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Electric current produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field can be visualized as a

pattern of circular field lines surrounding a wire. One way to explore the direction of a

magnetic field is with a compass, as shown by a long straight current-carrying wire in.

Hall probes can determine the magnitude of the field. Another version of the right hand

rule emerges from this exploration and is valid for any current segmentpoint the

thumb in the direction of the current, and the fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic

field loops created by it.

that picks up automobiles and scrap metal by the ton. This model demonstrates

one of the desirable features of the electromagnetit becomes a magnet or not a

magnet at the flip of a switch. The electric current running around an iron core

aligns the iron atoms to make the iron core a magnet. The singer sings, a

matching electric current is generated, the electromagnet receives a rhythmic

input and the paper cone vibrates to reproduce the singers voice.

Motors Motors use magnetic fields to rotate a shaft. As the electric current

going to the motor variesall generated currents do, it causes the rising and

falling magnetic fields to push the core of the motor around. Motors are

ubiquitousat least a dozen are in your car, there is one in every appliance, there

is one in your computer to turn the hard drive, and there is one in the automatic

door at the supermarket.

drives to electric trains. If a train can ride just above the rail, on a magnet field,

there will be very little friction and it will be easy to move the train. Naturally, the

train could then run very fast. This is how the Japanese bullet trainShinkansen

works. Because the trains are powered through the rails, it is easy to build the

rails in blocks that allow only one train at a time to be on a block.

magnetic data storage medium, it will leave a magnetized spot if the

electromagnet is turned on and no magnetized spot if the electromagnet is turned

off. Later a loop of wire is rapidly moved past the spot and the field from the

magnetized spot will induce a tiny electric current. In this way information is read

and recorded.

The equation for the magnetic field strength (magnitude) produced by a long straight

current-carrying wire is:

For a long straight wire where I is the current, r is the shortest distance to the wire, and

the constant 0=4107 Tm/A is the permeability of free space. (0 is one of the basic

constants in nature, related to the speed of light. ) Since the wire is very long, the

magnitude of the field depends only on distance from the wire r, not on position along

the wire. This is one of the simplest cases to calculate the magnetic field strenght from a

current.

The magnetic field of a long straight wire has more implications than one might first

suspect. Each segment of current produces a magnetic field like that of a long straight

wire, and the total field of any shape current is the vector sum of the fields due to each

segment. The formal statement of the direction and magnitude of the field due to each

segment is called the Biot-Savart law. Integral calculus is needed to sum the field for an

arbitrary shape current. The Biot-Savart law is written in its complete form as:

\hat{\text{r}}}{\text{r}^{2}}[/latex]

where the integral sums over the wire length where vector d is the direction of the

current; r is the distance between the location of d,and the location at which the

magnetic field is being calculated; and r is a unit vector in the direction of r. The reader

may apply the simplifications in calculating the magnetic field from an infinite straight

wire as above and see that the Biot-Savart law reduces to the first, simpler equation.

Applications and skills:

Determining the direction of force on a charge moving in a magnetic field

RHR for + charges

LHR for charges

magnetic field

Determining the direction of the magnetic field based on current direction

Guidance:

Magnetic field patterns will be restricted to long straight conductors,

solenoids, and bar magnets

Data Booklet reference:

F = qvB sin

F = BIL sin

The F represents the magnetic force acting on a charge q moving at

a velocity v through a magnetic field B. The represents the angle between

the direction of the velocity and the direction of the magnetic field.

The I represents the current in a straight wire of length L, and

the represents the angle between the direction of the current and the

direction of the magnetic field. Both of these forces have

their direction given by the right hand rule.

International-mindedness:

The investigation of magnetism is one of the oldest studies by man and

was used extensively by voyagers in the Mediterranean and beyond

thousands of years ago

Theory of knowledge:

Field patterns provide a visualization of a complex phenomenon, essential

to an understanding of this topic. Why might it be useful to regard

knowledge in a similar way, using the metaphor of knowledge as a map a

simplified representation of reality?

Utilization:

Only comparatively recently has the magnetic compass been superseded

by different technologies after hundreds of years of our dependence on it

Modern medical scanners rely heavily on the strong, uniform magnetic

fields produced by devices that utilize superconductors

Particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN rely on

a variety of precise magnets for aligning the particle beams

Aims:

Aim 2 and 9: visualizations frequently provide us with insights into the

action of magnetic fields, however the visualizations themselves have their

own limitations

Aim 7: computer-based simulations enable the visualization of electro-

magnetic fields in three-dimensional space

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