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Report of

Open Ended Project


" Fire Alarm System "


Elements of Electrical Engineering (2110005)

Bachelor of Engineering

Electrical Engineering Department

Submitted by

Sr. No. Name of Student Enrollment No

1 Mr. Karan Dave 170120107024

2 Miss Shailvi Gandhi 170120107035

3 Miss Frenali Gandecha 170120107037

4 Miss Puja Goel 170120107039

Guided byProf. Satish Patel

OEP Topic:
Fire Alarm System.

Just imagine when an apartment is caught fire in the second floor! The people in the second floor
can easily recognize the fire and can inform to their neighbors and run for their lives; but people
in the first, third and fourth floors may not know the fire accident and busy with their work. This
will be great danger to the people live and property also. So there should be an alarm to inform to
all people in the apartment in which the fire has taken place and act immediately. Here fire alarm
plays a key and important role.

A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through
visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide or other emergencies are
present. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke detectors, and heat
detectors or may also be activated via manual fire alarm activation devices such as manual call
points or pull stations.

Component List:


R1 - 1K 1NOS
R2 - 4.7K 1NOS
R3 - 10K 1NOS
R4 - 47K 1NOS

C1,2 - 0.01F 2NOS
C3 - 100 F/16V 1NOS

IC1 - 1C555 1NOS
T1 - BC548 1NOS
LS - 2 8E SPK/. 1NOS
This is a simple fire alarm circuit using Germanium Diode and 555 timer. In this circuit
Germanium Diode play very important role in detecting the fire.

The key component in the circuit is DR25 (germanium diode) whose resistance will decrease
with increase in temperature. The conduction of germanium diode will start at 70 degrees. So we
may use germanium diode as a heat sensor. When the temperature is more than 70 degree, the
germanium diode will conduct and trigger the NE555 timer through a transistor. The NE555 is
configured in a stable multi-vibrator and make the buzzer to alarm when germanium diode
conducts. So that we can get alert and act according to the alarm.

Circuit of Fire Alarm System:

The DR25 germanium diode is heat sensor which will conduct when temperature is increased
at certain point. The DR25 is made reverse biased in the circuit. It will conduct only when it
is more than 70degree of room temperature.

The DR25 is connected to the transistor in reverse bias, which has high reverse resistance
(more than 10K ohm) and does not make the transistor to turn off which is connected to the
reset pin of 555 timer. The reset pin of 555timer will be in ground level when the transistor is
turned off. Here, the 555 timer is configured as a stable multi-vibrator.

When more than 70degrees in room temperature occurred, the resistance of DR25 diode
drops to 1k ohm which will make the transistor to turn off and make the reset pin to go high.
This will generate the output at pin3 and make the sound through the alarm.

We can use 3 or more diodes in reverse bias connected in parallel and placed in different
room. If there is fire accident, it will sense and make the alarm.
Early Warning: Many fires occur at night or in a room or section that no one may be in at
the time. The audible alert from the fire alarm can wake individuals up who may otherwise
sleep while inhaling smoke. The alert can also provide an early signal during the day to
individuals who, if not for the alarm, would not have the time needed to escape the home or
building before the fire spreads out of control.

Remote Monitoring: When installed as part of a house or building's fire alarm system,
instead of as single, self-contained units, fire alarms provide additional protection whether
inhabitants are inside the dwelling at the time of the alarm or not. When the monitoring
station that the system is connected with receives the signal, it can send emergency medical
help for individuals who need it, and fire department personnel can assist those who need
help exiting the home or building. Also, as part of an overall system, one fire alarm that goes
off triggers all the other fire alarms to go off, providing an alert to anyone within the vicinity.

Low Cost: A fire system that is remotely monitored on a continuous basis is normally part of
an agreement with an alarm company that also includes burglary alarms. Maintaining this fire
alarm service is more costly. However, when used as single, standalone units, fire alarms are
an inexpensive way to provide protection from smoke and possible fires.
Limited Technology: The two main types of smoke detectors -- ionization and photoelectric
-- contain technologies that work well under some circumstances and not so well in others.
Ionization detectors respond more promptly to fires involving high flames, and photoelectric
detectors alert home owners more quickly to slower-burning, smoldering fires.

Dead Batteries: Smoke detectors not hardwired into a home's electrical system rely
exclusively on battery power, requiring regular checking and replacement. A smoke detector
with a dead battery saves no lives.

Residual Smoke: Installing smoke detectors near stoves, toasters or toaster ovens is a quick
recipe for false alarms. Unfortunately, these areas are among those most in need of careful
monitoring for fire hazards. Heat detectors, which sound alarms based on sharp temperature
change, are worthy substitutes in such areas.


Fire alarms can be used in any place like parks, theaters, hotels, restaurants, boats, ships, etc.

Fire alarms can be also used as temperature sensors in some applications, when the
temperature goes up abruptly it can inform.

Fire alarm can be used in our home for safety purpose and it is a very good precautionary

Hence electronic circuits can be designed for the fire based alarms and they provide very high
efficiency and can be used for the security reasons. Early fire detection is best achieved by the
installation and maintenance of fire detection equipment in all rooms and areas of the house or
building. The various circuits described in the paper can be used.