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1 Matrices

A matrix is any rectangular array of numbers. For example

3 0 2 5

2 1 6 4

8 13 3 2

is 3 4 matrix, i.e. a rectangular array of numbers with three rows and four columns.

We usually use capital letters for matrices, e.g. A, B, and C, with lowercase letters

reserved for scalars.

A vector is actually a special type of matrix, namely a matrix with only one column.

In particular, a vector from Rn is the same thing as an n 1 matrix.

To multiply a matrix and a vector, we take the dot product of each row of the matrix

with the vector. For example,

2

" # " #

3 1 2 5 3 21

1 4 3 7 1 31

2

Here 21 is the dot product of (3, 1, 2, 5) with (2, 3, 1, 2) , and 31 is the dot product of

(1, 4, 3, 7) with (2, 3, 1, 2) .

Note that a matrix A can only be multiplied by a vector v if each row of A has the

In general, the product of an m n matrix same size as v. For example, we can only multiply a 5 8 matrix with a vector from R8 ,

with a vector from Rn is a vector in Rm .

and the resulting product will be a vector in R5 .

Multiplying Matrices

There is an operation called matrix multiplication that generalizes the product of a

matrix and a vector. Given two matrices A and B, the product AB is the matrix obtained

by taking the dot product of each row of A with each column of B. For example, if A

and B are 2 2 matrices, then there are four dot products to compute:

" #" # " # " #" # " #

7 1 2 3 14 7 1 2 3 14 22

5 2 0 1 5 2 0 1

7 1 2 3 14 22 7 1 2 3 14 22

5 2 0 1 10 5 2 0 1 10 17

This product only makes sense if the rows of A and the columns of B have the same

size. The result always has one row for each row of A and one column for each column

of B.

EXAMPLE 1 0

7 3

5 2 2

Compute AB if A 3

and B

2 2

.

1 1 0

Here A is a 3 4 matrix and B is 4 2 2 4

matrix, so AB will be a 3 2 matrix. 1 6 3 0 1

0

MATRICES 2

SOLUTION We must take the dot product of each row of A with each column of B.

0 3 0 3

7 5 2 2 16 7 5 2 2 16 39

2 2 2 2

3 1 1 0

2 3 1 1 0

4 2 4

1 6 3 0 1 6 3 0

1 0 1 0

0 3 0 3

7 5 2 2 16 39 7 5 2 2 16 39

2 2 2 2

4 4

3 1 1 0

2 3 1 1 0 15

4 2 4

1 6 3 0 1 6 3 0

1 0 1 0

0 3 0 3

7 5 2 2 16 39 7 5 2 2 16 39

2 2 2 2

4 4

3 1 1 0

2

15 3 1 1 0 15

1 4 2 4

6 3 0 18 1 6 3 0 18 27

1 0 1 0

AB and BA are not necessarily the same. For example,

" #" # " # " #" # " #

3 1 7 1 22 5 7 1 3 1 23 9

and

2 2 1 2 16 6 1 2 2 2 7 4

A ( BC ) ( AB ) C

There are two more basic operations involving matrices: addition and scalar multipli-

cation. Matrix addition works just like vector addition, with corresponding entries of

Matrix subtraction is defined in a similar the two matrices added together:

way.

" # " # " #

2 1 1 3 5 1 5 6 2

+

2 1 5 5 2 2 7 3 7

Only two matrices of the same size can be added. Matrix multiplication distributes

over addition from both the left and the right, i.e.

A ( B + C ) AB + AC and (A + B ) C AC + BC

Scalar multiplication for matrices is also quite similar to scalar multiplication for

vectors: " # " #

4 3 1 8 6 2

2

4 2 3 8 4 6

This has a variety of obvious properties, e.g.

k ( A + B ) kA + kB and k ( AB ) ( kA ) B A ( kB )

MATRICES 3

Square Matrices

A matrix is called square if it has the same number of rows and columns. For example,

2 2 matrices are square, as are 3 3 matrices, and more generally n n matrices.

We can take the determinant of any square matrix A, which we write as det ( A ) . For

example, if

" #

5 2

A

3 4

then det ( A ) 14.

The product of two square matrices of the same size is another square matrix of

that size. For example,

3 1 0 1 2 1 5 6 6

0 1 1 2 0 3 3 1 3

2 1 2 1 1 0 6 6 5

A square matrix is called diagonal if all of its nonzero entries lie along the diagonal

that goes from the upper left to the lower right. For example,

" # 3 0 0

2 0

and 0 7 0

0 5 0 0 4

are diagonal matrices. The determinant of a diagonal matrix is equal to the product if

the entries along the diagonal:

a 0 0

Note that we use square brackets for a 0

ab, 0 b 0 abc.

matrices and vertical lines for and

determinants. 0 b 0 0 c

Inverse Matrices

A diagonal matrix with ones along the diagonal is called an identity matrix:

" # 1 0 0

We usually use the letter I to denote an 1 0

0 1 0

identity matrix. 0 1 0 0 1

" #" # " # " #" # " #

1 0 3 3 1 0 2 7 2 7

and

0 1 5 5 0 1 8 4 8 4

Two square matrices are called inverses if their product is the identity matrix. For

example

" # " #

3 0 5 0

and

2 5 2 3

MATRICES 4

" #" # " #

3 0 5 0 1 0

2 5 2 3 0 1

A matrix can have only one inverse. If A is a square matrix, its inverse is denoted A1 .

There is a simple formula for the inverse of a 2 2 matrix:

Inverse of a 2 2 Matrix

a b 1 d b

for 3 3 or larger matrices.

c d ad bc c a

" #

a b

Note that ad bc is the determinant of .

c d

EXAMPLE 2

4 6

Find the inverse of the matrix .

1 2

1 2 6

2 1 4

This simplifies to

1 3

1/2 2

A square matrix is called invertible if it has an inverse. From the formula above,

we see that a 2 2 matrix is invertible as long as its determinant is not zero. This rule

works for matrices of any size:

We can use matrices to write any linear system as a single vector equation of the form

Ax b

where A is the coefficient matrix, x is the vector of unknowns, and b is the vector of

constant terms. For example, the linear system

2x + 5y 11

3x + 4y 13

" #" # " #

2 5 x 11

3 4 y 13

MATRICES 5

We can use inverse matrices to solve n n linear systems. Given a linear system of the

form

Ax b

where A is an invertible square matrix, we can multiply both sides of the equation by

A1 to get

x A1 b

EXAMPLE 3

Use an inverse matrix to solve the system

3x + 2y 7

x + 4y 5

3 2 x 7

1 4 y 5

But

1

3 2 1 4 2 0.4 0.2

10

1 4 1 3 0.1 0.3

so

x 0.4 0.2 7 1.8

y 0.1 0.3 5

0.8

EXERCISES

14 Multiply.

5 1

9 3 1 3 " #

1 7 5

1. 2 9 3 1 2.

9 0 2

3 0 8 1

1 1

1 7 2 2 0 0 1 0

4

3.

2 8 2 1 1

4.

0 6 0

0

0 1 1 2 0 0 5 3

2

6 9 2 2 0 0 1 0

x 1 y 8

5. Find the values of x and y for which .

4 2 2 0

MATRICES 6

69 Multiply.

1 4

" #" # " #

6 3 1 2 1 3 9 1 0 1

6. 7.

4 1 8 1 9 1 2 2 2 2

6 0

1 3 1 3 2 f

8. 9. 1 7

0 8 3 0 2 1 1

" # " #

4 5 5 2

10. 11.

1 2 3 1

" # " #

3 0 1 2

12. 13.

0 2 3 6

1 0 2

14. Does the matrix 1 1 1 have an inverse? Explain.

2 1 3

" #

2 1

15. Compute 5A + 6A1 if A .

2 2

2x 3y 5

3x + 4y 2

as an equation of the form Ax b.

(b) Use an inverse matrix to solve your equation from part (a).

2 5 3 2 7 9 3 1

1 2 1 2

and

2 2 1 1

1 3 2 1 1 2 3 1

3 8 6 1 1 1 1 0

x1 + 2x2 x3 + 2x4 2

x1 3x2 + 2x3 + x4 0

3x1 8x2 + 6x3 + x4 2

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