2 views

Uploaded by Dinesh Tilante

- DSP Exercises
- Exercise Chap 2
- St2110 Pam Ppm Pwm
- GFZ_practical of KIWI
- The wave lab manual
- Oficial TextasInrtruments a Law vs u Law Voip Codec Comparison
- 5.CONVOLUTION Discrete Domain
- A Novel Modulation Scheme and Voltage Balancing
- chhhpppttteeerrr55555
- MM-Tech
- Pam
- Full-Speed Testing of AD Converters
- Syll for Bio Medical Engg
- AC+2001Paper622
- Com-lab-exp-4
- Examination Embedded Intelligent Systems Winter Semester 2012
- CE_Lab3
- l1
- c4.pdf
- ONT Mod 2-Lesson 2_edited

You are on page 1of 8

Need?

Many Signals in Modern Communication Systems are digital

Also, analog signals are transmitted digitally.

Reduced distortion and improvement in signal to noise ratios.

PAM , PWM , PPM , PCM and DM.

continuously with message.

In Analog pulse modulation some parameter of each pulse is modulated

by a particular sample value of the message.

Pulse modulation of two types

Analog Pulse Modulation

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Pulse width Modulation (PWM)

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

Digital Pulse Modulation

Pulse code Modulation (PCM)

Delta Modulation (DM)

accordance with sampled value of message signal.

PWM: In this width of carrier pulses are varied in accordance with

sampled values of message signal.

Example: Speed control of DC Motors.

PPM: In this scheme position of high frequency carrier pulse is changed in

accordance with the sampled values of message signal.

PCM

Three steps

Sampling

Quantization

Binary encoding

Before sampling the signal is filtered to limit bandwidth.

Sampling:

Process of converting analog signal into discrete signal.

Sampling is common in all pulse modulation techniques

The signal is sampled at regular intervals such that each sample is

proportional to amplitude of signal at that instant

Analog signal is sampled every 𝑇𝑠 𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑠, called sampling interval. 𝑓𝑠 =

1⁄ is called sampling rate or sampling frequency.

𝑇 𝑆

𝑓𝑠 = 2𝑓𝑚 is Min. sampling rate called Nyquist rate. Sampled spectrum

𝐺(𝜔) is repeating periodically without overlapping.

Original spectrum is centered at 𝜔 = 0 and having bandwidth of 𝜔𝑚 .

Spectrum can be recovered by passing through low pass filter with cut-off

𝜔𝑚 .

For 𝑓𝑠 < 2𝑓𝑚 sampled spectrum will overlap and cannot be recovered

back. This is called aliasing.

Sampling methods:

Ideal – An impulse at each sampling instant.

Natural – A pulse of Short width with varying amplitude.

Flat Top – Uses sample and hold, like natural but with single

amplitude value.

Sampling of band-pass Signals:

A band-pass signal of bandwidth 2fm can be completely recovered from its

samples.

Min. sampling rate = 2 × 𝐵𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ

= 2 × 2𝑓𝑚 = 4𝑓𝑚

Range of minimum sampling frequencies is in the range of 2 × 𝐵𝑊 𝑡𝑜 4 × 𝐵𝑊

Instantaneous Sampling or Impulse Sampling:

Sampling function is train of spectrum remains constant impulses

throughout frequency range. It is not practical.

Natural sampling:

The spectrum is weighted by a sinc function.

Amplitude of high frequency components reduces.

Flat top sampling:

Here top of the samples remains constant.

In the spectrum high frequency components are attenuated due sinc pulse roll

off. This is known as Aperture effect

If pulse width increases aperture effect is more i.e. more attenuation of high

frequency components.

Quantization:

Sampling results in series of pulse of varying amplitude between two

limits.

The amplitude values are infinite between two limits, we map these to

finite set of values.

This is achieved by dividing the distance between min and max into L

zones each of height Δ

(𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝑚𝑖𝑛)⁄

∆= 𝐿

Quantization Levels

The midpoint of each zone is assigned a value from 0 to L-1 (resulting in

L values)

Each sample falling in a zone is then approximated to the value of the

midpoint.

Quantization Zones

Assume we have a voltage signal with amplitudes

𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 = −20𝑉 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 = +20 𝑉.

We want to use L = 8 quantization levels.

Zone width ∆= {(20 − (−20)}/8 = 5

The 8 zones are: -20 to -15, -15 to -10, -10 to -5, -5 to 0, 0 to +5, +5 to

+10, +10 to +15, +15 to +20

The midpoint are: -17.5, -12.5, -7.5, -2.5, 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5

Each zone is then assigned a binary code.

The number of bits required to encode the zones, or the number of bits

per sample as follows:

𝑛𝑏 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝐿

Say, 𝑛𝑏 = 3

The 8 zone (or level) codes are therefore: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101,

110, and 111

Assigning codes to zones:

000 will refer to zone -20 to -15

001 to zone -15 to -10, etc

Quantization Error

When a signal is quantized, we introduce an error – the coded signal is an

approximation of the actual amplitude value.

The difference between actual and coded value (midpoint) is referred to

as the quantization error.

BUT, the more zones the more bits required to encode the samples so

higher bit rate

Signals with lower amplitude values will suffer more from quantization

error as the error ∆/2 is fixed for all signal levels.

Non -linear quantization is used to alleviate this problem. Goal is to keep

SNQR fixed for all sample values.

Two approaches:

The quantization levels follow a logarithmic curve. Smaller Δ’s at

lower amplitudes and larger Δ’s at higher amplitudes.

Companding: The logarithmic zone, and then expanded at the

receiver. The zones are fixed in height.

The bit rate of a PCM signal can be calculated form the number of bits

per sample × the sampling rate. Bit rate = 𝑛𝑏 × 𝑓𝑠

The bandwidth required to transmit this signal depends on the type of line

encoding used.

A digitized signal will always need more bandwidth than the original

analog signal. Price we pay for robustness and other features of digital

transmission.

Important Relations

∆2

Quantization Noise (𝑁𝑞 ) =

12

Signal to Noise ratio

3

(𝑆𝑄𝑁𝑅) = . 22𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝑆𝑄𝑁𝑅 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝐵 = 1.76 + 6.02𝑛 ≅ (1.8 + 6𝑛)𝑑𝐵

2

𝐵𝑖𝑡 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 × 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 𝑛𝑓𝑠

Bandwidth for PCM signal = n.fm

Where, n – No. of bits in PCM code

Fm – signal bandwidth

fs – sampling rate

Delta Modulation

The present sample is compared with previous sample value and 1/0 is

transmitted if it is greater/less than the previous sample value.

Bandwidth requirement of DM is less on compared to PCM.

DM needs simple circuity compared to PCM

Quantization error is more.

Drawbacks are

Slope overload – Magnitude of slope is greater than slope of

staircase

Granular Noise – Signal variations with in step size

In ADM step size is made adaptive to take care of above problems.

Delta PDM: The difference between two successive samples is quantized,

encoded and transmitted. Useful in voice transmission.

Line coding

PCM, DM & ADM are source coding techniques. Here analog signal is

converted to its digital equivalent.

Dispersion in channel causes overlap in time between successive symbols

– Inter symbol inter ference (ISI)

Two types of quantization errors:

Slope overload distortion and granular noise

Line coding converts binary sequence into digital signal format which is

more convenient for transmission over cable or other medium.

It maximizes bit rate, reduces power of transmission and reduces dc

component.

Various line code formats

RZ, NRZ, AMI, Manchester etc.

Unipolar NRZ: Requires only one power supply. It has DC value.

Polar NRZ: Both –ve & +ve power supply required.

Bipolar: Binary 1, as alternate positive and negative value. Binary 0

by 0 level also called alternate mark inversion (AMI)

Manchester: Called split phase encoding

No DC voltage

Twice the BW of unipolar NRZ or polar NRZ (pulses) are

half the width

- DSP ExercisesUploaded byRoumen Guha
- Exercise Chap 2Uploaded bychantinh_hd190
- St2110 Pam Ppm PwmUploaded bySrikrishna Jana
- GFZ_practical of KIWIUploaded byWiguna Kurniawan
- The wave lab manualUploaded byhaha2012
- Oficial TextasInrtruments a Law vs u Law Voip Codec ComparisonUploaded byRebecca Mccoy
- 5.CONVOLUTION Discrete DomainUploaded byAjay Dhamija
- A Novel Modulation Scheme and Voltage BalancingUploaded byamyaranjan
- chhhpppttteeerrr55555Uploaded byS Ahson AS
- MM-TechUploaded byJasmina Barakovic
- PamUploaded bywelltonarruda
- Full-Speed Testing of AD ConvertersUploaded byKirti Susan Varghese
- Syll for Bio Medical EnggUploaded byAaron Merrill
- AC+2001Paper622Uploaded byShahzaib Amjad
- Com-lab-exp-4Uploaded byবিজয় সিকদার
- Examination Embedded Intelligent Systems Winter Semester 2012Uploaded byPhan An
- CE_Lab3Uploaded byMalith Deemantha
- l1Uploaded byArunShan
- c4.pdfUploaded byAyad M Al-Awsi
- ONT Mod 2-Lesson 2_editedUploaded byDương Thế Cường
- Pcm Book With DiagramsUploaded byShamsul Haq Ntc
- HeartbeatUploaded bySathesh Kumar
- DSP Chapter1Uploaded byluong vy
- A-D Converters Electronics Lecture 7Uploaded byilg1
- 10.1.1.676.5477Uploaded bysyed Muzammil
- lab_2Uploaded bykenjo138
- comm systems syllabus.docUploaded byKaran Maan
- Sample Format for MDWC FileUploaded byasha
- Efficient Reconfigurable Architecture of BasebandUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Chapter 4 - The DFT and FFTUploaded byrhellfish

- Satellite Communications by Timothy PrattUploaded byBasir Usman
- Sampling TheoryUploaded byAtabat Adudu
- Wcdma Conf Param - NSNUploaded byFaizal Jamaludeen
- 03 SEP-602B RED670 1p1 Line Diff CommunicationUploaded byMourad Benderradji
- 56043122 Site Creation in Nokia BSCUploaded byShrey Gupta
- Lesson PlanUploaded byPalani Pico
- Lte_SPEC_Physical_Layer_ProcedureUploaded byAtul Bassi
- 4-20mA Basics Ian Williams 05232011Uploaded byJuanAntonioButronLlamoca
- Exam en 2Uploaded byIsrael Baez Jacinto
- Why digital?Uploaded bymrana_56
- Improved Version of Conventional Antennas for Wireless CommunicationUploaded byIJETA - EighthSenseGroup
- The FOA Reference Guide to Prem - Hayes, Jim.pdfUploaded byDante Black Phoenix Freeman
- 22-18905Uploaded byGerson Santos
- Mobile Generations1Uploaded bynilanjan1969
- RF Circuit Design for Short-Range RadioUploaded byavishvak3629
- It6005 Dip Model Qp Oct 17Uploaded byImmanuel Vinoth
- In Signal ProcessingUploaded byRamya Chinna
- ch19 Two-Port Networks.pdfUploaded byRohit Gandhi
- ACS756-DatasheetUploaded byL30N1
- Recording 1983 12Uploaded byJuan Mamani
- A Method of Genetic Algorithm (GA) for FIR Filter Construction: Design and Development with Newer Approaches in Neural Network PlatformUploaded byEditor IJACSA
- MICROSENS FTTO_0108EUploaded byFrancisco Nascimento Neto
- 08058472Uploaded byChAmirShokatGujjar
- T-Mobile 4G Mobile Hotspot User GuideUploaded bysinghr_us
- BTS Power ConsumptionUploaded bySavolyukDmitry
- EC6512 CSLab ManualUploaded byjayaseelanj89
- Rlc BasicsUploaded byAnmol
- Mobile Charging Using Microwaves-pptUploaded byRajashri Bangera
- Set up a wireless networkUploaded byguidaroo
- Highly Secure Key Predistribution Using Affine Planes And Reed Muller Codes In Wireless Sensor NetworksUploaded byAIRCC - IJCNC