominant elements (monuments
and places of historical memory) incorporates green and free public spaces,
which could host cultural and leisure activities or facilities (Galani, 2004). The
main connecting design element of such a network is a corridor which, being it-
self an outdoor public space, not only unifies historical and natural landscapes,
but also connects people from different social groups, nationalities and ages with
both their cultural past and future, thus promoting the sustainability of a city
system (Fylaktou-Cattaneo, 2004; Gehl, 2002).

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

1.2. Principles, Criteria and Different Design Approaches to the

Unification of Archaeological Sites
Given the limited experience in unification of archaeological sites globally and
the fact that according to the Convention of Florence (Prieur, 2006), the aesthet-
ics, a dimension of the quality of landscapes, should be taken into account, the
examination of two different design approaches followed in Athens, even though
not participatory, provides significant input to understanding and defining aes-
thetic factors within a local context.
The creation of a network of pedestrian pathways that link the archaeological
zones of Athens was part of one of the largest, unique and distinctive interven-
tions aiming at the harmonious coexistence of various cultural elements asso-
ciated with the citys historic heritage but also with its modern growth (Minis-
try-of-Culture-and-Sports, 2017). The Athenian Walk, the main axis of the
unification of the archaeological sites in Athens that connects downtown with
the Acropolis, was made possible by turning Dionysios Areopagitis and Apostle
Pavlos streets into pedestrian lanes (a total of 1700 meters in length). The paving
of the pathways is compatible with the historic landscape, the Acropolis and the
hills they connect but also with the surrounding urban environment. The austere
paving, with its consistent and uniform appearance, without any inlays and
morphological concoctions, restores a sense of continuity. The materials, gneiss
cobblestone, whitish marble slabs, old curbs and gravel reinforced with cement,
are also simple. The creation of links between civil and environmental options
such as restoration, renewal, recycling and regeneration of urban infrastructure
elements, the placement of appropriate lighting, the planting of trees and shrubs,
along with the conservation and emergence of the historic olive grove, served the
sustainability purposes well. Quality of life was improved by maintaining and
increasing the green space, reducing air pollution, aesthetic upgrading, improv-
ing and encouraging the movement of pedestrians, restoring the continuity of
public and historical sites, and securing easy access to open spaces by public
transport (Fylaktou-Cattaneo, 2004; Loukaki, 2008; Papageorgiou-Venetas, 2005;
Ministry-of-Culture-and-Sports, 2017).
Half a century ago, the renowned architect Dimitris Pikionis, the forerunner
of the unification of the archaeological sites, created two spiral paths, one closing
at the site of the Acropolis hill, while the other moved away from the Acropolis,
towards the Filopappos hill, leading to a plateau where walkers can have a view
of the sacred rock of the Acropolis. Because of the sequence of design and vari-
ous improvised events fabricated into a meaningful coherent unit, this route has
been described as a narrative route, in contrast to the simple and uniform cha-
racter of the Athenian Walk. The sustainable design served its purpose well,
even though the concept of the project implementation was unknown at the time
(1954-1958). The configuration of paths and the interventions are in perfect
harmony with the natural and historic landscape, a result of an in-depth aware-
ness of the history of the place and its natural terrain. Pikionis listened to the
spirit of place and promoted its uniqueness through diversity (Iliakis, 2011;

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Kathimerini, 1994). The work looks for common elements between the global
tradition (antiquity, eastern culture, modernism) and the Greek tradition. The
character of paving changes depends on visual escapes to the monuments. The
paving at the Acropolis makes constant references to antiquity, following more
stringent geometric shapes; there is a clear reference to Byzantine tradition
around the church of St. Demetrios Loumpardiaris on the Filopappos hill, while
the southern part of the hill walk is influenced by the modern city. The alterna-
tion of visual perceptions is continuous and the element of surprise constantly
plays an important role. The motifs of paving become more frequent and more
complex in steep paths so as to entertain the walkers spirit, helping him climb.
Paving surrounds trees and shrubs and avoids rocks, turning the walkers atten-
tion to natural elements. The kerbs where rain water flows, help rain become a
narrative event that accompanies the walker on his track and has connotations
of nature similar to the eastern Japanese tradition; Pikionis was familiar with the
latter, which to some extent is similar to the perception of nature and space an-
cient Greeks held (Iliakis, 2011; Kapsali & Potiriadi, 2010). The global and local
identity of monuments is bridged with references to modernism (paintings of
Paul Klee) and influences from cubism (Picasso and Braque). The history of
place and myths interact with the scenery and the modern city. The connection
to the modern is achieved with the use of concrete and brick with holes, while
the connection to tradition is accomplished with the reuse of materials derived
from the mass demolitions of neoclassical buildings and Athenian houses of this
particular era; ancient clay, marble or stone findings are also used. The substra-
tum of paving, a layer of sand, 25 cm thick, allows the rainwater to be filtered
towards the underground aquifer. The massive lime stones alternate with thick
marble slabs of various shapes and sizes and in between them, stripes of concrete
lie. The walk turns into a spiritual experience, activating the presence of walker
with inventions associated with selected visual escapes to the landscape and allow-
ing the natural elements to emerge. The inseparable blending of nature with his-
tory has been achieved by combining local and universal elements (Iliakis, 2011;
Kapsali & Potiriadi, 2010; Kathimerini, 1994; Kotionis, 2004; Loukaki, 2008).

1.3. The Case Study

Built on the confluence of the major river Evros and its tributary Erythropota-
mos, Didimoticho is a provincial town located in the north-eastern Greece; its
population comes to 9367 inhabitants (2011 census). Its history goes back to
prehistoric and ancient times while many monuments from the Roman, Byzan-
tine and Ottoman Empire eras are preserved (Figure S1). Various ethnic groups,
Gypsies, Turks, Armenians and Jews have lived in the town along with its main
Greek population since the beginning of its history, creating a multicultural so-
ciety. Most Turks fled as refugees to Turkey during the Balkan wars (1912-1913)
and today the only Muslim residents of the town are the Roma who draw their
origins from Egypt or the West Indies. Its Jewish community was one of the
oldest in Greece and the largest in Greek Thrace. On May 4, 1943, in the midst

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

of the German Occupation, 731 Jews were arrested and deported from Didimo-
ticho to Poland, on a journey with no return. In the second half of the 19th cen-
tury, its Armenian community experienced great social and economic develop-
ment; the Armenians worked as silversmiths and traders. Today only a few Ar-
menian families still live in the town. Ecosystems of rich biodiversity are found
on the wetlands of the river network; today these ecosystems are threatened by
intensive agriculture, excavations, soil extractions and illegal dumping of sewage
and waste. The climate is Mediterranean with medium rainfall throughout the
year, hot dry summers and wet cold winters accompanied by frequent snowfalls.
In the absence of natural barriers, the region is exposed to northern winter
winds but also to winds blowing from all directions throughout the year
(Gouridis, 2006; Pantsoglou, 2006; Matzarakis, 2006; TET, 2011).
Thrace is a rural region and one of the most disadvantageous regions in Eu-
rope with a low level of economic and social development and a high rate of
unemployment. Sustainable tourism ensuring the preservation of natural and
cultural heritage could play a key role in the development of this rural region.
Yet, this requires the creation of an appropriate infrastructure (Eurostat, 2013;
Martn, Molina, & Fernndez, 2012).
According to the statute of the association Kalioportes founded in 2008 by
the residents of the towns oldest neighbourhood, extended between the south-
ern and south-eastern side of the Kales castle walls and the river Erythropo-
tamos, one of its objectives is to promote the redevelopment of the riverside
area. In order to communicate this need, the association organized the confe-
rence Rivers within the cities; a blessing or a curse? The participants in this
open discussion suggested a pedestrian and cycling path be constructed, which
would run along the riverside and Plotinopolis, and go around the town; the fra-
gile river ecosystem and the natural landscape be protected, and the towns arc-
haeological sites be promoted (Kalioportes, 2008, 2009). A group of young
people started the RedRiver festival aiming at the promotion of the historical
and natural features of the riverside by organizing cultural events (Figure S2);
the festival has been held every year since 2008 (, 2013). Another citizens
movement, the volunteer tourist guides, was initiated in 2007, in order to con-
tribute to the promotion, rescue and preservation of the towns monuments and
archaeological sites (Sinapidis, 2007a). Furthermore, an online article has been
published to support the need of unification of the towns historic sites (Sinapi-
dis, 2007b). In February 2014, an association of volunteer citizens Kastropolites
Knowledge & Action was established with the aim of promoting and raising
public awareness of local history and heritage. Their latest venture was to uproot
the weeds and clean the castle (Kastropolites, 2014).
On the one hand, the aforementioned actions of the town residents related to
the need of both safeguarding and upgrading the towns historic and natural
landscapes; on the other hand, the traffic problems caused by the narrow streets
of the historic centre, lack of parking lots and the pedestrianization of the main
commercial street without prior meticulous planning (Patsuridis, 2014; Sinapi-

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

dis, 2006) made us have our research focused on the sustainable design of a
pavement along the river as the best option for unifying the archaeological sites,
namely the Roman town Plotinopolis and the Kales castle. Therefore, we ex-
cluded from our research the examination of alternative routes towards the inte-
rior part of the town, for instance, towards the Mosque which is located in the
central square of the town and the new Byzantine museum, as such a study
would require a wider multidisciplinary approach.
Under the administrative reform aiming at decentralization, the emperor
Trajan (98 - 117 a.c.) established in honour of his wife Plotina, the town of Plo-
tinopolis which grew into a commercial centre at the confluence of the rivers
Erythopotamos and Evros, navigable in antiquity. The excavation research re-
vealed impressive mosaics, ceramics, a pipeline system and coins, a complex of
well and chamber of great architectural art and other findings which indicated
that the citadel was populated from the 2nd until the 6th century a.c. (Figure
S3). There is an ongoing excavation and the site is at the moment inaccessible to
the public because of the lack of special housing which would preserve and pro-
tect it (Koutsoumanis, 2005). The fortification of the town and the construction
of the castle walls date back to the mid-6th century, during the times of the By-
zantine emperor Justinian, when the devastation of Plotinopolis began. Contrary
to Plotinopolis, the castle is within an accessible site, part of which is inhabited
(Gouridis, 2007; Papadopoulos, 1990). Yet, the access is not easy because the
street is very steep (Figure S4).

1.4. Sustainability, Participatory and Multicriterion Approach to

Urban Design and Planning
Integrating landscape into town design and planning policies reinforces and
meets the requirements of sustainability. The concept of sustainability relates to
the continuity of environmental, economic, cultural and social aspects of a place
(Djeant-Pons, 2006). According to the UNECE Aarhus Convention and the
European Landscape Convention (ELC), a sustainable future depends directly
on public participation in decision-making (Prieur, 2006; UNECE, 1998). Thus,
legal and ethical reasons enforce citizens to take part in urban design and plan-
ning at particular stages of development.
As a result, 1) public participation can be used as an effective tool for local
people to identify how they perceive landscapes and express their preferences
and needs; 2) it may also improve decision-making as local knowledge, ideas and
different views could complement expert knowledge; 3) it takes into considera-
tion local culture and history; 4) it may ensure transparency and increase trust
and acceptability of the final result (Blackstock & Richards, 2007; Conrad, Chris-
tie, & Fazey, 2011; Davies, Selin, Gano, & Pereira, 2012; Matsuoka & Kaplan,
The bottom-up approach can function in line with sustainability considera-
tions and the legal framework. Nevertheless, it is important to take into account
some limitations and potential pitfalls: 1) it is difficult to reach consensus

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

amongst all stakeholders; increasing participation does not automatically entail

that power relations and conflicts within the boundaries of research are resolved;
local people should be prepared for the participatory activities; 2) minorities and
particularly the destitute might be excluded from the research and, only key in-
formants might be used or the demands of the more powerful be legitimized; 3)
future participants, who will be affected by the results, are excluded from deci-
sion-making; 4) lack of public understanding of the value of cultural heritage
conservation could be a problem (Arnstein, 1969; Byrne, 1991; Innes & Booher,
2004; Maier, 2001; Nss, 2001; Sanoff, 2008; Thomas, Chataway, & Wuyts, 1998;
Yung & Chan, 2011).
In order to address the ineffectiveness of the participatory mechanisms and
given the time frame and the fact that we represent no official local public or
private agent which could undertake the organization of workshops, we used
structured questionnaires and interviews, randomly collected, as participation
actions at two stages of the research (Hassan, El Hefnawi, & El Refaie, 2011). We
employed a multicriterion decision-making method to analyze and assess dif-
ferent alternative scenarios. A weakness of the multicriterion method is that the
final solution depends mostly on weighting criteria which have often been se-
lected and assessed arbitrarily (Dulmin & Mininno, 2003; Lahdelma, Salminen,
& Hokkanen, 2000). The accurate calculation of the weights selected according
to local conditions along with the sensitivity analysis made an objective and
unambiguous approach possible.

2. Research Methodology
2.1. Exploratory Research
The exploratory research aimed to identify the distinctive character of local
landscapes as these were perceived by the town residents; in particular, it looked
into the relationship of space and time through the collective and individual
memory, and the interaction between people and historical and natural land-
scapes. Exploring how local people determined the aesthetic parameters of the
unification proposals was our main concern. Figure 2 presents the methodology
process of the exploratory and main research we explain in detail in this section
and in Appendices A-C.
For the purposes of our research, a questionnaire was designed comprising
four parts. The first part consisted of a series of structured questions, investigat-
ing the level of information of respondents about the history of local monu-
ments, the oral tradition through their knowledge of legends, and the assessment
of the present condition and image of the towns archaeological sites. The option
of a categorical response was given, ranking from Most important to Least
important. The questions of the second part were related to the level of respon-
dents information about the biodiversity of the network of the Erythropotamos
and Evros rivers, their assessment of the current condition and image of the
natural landscape, and of the degree of significance of values connected with the
landscapes (Ode, Tveit, & Fry, 2008; Tveit, Ode, & Fry, 2006). The third part

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Figure 2. Research strategy.

aimed at eliciting the respondents perception of the spirit of place and the prin-
ciples and design approach they approved of with regard to the unification
route. Finally, the fourth part included questions about the respondents so-
cio-economic background.
Concerning the aesthetic parameters related to the design of the unification
pavement, the residents preferences were explored using an interval scale for
eight parameters:
With straight formations-With curved formations
With few colours-With many colours
With smooth texture-With rough texture
With motifs-Without motifs
With similar materials-With different materials and
With contrasts-Unvaried
They ranged from 3 to +3; 0 indicated indifference. The questionnaire
was pilot- tested before being finalized. Therefore, we tested the design prin-
ciples followed such as a clear understanding of the objective of information re-
quested by the respondents, neutrality, clarity and simplicity in the wording of

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

questions and shortness, about ten minutes required time for filling up.
For the preliminary approach, two target groups were selected at random by
two interviewers: adults aged 20 and above (Mean age = 47.41, SD = 15.951), and
youths aged between 14 and 19 years (Mean age = 16.76, SD = 1.041) in accor-
dance with the requirements of the European Landscape Convention, which
emphasizes the role that young people could play in preserving landscape iden-
tity (E.C., 2006). About four out of five citizens accepted to participate in the
survey. A total of 124 valid questionnaires were compiled; 50 of them were com-
pleted by adolescents. Participants completed the questionnaire in cafs, shops,
open air markets, streets and outside the premises of the towns two secondary
schools. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS13.0). Based on the design guidelines defined by the people of the initial
survey, a sample of six alternative paving projects was designed with the use of
the Computer Aided Design (AutoCAD) programme (Figure A1).

2.2. The Main Research

The aim of the main research was to explore reactions to What if scenarios,
establishing a list of Musts and a list of Wants, which are significant tools for the
application of the Kepner-Tregoe model depicted in Figure 2. This model is a
simple multicriterion model suitable for comparing a limited number of differ-
ent options, which are evaluated against a combination of Musts and Wants.
In this case, the model was used to evaluate the six unification options put
forward by the preliminary research. The six design proposals were printed and
then, evaluated by 61 residents (Mean age = 44.08, SD = 17.373) during personal
interviews; they were given a score on a scale of 1 to 6. In this way, the list of
Musts was established. The number of options was considered neither small to
restrict the number of choices nor large to cause confusion and difficulties in the
assessment carried out by the participants. Our fieldwork showed that a higher
number of printed solutions would be hardly manageable by both respondents
and researchers.
Taking into account the local conditions such as climate and natural re-
sources, five criteria of sustainability were determined and then a list of Wants
weighed in the range 0 - 1 was established (Appendix B). Finally, the application
of the model revealed the design proposal that best met the predetermined sus-
tainability criteria.

3. Data analysis and Results

3.1. Public Participation in the Design Approach
Fifty four percent of the respondents preferred the path unifying the two acro-
polises to be used only by pedestrians and cyclists (33.1%) rather than turned
into a low traffic road (22.6%), while 51.6% preferred a frieze of greenery to sep-
arate the different road services. 16.9% of the respondents described the land-
scape as romantic characterized by diversity and plurality. 7.3% described it as
cosmic characterized by uniformity and geometry. 33.1% described it as classic

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

characterized by harmonious balance, without plurality or monotony, which is

unique in integrating distinctive elements and maintaining their identity on the
whole. Finally, 42.7% described it as compound and complex with elements
from all the aforementioned characterizations.
As to the definition of aesthetic variables and the character of paving, graphs
in Figure 3 were created based on the responses of 124 participants. Concerning
the Austere-Complicated choices, the most frequent responses occurred at the
left hand, at the Austere panel of Figure 3(a) (M = 1.000, SD = 1.653). Con-
cerning the With straight formations to With curved formations choices
(Figure 3(b)), there was a significant peak at the value 0; in this case, the low
standard deviation shows that the data points tend to be very close to the mean
(M = 0.161, SD = 1.605). Concerning the With few colours to With many
colours choices (Figure 3(c)), more responses occurred at the left panel (M=
0.331, SD = 1.966) and the same happened with the Symmetric to Asymme-
tric choices presented in Figure 3(d) (M = 0.234, SD = 1.673), while the mean
value was closer to the right hand panel of With smooth-rough texture choices
(Figure 3(e)), to the rough texture panel (M = 0.250, SD = 2.019). The responses
were shared almost equally left and right of the mean highest value to the With
motifs-Without motifs panels in Figure 3(f) (M = 0.024, SD = 2.001) and the
same was observed with the With similar-With different materials choices of
Figure 3(g) (M = 0.105, SD = 2.019). Finally, the most frequent responses oc-
curred at the right hand at the Unvaried panel in Figure 3(h), concerning the
With contrasts-Unvaried choices (M = 0.508, SD = 1.973).

3.2. Analysis of Design Proposals

Taking into account the local conditions and the analysis of data collected by the
questionnaire at the preliminary stage (see Appendix A and Appendix C), six
paving designs, presented in Figure A1, were developed. Then, local residents
were requested to evaluate the six proposals by means of personal interviews.
The main idea was to design two paths, one for pedestrians and another for
cyclists separated with a greenery frieze (Figure 4). The pedestrian path was
paved with grey granite cobblestones and ran along the river, while the bicycle
lane was constructed with packed soil. The greenery strip between the pedestrian
and bicycle lane was demarcated with red brick.

3.3. Identification of Musts and Wants

The total scores (TS) of the design proposals were obtained by processing the
data of the design proposals evaluation sheets (61 in total) filled in by the inter-
viewees and the definition of a list of Musts (M) on a hierarchical scale ranging
from 1 to 6 was estimated with Equation (1) for each proposal.
TSM j = zij (1)
i =1

where z is the score of respondent i for the jth case ( j = 1, 2, , 6 ).

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Figure 3. Peoples choices between (N = 124): (a) Austere and complicated, (b) with straight and
curved formations, (c) with few and many colours, (d) symmetric and asymmetric, (e) with
smooth and rough texture, (f) with and without motifs, (g) with similar and different materials
and (h) with contrasts and unvaried.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)
Figure 4. Snapshots of the design proposals: (a) first, (b) second, (c) third, (d) forth,
(e) fifth and (f) sixth.

The detailed calculation of weight factors based on five sustainability crite-

ria selected, i.e. construction cost, local availability of materials, embodied
energy, albedo and permeability of the unit of 108 m2 of the six design pro-
posals along with the justification for this choice is presented in more detail
in Table 1 and Appendix B. The total scores (TS) of Wants (W) was esti-
mated with Equation (2) for each proposal.
TSW j = xcj (2)
c =1

where xcj is the score of the criterion c ( c = 1, 2, ,5 ) for the jth case
( j = 1, 2, , 6 ).

3.4. The Application of Kepner-Tregoe Model

For the application of Kepner-Tregoe model Musts and Wants must be multip-
lied as indicated by Equation (3) in order to calculate the final scores (FS). Cal-
culations led to conclusion that the 5th proposal was the best option (Table 1).
FS j TSM j TSW j
= (3)

A sensitivity analysis was undertaken for the weight of cost criterion ranging

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Table 1. Final results.

Design Residents Criteria Kepner-Tregoe

Proposals (j) choices rank rank rank

1st 3.344 4 2.105 4 7.040 5

2nd 3.787 2 2.124 3 8.042 2

3rd 3.393 3 2.087 5 7.083 4

4th 3.066 5 2.535 2 7.772 3

5th 4.803 1 3.169 1 15.223 1

6th 2.656 6 2.016 6 5.353 6

from 0% to 100%; the fifth proposal remained at the first rank for all examined
weights. Moreover, the 5th proposal accumulated in total 293 points [(2X1) +
(2X2) + (5X3) + (15X4) + (10X5) + (27X6)] (M = 4.803) and the Wilcoxon Signed
Ranks test indicated to be leading with statistically significant difference from
the second one (M = 3.787) and thus from all the rest (z = 3.167, p = 0.002).

4. Discussion
According to the data of the initial questionnaire survey, a high percentage of
respondents stated that their knowledge of local history and biodiversity of the
riparian zone was poor. More than 50% of them were somewhat informed about
the meaning of the names of three out of seven places they had been asked
about. Interestingly, a large percentage of respondents (72.6%) did not know the
meaning of the name of the Pentazonon monument located on the riverside,
adjacent to a high traffic road, which took its name from the morphology of the
monument, i.e. the alternation of five zones of bricks with stone blocks. Howev-
er, most of the respondents had heard a legend, tradition or tale related to the
towns history, which serves as evidence of a live collective memory. Besides,
the narratives are that make cultural heritage real to people (Swensen,
Jerpsen, Ster, & Tveit, 2012). They also stated that they visit archaeological
sites including those of their hometown, yet not that often. According to them,
the main reason why they did not visit the sites was lack of time, followed by
lack of interest; the fact that visiting the monuments required hard walking was
an additional deterrent (see Appendix C). These findings indicate that 1) the
residents perception of landscapes might be assessed on the grounds of aes-
thetic value which relates to their visibility and distinctive presence in the
towns fabric and in the living memories the monuments represent rather than
to knowledge of local history and biodiversity (Deeben, Groenewoudt, Hallewas,
& Willems, 1999; Loures, Vargues, & Horta, 2008); 2) the need for the towns
landscapes to attract the residents interest without competing with any other
social interests. Tourist activity, apart from its contribution to local economy,
could raise awareness of cultural and natural heritage among local community
(Carbone, Oosterbeek, & Costa, 2012); 3) the importance of designing a mea-

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

ningful space where stories could be heard (Mehta, 2014; Sandercock, 2003). The
design we propose could form part of a wider urban planning necessary for
keeping heritage sites alive and for making them attractive and accessible, and
part of the required infrastructure for sustainable tourism development.
As far as the factors of degradation of the towns historic sites and landscapes
were concerned, they were all generally evaluated as important (see Tables C1,
Tables C2). However, the respondents indicated as most important, the scat-
tered trash, the generally poor condition of landscapes, the lack of signs, the li-
mited restoration and maintenance of monuments, the limited access to arc-
haeological sites, their safety and the wild vegetation. The presence of insects in
summer was evaluated quite important, obviously because of the mosquito in-
fested region; walking along the route of the unification zone of the archaeolog-
ical sites was described as pleasant and not at all tedious. The implementation of
an intervention requires not only financial resources but also political will and
changes in values and attitudes. All residents are partly responsible for rubbish
scattered everywhere and generally for the poor condition of the landscapes.
According to (Liberatore, 1995): putting into practice the idea of sustainable
development requires an integration of political will, economic and technical
resources, knowledge of natural and social processes and changes in social values
and behaviours that is very difficult to achieve. Moreover, given the present
conditions of the towns landscapes, a value-based approach for heritage con-
servation, which attempts to engage the local community in the conservation
process on the basis of tangible values rather than intangible ones, might be the
best strategy at a first stage. A public acceptable design for the unification of
archaeological sites could facilitate the connection of local people with their her-
itage and help them to consider heritage as an integral part of their contempo-
rary life and of a holistic view of the community development. Continuation of
the past into future through the active role of the present community in land-
scape conservation and a living heritage approach which emphasizes intangible
values would be the next step of an established value-based strategy (Abdel Ta-
wab, 2012; Poulios, 2014).
All values associated with landscapes were important, most of all the intrinsic
value of all creatures and biodiversity and least of all religion, meditation and
contemplation. Entertainment with outdoor activities was evaluated more im-
portant than activities in the city (see Table C3). Previous research demonstrat-
ed that putting landscapes in the context of public perception could only be un-
derstood through the integration of values; consequently, their incorporation in
planning is of crucial importance (de Groot, Winnubst, van Schie, & van Ast,
2014; Mydland & Grahn, 2011; Stephenson, 2008). Therefore, local people ex-
pressed their preference and need for clean, well-looked-after public spaces
hosting social activities and humans, which would not be in conflict with wildlife
and they stressed the importance of adopting parallel measures so as to protect
natural habitats. This position was reinforced by the respondents negative view
of the presence of vehicles along the route of unification and their preference for
a pedestrian-cycling route with a greenery frieze but also by their choice of the

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

austere, simple design approach.

According to the evaluation of the respondents, the fifth proposal was well
ahead of the rest (see Table 1). Apart from uniformity, symmetry, linearity and
austerity, it was characterized by a greenery strip, 1.64 meters in width, with
benches. The variety of plants of different texture, colour and shape could satisfy
the preference of young people for complex and colourful paving (Appendix C)
but also of those who selected asymmetry, curved shapes and motifs, enhanced
by variability, which characterizes the water element and the form of torrential
As regards the evaluation of proposals in accordance with sustainability crite-
ria, such as construction cost, local availability, albedo, embodied energy and
permeability of materials used, results showed that the most expensive proposal
was the sixth, followed by the third and the first ones, while the fifth was the
cheapest. The surface of granite cobblestones, an expensive material, was the key
factor that determined the cost (see Table B1, Table B7). The surface of cob-
blestones, material not locally available, also determined the assessment of pro-
posals based on the second criterion. Thus, the fifth proposal got the highest
score, followed by the fourth and second ones, while the sixth got the lowest
(Table B2, Table B3, Table B7). The surface of greenery having low albedo de-
termined the assessment rank for the third criterion and so the lowest score was
obtained by the fifth proposal and the highest by the first, while the second and
sixth ones got nearly the same points (see Table B4, Table B7). The fourth pro-
posal embodied the most energy, followed by the third and sixth ones, while the
fifth the less. The surfaces of gravel, material with high embodied energy and
those of granite cobblestones determined the level of scoring, due to their heavy
weight per unit area (see Table B5, Table B7). The fifth proposal was the most
permeable, followed by the fourth because of the total size of greenery and gravel
area, while the sixth was the least permeable due to the large surface paved with
impervious granite (sees Table B6, Table B7).
After adjusting the points of all sustainability criteria, the fifth proposal re-
ceived the highest score compared to the rest (see Table B8). This proposal
proved to be the cheapest, with less embodied energy, easy to be constructed
with locally available materials and planted with indigenous plants; it also had
the highest permeability. This proposal had the lowest albedo; although summer
temperatures in the region are very high, given that the route is in close proxim-
ity with the natural water, this could be considered less significant compared to a
road in a completely urban environment.
To sum up, the present research indicated that 1) on a theoretical level, the
participatory approach could be applied to an urban planning and design
process which requires the definition and combination of aesthetic and sustai-
nability factors; 2) on a practical level, a design proposal for the paving of the
unification zone of archaeological sites in Didimoticho could be based on the
spirit of place and local sustainability criteria. Moreover, it revealed the prob-
lems connected to the towns historical and natural landscapes.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

5. Conclusion
The design proposal of a pedestrian path paved with grey granite cobblestones
and a cycling path paved with packed soil, separated from one another with a
strip of greener, 1.64 meters in width, and benches, demarcated by red brick, in
linear style following the curving patterns of the riverbed emerged as the most
preferable solution for the unification of the archaeological sites of the town of
Didimoticho. This proposal was evaluated with the highest scores by the resi-
dents among six proposals and, in addition, it also had the highest scores after
making adjustments for construction cost, local availability, embodied energy,
albedo and permeability of paving materials. It was also the most economical
solution. This option also remained the optimal when weights were applied to
the scores of Wants of five criteria. It was characterized by simplicity, geome-
tric shapes, uniform and linear formations and could be constructed with the use
of different, natural, mostly local materials. However, the austere design was
moderated by diversity in texture, shape, colour and variability of plant species
of the greenery frieze and the riparian zone due to seasonal changes. In addition,
it could encourage walking and cycling and thus contact with nature and visiting
archaeological sites, interpersonal contacts and meetings between people of all
In particular, this survey clearly revealed the degraded image of the towns
historical and natural landscapes; highlighted the need to preserve and restore
the monuments, and undertake further excavation activities; also revealed the
problem of the annoying presence of insects in summer, the poor knowledge of
the inhabitants about their historical heritage and the biodiversity of the river
network and the need for outdoor social and cultural activities.
Our research points out that the following issues require further investigation:
1) the regeneration of the riparian zone and the design of a pedestrian network
which would connect the main suburban unification axis of archaeological sites
with monuments located in the urban fabric, old traditional neighbourhoods
and museums, 2) the study of planting and enrichment of the fauna of the ripa-
rian zone, 3) the creation of educational and informational material for all ages
about the history and biodiversity of the region, 4) means to curb the mosquito
problem and 5) the allocation of open spaces for hosting social and cultural ac-
In general, this study shed light on an applied methodology which could bear
good results in practice; this methodology constitutes a useful tool not only for
researchers but also for public authorities who wish to incorporate participatory
and sustainability approaches to urban design and planning. Its academic signi-
ficance consists in presenting the application of a model which simplifies and
connects the complicated issues of aesthetics and sustainability concepts in a lo-
cal urban context.

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Cultural Landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning, 60, 73-80.
Voudiklaris, G. T., & Anagnostopoulos, P. (2009). Paving of Outdoor Spaces with Con-
crete Cobblestones and Cobblestones of New Technology.
Yung, E. H. K., & Chan, E. H. W. (2011). Problem Issues of Public Participation in Built-
Heritage Conservation: Two Controversial Cases in Hong Kong. Habitat International,
35, 457-466.
D: LR1-P (2011). Decision Approving the Environmental Terms for the Op-
eration of the Brick Factory of the Company CERAMICS EVROS S.A. Which Is Lo-
cated near the Village of Lepti Orestiada in North Evros. Komotini: Decentralized Ad-
ministration of MacedoniaThrace, General Management Department of Planning &
Environmental Policy, Environmental & Spatial Planning of East MacedoniaThrace,
Department of Environmental Planning.
(2013). 6th Cultural Festival of Didymoteicho, RedRiver2-8 2013.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Appendix A. Analysis of Design Proposals

Multiculturalism and diversity would be a two-word description of the histor-
ical landscapes of the town of Didimoticho. The main design elements found in
the monuments are rectangular blocks, red bricks embedded in the masonry;
round and square formations, curved arches, geometrical and complicated mo-
tives, massive grey stones and colourful mosaics (see Figure S1 and Figure S3).
The riparian landscape is characterized by biodiversity and the name of the Riv-
er Erythropotamos literally means the red river [ erythros]. Moreo-
ver, its old name GisilDere or Crazy River comes from the era of the Otto-
man Empire, and denotes its torrential character, variability of landscape due to
winter floods and considerable reduction in flow over summer. Additionally,
low winter temperatures, snowfalls and frequent frosts as well as high summer
temperatures and low rainfall rates called for the selection of paving materials
that are resistant to extreme changes in climatic conditions, permeable, with
high albedo and low slipperiness. Moreover, the lack of natural barriers and
prevalence of winds blowing from all directions throughout the year created the
need for enrichment of the existing yet degraded local flora.
The majority of respondents (42.7%) characterized the landscape along the
unification route as complex and thus varied, plural, but uniform, in harmo-
nious balance with nature and as having a distinctive identity; the visual escapes
along the route to monuments with a distinctive, imposing presence, such as the
castle, caves, the Mosque, the Pentazono and the baths of Ourouts Pasha but also
to the flora and fauna of the riparian zone and the quiet but sometimes impe-
tuous presence of water element account for this distinctive identity. According
to respondents, the style of paving along this route through the complex land-
scape should be simple, uniform and symmetric, with straight and curved con-
figurations, with few colours and materials of rough texture, with and sometimes
without motives. Younger people mostly described the landscape as cosmic,
with geometric shapes and uniformity and showed greater preference for a com-
plicated and colourful paving, while older respondents stated their preference
for asymmetry and rough texture.
In the third and fourth design proposals, the morphological invention of gra-
vel lanes was used while in the sixth; lanes of red granite cobblestones were used.
The main elements of the simple, austere design approach were geometric lines,
uniformity, symmetry and use of different materials with rough texture. The
second proposal had curved formations, while the third, fourth and sixth ones
linear, simple motives to meet these two design preferences. Natural coloured
materials, which fit best the landscape but also the morphology of the monu-
ments, were used. Respect for the landscape and historic heritage, the encou-
ragement of social activities and contacts and movement, which also involves the
sense of continuous flow of running water, constituted the main design guide-
lines of the proposed design approaches (Figure A1).

Appendix B. Calculations
The weight scores of Wants were calculated as follows, according to five sus-

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Figure A1. The design proposals: (a) first, (b) second, (c) third, (d) forth,
(e) fifth and (f) sixth.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

tainability criteria: construction cost of paving, local availability, albedo, embo-

died energy and permeability of materials used. Initially, a total score (TS) was
estimated with the Equation (B1) and then it was reduced to scale 0 - 1 Wants
score (WS) with the Equation (B2) for the criteria of local availability, albedo
and permeability.
TS jc= Acg j Ccg c + As j Csc + Ag j Cg c + Ab j Cbc
+ Acr j Ccrc + Agr j Cgrc

TS jc
jc 0.5 (B2)
TS jc min + TS jc max

where: Acg surface of grey cobblestone, As surface of soil, Ag surface of green-

ery, Ab surface of brick, Acr surface of red cobblestone and Agr surface of gra-
vel, Ccg criterion points for grey cobblestone, Cs criterion points for soil, Cg
criterion points for greenery, Cb criterion points for brick, Ccr criterion points
for red cobblestone and Cgr criterion points for gravel for the proposal j
( j = 1, 2, , 6 ) and criterion c ( c = 1, 2, ,5 ).
TS jc min + TS jc max

WS= 0.5 2 (B3)
TS jc

High scores for cost and embodied energy were not desirable, contrary to lo-
cal availability, albedo and permeability, so the reduction to scale 0 - 1 Wants
score (WS) was calculated with the Equation (B3).
a) 1st Criterion: Construction cost
The concept of sustainability apart from social responsibility, equal opportun-
ities for everyone to participate in decision-making and the environmental di-
mension, includes also an economic dimension (KU, 2011), which in this case
was expressed by calculating the construction cost of each design proposal
(Table B1).
There is a standard cost for all proposals which results from the destruction of
asphalt and landfilling for a surface of 108 m2, a = 372.60 .
b) 2nd Criterion: Local availability of materials

Table B1. Cost of materials and labour (G.S.P.W., 2011).

Materials + Labour Unit

Destruction of asphalt m2 0.37
Landfilling (thickness 0.5 m) m 3
Greenery frieze (short indigenous plants) m 2
Construction of packed soil (thickness of packed soil 1 m) m 3
Paving with granite cobblestones m 2
Paving with bricks m 2
Paving with gravel (thickness of gravel paving 20 cm) m 3

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Preference for local materials contributes to reduction of energy consumption

for the transportation of materials and hence greenhouse gas emissions (Table
The municipality of Didimotihon leases 14 acres quarries for the extraction of
inert materials and a brick manufacturing plant operates at a distance of 22 km,
in the village of Lepti, Orestiada. The extraction and exploitation of stone is an
activity that has long been abandoned in the region and therefore the closest
place for cobblestones supplies is Kavala (Sinapidis, 2011; Vavelidis, Hotzidis, &
Melfos, 2007). Native species of greenery was proposed to be planted in the
greenery friezes (Table B3).
c) 3rd Criterion: Albedo of materials
The use of dark materials in buildings and pavements along, with the lack of
adequate vegetation in cities, which acts as a natural factor that contributes to air
cooling, result in warming surfaces and air in urban environments (Urban Heat
Island). On hot summer days, the temperature of air in the urban environments
can be from 3 up to 10C higher than in suburban areas (Voudiklaris & Anag-
nostopoulos, 2009).
White or coloured materials can be used on surfaces of urban buildings in or-
der to reduce their temperature. Compared with conventional materials of the
same colour, cold materials are characterized by high reflectivity of solar radia-
tion, and high emissivity of infrared radiation because they emit the amounts of
heat absorbed faster. Their use can secure lower surface temperatures compared
to other paving materials (Table B4).
d) 4th Criterion: Embodied energy
The embodied energy of materials includes the energy required for extraction
of raw materials from nature, their transport to manufacturing unit and the

Table B2. Evaluation of materials according to local availability (Shah, 2011).

Distance from the place of manufacturing Points

0 - 20 km 1.0

21 - 50 km 0.8

51 - 100 km 0.6

101 - 200 km 0.2

>200 km 0.0

Table B3. Evaluation of design proposals materials according to local availability.

Materials Distance from the place of manufacturing Points

Cobblestones >200 km 0.0

Soil 0 - 20 km 1.0

Greenery 0 - 20 km 1.0

Bricks 21 - 50 km 0.8

Gravel 0 - 20 km 1.0

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Table B4. Classification of paving materials according to albedo (CP, 2004).

Paving material Albedo (per m2)

Black asphalt
Dark concrete
0.1 - 0.3

Light coloured concrete

Oxidized copper
0.4 - 0.6
Red bricks

Marble 0.7 - 0.9
White coat

energy used in the plant for the provision of finished materials (Shah, 2011).
Embodied energy is an indicator of the overall environmental impact of the
production of a paving material (Table B5).
e) 5th Criterion: Permeability of materials
Cobblestones and bricks are placed on a layer of sand leaving joints, which in
the case of straight line formations are place 5 mm - 10 mm apart, allowing the
movement of rain water to underground aquifers (Nama-Marnrt-Salfo, 2002;
Sovinski, 2009). However, these materials compared to gravel, plant material and
soil are considered impermeable (Table B6).
1) Other Criteria of Sustainability
The recyclability of paving materials, the use of materials in percentage, coming
from recycling, long life cycle and low maintenance requirements are also con-
sidered as sustainability criteria (Shah, 2011). As regards these criteria, materials,
such as soil, cobblestones, bricks and gravel are completely recyclable, have no
particular maintenance requirements and a long life cycle. Moreover, planting of
indigenous species without high water requirements and high maintenance cost
is considered appropriate (Beckman et al., 2001).
Pollution such as emissions of volatile compounds, dioxins or heavy metals
released in the environment, caused by mining, production process, use or dis-
posal at the end of the useful life of a material, could serve as yet another evalua-
tion criterion (Shah, 2011). Emissions from the conversion of raw material into
brick, apart from carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and par-
ticles, include hydrochloric, hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids (SwC, 2011; D:
LR1-P, 2011). The production process of natural stone blocks does not
release such pollutants in the environment (MD, 2004). Given the small differ-
ences between the areas of paving brick of the proposals, this criterion was not
considered as important for their evaluation.
2) Final Results
The final weight factors Wants for each proposal which resulted by adding the
points of all criteria can be seen in Table B7 and Table B8.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Table B5. Embodied energy (Hammond & Craig, 2006; Horne, 2008; Koroneos, Poula-
kos, & Sargentis, 2004).

Materials Embodied energy

Granite (cobblestones 10 cm in height) 65 MJ/kg 94.25 MJ/m2

Brick (weight 1.45 kg/dm3) 2.5 MJ/m2 2.50 MJ/m2

Gravel (thickness of gravel paving 0.20 m) 780 MJ/m3 156.00 MJ/m2

Table B6. Indicative value of permeability coefficient of paving materials (FAO, 2011;
Koumandakis, 2011).

Materials Permeability cm/sec Rankings Coefficient definition

Granite 108 Impervious 0.0

Packed soil 1.388 105 Semi-pervious 0.5

Gravel 0.0014 Pervious 1.0

Table B7. Total points of the five criteria and definition of Wants for each criterion.

Total Local Embodied
Proposals Albedo Permeability
cost availability energy

1st 3450 0.426 40.54 0.373 39.04 0.536 6313 0.460 21.92 0.310

2nd 3432 0.429 42.00 0.386 38.64 0.530 6214 0.467 22.12 0.312

3rd 3491 0.421 38.76 0.356 41.73 0.572 7146 0.407 23.41 0.331

4th 2897 0.508 56.40 0.519 42.24 0.579 7769 0.374 39.32 0.555

5th 2345 0.627 71.28 0.655 30.67 0.421 3851 0.754 50.40 0.712

6th 3540 0.416 37.48 0.345 38.45 0.527 6601 0.440 20.40 0.288

Table B8. Calculation of final weight factors Wants for each proposal.

Criteria Final
Proposals (j) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Wants
1st 0.426 0.373 0.536 0.460 0.310 2.105

2nd 0.429 0.386 0.530 0.467 0.312 2.124

3rd 0.421 0.356 0.572 0.407 0.331 2.087

4th 0.508 0.519 0.579 0.374 0.555 2.535

5th 0.627 0.655 0.421 0.754 0.712 3.169

6th 0.416 0.345 0.527 0.440 0.288 2.016

Appendix C. Socio-Economic Parameters and Descriptive

1) Socio-Economic Parameters and Their Impact on the Design Approach
Female respondents were more likely to choose the frieze of greenery to separate
different road services (2 = 4.770, p = 0.029). Older people were more likely to

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

prefer a low traffic road (r = 0.195, p = 0.030) and frieze of greenery (r = 0.204,
p = 0.023). On the other hand, young people were more likely to describe the
landscape as cosmic (r = 0.199, p = 0.027). Respondents with high academic
credentials were more probable to prefer the frieze of greenery (r = 0.191, p =
0.034). The more the children a family has, the more probable the characteriza-
tion of landscape as cosmic has been (r = 0.223, p = 0.014), while the fewer the
children a family has, the more probable the characterization of landscape as
romantic has been (r = 0.205, p = 0.024).
In relation to aesthetics, younger respondents were more probable to select
complicated (r = 0.181, p = 0.045) and colourful paving (r = 0.247, p = 0.006),
while older ones asymmetric paving (r = 0.223, p = 0.013) with rough texture
(r = 0.247, p = 0.006). Low educated respondents and those with more children
in the family were more probable to select paving with many colours (r = 0.308,
p = 0.001; r = 0.247, p = 0.007 respectively). On the other hand, high educated
respondents were more probable to show a strong preference for paving without
motives (r = 0.192, p = 0.032).
2) Descriptive Statistics
The majority (83.1%) of the respondents stated that they had poor knowledge of
the history of the towns monuments and archaeological sites, while 76.6% stated
that they knew a legend or folktale related to the history of the town. In general,
respondents knew the meaning of the names of three out of the seven places in-
cluded in our survey, Tower of princess (58.9%), Castle (Kales) (58.9%) and
The town of Plotini (Plotinopolis) (57.3%), while they stated ignorance of the
meaning of the Castle gates (Kalioportes) (55.3%), Five belts (Pentazono)
(72.6%), Saint Stone (Agia Petra) (57.3%) and Andiron (Pyrostia) (61.3%).
60.5% of the respondents visit the Castle archaeological site at least once a year.
Additionally, residents were requested to evaluate the importance of archaeo-
logical sites degradation parameters. The respective results are presented in Ta-
ble C1. Five ordered response levels were used from Least important to Most
important, while an importance rank was created by ranking the sum of Very
important and Most important categories as seen in the last column of Table
C1. Figures imply that the most important degradation parameter of archaeo-
logical sites was the rubbish everywhere, followed by the generally degraded
image of landscape and the difficult access to sites parameters (Table C1).
Concerning the landscape, the most important reason that would discourage
residents from taking a walk along the river Erythropotamos was the rubbish
everywhere parameter followed by the generally degraded image of landscape
and the presence of annoying insects especially during summer (Table C2).
Only 11.3% of the respondents had any substantial knowledge and informa-
tion about the biodiversity of the region, while nobody stated Absolutely in-
formed. With regard to the values of traditional landscape, the intrinsic value
of all creatures and biodiversity was high in the importance rank, followed by
the conservation of natural resources and conservation of landscapes for fu-
ture generations (Table C3).

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Table C1. Evaluation of importance of degradation parameters of archaeological sites (in percent).

Least Less Very Most Importance
Degradation parameters important nor
important important important important rank

Lack of information signs 14.5 12.1 18.5 33.1 21.8 4

Difficult access to sites 10.5 6.5 25.0 28.2 29.8 3

Many weeds 18.5 14.5 14.5 22.6 29.8 6

Presence of rubbish everywhere 10.5 5.6 13.7 25.0 45.2 1

The tour around the sites is

18.5 14.5 25.0 19.4 22.6 14
not attractive

Bad condition of sites because of the

limited maintenance and 10.5 12.1 24.2 26.6 26.6 5
restoration of the monuments

The generally degraded image of

10.5 7.3 19.4 27.4 35.5 2

Lack of excavation and research activity,

12.9 9.7 28.2 25.0 24.2 9
keeping them partially inaccessible

Inadequate promotion with visual

12.1 12.1 34.7 16.9 24.2 16
material and educational programmes

Lack of security 16.1 18.5 24.2 21.8 19.4 15

Insufficient lighting 12.9 17.7 21.0 26.6 21.8 11

Presence of stray animals 17.7 15.3 16.9 25.0 25.0 8

The sites are unsafe (danger of falling

15.3 8.1 25.0 25.8 25.8 7
rocks, dangerous crossing points)

Lack of traced paths that allow better

orientation towards the sites and 11.3 15.3 24.2 18.5 30.6 10
observation of monuments

Presence of annoying insects,

19.4 12.9 17.7 23.4 26.6 8
especially during summer

The tour route is tiring 31.5 20.2 29.0 10.5 8.9 17

Odours at the site 12.1 20.2 23.4 21.0 23.4 12

Lack of protection from the winds

and sun (sheltered rest places, 19.4 10.5 26.6 25.0 18.5 13
appropriate tree planting)

Cronbachs alpha was used to assess the internal consistency and reliability of
the 18 items of historical sites degradation, 9 items of natural landscape degrada-
tion and 12 items of importance of values related to traditional landscape. The
value of alpha was high in all cases, 0.893, 0.793 and 0.891 for the parameters
presented in Tables C1-C3 respectively. This means that when respondents
tended to assess a parameter as very important, they also considered the other
parameters as very important. Consequently, when they considered an item less

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Table C2. Evaluation of importance of degradation parameters of Erythropotamos valley (in percent).

Least Less Very Most Importance
Degradation parameters important nor
important important important important rank

Presence of rubbish 8.9 1.6 8.1 24.2 57.3 1

Presence of annoying insects,
6.5 14.5 17.7 22.6 38.7 3
especially during summer
The tour route is tiring 38.7 24.2 21.8 5.6 9.7 9
The generally degraded image
6.5 6.5 15.3 33.9 37.9 2
of landscape
Odours at the site 10.5 7.3 23.4 21.8 37.1 4

Lack of protection from the winds and

sun (sheltered rest places, appropriate 18.5 14.5 23.4 20.2 23.4 7
tree planting)

Insufficient lighting 15.3 20.2 22.6 21.0 21.0 8

Presence of stray animals 10.5 14.5 26.6 19.4 29.0 6
The route is unsafe because
9.7 11.3 23.4 22.6 33.1 5
of passing vehicles

Table C3. Importance of values related to traditional landscape (in percent).

Values related to traditional Least Less Very Most Importance
important nor
landscape important important important important rank

Entertainment and leisure

8.1 5.6 25.8 35.5 25.0 10
activities in the town

Entertainment and leisure

3.2 9.7 16.1 34.7 36.3 7
activities in nature

Biodiversity 2.4 9.7 16.1 33.1 38.7 6

Historic heritage 3.2 6.5 21.0 27.4 41.9 8

Economic development
4.8 6.5 12.1 35.5 41.1 4
(possible tourist attraction)

Environmental education 4.0 7.3 16.1 41.1 31.5 5

Picturesqueness of landscape 3.2 8.1 22.6 30.6 35.5 9

Spirituality (religiousness,
12.1 16.1 28.2 29.8 13.7 11
meditation, contemplation)

Conservation of landscapes
5.6 3.2 12.9 29.8 48.4 3
for future generations

Conservation of natural resources

2.4 8.1 10.5 23.4 55.6 2
(soil, water)

Health (activities for

3.2 8.1 12.1 21.8 54.8 4
fitness and mentality)

Intrinsic value of all creatures 4.0 3.2 11.3 24.2 57.3 1

important, they also tended to assess the rest of the items as less important.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Supported Materials
This file provides supplementary information through photographs. Figure S1
presents monuments of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empire periods; Figure S2
illustrates detail of the final product of the workshop How we want the river-
side which took place during the RedRiver festival 2009; Figure S3 represents
the most important findings of the ongoing excavation in Plotinopolis and Fig-
ure S4 shows the south-eastern side of the castle.

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Figure S1. (a) Byzantine churches in the castle: Agios Athanasios

(1834), Sotiros Christou (1848) and Agia Aikaterini (14th century);
(b) Towers of the castle walls (6th century): details of the towers,
Pentazono and Kalioportes gates; (c) the Armenian church of Surp
Kevork in the castle (1815-31); (d) Monuments of the Ottoman
Empire: the Vagiazit Mosque (1361-1420), Pyrostia (1892), Ourouts
Pasas baths (1398) and details of the Mosque (Municipality, 2014;
T.E.T., 2014; Wikipedia, 2014).

Figure S2. Detail of the final product of the workshop How we

want the riverside (Red River Festival, 2009).

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Figure S3. Plotinopolis: (a) details of the Roman mosaic and (b) the complex of well and
chamber (Municipality, 2014; Wikipedia, 2014).

K. M. Keramitsoglou et al.

Figure S4. The castle walls (24 square or circular tow-

ers): the south-eastern side of the castle and the tower of
princess (Municipality, 2014).

Municipality (2014). Municipality of Didymoteicho.
T.E.T. (2014). Thracian Electronic Treasure.
Wikipedia. (2014). Didymoteicho.

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