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Concrete

Introduction

concrete
 Constituents
 Mixture of Aggregate and Paste
 Paste 30 40%
 Portland cement 7- 15% by volume
 Water 14 to 21% by volume
 Aggregate 60 -70%
 Coarse aggregates
 Fine aggregate sand

 Admixtures

concrete
 Initially plastic material
 Takes shape of mould or formwork
 Hardened
 Dense
 Loadbearing
 Lightweight
 Thermal insulating
 Properties depend on aggregate used

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Concrete
 Cements
 Ordinary Portland Cement
 90% all cement production
 Heat limestone and clay
 Clinker
 Add 5% gypsum CaSO4
 Regulates rate of setting

concrete
 Cements
 Dry powder of very fine particles
 Forms paste when mixed with water
 Chemical reaction hydration
 Rate which water is absorbed
 Paste coats all aggregates together
 Hardens to form solid mass

concrete
 Aggregates
 Cheap fillers
 Hard material
 Provide volume stability
 Reduce volume changes ( shrinkage)
 Provide abrasion resistance

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concrete
 Aggregates
 Most variable material in concrete
 Grades affect amount of water required
 Fine grade more water
 Coarse grade - less water
 Same degree of workability
 Sharp edged rough surface
 More water than smooth rounded particles
 Same workability

concrete
 Aggregates
 Sharp edged rough surface
 Increase cement content crushed aggregate

 To allow water to be added


 Crushed aggregate
 Higher strength
 Same water cement ratio
 Max size aggregate cement content
 Same workability same water/ cement ratio

 Larger surface area to be wetted , smaller aggregate

size

concrete
 Aggregates
 Proportion fine / coarse aggregate
 Obtain required workability
 Minimum water required
 Bad proportion
 More water for adequate workability
 Low strength
 Poor durability

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concrete
 Water
 Needed for 2 purposes
 Chemical reaction with cement
 Workability

 of water needed for chemical reaction


 Extra water in holes or pores
 Porosity how porous
 Ratio of volume of holes to total volume

concrete
 Water
 Good for preventing
 plastic shrinkage
 Cracking

 Bad for
 Permeability
 Penetrates substrate filling holes

 Strength
 durability

concrete
 Water
 Avoid variation in quality or quantity
 Water / cement ratio
 Most important for consistent strength
 Use minimum necessary for full compaction
 Quantity
 Absorption by dry / porous aggregates
 Free surface water of wet aggregates

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concrete
 Admixtures
 Added to concrete during mixing
 Modify one or more of its properties

 Set retarders
 Set accelerators
 Water reducing / plasticisers
 Air Entraining

concrete
 Admixture
 Set retarders
 Decrease rate of set
 Dont affect 28 day strength
 Extend workable life of ready mix to 36 hrs
 Phosphates
 Hydroxycarboxyic acid

concrete
 Admixtures
 Set Accelerators
 Increase rate of reaction
 Increase rate of set
 Advantageous in pre-casting
 Early removal of formwork
 Reduce frost damage
 Chlorine free
 Calcium formate
 Chlorine attacks reinforcement

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concrete
 Admixtures
 Water reducing plasticisers
 Increase workability

 Easier placing and compaction

 Used to reduce water / cement ratio

 15% strength increase


 Increase in durability
 Lignosulfonates
 Hydroxylated polymers

concrete
 Admixtures
 Air- Entrained
 Stabilise air bubbles

 Bubbles improve workability

 Reduce segregation

 Enhance frost resistance

 Decreases crushing strength

 6% for 1% air entrained

 Wood resins
 Synthetic surfactants
 Fairy liquid

concrete
 Concrete mixes
 Essential properties of hardened concrete
 Durability
 Strength
 Both affected by voids
 Complete compaction
 Excessive water

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concrete
 Concrete mixes
 cement water/cement ratio
 More durable
 Greater strength
 Mechanical compaction
 Drier
 Stronger
 More durable
 Mixes can be designed to reach full strength

concrete
 Concrete classifications
 Designed mixes
 Strength main criterion
 Strength tested
 Cement content specified for durability
 Supplier responsible
 Prescribed mix
 Cement content / mix proportions given
 Specifier responsible

Lowest grade for compliance with appropriate use


Grade Strength N/mm2

7 7.0 Plain concrete


10 10.0 Plain concrete
15 15.0 Reinforced concrete lightweight aggregate

20 20.0 Reinforced concrete dense aggregate

25 25.0 Reinforced concrete dense aggregate

30 30.0 Concrete with post tensioned tenons

40 40.0 Concrete with pre tensioned tenons

50 50.0 Concrete with pre tensioned tenons

60 60.0 Concrete with pre tensioned tenons

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concrete
 Control of Quality
 Fresh concrete
 Workability
 Ease of placement
 Resistance to segregation
 Homogeneous mass
 Consistency
 Ability to flow

concrete
 Control of Quality
 Fresh concrete
 Slump test
 Vebe consistomer test

 Hardened Concrete
 Cube crushing test at 7 and 28 days

concrete
 Concrete properties
 Strength
 Increases with age -hydration drying out
 Compressive strength
 Possible most important
 Good in compression
 High strength
 Nature of aggregate important
 Good control of operations

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concrete
 Concrete properties
 Resistance to weather and chemical attack
 Durability permeability

concrete
 Practical Concreting
 Batching
 Measure proportions of materials correctly

 Extremely important

 Mixing (Mechanical preferred)


 Thoroughly

 Uniform colour and consistency

 Coarse aggregate
 Cement
 Fine aggregate
 Water
 Low workability extend mix time

concrete
 Practical Concreting
 Transporting Placing Compacting
 Dont cause delay or segregation

 Prevent rain increasing water content

 Formwork treated release agent

 Remove foreign matter before placing concrete

 Wood shavings, nails dirt water

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Concrete Transporting
HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT

Barrows Used for small quantities transported over short distances.


Wheelbarrows hold 30 litres or 0.03 m3. Power barrows hold 150 litres
or 0.15 m3 of wet concrete. Runs need to be smooth and well
constructed.
Dumpers Used to transport 0.5 m3 per journey. Care has to be taken when
discharging smooth runs needed to prevent segregation.
Lorry Mounted Hoppers Capacity 2-3 m3 used on large contracts. Hopper uses hydraulic
tipping runs and can be fitted with mixing paddles.
Tipper Trucks Open trucks with tarpaulins to protect concrete from rain or sun.
Ready Mix Lorries Ideal method of transporting concrete from batching plant to point of
discharge. Access roads must be provided.

VERTICAL MOVEMENT

Buckets and Skips Skips and buckets moved by crane with skips discharged from the
bottom and buckets tipped. Capacity from 0.5 m3 to 6 m3.
Conveyor Belts Not used regularly over the past few years. Most likely to be seen
mounted on some truck mixers to allow discharge where chutes are
not long enough (normally 10 m of conveyor).
Hoists Used on tall buildings to transport concrete in containers such as
barrows.
Pumping Pumps are convenient for moving concrete on sites. They can be
static or mobile and have the capacity to move large amounts of
concrete. Normal coverage is 50 m vertically and 100 m horizontally.
Pumps can deliver 30 m3 per hour.

Concrete placing
 Practical Concreting
 Placing
 Compact while placing
 Minimise air voids
 Less than 1m high
 Avoid segregation

Concrete compacting
 Practical Concreting
 Compacting
 Bonds to reinforcement better
 5% air voids vol = 30% reduction compressive strength

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Concrete
 Mechanical Vibration
 Internal -Poker
 A cylindrical vibrator
connected to a motor by
a flexible drive shaft,
diameters ranging from
25-75 mm. Concrete
should be placed in
layers of 300-500 mm
depending on the length
of poker used. Care
must be taken not to
touch reinforcement as
this will result in de-
bonding between the
reinforcement and the
surrounding concrete.

Concrete compacting
 Practical Concreting
 Mechanical Vibration
 External (Clamp On)
Vibrators
 Motors which are
designed to vibrate
are clamped to the
formwork allowing
the formwork to
vibrate the
concrete. Often
used in pre-cast
work. Formwork
must be designed
and constructed to
resist the constant
vibration.

Concrete compacting
 Surface
 Beam vibrators
 Designed for use on
concrete slabs which are
too thick for hand tamping
(over 100 mm), the beam
vibrator is made up of a
metal beam with a clamp
on vibrator fixed to the top.
The need for level side
forms that will not move
when the vibrating beam is
used is essential. The
beam is pulled along the
side forms and will leave a
flat level surface on the
floor slab.

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Concrete curing
 Practical Concreting
 Curing
 Concrete hardens by reaction between cement and

water
 Shrinkage occurs internal moisture loss

 Minimise cracking

 Cover with waterproof sheet


 Spray on membrane

 Practical Concreting
 Curing
METHOD OF CURING WEATHER PROTECTION COMMENTS
Covering concrete with Protects from mild frosts Care must be taken to ensure concrete is
damp sand or hessian and light rainfall dry enough to prevent marking or
contamination when surface is covered
Ponding flooding of the Protects from sun and wind Freezing could cause damage to
surface with water surfaces
Spraying water sprayed None Labour intensive, continual spraying
on surface could cause damage if not carefully
controlled
Sheet polythene retains Protects from all forms of Placed as quickly as possible on a frame
moisture in the concrete weather damage if surface is likely to be damaged. Sheet
weighted at edges preventing wind under
sheet. Tape joints between sheets when
curing slabs
Sprayed compounds Provides protection from Resins have to be applied carefully in
resin sprayed on to rain and wind when dry order to ensure they work properly.
concrete surfaces to form a after application Designed to degrade without effecting
protective skin sealing in concrete after the curing period
moisture

concrete
 Pre-cast concrete
 Cast
 Vertically
 Horizontally
 Most common
 Face up
 Face down
 Better quality
control

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concrete
 Pre-cast concrete
 Moulds
 Plywood
 More complex forms
 Modify to non standard units
 Steel
 More durable repeated use
 Designed for dismantling
 Tight tolerances = quality control

Concrete moulds

concrete
 Pre-cast concrete
 Moulds
 High initial cost
 Limit variations

 Fixing and lifting


systems
 Incorporated into
units
 In conjunction with
reinforcement

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