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'ER I

I . Sty
"
2. syrnrncrrlc vlv~slon
3. Asymmetric Division

7. Chmniatic

8. Vertical Modal
- * , ,
9. Plateau Modal

10- Linear Modal

c Rhythn
. .

CHAPTER I
- --

The harmonic materials emphasized in this book can be applied to any stylex] of
composition, if the style is not defined by any harmonic particulars, i-e., pasr-1950s
jazz, pop, ECM, Iare 19th/20rh cenrury classical, etc.

Typicd would be the works of Pat Merheny, Wayne Shorter, Ralph Tamer, Joe Henderson,
and Kenny Wheeler, to name a few. Most ofrheir compositions are similar in their use ofnon-
diatonimlly related modal material, free-form (non-song form), asymmetric harmonic
rhyhrn, and a diversicy of rhythmic style. I n addition, many of heir compositions reflecr a tie
to the d t i o n ofjazz with secdons of tonal harmony and swing feel.Most oftheir works are
"playable."

I- The octave as a means ofstable lirnis
2- Asymmetric division of the ocmve into:

3. Sewn different picches
Norc that the octave divided syrnmetricalIy produces non-modal3)scales rhat have a parcicuiar
sonoric quality that can be 05compasiuonaI use.

HARMONIC GROUPS
T h e groups are defined by the presence or absence of preset rules oEssructure and organi-
zation.

The harmonic content oFa composition can be in one group or combinations of the groups.
THERE ARE FOUR MAW GROUPS (three are modal, one i s nonmodd).

1. TONAL (modal specific)A modd system which has specific means of org-tion (rules):

(a) mot mwernenrs ofa fifth
@) specific modal contou8
(c) ditonic mot relationships
(d) symmetric harmonic rhythm
(e) well -defined'home' key

2. MODAL (modal arbitrary, free-Form) There are no preset means of organization:
(a) root movement, harmonic rhythm, and modal contour determined by the whim of the
composer
@) chromatic mot relationships
(c) usually there is no clear home key
1) Waym which h e campo=rappri- 3. CHROMATIC (pIateau tonal) Same qualities as tonal, excepr there is no dearly defined
the Jcmesrs ofmusic h u m o n r d y ,
melodically, crc, which means thx
heme key:
harmonic dmm- that f f i e scyte (a) there are many different k g cenrers (plateaus)
must be used in mndern with &
form c ~ t i v i e y . (b) the key centers usualIy are nondiaronic
2) A quality o f dre unequal division of
the octave in which each scale sap (c) rht harmonic rhythm is usually sF&tric
has im own hmonic/melodic
&finition.
4. NON-MODAL (symmerric):
3) The quali~yof any scale in which
(a) unclear resolution,each note has the same harmonic/melodic qualities
rhe OCUVC, equally divided, giva
each s d c s t e p or hagmait the (b) chords and melodies exisr:as a sonority, a *soundm
same harmcmk/rneldic definidon.
4) The dynamic qualities of a group of (c) example: diminished, whole mne, 12-cone, angrnented
chords wthin a s e c ~ o nor phr=

I A Z Z HARMONIC SYSTEHS

THE SUBGROUPS OF MODAL ARBITRARY
These are the harmonic groups that wilI be emphasized in this volume and from this point on
will getlerdIy be referred to as m&I harmony.
There are three subgroups ofmodal harmony. imti~al m&l, plrzfeaid modd4 and linear modal

THE GROUPS ARE DEFINED BY
{a) harmonic rhythm - chord duration, dependent on tempo

@) melodic quality of rhe bass line
{c) definirian of a home key

VERJICAL MODAL

(a) fast harmonic rhythm (one chord pet beat to one chord per bar)
@) wry active, rneIodic bass line
fc) no clearly defined home key
(d) harmonic melodies are usually chromatic (see p. 61)
(e) individual chords tend to be heard as a sonority rather rhan a modality
T h i s harmonic style, being v e y active, can be overbearing. It is usually used at cadenrid areas
ofa composition, but can be found in complete use in some dower tempo tunes.
Examples: "Licde One" by Herbie Rancock, "Dance Cadaverous* by Wayne Shorter, "Yellow
Bell" by Ralph Towntr.

(a) harmonic rhythm s b w enough ro establish modality per chord

@) bass part less mive, less rneIa&c
(c) mesrIy non-diatonic root relationships

(d) no clearly defined home key
(e) harmonic rhychrn rends to be symmetric, w o to four bars per chord
Examples: "Gazelle" by Joe Henderson, "Afro-Centric" by Joe Henderson, "Loft Dance" by
David Liebman, "Maiden Voyage" by Herbie Hancock
LINEAR MODAL (there are two kinds - depending on t h e harmonic rhythm):

1. Slow t o no harmonic rhythm:
(a) no bass melody, more ofa vamp

(b) typically only one mode (root) for entire composition
(c) an o v e d I key and modaliry a n bc identified
(d) less symmetric form
2. Faster harmonic rhythm:

(a) mostly averdl diatonic roots, melody, and spelling

(b) more melodic bass part
(c) clearly defined home key
(d) more syrnmerric form
Examples: Slow - "In a Silent Way" by Joe Zawinul, "Masqualero" by Wayne Shorter, "Sea
Journey"by Chick C o r e ! Fast - "American Hopen by Ron MiIler, most pop tunes, Metheny
tunes, Brazilian, and new age tunes

Fawer to h e People . AmeTican Hope .Miles Davis (ColumbiaCS 9532) (a) "Pee Wee" . 1. In a Silent Way . SUGGESTED EXERCISES Listen to the FoIEowing recordings and try ro identi@the general harmonic group. Is there a diEference in rhe harmonic rhythm of compositions found on Messengers recordings after Wayne Shorter joined the band? I) Reissued on the 2-LP Mr "Foresight" (Miltswnes W 47058) . Iabel the group by sections.Joe Henderson (Milesrone M 9024')) (a)"Black Narcissus"-Joe Henderson (b) "Power ro the Peoplen -Joe Henderson 4.Ron Miller (Novus 3058-2N) Compare the rhythm section style of playing on the above recordings with that of any Charlie Parker recording and compare the harmonic rhythm of the above wich any pre-1960s jazz Messengers recordings. If more than one group is used in a single composirion. Try co name the modality of each section. The S o r m .Wayne Shorter 2.Tony mIliarns (b) "Masqualero" .Miles Davis (Columbia CS 9875) (a)-In a Silent Waf' -Joe ZawinuI 3.

Chromatic Method 3. Method 2. Diatc. ..' -: 7... .. Tetrachords*) . Moues .".. CHAPTER II of the Ur . e .. .a.

Ionian mode 2. The modes are constructed by h e combination of tetrachords thar cIarifies the differences in modality. T h e modes are diatonically relared. DIATONIC SEMiTONES CHROMATIC SEMTTONl3 ---- Lydian 222 Hungarian major 312 Ionian 221 Hungarian minor 213 Dorian 2 12 Harmonic 131 pppp Phrygian 122 Spanish Phrygian 121 Example 2-7: Lydian Ionian Dorian Phmian Hungarian major Hungarian minor Harmonic Spanish Phrygian 1) A bnorc s d c f r a p c n t having its own modal quality. Ionian b3. The siu scales from which the harmonic material in chis book will be derived are the following. CHROMATIC MEMOD Fixed starting note method: this is a nondiatonic method where each mode has the same starring nore. 2. The "colors"are to be brighr or dark. and t o have emotional effects as weI1. T h e main god of this section is ro establish a harmonic palette for the composer of modal composidom KO use in a manner similar to char OF the visual artisr. T o i n b3 (melodic minor) 3. Ionian 112 There are two groups d h m i c and cbromutic 1.CYAPTER tl METHODS There are two methods 1. b6 (harmonic minor) b3. 1. h ~ i a n 6. stabiIity and hatmonic/rnelodic qualides. With this in mind the chrornaut rnethad is the best choice. Ion& b6 (harmonic major) 4. $5 (melodic minor 95) 5. with no enharmonic spellings. tense or relaxed. DIATONIC METHOD The traditional method: that of establishing a key center and transposing the adjacent notes of r h e major scale. CHROMATIC: Alphabetic sequence uich enharmonic s p e k g s . DIATONIE Follows an alphabeucd sequence. with no clear color comparison. . 2.

T H E FORMULAS Note the shifring af the minor second interval From the right to the Ieft This is a visuaI representation of the order of bnghesr so darkest of the modes. each with its own modality. the modes are created by combining turo terrachords. cirhtr a strnlront or a whote tone. resolution tendencies. into a resulting merged modality with its o m qualiues of brightness/darkness. CONSTRUCTION OF THE UNALTERED D I A T O N I C MODES THE DIATONIC MODES (UNALTEf?€D IONIAN) Using the chromaric or f w d starting note method. 3. They are all contained within an octave. and harmormic/meIodic definition These results shouId be mec 1. a n o h i n d must be added m thc formutq. 2.. This will be called rhc rormecmr or mnnrmrm"g tone arpd is Found k w e e n the upper and lower t e c r a c h d . There are seven different scale sceps. The sum of rhe semitones equals 12. EKample 2-2: The Unaltered Diatonic Modes A Lydian Ionian Mixolydian A Dorian Aeolian Phrygian +) Now that in order far &e semicoma ro add up m 12.

learn to idemify them by ear.CHAPTER I1 SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. make nore of their emotional qualicy. 4. Try unusual cornbinalimr of rhr given nmchorck. . Play the tetrachords. 5 . Do the above for the modes. Construct the following modes using the terrachord method (do not use key signatures): (a) D Tonian (b) E Aeolian (c) Eb Locrian (d) G Phrygian {e) Bb Lydian (0 Db Mixolydian (g) E Dorian 1 2. Try to consmct a tetrachard not Listed in the re* 1 3.

Tes: 17. Tea-. 8. Cluster 9.-. Quartal 10. Upper Structure 15. Grip .Overtone series . Balance 12. M 11. Support 13. ~ctic of the Unaltered Diaton~ccnaras sive Met l ling t Scale r Order Spacing 7. CHAPTER III Cor .

[Note: The shorthand grip method will be covered in Chapter Vm. appendix)- 2) T ~ Ci n r a d i c nrio bcouccn rhe 4. spacing.T h e adjacenc notes are oFa perfect fourth or #4. Them is an order of priority in the list of color rones that define any mode. C L U m R .The adjacent notes are of a combination of seconds.1 THE COMPREtlf NSWE METHOD SPf L'LI NGICOLOR TONES To determine the tones (color tones. . thirds.The adjacent notes are OF a major third or minor third intend. a direct comparison with its p a m t scaiel) must be made. COMPREH ENSlVE MEFHOD A11 aspects of modal quality and acoustic properties of nore groups must be known:spdIing. SHORTHAND MITHOD Upper structure method: an upper strucrure with a particuIar hand shape o r ~ ispplaced over a root.T h e adjacent notes are of a major second or minor second as che c u m p a d mode (rat 3. 1) T h e Imtim made with the s a m e mot 2. THE DIATONIC MODES PRIORITY n B L E [Now The order has been adjusted so conform t o "common pracdce"] has priority order over spelling. TERTlARY . 2. and balance. The notes with different alterations are the notes that give the mode its quality. and fourths.CHAPTER Ill METHODS There are two mechods o f modal c h o d construction: 1. MIXED .] THE CATEGORIES O f CHORD SPACING 7. The spacing categories refer to the upper scrurture only. quality tones) that determine a scales modality. them are Four arcgorics. adjacent notes of thc upper a u u c m OF a chord. QUAFTAL . [Note: The primary means of chord construction used in this book is that ofstacking of upper structures over mots.

but has an interesdng "bite. €3. (See p. and char unusual combinations are desired in mosr cases.] Good balance usually is a result of chord consrruction. and fourths have tension. 127) . Keep in mind that the upper srrucrure by itseIf is less sensitive to weak balance. ROOTS = No less than an octave between the root and the upper smcmre if the root is lower chan G3 (second G below rniddIe C). . No less than a 84 between the root and the upper scrucrure if the root is above G3." 3. seconds have bite.The one which is most unlike the omtone series. This describes how the vertical spacing affects the chord stability. often. . 1) A resuIr ofrhe rmc m upperstrucnuc rano mthie a certain tessrtun Support is cFFecrcd by rhe r&rura OF h e 1 0 0 and ~ its ability to acr as a fcmdamend to the mermnc senes. which Follows a model OF the overtone series in its vertical arrangement. bite and tension. No more than a fourth between any of the remaining upper structure notes. In addition. SOME MNERAL "RULES' A. [Note: For chis kind of harmony. an exotic imbalanced construction sounds very appropriate. i t has subtle added tension which gives it a great sound 4. the one which mimics the o v e m n e series but the masc bland and uninteresting. the qualiry of the intervals adds to the ovetall sound . 1. 2.The most balanced. stable chord constnution is not aIways desired. No more than an octave between root and upper structure if the root is above C3(17 below middle C). QUARTAP .thirds are consonant. TERTIARY . MIXED -The best choice. UPPER ~ U ~ R (MIXED) E S N o more than a fifth between the lowest nore of upper structure to its next upper note. has a good combination of consonance. CLUSTER .An example of displaced overtones.

FiIl inJup or dawn. Keep in mind the rules of supporr and balance if good support and balance are desired. taking prefer- ence in the order of notes chat emphasize the modal quality of a primary mne or sel~cting notes that conform to documented use in recordings or printed music. but are open ro criticism. Place the primary color tone somewhere within the seIecced ressitura. ane should be familiar with the consrmction and use o f a11 spacings. e tc.) you may need to shift the prioricy tabIe to fuIm the requlred spacing- 8. 7. then experiment with exotic (imbalanced) spacings. Some of them sound surprisingly good.There are adjust- ments made to the table thar are more reflective of"c~rnrnonpracrice. 1.Doublings are acceptable and wen desired in some cases. 3. Select the kind of spacing. 7. Throughoutthe remainderofthe text. LYDIAN . Erase and adjust if needed." That is. THE EXAMPLES: THE 'UNALTERED DIATONIC MODES T . 2. Select che general tessitura and soar of rhe chord. 4. 6. If consrructing an assigned spacing (quartd.If constructing mixed spacings.try to avoid using the fifth. A t this time it should be pointed out h a t there is a problem with r h e standardization ofmodal chord symbols. ic makes the 114 sound like a #I1 (see FO&j9#ll). Still. Specific examples found in the Iisted discography will be labeled. commendations wilI be made within rhe comments of each example.Sounds best with the third next to the #4. the chord symbols given in the examples are a compilation ofsuggestions that I have received from t h e many s t u d e r m I have had from all parts o f the world. Example 3-1: F Lydian ~ ~11 6 ~ 4 (I) found in "Gazelle" by Joe Henderson . Check marks refer to the prefkwed examples because OF true modal ~ u n o dr because o f "common practice" usage. Although a11 spacings will be represented in the examples. One should be abIe to create a balanced chord on assignment. try co create balanced chords first. -- PROCEDURE FOR CHORD CONSTRUCTION T h e priori~yorder d I e i s not set up cornplecely by rhe &crates ~Facoustics. I t will be explained in each example when an adjuscrnent is made.Tertiary Q = Quartal C = Cluster M = Mixed The mixed examples are typical of h o s e found in common practice. the remaining coIar cones wirhin the specified incervaI o f che selected spacing to t h e number of notes desired in the chord (four or five plus root is ypical). it is restated here that the most interesting are the mixed spacings. These suggested symbols work. 5.

Example 3-4: 9 D Dorian 0-13 D-6 (1) from uTouch"by Eberhard Weber (2) *AIice's Wonderland by Chades Mingus (3)"So WhaP by Miles Davis . the one with true modality bar both the third and the fourth. has rnversions. CONSTRUCTIOH OF THE UNALTERED DIATONIC C H O R D S 2.There are two Farms of Ionim. the common one: A6/9 which is lacking complete Ianian modality. true modality (2) "Monk's Dream" 4. MIXOLYDIAN . note chat C-9 is not a modal chord. IONIAN . Example 3-3: (1) . DORIAN .Like Ionian.Must have a n a t u d sixth. and the A I I which has the m e modal sound Example 3-2: (I) = true modality (2) = exotic - (3) tradirionaI (4) = contemporary 3.

good "colors"chord. Ifthe occasion does come up. LOCRIAN . try to double the roar as first choice or choose a color tone that emphasizes the primary color rone as second choice. Other adjusrments are made to enhance zhe modality of the chord An example is the incIusion of rhe perfect fifth to Aeolian to emphasize t h e flat six quality while darieng that che chord is not an Aeolian flat five (Lomian 42). . many of the recorded exampla are by piam players voicing5 so the exampIes are derlved from what canfarms to hand shape (see Chapter WlI on the grip method).Use with caution! Can be roo dark and tense. Example 3 . Regarding 'common practice' adjusrment OF the color tone priority table.Dark and exotic. can sound like a firsc inversion miad. doubling t h e root with Phrygian aIso emphasizes the b2 quality of Phtygian. Dark and beautiful. AEOLIAN . PHRYGIAN . 5. doubling the root with Aeolian emphasizes the namral second. Example 3-6: E Phrygian E susb 2 D-9/E F-11/G 7. Example 5-5: A-9 b6 A Aeolian C-9/6 *-gb6 (I) a Gil Evans voicing (2)"Sea Journey"by Chick Coma (3) "The Lieb" by Ron Miller 6.2 (I) From "Haressa" by Steve Grossman Usually here will be no need to double any of rhe notes. As an exampIe.

quartal (d)Bb Aeolian. . Have a friend play them. (a) Play rhrolzgh all of the abwe chords. cry to identi5 their modality. mixed (b) A Phrygian.quartal I (h) A Aeolian. cluster (E on top) I 2. quartd ! @) E Dorian. Construct the follorving chords as specified (include chord symbofs and use your best alligrlphy . duster (c) Eb Mixolydian. tertiary Two mixed each for the foJ1owing: (a)C MixoIyskan p4 (b) F Aeolian (c) Bb Lydian {d) Dk Ionian 3. no third. transpose ro aIL keys. cerdary 1 (c) Eb Ionian. add t4. COHSTRUCTlOM O F THE U N A L T E l E n D l A T O N tC C M O R D S SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. cluster 1 (dl Db Lydian. Construct 5-note chords (root + four) of rhe following modes: (a) F Lydian. (b) Listen casefully as you play. mixed (C on top) (el Bb Dorian. mixed (C on top) I (f) E Phrygian. cluster (g) Eb Lydian.be aware oFnear presenudon): (a) G Phrygian.

CHAPTER !I1 .

of the Unaltered .. tmot~onalGeneralizar 6. A 3. Stab i lity . .. LU uar~rtess !solution 4. . Palette .. Diatonic Mod Wrder o f Briahtn..

with subtle enhancements according to cheir divergence from the source diatonic mode. The goal o f the following descriptions is to establish and list a mode's musicd/ernstionaI qualities. Ionian is rhe only mode without desire to resolvt or to relieve tension (see appendix). PHRYGIAN 7. LYDIAN brightest 2. 2. C Lydian wancs ro go to G Ionian The chords can cycle through chords wi& less momentum unul the home is reached. MODAL RESOLUTION ." THE ORDER O f BRIGHT TO DARK 1.to go to ~b lonian. Examples: C Ph'ygian wants. The order of tension or Iack of stability is the same as the darkness order.T h e desire of a modal chord co release its tension by becoming the Ionian mode with the same root. Examples: C Aeolian to C Ionian. This method of chord comparison i s used to create r n d contour and wlII be covered in a later chapter. nABILITY . F Mixolydian to F lonian. 3. the rooc of the Ionian mode with the same diatonic spelling. TONlAN 3. except that Lydian i s less stabk than Jonian and wanrs to resolve to Ion&. LOCRIAN darkest RESOLUTION TENDENCIES 1. MIXOLYDIAN 4.The lack of any need OF the modal chord to resolve. BRIGHTNESS TO DARKNESS 1. &o could be thought of as Iack of tension. DORJAN 5. which can be referred m for compositional and a e s t h e u d use. The later modes/chords have these basic qualities. AEWUAN 6. this is the Foundarion for dktonic cadence. The increase of darkness is a redization of the e f f ~ r of s dteracion by "flatdng. The shifting of the semitones from right co lefr increases the mount of darkness. .CHAPTER I Y The Following characteristics of the unalresed diatonic modes are the seed qualities for aH subsequent modes and their chords ro be introduced in the book. . Example: D Dorian m G Mixolydian ro C Ionian As one can see. MOMENTUM .The desire of the mot to resolve to the home key. 2.

Phrygian .* . pensive 5. sad. peacehl.We can m a r e a modal Iandscape by ccontrascingbright chords with dark ones.transient. exotic. ugly. but next we need ro constr~ccmodes and their chords that will add secondary "colots" to our palette.stable. floating 4. The descriptions a r e the resulr of a listener poll upon hearing differenc modes with different voicings. hannonk rhythm. CHARACTERISTICS O F THE U N A L T E R E D DIATOMIC MODES EMOTIONAL GrENERALIZATlONS The modes can and should be used ta form an emotional response From the listener. xessitura. though tfuI. with its sixth naturalized. one o f the modes we will consmct is Phrygian. In addition. that the secondary group is a form o f altered- diatonic. as w d as syncapation. urgenr. searching. we can enhance the eficr by the selecrion OFthe appropriate tempo and harmonic rhythm. It is important to grasp the concept that the second group of modes is derived from the primary group o f simple diatonic modes. l THE RESULTS 1. As am example.Locrian . Being a generalization. chord spacing. the results are accurace in mosr cases but cannot be t o d y relied upon.We can bring about an emotional response from rhe Iistener by our selection of modality and by carefu1 selection o f the general key or tessitura ofall the chords. Lydian . spacy. enraged Nore that the above qualities can be affected by other musical devices like tempo. tense. somber. darkly romantic 6. and that all the qualitiesof the original diatonic modes are maintained but enhanced by the quality oFthe alteration. Ionian . urbane.melancholy.aggressive. as well as their Iife experiences and ~ I t u r a backgrounds. busy 2.brooding. Al of the above wilI be covered in later chapters.angry. The sixth of she unaltered diatonic Phrygian is flamed so the n e w Phrygian natural six has the same qualities of the original but a bit "brighter. Dorian .mysterious. haunting. uncertain. mean. suspended. Such inaccuracies come from the diversicy of t h e listener's farniEiarizadon with different kinds of music. frantic. We now have a simple palette o f primary mlors with which to create our harmonic scene. hopeful 3. The order of brightesr to darkest should be considered as well. placid. psychedelic 7. Mixolydian . Aeolian . and melody. content.

T h e Following Morning" (ECM 1384) 3. make a comment on your emotional response. Try to determine if different routs or spacings affect rhe result. Ebwhard Weber. 2. Play all the previously constmcced modal chords.- B Mixolydian:- . Name the overall modaliry. "Crossings" (BS 2617) Id) 7he Fohwing Morning . - Ab Lydian. (a) Power to the Peopk . "Power To The People" (MPS 9024) (b) American Hope .Joe Henderson. try to identify their emotional quality. Note how tempo and key affect the end emotional result. Listen to the following recording. be prepared to answer irnrnediamly.Ron M~ller.Herbie Hancock.CHAPTER I Y SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Examples: C Phrygian: Ab F Aeolian."Elerneng" Libera1 Arts (NOYUS 3058-2N) (c) S w i n g Giant . Learn the acoustic source of the diatonic modes.

The Mode: Altered bnic No. 1 (Melodic Minor) .

we think of the source of this set of modes as being melodic minor (ascending). . Traditionally. AIthough the darkness order is unclear.CHAPTER V THE MODES OF THE ALTERED DlATONlC NO. try to think of the source zs altered Ionian . the method used For mode construction will be the fmed starting note method: chat 05 combining tetrachords. Dorian h7 Aeolian b5 (Locrian 42) Phrygian hd Altered --' . C/ /- . Example 5-1:The Modes oFthe ABtered Diatonic No. 1 Again. bur in order to refer to the parent scale for order of darkness. Mixolydian b6 - - -.. we will simply follow the order of the vnalcered diatonic modes. emotional characceriscic. . THE TETRACHORD f0RMWLAS Notice t h e asymmemc organization of the semicones due to the alrwations. 1 (Melodic Minor) - Lydian-augmented Mixolydian #4 . This is rhe darkest one we use. > 4- ><-8 ' r. etc.Ionian b3.. any furher shifting of rhe right semirunes would produce a wholly chromatic combination. With chis group there is the incroducrion o f the Spanish Phrygian tetrachord.. with the ahration being considered a quality enhancement.

adjusted for common usage and modal defmiuon. CHORD E X A M P M S 1.this chord k usually used in tandem with sus chords. It is a brighter form of M i u o I y h and is rraditiolnalIy caiIed Lydian-dominanr Example 5-3: ') Use in t a m d w with the Mklydian sus 4 chord . LYDIAN-AUGMENTED .Not really the 13811 chord Familiar to d. we must use at leasr: two of the tones to get suficienc modal definition. THE MODES OF T H E RLTEAED DIATQN~C NO I . it is quite often found wirhaur the #4- 2. we derive the foltowing table of color tones. MELODIC MINOR CONSTRUCTION OF THE CHORDS Although we are still using t h e comprekenrive method. MIXOLYDIAN #4. Therc will be exampIes of other spacings in subsequent chapters and in the appendix Comparing the altered diatonic modes with che diatonic modes. TABLE As wilI be seen.A brighter form of Lydian. the chard evampIes will be of mixed spacings clrJy. again.

Example 5-6: 6. AEOLIAN b5 . the natural sixth in this mode separates it from traditionaluse. DORIAN b7 .CHAPTER Y 3. eirher name is okay.it has an Aeolian sound and can be con- fused with Aeolian if rhe third is not generated in the overtone series by rhe played instru- ment (see appendix). This chord is highly recommended for attaining a fresh sound. M IXOLYDlAN b6 ." non- functional use. PHRYGIAN 46 One of rhe earhest chords used in the new-modal type of composicians."This chord can sound Iike a 6/4 chord with a suspended b2 and was used hat way by Ravel (Daphne et Chloe).Also known as hcrian \2. the mne "Lircle One. Example 5-5: 5.UsvalIy called minorjmajor seven. Example 5-7: . AIthough we cmditiondy use this chord as a ii chord in minor ii-V cadences. Like M k l y d r a n 14. Example 5-4: 4. it first appeared on Herbii Hmcock's album EAadm V q a g ~in. it is often used in randem with sus 4 chords. the modal use is a "stand alone.A darker form ofMixolydian.

b4 ~7~~ Fraditional Spelling) We now have nw. There are quire a Few compositions within the new-modd type of composition chat keep within this limited palem. They can now be merged into an order of bright to dark.. I t sounds very dominant and fmctional but we will use it as a "stand done" modal chord. at this point. ~~dian-augmented very frantic brightest 2. Phrygian b6 open. Mixolydian #4 tensely yearning 5 . With this in mind. . If the alrerarion increases rhe number of left-sided sernitones. THE M O D E S OF T H E A L T E R E D D I A T O N I C NO. che mode is darker. diminished-whole tone and as the Herb Pomeroy scale.AIso known as altered. Locrian h4 14. we could. Dorian b7 9. Aeolian \S 10. Mixolydian b4 6. Nexr. nELoelc niNon 7. the following is the collated order OFthe m d e s we have conscrucred so far. creare some interesting groups oFchords. we wiil look at a group ofchords t h a t are used primarily for their quality of soland or sonority. These are chords that have obscured modality but imply a modality with their acoustic properties.fb) make you uncomfortable. DESCRIPTION 1. sers of modal chords in our pdetce. the altered modes are variations of the diatonic modes. Lydian 3. Locrian 64 bluesy. THE COLLATED ORDER EMOTIONAL.Dorian Q permrbed 8. If flat burs (i. but we need more . the mode is brighter.there are three more sets ol'altered modal chords to investigare and they will be covered in subsequent chapters.e. IF rhc alteration moves the semicones ito the right. use the often found incorrect spelling of a naturnl third. Aeolian b5 rornanticalIy confused 11. SUPER-LOCRIAN . Phrygian b6 13. Mixolydian b6 ramantically hopeful 7. Ionian 4. hopefid 12. As mentioned previously. urbane da Having our first p u p of secondary coIors added to the palette. I .

. doing ear rraining as usual. (a)G Phrygian b6 (b)E b Lydian-augmented (c) G Mixolydian b6 (d)Ab Mixolydian h4 (e) D altered ( f ) ~b Dorian h7 (g)F Lydian-augmented (slash chord) (h) G Locrian hZ 2. Include chord symbols. Play them in aLl kep. Construct the following chords. Use your besc calligraphy. 1 3. all mixed spacing. use a ruler if needed.SUGGESTED f X f RClSES 1.

. W Y Y ~ ~ .. (a) s rht modality i im stidly @1 a the modaIig i campiefed In the rnelodr . : . -- . ..".. . t=.I*?**" -. f ---I .Tear b de.. kawing them WI hour ..1 .. Suspensions Implied Modality 1) 0lords W n g one or more of the mi3dat dcfin~ng?h. . CHAPTER VI Non-Mc IICh A U Note ~ Lnoras Ielete Note Chords 3 .

Example 6-3: normal unresolved . Derived From unresolved cadences.2 normai unresolved T H E SUS 4. the unresolved note becoming a suspension. they have an implied modality. which wiI1 be poinred out when the chord is discussed M E MlXOLYDlAN SUS 4 CHORD: Derived from the unresolved II-V cadence. NO SEVENTH CHORD: This chord is derived from the IV-1 cadence. Although this chord is treated like a Mixolydian chord. The chord can be considered Ionian. leaving the seventh to become the Fourth of &e target chord. ADD NOTE CHORDS . with the normaIly resoIved 1 to 3 suspended and becoming a 4 of rhe rargec chord. the nosma€ resolurion of the seventh to t h e third is not completed. chis chord is t y p i d y a sonoricy but acoustically can be interpreted as Ionian. DELETE NOTE CHORDS .CHAPTER VI KINDS OF CHORDS 1. Example 6 . try to consider its quality a produrn of non-resoIudon. Example 6-1: normal unresolved THE SUS 2 CHORD: Derived from the unresolved V-l cadence. 2. A D D NOTE CHORDS CHORDS DERIVED FROM CADENCES: These are chords chat have a sonority that can be described as having an unresolved quality.Chords in which a note is deleced to create a chord spacing which has a particular sonority. They are the result of not resolving the normal voice-Ieading in a cadence. Although they do not have a modal definirion.

Lydian or sus 4 THETWO MAIN GROUPS OFTHESE KINDS OF CHORDS ARE 1.D o not include a sixth with this chord.CIearIy not Miuolydian. which imply Ionian .not clearly Mixolydian or Dorian bT (min/rnaj7) MAJOR: Sevenths . no 7 .not dearly Dorian. its quality should be smrk - mot. is unclear. NON-HOOLL CHORDS MISSING THE THIRD: This c h o d could be either a minor 11or a Mixolydian 1 I. not dearIy Aeolian Sevenths . major seventh. (a). The quality tones that are deleted usually are the primary qualiry tones. Chords with a b7.Because rhe missing nore is usually a primary color cone. in most cases. which imply Mixolydian or minor seventh and 2. perfecr fourth and perfea fifth only.Csus2 f b) Gus4 Example 6-5a:Sus 2 .not clearly Ionian.Because a major third is usually generated acoustically. THE MISSING NOTES MINOR: Sixths .not clearIy Ionian or Lydian F o n d s . include mar. or no third or seventh. major second and perfeft fifth only. DELETE NOTE CflORDS These are chords that have notes purposely deleted to create a particular sonority. it tends to sound like Mixolydian. Example 6-5kr Sus 4. fiords with a major third. ies modality.

Example 6-6: Missing the sixth.These chords are also to be compared with the previous Miolydian sus 4 chords.(b). with the differences being rhe inclusion of a major or minor third and the seventh being natural or flatted A t this point it should be restated thata chord with a truly definitive modality tvould have alI seven notes of [he scale included. The examples (a). Keep in mind that (a) Mixolydian 11.so we will consider the chord examples givm in previous (and Iater) chapters as campIere modalities and tht chords consmcced in this chapter as nmmo&P *) D e f i d l c modal chords d u d e d for campariron. the minor 11 is nor dominant nor is i t Aeolian. Notice that rhese four chords have a 4 or 11 in common. as we are doing now . and (b) Ionian 11 are defined enough t o be considered modal chords and are included here purely for comparison. It does tend to sound Dorian because of rht strength of the sixth (13th)in the overmne series. For r n u s i d reasons we must compromise. It couM be argued that d chords with less than seven noses are nonmoda!. and (c) are included here to show the similarities of sound and construction. THE TABLE OF CHORD TOMES FOR BOTH GROUPS The following examples of boEh groups are typical of chose found in common practice. .

with a Free finger..The first scep is to organize rhese chords into a musical whole. paying a m t i a n ca the resuIting spacing: the combination of seconds. Try the chord on orher roots. Then just play the chard without a third and listen to hear if a third is generated by rhe overcone series. Use root. M e w I in the appendix. use of major or minor thirds will give you a consonant sound. used much in slash chord harmony (covered later). Another demonstration would be to play an EbPsus4 and while the chord is sounding.a great sound. major third. Before creating your own delete note chords. Example 6-7EThe Mixolydian version oFExampIe 6-7e. ic is unclear but sounds mare like minor 7 chan min/rnaj 7. just delete one or two notes from a fully constructed chord. to create some oFyour own. We now have enough chords in our palette ta rake a break fmrn creating chords and to move on to creating some music. pound our an A4. fourrhs. This inversion was used ofsen by Ravel. &ample 6-Jd: T h e Mixolydian version of Example 6-7c. Example 6-7e: The minor second and the perfect fifth give this sonoricy a great "bite"This is the prototype "new age" chord.hoId the chord and Iisren intently for the major third to srart sounding a few seconds later. Striving for a parricular sonotity. less stark sounding. thirds. . and then the resulting sound and implied modality. u d y seen as CJF. could be C-/I?. &ample 6-7b:The minor version OF Example 6-7% missing Ehe seventh.There is confusion over a snitable chord symbol for this chord. and use of major or minor seconds will add bite. play a Gb. some of the primaples of acoustics and you will s e t why some of the missing note chords imply arnodality. this has a major third and is sweeter. so chord connecdon is the next scep.. then my a E narural. and perfecr fifth only. no 3 chord with the 6 8 on rop (E/A). as found on the FoPIowing pages. Mixing the intervds will soften the effect of the indvidual.use of fourths will create starkness.To experiment: on a grand piano.S Example 6-7a:Compare t h i s with the sus 2. MDN-MODAL CHORDS Example 6-7: (a1 C9no7 (b)C-9no7 (c) Fb9no3 Id) F9no3 ( e ) F-9no5 (9 F9no5 (g) F 1 3 n ~ S (h) F13no3. Example 6-9g & 6-7h: Implied Mixolydian chords with a good ubiceP There are many more examples in use. major second. and fifths. review rhe principIes ofchord spaEing in ChapcerIJI. barnple 6-7c: Thc contemporary voicing o f Ionian. Try arher chords.

- SUGGESTED EXERCISES Constntcc the Following chords. d1 mixed spacings. some are €am previous chapters for review: F-E 1 G hiixolydian k6 Dsm2 (no 3) ~bll F9 (no 3 ) Bb Mixolydian #4 P4 (1103) Db44 G Locrian L12 Ab Lydian-augmented C-9 (n07) C Phrygian 116 E9 (1107) Eb13sus4 G Phrygim b6 E Ionian b4 .CHAPTER V I .

CHAPTER VII Chord Connec '. I I. Common Upper Struc~ure . Cadence armonic Melody 6 . Pedal IPoint arkness Contour 4.

MeIodic manipulation A. m p s or any area where activiry or tension is desired. 2. CHORD SPACING C. Single nore bass (pedaI point) 3. and U-V or tonal areas have predetermined chord connection. 1. Conmived contour 3. Common inner smcmres 4. A common aural focal point. 1. etc. Common upper structures 8. MELODlC MANIPULATION AppIied to top and/or bass melodies: 1. Mosc contemporary modd jazz composirions have areas where there is a large number of non- diatonically related chords. there are few compositions rhar have many areas of vertical modal harmonic rhyrhrn. T h e approach ro harmonic organization is divided generally into two carepries. There are four kinds of common focal points: 1. HmonicJrhychmic means HARMONICIMELODIC CONNECTION There are three categories of connection: 1. the areas could be caI1ed vertical modal ar plateau modaL Linear areas have roo few chords to require chord connection. CADENCE: Parody o f II-V-I 4. MELODIC RESOLUTlON o f upper/lower neighbor 5. RecognizabIe pactem (symmetric or asymmetric) 2. Organization ofconrour through the application of mdody-writing concepts Keep in mind that these nondiatonic areas are usually found at cadences. MODAL CONTRAST: Bright to dark. A common focal poinr 2. Single note upper 2. Harmonic/mdodic means and 2. COMMON FOCAL POINT Offers a point o f unification for a group of non-diatoniclIy rehced chords. . CONTRIVED CONTOUR An amempt m give an ordered COnEOUr of tension and release ro a set of modal chords. Depending on the harmonic rhythm. MOMENTUM: Desire to resolve to Ionian 3.

. Tweak: ny different chords or bass melodies until your musical taste is satisfied. This couId be a large number since a single pitch i s not tied to one source. In addition. (a) symmetric partem (b) diatonic motive and deveIopment 3. 4. voiced with the seIected pitch (common tone) on cop. Experiment by playing various chords. In this example w e find rhar a11 t h e source m o ~ are s diatonicalIy relared to EL Ionian or mAb Ionian. To r e v i m the acowtic suslrce ofany mode is the Ionian or drered Ionian with the same flats or sharps used as the given mode (the same key signature). TOP NOTE 1..m a t one needs to know to make this process fascer or Iess painful is the mastic 5wrce of any given mode. Create a b a s melody (see section on melodic manipulation). SINGLE PITCH. che relationship of the acoustic sources has an effect on the overall sound of the p u p OF chords. your choice of chord can incIude any from the seven different modes of each of the acoustic sources. COMMON TONE MODE ACOUSTIC SOURCE G is the t4th of Db Lydian Ak Ionian G is the 13th 05 Bb Mixolydian Eb lanian G is the root of G Phrygian 46 F Ionian b3 (melodic minor) G is che 9th of F Mixolydian Bb Ionian and so on. many of the chord spelIings have . As is shown in the above example. 2. En addidon. Example 7.1 : Finding common cones . EXAMPLE: G above middle C has the folIowing acoustic sources: It is the fifth of C Ionian the third of Eb Ionian the second of F Ionian the seventh o f Ab Ionian the seventh OFAb Ionian b3 the sixth of J3b Ionian 63 and so on... C M O R D COHNECT!ON COMMON fOCAL POINT A. Select a pitch within the desired tessimra.

SeIect a bass nore within che desired tessirura." with an overall consonance and an effect of "beIonging" together. Since they are used in common conntxtion. 4. They do provide an exotic method OF chord connection and will be of interest to composers ofclassical and/or fiIrn score music. It is a traditiond technique and familiar to the student.Innershw&res have the same definition as uppers. You may want to look at the contour part OF this chapter to assist in chord selection. It also is the technique which offers rhe clearesr modal conrrasr 1. With so many options. should be quite accomplished wich chord spelling: knowing the order oFquality tones. 3. at this point. it should be obvious that all of the connecting rechniques are to be used in tandem: you need to know melodic manipulation to create the top and/or bass melodies and you need to know modal caarour to assist in mode selection. SINGLE NOTE BASS PART (PEDAL POINTI This form ~Econnectionis a bit easier ro use. Create a melody for the rop notes of the chords to follow. as well as knowing che acoustic source OF any mode. T h e use of upper srrucnrres is a very imporrant patc of this text and will be covered Iarer in a chapter of its oivn. In addition. Keep in mind that this is not always the god when connecring a group of chords. excepr that they aren't used for chord construmon. Tweak. perceived as a singIe mnady or s o d I r is h i s sound thac holds a group of chords rogedrec as a whole f i e y are dso a key part OF rhe $rip method of chord consmcrion m be c o d in Ctupret Vlll . This would imply rhar the above example should sound "good. go back and redo the earlier ones. Once you have worked with dl the rechiques. the studenc should have acquired a working familiarization with the sound OF the chords through daily ear training. usual.CHAPTER V l t diatonicism In common. 1) A p u p of norm. Experiment with various chords that satisfy your musical tastes. nvo to six. B. Next we will look at chord connecnon with upper srruccuresl). 2. T h e ability ro play the chords in many voicings on a keyboard is a must. Example 7-2: A Phrygian h6 A Aeolian E/A A Mixolydian MELODIC MANIPULATION (symrnerric rop melody) Before we go on. char modal contrast and contour have priority when selecting your chords. the student. we have co rake an inuoductory Iook at them now.

begin with a simple rhird interval. 8. 4. use common tone on top iFdesired. 1.fourth or fifth is a good choice. Any more than a three-note structure may turn out to be too dense within a group of chords. Sdect a scmcmre. keeping in mind that this will be the middle portion of a chord 3. sixth. 7. Create a repeating simple melody oFtwo to five notes within a desired sessitura. Next. Example 7-3:(you name the modes) . COMMON INNER STRUCTURES Because these stmaures are found within a chord. 5. FilI in the rest of the chords. but cry a variety anyway. a simple inrerid of a third. Play thraagh the example as it i s se far. T h e top note of the structure is to follew chis melody. Tweak. 2. create a bass melody. CHORD CVHNECTION C. ta get an indication of the moddigv creared 6. Add a top melody.

. Dalt. 2. 3. 4. Connect with common tone (0 on top: F abwe mid C. I Use your best calligraphy. EbA6/9.C H A P T E R Y11 SUGGESTED EXERCISES I. A-9b6. Compose an 8-chord harmonic set with both CT bass and top. Eb13sus4. use a ruler if needed. Ab13sus4. use no key signature. CT in bass part.Db Lydian. Compose a 6-chord sec with CT on top. Compose a 6-chord set.

Shape 4. Jpper Structure 2. 5/6. Sonority . The Grip 3.6JS 5. CHAPTER Vlll Upper Structures .

K e n y Kirkland. This method i s derived From keyboard perfor- mance and the chords are typicd of chose you hear on conrernporaryjazz recordings. quartal (inversion of rhe sus 2). The follww- ing is an example oFthe srrucrures and their derivation. Hence. Made up of a second and a fourth within a fifth. it has a great combination of bire and starkness. This was avery popular choice of chord construction in fusion music of the '60s and '70s. - . The grip is the actual finger positions o f the right hand when playing a chord. partiru- lady by the younger players:Joey Calderazzo. CHAPTER Val1 CHORD CONSTRUCTION Chord const-ruction Nich upper structures is known as thegrip or shorthand method oFchord construction. this is a quick. The upper strucmres are a basic three-note group. I * LI - 6/5 added note 516 added nore 5 / 6 altered major 7+ minor 7+ minor/major 7 I 1 T h e most used of these strumres are the sus 2. "shorrhand" method. ECM. [Note. Example 8-2: Modal Chords Created With thasus 2 US 6/9 Locrian 14) Lydran minor 1 1 6/9 Phrygian sus. and new age recordings. O f the following examples. one does nor need to know the theoretical foundation of chord construction to form chords.] Example 8-1 : Upper Structures 5 ~ 5 2 minor triad major rnad quad 615 5/6 augrnenced . there is a group of Phrygian upper structures which are derived from inversions of the 6/5. Also.The abreviation US will be used to mean upper strucmre. and Jim Trompeter.the major triad. There are many chords brmtd using this structure. as already found in this text. the chords with the checks are the preferred and most wed. With this method.named from their intervalic formulae.2' Locrian h7 Midydian A6 Aeolian ') Derivzrion o f the srructure name. to name a few. W E SUS 2 UPPER STRUCTURE This structure is the one found in earliesr recorded use. 7. This kind of chord voicing also is the predominant sound found on fusion. but a fourth note can be added For further definition ifdesired. There are seven basic grips used to create all the chords Found in this cexr. and what1 have termed the 5/6 and the 6/5. 50 . - V z I A I 4 * P. Keep in mind chat the structure is a "shape" and a sonoriy.

fusion. Example 8-5: *I The named s t m c n w . This Is found by locating the critone in the US . 4.The 6/5 US is the basic structure Found in the chords ofharmonic major and will be reintroduced in that chapter.- Eb lonian Nore char in the above two examples. parricuIarly on ECM. T H E 6/5US A combined mmne and perfect fourrh (six and five semicones) lonian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian krian lonian n . and pop-jazz recordings.rhe upper note being the leading tone (7th degree) of the mor Ionian.i t is so used in its Phrygian inversion that it must be considered as a separate US. A combination of five semitones (prrfecc fourth] and six semitones (mtone) lonian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Pocnan lonran - Ab tonian 3. one primary color cone is missing. U P P E R STRUCTURES [Nore: Triadic US will be covered in Chapter XIII "SIash Chords"] The 615 and 5/6 upper structures are che ones found most often on contemporary recordings. the US was not a good choice for the construcrion of Lydian. These US require the knowledge o f their root acoustic source lonian mode. Yon can also m a c e some interesting chords by experimenting wirh rhe chromatic scale as roots. T H E PHRYGIAN US This is acmaIIy an inversion of the 6/5. Because Lydian implies another acoustic source.

CHAPTER V I I I

5. THE MELODIC MINOR GRIP

Used often in constructing chords from the altered Ionian b3, melodic minor mode. The
grip by itself is a Lydian-augmented chord.It is a ~ e r t i a r yupper strucrure which conrains
rhe very definitive augmented triad. The grip is placed on the minor third of the acoustic
source. I.e., Eb for C melodic minor.

Example 8-6:

Dorian h7 Phrygian Lydian $5 Mixolydian #4 Mixolydian b6 Aeolian bS alwwd

Hopefully, rhe smdenr has recognized many af these constructions as being found in
examples of mixed spacings in previous chapters. Using chis method of chord construction
creates the easiest, as well as che best sounding chord, as is evidenced by how ofieen rhey are
Found on the latesr recordings.
This subjecr will be covered more in the chapter on three-part upper structures (XIV)and the
chapter on harmtsnlc major and melodic minor b5 (m.
CHORD CONNECTION
Chord connection with upper structures follows some of the same principles as given in the
section on diaconic chord connecnen,
1. Common focal poinc
2. Modal contour
The principle difference is that where we worked with a single note or a melodic Iine ofsingle
notes, rht aural focal point in this case is rhe stnrcrure itself. The sound of che vertical
arrangement will be the point of focus.
Because of this, the s n d e n t should remember chat whatever US is seIected for use shorrld
remain in the selected inversion chroughauc rhe phrase oE w e . Changing the inversion xvouId
change the sound OF the US and negate the common connection.
No~rnaliy~ only three upper structures are used for chord connection: the sus 2, triads, and
Phrygian. The sus 2 US is easily the most used in j m and fusion compositions.Triad US use
is predominant in pop music and has some use in pop/jrtzz and new age types of
cornposirions. AU forms of US use are found in aIl the musics, to some degree.

Mi3HODS O F COMMON UPPER STRUCTURE CONNECTION
1. Common upper structure, bass melody
2. Common roots, upper structure follorving a given melody

3. Upper strumre fouowing a given melody, with roots following a given melody
4. All of the above with modal contour

5. d l of the above with final cadence ,

UPPER STRUCTURES

Example 8-7:Common US With Bass Melody

,(2) Lydian 619 (2)

Example 8-8: Common Tone B a s , Top Melady

Larnple 8-9: Top and Bass Follow Given Melody

Mixolydian 6!9 Aeolian Aeolian

Example 8-70: Common US, Bass Melody, Added Harmonic Rhythm, Cadence

Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian altered Locrian Aeolian Mixolydian
fl

POINTS TO REMEMBER:
1. The verdcal -gement of the US should not change (invert); rhis would change the
sonority, losing the common qualiy which binds the group together.
2. The common Iink OFthe US is not lost by arpeggiation - tsy it.

3. As with common tone connection, knowing the acoustic source of the implied modality
will assist in reaching the harmonic goal.

CHAPTER Ylll

Example 8-1 7: Common Tone on Top, Bass Symmetric Melody

lonian Lydian 15 Mixolydian sus Phryg~anb6
I
I r

I

Example 8-12: Common Bass, Pedal Point

WS loman Phrygian 6
A
I

b*
- - h

Example 8-13: Common inner Voice Srructure, Common Top

You name the mode

Example 8-14: Common Tone Top

Lydian Mixolydian sus Mixolydian sus minor 9 Mixolydian 11
h

t o n m r y Motion . Top: lonian Mode. U P P E R STRUCTURES Example 8-1 5: Pedal Point With Contour Cadence You name the modes Example 8-16:Common Tone Top. Symmetric Melody Bass You name h e m o d e Example 8-1 7 : Melodic Pamrns. Bass: Chromatic Scale.

....Phrygian grip 8..... D b Aeolian b5 ....... E Aeolian ................ label h e grip under the chord (516..5/6 4.. G Mixolydian b6 ........ ................ Eb Ionian h4 ............ sus 2 etc. Phrygian grip 7......... 6/5 9.................... E alrered ....... F Aeolian ............. Bb Dorian ....................................CHAPTER VllT SUGGf STED EXERCISES Constmcr the following chords by the grip method onIy. sus 2 3. include chord symbols over the chord......... F# minor 1 1 ............ sus 2 20....... 5'6 2...................... C Aeolian .. 4 6 5 ........................ F Ionian ...................).. I............. melodic minor ...... melodic minor grip 6..................

CHAPTER IX Compteting +k- 3 Connection Proces ave mP Ion-ttived Canrour . Parody Cadence ..

2. In order to make the examples musicd we need to apply aEI of rhe elemenrs of music to the skeleml harmonic scheme: harmonic rhythm^. tempo. or with variations of che clave pattern. Play and tweak as usual.the Bossa Nova is a good first selection: Example 9-1 : Bassa Clave 5. There is a metodic motiCin the bass part and a rccurring set oFhamton~callyr e l a d chords. 5. In other words. e tc. it muidbe a change wirh every cIaw change or a change evety m o . or a n y h e m that rhythrn~cemphasis is desired. and some form af melodic statement and developrnenr. a rwo bar rh~hrnicpattern . Determine where you wane the chords to change on the cIave pattern. the second chord for the next dave tic. Compose a bass rhythm based o n the clave pattern. 4. the first chord for che first two clave tics. Selecc your favorite set of common connected chords. 1) Thc sysrematlc rcla~ionshipof the durar~onof each in a group of chords which shows contour and develupmmt 21 &pea& harmanicJrhyrbmic Fiwre. These areas are usually repeated until the effect is clear. Compose or select from the public domain. wirh its implicati- ons ofdevelopmenr. . PROCEDURE I. which would be found ar the ends of sections OFa composition or at other areas that require an increase in tension or activity. These will all be covered eventually. harmonic conrour. As mentioned earlier rhe given examples of common connection are used primariry at cadential areas. The name for this went is a ursmpz). They are also found in introductory areas where a statement of the premise o f the composition is desired. Recall that the primary emphasis of this book is on jazz composition rechnigues.CRAPTEA I X Although playing the prwious examples are harmonicalry satisfying and the chords sound good. Vamps am found ar d e n d areas. turnaround arc= and the incroducroryand ctasing areas oFa composirian. usually 2 ro 4 b m in length which fo2lows a preset rhythmic parrern called a &we. they are not exampIes of music. bur the first step is to give the examples harmonic rhythm. T h e first step in our creative effort is to compose a number of these vamps ro be used as starting points in t h e creation of a whole composition.

Phrygian US . Top Note Lydian MExDIydian Phrygian 46 Mix01ydian titample 9-3: Common Tone Bass (Vamp) b m p l e 9 4 : Common US on Top Example 9-5: fommon US on Top. Arpeggiated Example 9-6: Common Bass. COHPLETIWG THE C H O R D C O N H E C T I O N P R O C E S S Bample 9-2: Common Tone.

@) Use of pedd poinc o v e d rneIodic dkecrion downward. And being in the diatonic system. ic is Dorian-Mixolydian- Ionian. Use of rritone skip to final release chord. Although the harmonic vocabulary of this book is mostly contained in a chromatic environ- ment. The most used process is to simply conmast che brightness/darkness oFthe modes to obtain a sense of contour and deveIoprnenr. If you recall thc m o d d cantour of the traditional didtonic cddenre. @) Diatonic cadential modal Formula. freeform bass melody. Example 9-8: Parody o f Diatonic Cadence (Il-V-I) c-= AL P (a) Mixolydian b6 Fhtygian Lydian 15 (b) Dorian Mixolydian Ionian * (a) Root movement like diatonic cadence. That is an order of dark. the diatonic modal formuIa with chromatic root relationships and both chromatic root relationships. it is a satisfaction of momentum: the desire of the chord roots ro cycle to the tonic root. Conmary directions of the top and bass melodies enhance the effect A skip o F a third. b e . notice the change of chord spacing.f o r m modaliry. fifth or tritone co the release chords is recommended. The options include root mowmenr: of a fifih but wirh a modal relationship other than chat found in the diatonic formula.CHAPTER I X CONTRIVED CONTOUR MODAL CONTRAST This is where we use the order of darknessbrightness of the modes. and nondia~anicmodal selection but with the $arbness/brightness foIIowing that of rhe diatonic use. . It i s an attempt to give a sense of contour to the chord-to-chord relarionship. Lastly. without any reference co the diatonic system. we can use the diatonic cadence as a model for obtaining harmonic contour. brighrer to brightest It is also an order of less stable ro most stable. Example 9-7:Modal Contour I btighc -dark -== release --===== (a) Typical use: increase of tension to a release.

" But you must use ir conserva&ely. we need to work with our bass rneiody just a if it the xmal melody of a cornpasition. as it can quickly become contriuidity.Symmetry just pIain "sounds good. you can create a contour by manipulationd r h e intervdic relacionships and by working with the overall direcrion of the melody by phrases (the top and bass melodies). 4. Another approach is to use an asymmetric source which is farniIiar to the listener: a mode or terrachord or any hown melody or melodic fragment. COMPLETING THE C H O R D COHNECTIOH P R O C E S S MELODIC MANIPULATION 1. but the melodic shape or contour chat a11 rhe top notes o f a group of chords. we are going to work in rhe opposire way spell o u t our chords to follow a preset melody. MELODIC EFFECTS Lastly. TOP MELODY Not the actual melody ofa composition. if spelled out. would create. 3. RECOGNIZABLE PATERNS Creating a set of chords that foUaws a melody which is easily recognized by the listener is a quick and easy way rw gain musical accessibility. . Of course. Because the nondiatonic modal sysrern we are working in is not tied to root movements of a fifth. 2. BASS MELODY The actual melodic qudity of b m p a x if played by itself. following rhe conceprs of melody writing (as found in Volume Z).

with the remaining six b a s showing use of mrnrnon tone. Compose a +chord vamp. with your choice of US. Use at least six chords. T r y to be musical. and modal contour. srarting with a 2-bar vamp.have the US FolIew a given melody and rhe bass be pedd point. 4.CHAPTER IX SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Compose an &bar harmonic scheme. approach this exercise z a n artistic assignment rather than an academic one. Create a result you Iike so much you wanr: to play it for someone. 2. pedal point. . using sus 2 US with a composed bass melody. Compose a 4 to 6-chord vamp using compound meter. 3. Compose four 2-bar claves.

. . following the traditional MBh. are obviou previlDUS sections. a new s d o n then a repeat ofthe first A section.. 11ysymmestic. T h e main1 paint is nor to be: as concerned about form as you shoul lout ha^ enr. G FORM .. .:. S examples have has drhough not direct repetitions. .*-:- 3 .*.most of the compositions in che free chromatic rnodd g are also firee in their form. . Sectional . .-.=.- 1.I .<: L: . -2.cr . . This freedom also means chat you are free to use rradiciond f . . with 8 bars per section.hy C7 the song form. . . I n~roughComposed :<<. l u r n m we will see are. Although most OF h e compositions are free-form.- . some of which can be rmeated. - &you so desire. I . :-a=. - peac... ..but does have dear seccians. .*$ zL s:.=-. b. giving a rota dons are u s d y in the use of varying the bar numbers of the sectio 2.-.C A-I auiur U L ult.Ii . lilre the nea kind of aom posidoIn. r ne aeveiopmenr N a t song-torm... . . *I! 3 - -:>ns. C h ~ l rE R X Form . some are still omanized. M R ( IMPOSED Corn]posed fro1n beginni ~d without a concern for devetopmenc by repetinr r 1s ~y mocM/ernotional contour. .? . Song Form ..:. d l aculuu.... . -..- I---- .>. . .. ....> . .-. . >. Parti&ly if the composition has ties m traditional style. -... :. . -.-.* : . .. med earlier in the tm.

B e Smerer. .ABC. Miles Davis . C =4 I = = rota1 = I& ! ! .through composed. plot their farm as AABC. CHAPTER X SUGGESTED EXERCISES Listen ro eight of the compositions lisced in the discography. source and the form. A 8. Miles Davis . B 6. ABCCDA. 21 Example: "Pee Wee" by Tony Williams f r ~ m bars "Masqudero" by Wayne Shorter from Thc Sorcerer. List the name. or whatever the form is.

Repose 3. Transition 4. . CHAPTER XI Harmo~ Con i a m o n i c Khythn 2. showing d mwelopment an mnwur. Climax 5. I solution 1) The a verdt organir=-on d a nt moda1 chords ~ s m a unified mu w M e .

or chords of short duratian. 2. that a main goal of the harmonic coneour is ro provide h e improvisor with a "map" EOassist in creative development of the improvisation The harmonic and rhyrhmic contour should be designed with that in mind A point of cIEmax. IF repose areas are long. in order t o make it e a s y to punctuate a chorus of improvisation and allow the setting up of a new chorus. chese are areas uf inacrivicy and rest. Point of cIimax 8. pIateau. usually changing one bar or Iess depending on tempo. with the improvisor in mind (who most likely will b e y ? ) . CYCLIC FORM Again. Relationship of first to last chord CONTOUR BY HARMONIC RHYTHM I. Use melodic rnanipuIation to enhance rhe above or where subde contour is desired 'POINT O F CLIMAX It should be mentioned.Gives shape by contrasting fast and slow harmonic rhythm. Should be placed jnsc prior to repose areas or at the ends of phrases or sections. Repose . now. Like linear modal. Common upper structure 3. These are the areas of activig and are usually vertical mo$aL Tonal harmony is also found in chese areas. 2. Darkness and momentum cadences (see p. 60) 6. Repose/Transition . For exarnpIe. Use darkness/brighcness for longer areas. Transition . The clearest means is For the last chord oFa section have a dominant function to t h e target chord (firsr chord OF the repeated section). Overall harmonic rhythm .Areas with nvo or mare chords wirh different roots. etc. Transition areas shoutd be devised to increase tension just prior t o a repose area+ CADENTIAL AREAS 1.should be plomd Refer cothe following examples for an indication of general area of place men^ I d d y .An area within the chord scheme in which there are two or more chords with the same root (pedal point) or only one h o r d for a bar or more. a place where the emotional intensity is ar its peak. 7. 4. Use momenmm.TI-v-1parody cadences where smong "finality"is desired 4.CHPrPTER X I METHODS OF ORGANIZATION 1. 3. if the First chord of a section is F Lydian-augmented. 11-V. rhe lasr chord could be C . Common tone connection 2. The last chord should be buiIc on a loot that is a firth away. Melodic rhythm of bass line 5. a tritone. a bass part vamp may be needed to add rhyrhmic interest. it is recom- mended chat the first chord and the last chord ofrepeated sections relare in a w a y that assures an easy access to melodic voice-leading. the decision will be made by rnamre musical j u d p e n c UsuallyIrhe climax is found ar the end ofthe most intense transidon area T USE prior ro lche most relaxed repose area. 3. 5. Harmonic rhyrhm of the chords 4.vertical. away or of an upper o r a lower neighboring tone with a modaliry that is darker or has less stabiliry than the target chord.

C Phrygian. The first four examples are compositions similar in harmonic syle a d emotional content. The chords do not need re be spelled with the original note values. although one couId pick a pivotal key area from cheir beginning and ending chords. They are all free-farm. The second group ofcornpositionshas a more *open"harmonic rhythm. Before you are to create your own complete set of chords for a composition. but iFthere is an important vamp figure. If &ere is a long area wirh one chard only. number each chord for reference. wrire down only the cop and bass melodies and any pertinent harmonic dam: common US. short as a quarter. They can generally bc described as having a generally darkly romantic mood. with the first wo of . wirh no clear key center. varying according to tempo and key. overcome by an apparent ambiguity created by the availabiIity oFso many ways ofexplaining how the harmonic contour is derived. Make note of melodic devices that may be of importance: 1. Creating a harmonic conrour is the process oforganizing the chords. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING COMPOS3TlOEES Analysis ofthe harmonic ho~vsand whys ofa composition requires a comprehensive mastery o F d the concepts that have been covered so far. 2." Armining beaug with simplicity is an amibute that is acquired with rnaturky. Look for a general melodic concour of che top notes of the chords. repetition. Symmetric patterns 4. connected wich devices from the preceding chapter into a complete musical whole.common upper structure. iF not rhe whole rune. we Will analyze a number of compositions to see how the composer accomplished the above procedures. repose/transition. or G b-1 1. They a11 contain a good variety of modes. do write our the nore values. General directional contour 5. Their harmonic rhythm comes close co the prototypical verrical modal in areas. Not dl rhe techniques will or should be used. The god is to create a set of chords that are beth musical and "playable. etc. A listening to the recording. chromatic. then rhe mp melodies. label the duration by measures. etc. E altered. Hopehlly. You may need to invert some chords or change t-fie canstrucrion method ro give smoother voice-leading. Try 'to remember chat there is no absolute explanarion for any composieisnal method. to name a few possibilities. the student can become disrressed. There are many techniques for doing this and more will be given in later chapters and in following examples. HARMONIC COHTOUR Mixolydian sus 4. Analyze the bass. When satisfied. OccasionaEly. Active and tcnse or relaxed Arrange the chords in a way that the harmonic rhythm can be vlsua1ized: long values as whole nor-. In addition. studying the folIowing txarnples wiIl clear up any conFsion. i f avaiIable. Once the melodic anaIysis is compIere. refer to all the methods presenred in rhe previous few chapters and Iabel: common tone. etc. Try to dewrrnine if US technique for chord consrrucdon was used. And Iasdy. THE PROCf DURE Start by spelling out all the chords. important color cones. Morific development: sequence. speed o f recognition will keep the process from becoming overbearing. would be helpful but not necessary.

relaxes to. can be described as vemcat modal Example 11 -1: 13 14 75 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 R (8 bars) COMMENTS A. Its harmonic rhythm. one could get very deraiIed wich compositional analysis..CHAPTER X I &ern clearly plateau modal and the third almost within the linear modal category. with references t o all the esoreric theory merhods at one's disposal. the "Lydian Chromatic Concepr.. 36 b a s with no repeated sections. The last mne of this group is representativeof the European-influenced ECM svle olcornpo- sition. RUTH" . rhe Ersr chree of this p u p are more "traighr aheadn player's tunes. Shenker anaIysis. In the actual analysis with comments.. the chard spellings are not direct transmip~ionsbur quire close in mwsr cases.RON MILLER. fairly symmetric and fasf. downward chromatic melody.. BASS MELODY: CHORDS: 1-3 repose (pedal point)." etc. skip of a fourrh to. with a few subtle references to Arnetican fotk harmony. Also.1969 This composition shows an influence of the Herbie Hancock tune "Little One. each with subtle ties ro qualiries that are cypical of bebop tunes. The thrust of the following is to "ger to the poinif and keep it simple.rransition area. In addition.. using the harmonic synopsis as rehrence marerid." found on the recording Madm Voyage-Irs pcedominant theme is that of gentle romanticism. 46 . keep in mind that the goal OF harmonic contour analysis is ro discover how the composes of these great tunes used the merhods thac have been given in previous chapters of this textbaok. T h e example should be sufficient for reference. . 7. In addirion. Each composition ro be ana- lyzed will have an exampte of the chords spelled out with harmonic rhythm but nor all the rhythmic fipres.. Er is a through- composed waItz.

. romantic 78 dark and mysterious 10-15 increase acdvity and tension. 11-12common cones 13-15 sequence of 10-12 14-15 common rone connection 16-18 downward flow. increased tension. slightly higher center.Bb Ionian. one mn both gain an insight into the harmonic contour and determine a source of substitute chords. Diverse rnodaliry. exotic yet dpminant sound. increased tension 10-12 continued upward trend. 16-21 Ab Ionian 19-20 recurring melodic idea. G/Eb.Db/Eb.point ofclimax 16-18 upper strumre trirone pattern . Three main diatonic areas ..repose. so che substitution of an Eb Mixolydian 13 for that chord does work well. Db/E6. EMOTIONAL CONTOUR 1. preparation Far acciviry very active transition area. diatonic source: Eb Ionian 10-15 quasi-dominanr:cycle.'?lookn melody. acts as signpost or "hook..Bb. long repose area. dominant cycle sequence or 10-12. serting up the. the first chord. increase of rension inversion of 9-10 very relaxed repose area with Iow tessimra melodic figure.. root has desire to resolve ca. almost swinglike 16-18 quire romantic 39-20 point of rehence 21 exotic.. in f a n it is used I) k n y Golson cornposi~ion ocsasionalIy to get a "Killer ~oe'")sound. Keep this in mind when creating your own ser of chords. . desire to resoIve to first chord D. H A R M O N I C CONTOUR . TOP MELODY CHOrnS: 1-6 common tone connection 7-9 upward mebdy. By mapping out the diatonic acoustic sources orall the char&. clear emotional contour or "map" 3. ."also short transition ro. signpost or "hook" 21 doubling of bass emphasizes sense OF finaliy CHORDS: 3-6 common inner structure 1-4 common diatonic source . Syrnrnenic repose/transition areas 2. diatonic source: Ab Ionian 19-20 no chord . The second chord. GENERAL QUALITIES. As an example... wry active. "colors" area The above e m o t i o d contour provides a dear "map"for the improvisor as we11 as the listener.. poinc OFreference 2L fmal chord.Ab Tonian 5-6 chords voiceled 7-9 darkest area. F13sus4 implies F Mixolydian with t h e source ofBb Ionian. D Phrygian or any of Bb Ionian's modes. Eb and ~ b impIied . so che first chord could be Eb Lydian.. occurs always. F Aeolian's source is Ab lonian...the first chord of the m e B. cyck CHOrnS: 1-6 gende. 15 . relaxing.

CHAPTER XI Example 1 1-2: "Ruth" by Ron Miller F Aeolian F9sus I3b Dorian G Phrygian DJsus E7sus Gl3sus Eb Lydian 8.5 ~bgsus (hold for 7 more) .

ca.15 upward contour. HARMONIC MATERIAL CHORDS: 1-5 modes are dl diaroIlicd1y related to Bb melodic minor 6..9 diatonic melody derived From primary color tones 10-11 common tones 12. positive building of intensity. 8 .6 Lochan V Mixolydian 14 minor 11 lonian Mixolydian sus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 lonian Lydian b3 lonian Lydian b3 lonian COMMENTS: A.. new area. the ~b is diatonically related to the C pedals... with pedal point. Spanish tetrachord 16.11 .30EY CALDERAZZO. new mood 16-19 repeat OF 12-15 20 exrension of 19 for cadenrial purposes CHORDS: 1. HARPIONIC CDNTOUR 2.5 repose. both are related to Bb melodic minor 6 . d o w n u d flaw.an ending to the first emotional area 12. Example 11-3: Phrygian 16 bb Lydian Phrygian L. BASS MELODY CHORDS: 1.7 voice-led with some common inner connection 7-8 Bb Mixolydian #4acts as tritone substicute resolution to A minor - 8 9 paralIel movement 1) h r n in 77n DOGTCCDP 95738 10 resolution to the relative major . this is a nice tune. 1989 Having symmetric harmonic rhythm and overall positive emotional stance. heading For. MIKELLS')." the harmonic rhythm is fasr enough to imply vercid modal.7 a short transition area.19 repeat o f 12-15 19-20 common tone by repetidon C.15 four note motif.

chords 1-11 a little dark and subdued because of its genera1 modality and because of irs slorv harmonic rhythm wirh repose by pedd point and because of its having lirrle b a s melodic contour.GENERAL Q U A m E S I." "Pee Wee. Example 11-4: "Mikellks by Joey Calderano Phlysirn J6 Phtygian b6 Phrygian \6 Lydian Phrygian b6 Locrian b2 Mixolydian k minor 11 minor 11 lonian (Lydian) Mixolydian sus lonian Lydian b3 Ionian a- Ionian lonian Lydian b3 lonian . the form is symmetric with two semons: A. implied plateau modal 14 parent source is harmonic major (see Chapter X V ) 16. There are similarities between this tune. Chords 12-28 ate mare active both modally and by bass melodic contour with faster harmonic rhythm 3. 2. Looking them over.13 parallel chords. resolves to first chord as upper neighbor and diatonic relation 0.CHAPTER XI 11 the dominant V chord o r the next section 12. try KI determine the common source of inspiration.14 bars and B.10 bars. Another through-composed rune. emotionaI effect.19 repeat of 12-15 19 closest there i s to a point of c l i w rather subtle 20 cadence through repose. "Ruth. as last chord. mapping is simple with two areas: she first. The emotional. and similar key cenrers." and "Helto Goodbye": root relationships.

cantrary motion to bass melody. which is typical of a composition that is rransitional From tonal to modal chromatic. BASS MELODY CHORDS: 1-3 repose area (pedal point) 4-7 chromatic. Example 11-5: 1 2 3 1 4 5 6 7 a 9 I Pedal Lydian lonian Mixorydian Mixolydian b9 lonian Aeolian Lydian 12 Mixolydian Lydian #5 h I1 u U Repose A.a remm co starting place CoIurnbia CS 9532 . a~ found in many compositions 1) 7 7 S~ m~ m r Miles Davis 17-19 form of inversion of 15-17. Fairly slow transition area. increase oF tension 8-10 repose area 11-12 transirion with cycle of M h s 13-14 repose area 15-17 transition with signpost "boor occurs at all times. including improvisarion (see "Ru~h"and "Teru") 18-19 last repose area 19 resolves to first chord by modal shift wirh pedal point 3. PEE WEE'" TONY WILLIAMS This gentle waltz has symmetric harmonic rhythm and has a few areas o f quasi-Functional chord movement.TOP MELODY CHORDS: 1-2 common tone connection 3-4 common tone 5-7 chromatic melody upward 8-10 inversion of 5-7 11-13 sequence of 8-10 13-14 common tone 15-17 strong leap downward. nAanoNlc CONTOUR 3. a "hook" motif.

HARMONIC MATERIAL CHORDS: 1-3 increase in tension 3-4 common US. 4. but the inserted cycles do give the harmonic rhythm a bocsr. (see Chapter XPII) quasi 11-V(D-7 to 67b9 KO C-T) 11-12 cycle of Lydian chords 13-14 repeat of 8-9 15-16 common inner smucture. 2. The 3-bar phrase a t the end is unusual.without much pre-planning. Example 11-6: "Pee Wee" by Tony Williams Db Lydian 05 Lydian 115 .CHAPTER X1 C. GENERAL qUAUTIES 1. this is a &ff~cultt u n e to play. The emotional contour is_ nor e x m e . 3. point of climax 17-19 tritone related common US ( F / G ~to B/Db) D. cryptic cadence. Ir seems to have been composed purely by intuici~n. giving the tune a 21-bar through-composed form. In spite of its symmetric harmonic rhyrhm arid itr ties to funcciona1 harmony. brighr to darker 5-7 common US 8-10 common US.

rhe last chord cycles co the first by upper neighbor tone 6....TERU" . HaRHONIC CONTOUR - 4......the downward minor third skip ro chord 20 enhances the result 20-2 1 the final repose cadence... Lydian #5 COMMENTS A. TOP MELODY CHORDS: 1 primary color tone 2-3 contrary motion to bass is effective in increasing tension 49 definidon cones 10-11 common tone connection 12-13 common tone connection 14. cycles to Erst chord by lower neighbor tone (leading-tone effect) 14 -16 pedal point repose area 17-19 increase of m i o n wirh upward and acdve transition area.- Mixolydian lonian . i t has an AABR form bur the bridge has only seven bars.16 d o w n w r d resolution of melody clarifies modal cadence 17-9 color tones 1) Adam'rAppk Wayne Shorter 20-22 sequence of 14-16 Blue Note BLP 4232 .. Phiygian. f i e staccato on chord 19 effectively sets up the release o f the tension at bar 20. based on the n-adiuonal song form.WAYNE SHORTER This is a very slow balIad. Lyrlian $5 M~xorydian 0 rnm. BASS MELODY CHORDS: I a f 3 1 bar of Gb Lydian at the slow tempo shows repose 2-3 an imporcant "hook" or signpost of the composition 4-9 an acEive ttansition area with an active bass mebdy 10-ll downward. Example 11-7: Aeolian Mixolydian Phrjgian Mixolydian lonian minor altered ..... rehation toward the cadenrid repose area 12-13 pedal point bass repose area.......11 ......

3. Example 1 1 -8:"Teru" by Wayne Shorrer lonian Gb Lydian F Aeolian El 3no3rd Phrygian minor 7 1 CI -3- MixaIydian sus C13sus Ll3sus lonian Lydian $5 Locrian h2 minor 11 I . cEosesr rve have to a climax at bar 19. The Phrygian could be choughr OF as D Dorian over E. effecrive for setring up the FoIlowing dark area 20-22 like 14-16 bur more extreme in modal resolncion 20-21 the darkest part of composicion D. Good use of "honk. parwdy d e n c e V-1 17-19 parallel chords. with the acousric source being C Ionian."signpost areas. 2. With a quite chroma~icbass melody and short or no clear areas of emauond definition. GENERAL QUALITIES 1. Good variety and contrast of the modes. this is vertical modal. the Phrygian to Mixolydian ( 4 5 ) is a diatonically related cadence.CHAPTER X1 CHORDS: I bright but tense 2-3 a form of 11-V cadence. so it 1s a typical U-V with substituted root for the II chord The Mixolydian to Ionian (5-6)EoIlows the normal modal conmur ofa diaton~ccadence bur with free-form coots 10-12 parallel Mixolydian chords moving a minor third is typical 11-12 a dominant cycle of Mixolydian chords 12-13 another parody cadence 14-16 modd contour. derived from a voice-leading method 49 a good example of modal conrour and IT-V cadential parody.

The emphasized modalicy is Aeolian. I4ARMOHIC CONTOUR 5. a whole tone apart. the only significant harmonic movement is in the bridge. inversion of 2-3 3-8 a general upward mend. preparing to ser up a point o f d i m a x 7-8 sequence of 5-6 9-12 a definite stansition area. tense.RON MILLER. serting up climax 13 highesr: poinr in the harmonic melody. which is vertical modal. A. a tritone skip down to next chord creates tension 4-5 drone skip. BASS MELODY CHORD: 1-2 two plateaus oFAeolian. positive. dark. overall posiuve resolution 9-12 fasr moving chords. 1984 This cornposision. Example 11-9: Aeolian Lydian E2 Mivolydian Lomian C2 sus Lacrian bZ Mixolydian Aeolian 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 70 71 12 13 (8 bars each) (8 bars) COMMENTS This being a plateau modd composition. Ionian tecachord.common US except Far one note of voice-leading Gb to P 7-8 sequence of 5-6. with a medium tempo. HARMONIC MATERIAL CHORD: 1-2 plateau Aeolian. wrinen for saxophonisr/composer David Liebman. the movement is faster. the overall mood is dark rornanricisrn. This tune could be described as American ECM. is representative OF the plateau modal category with a vertical modal bridge. dramatic C. all sus. the downward change creares more dark- ness. up a miner third. sets up climax 12 point of climax . foIlowing a Dorian tetra- chord 12-13 the normal resolurion here is for the melody t0 resolve up a semitone. upward. rhe skip is un- exped 3. THE 'LIEB".chords 5 and 6. hard 4-6 D b/D to Gb/Ab. cryptical cadence Db to Gb V-I US.soft 3-4 strong contrast. bright.TOP MELODY CHORD: 1-2 primary color tones 3-4 same 4-6 common cone 7-8 common tone 9-12 upward movement.

sectional through-composed 4. with a lower neighbor reso- lucion with the upper strucmre and a minor third up in the bass. 16. Fairly symmetric in Form." gercing hopehl 5-12 doubthI love becoming full of hope 13 dramatic 5. ECMish feel. Dark. New York Qna drizzle fded autumn day 2. contributes to the overall dramatic effecc of this rune and was a strong Factor in the plan of arrack when composing it. bur nice to "blow" over 3. 8. change of key from the opening A A e o h ta the ending Bb Aeolian. a kind of sequence of 5-6 D. kample 11-10: T h e tieb" by Ron Miller G Aeolian O D b Lydian 42 D Lydian #2 Afi Mixolydian sus G Locrian h2 B Mixotydian sus Bb Locrian b2 Esus Rus Gsus.CHAPTER X1 12-13 a kind of cryptic cadence (see chapter on slash chords). Emotional "map" CHORD: 1-2 darkIy "hipnto darker 3-5 slightly "wrinkled. The rnaduhcion. . GENERAL QPJALmES 1. As is all plateau modal tunes. 8. rather simple. 8.

enhances cadentia1 quality 10-12 chromatic down..RON MILLER This is a plateau modal cornposirion written for s ~ o p h o n i s c / a ~ t h o r / jeducaror ~ ~ ~ z Jetry Coker. notice that the entire bass melody of the A section could be derived from the diminished s d e 10-12 relaxed.. BASS MELODY CHORDS: 3-4 outline of a diminished triad..12-13 to a substitute I chord (parody cadence) 15-16 is a signpost '%hookn 21 referring ro 13-14...... Example 11-11: Mixolydian h4... Its overall modal qudicy being MixoIydian.1 1 Mixolydian. A. Mixolydian h6 min. Mixo!ydian W Mixolydian qQ. TOP MELODY CHORDS: 1-6 derived from color cones or voice-kading 7-9 contrary motion to bass melody.. cycling back to the starting note by minor thirds 46 common tone bass 7-9 passing tones to the czdential B root... the resolution ro the C is dramatic and sets up the turnaround ro resolve co Ab 22-24 derived from 15-17.7 1 Mixolydian .. IC O N THE LAND .. downward contour..... it is one of the many placeau modal compositions that can be compared to Herbie Hancock'sMMaidenVoyage... this is set up to resolve to the firsc chord of the tune 8. or a skip down a micone.. set* up an active area 12-14 a 11-VcycIe. Mixolydian b6 Mixolydian rnin..... 10-31 a form of voice-leading 12-14 voice-leading a 11-Vto parody V-I 15-17 contrary metion 17-20 same as 10-13 22-24 secting up firsc chord of t h e composition ...... HARMONIC CONTOUR 6 .." This is only in the overad emotional quality associated with the Mixolydian mode as the following will show.

Refer to "Why Wait" by StanIey Clarke. In addition. same mode. the tune is similar to linear modal in that there is one overall emotional.. . and "Follorv Your Hear? by John McLaughlin. and the U-V sections make this a "blowing tune.ro Fsus 12-13 a diatonic II-V. Having symmetric plateaus oFessentiaIly rhe same mode. rhythm section style OF playing." has the same emotional qualities as "Maiden Voyage" wich subtle differences. the note durations are set up to create cension which resolves wizh the first chord of che tune a. the cadence being C. effect. So this tune. creates drama 22-24 a turn down to top of tune. this parr is in fact a swing styIe section showing a rie zo a traditional hard bop aesthetic 14 a substitute urger chord for the E-V 15-16 a turnaround ro. HARMONIC MATEREAL CHORDS: 1-4 pardlel Mixolydian chords. 17-20 . this is an example of plateau modal. ir creates a positive emotional effecl: due to the brighrening of the fourth 7-9 a minor third up is a very positive and typicd resolution of Mixolydian sus chords {remember "Maiden Voyage"?) 10-11 raking the G Mixolydian b6 co be a C-A over G. The tempo.. this is pIaceau modal 46 the common use OF Mixolydian \4 ro lMixolydian 84 to Mixolydian b4.. GENERAL QUALITIES 1.CHAPTER X I C . in t h e hard bop tradition.this is a cvptic 11-V cadence. like so many inspired by "Maiden Voyage. because each plareau has the same mode.. '"Twelve More Bars" by Wayne Shorter. 4 bars each.a repeat of 10-13 21 a higher t a d center of chord 14. 2.

HARPlONlC C O N T O U R Example 1 1-1 2: "JCOn The Land' by Ron Miller Ab Mixolydian wr D Mixolydian sus A F Mixolydian sus Ab Mixolydian b4 Ab Mixolydian U4 Ab Mixolydian $4 Ab Mixolydian 14 B Mixolydian 5us Mixolydian b6 F Mixolydian sus A13 Bb sus Csus mMixolydianb6 A h Bb sus Asus F Mixolydian E-1 I A13 Csus A h .

ir has a functional harmony (11-V-I) bridge and is a great example oFa modal tune with ties ro the traditional bebop aesthetic. wice-led functional harmony C. che signpost "hook" OF this tune 7-9 a repear of 4 6 10-16 being m n d harmony.CHAPTER X I 7.TOP MELOOY CHORD: 1-3 correct voice-leading of functional harmony 4-9 active motive of the uhook" 10-15 again. It is basically song form. PUMPKIN" . the melody is diatonicalIy related. clearIy perceived. defining the cycIe ofkeys: Eb to Ab to Db with the resolution ta Db made with tritene substitution 6. BASS MELODY CHORD: 1-3 simply a root with a 11-V turnaround 4-6 a trirone figure. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ( 6 bars) COMMENTS A. is additionally tense due m the very €att e m p ofthis tune 2-3 a turnaround cycle 4 3 common upper srrucrures . HARMONIC MATERIAL CHORD: 1 6 bars of D AeoIian. Example 17-13: T .ANDREW HILL This very hip and dark composition almost fails in the linear modal caregoy. the emotional quality of Aeolian: dark and melancholy. this is linear modal. Addinonally. but the A section has 10 bars.

" Referring to the "Tree O f Composers"in the appendix. Because oFits ties ro madirional bebop. GENERAL QUALITIES 1. Thc emotional map is simple with three parrs. H A R M O H I C CONTOUR 10-11 cycle of Ionian chords 12-13 rritone substiturd 11-V to Db (sub for Eb. ~rempo. 2. you can see rhat Andrew H a is influenced by M o k This tune is evidence of that. Earnple 11-14: "Pumpkin' by Andrew Hill D Aeolian Phrygian Locrian Mixolydian . " but it i s verydifficuIt M play. this is a good "player's m e .and rhythm seccion style of accompaniment.resolved melodically. t h e dark Aeolian section. chis is avety sophisticated compositian wMe sdlI being fairly simple in cansmction. nor: funcuondy D.to Ab13) 14 completed cycIe of the key centers: EL ro Ab to Db 15-16 a "stand alone"W . Because of general modaliv. 3. This rune could be described by purists as the "real thing. the quirky *honk" vamp and the energetic exvbemce of the 11-Vsection.

Ionian b6. 2. gem o f a composition by one of the contemporary "master" composers. Ic sounds like i c was composed on the guitar. GENERALCOMMENTS 1. harmonic major (see Chapter XV) 6-8 good example of tension index contour. It starts out as pIazeau modal and compresses rhe harmonic rhyrhm to become vertical. BASS MELODY CHORDS: 1-2 a short 2-note motif.CHAPTER X I 8 . clgar modal contrast and resolution 8. compact.stark modes and clear open nonmodd chords. upper smcture resolving dotm. The overall tension cantour is derived from an inmasing compression of che harmonic rhychm. (2) Mixolydian (Z) Lydian 15 lonian B6 Lydian 15 Lydian 85 Phwian (2) COMMENTS A. Good combination of tense. HARMONIC MATERlAL CHORDS: I -3 common inner structures 3-4 abrupt increase in tension (index =? 1 to R 8) 5 use of exotic chord.RALPH TOWNER T h i s is anorher shorc. TOP MELODY CHORDS: 1-3 common tone connection 4 . downward 3-4 a sequence of 1-2 45 a relaxed resolution down a major third 6-7 outline of a C major triad. index 1:9 to R 1 D. TOUCHSTONE" . increase of tension with the skips 8-9 pedal point.6 general upward trend to increase cension 6-8 common cones 8-9 a step downward For cadence C. . the increase in tension setting up the final cadence 8-9 crypFic cadence.

When creadng your own compositions. 3. but not necessariIy even numbered bars. Have a clear emotional or programmatic "god" in mindwhen creacing your composition. ask if. which is what has been dane in the last few previous pages. 5. 4 A clear point ofclimax. or "hook" for the listener and improvisor. rhe compositions satisfied the proposed guidelines. 7. C-IARHONIC COHTOUR Example 1 7-7 6:'Touchstone" by Ralph T m n e r HARMONIC CONTOUR . c y to organize the harmonic materials with the following: 1. with symmetric sections.but of gear benefit." but the gains are well worrh the pzin. A very beneficial project would be co transcribe a section of a ~travinskypiece or a section of a Gil Evans arrangement. .c is dificult because it requires going that "extra mile. Of lesser difficul~y.CONCLUSION One 05 the besc methods for learning mrnpwsitjon is to transcribe compositions wirh har- monic m a t e d "above" one's I d OF abilities. Through-composed. chose compo- sitions r h a ~have Ehac special quality that attracts a listener and becomes a classic. is to analyze a number of better compositions. in fact. A rounded harmonic farm . A chordal o r melodic figure chat offers a signpost. Keep the harmonic material simple enough For others ro play or your tunes will nor be played without coercion. note any similarirks of climax location in the previous examples. 1. Modal chord movement that is easily voice-led. 2.last chord resoIves m the fist chord 6. Review the previous composirions wirh rhe above in mind.

Michael Whlte. (Harvest SKAO-423) by a group caUed The Fourth Way. 3. Compare this with "Rurh. In addition. 2. and Eddie Marshall. ''Hello Goodbye" is composed by bassist Ron McClure and Found on the recording The Sun and Moon Have Come Together. . d m . Using the included set oFchords for the composition "HcIlo Goodbye. wirh Mike Nock. piano." 'Mikell's. T h e tune is found on Herbie Hancock"~Muidea Voydge recarding if you wanc t o hear ir for reftrence. one that you find redly inspirational. At this point ic is time to create rhe first composition based on the concepts a€ the previous chapters. violin. of great benefit in pointing out both strengths and weaknesses as we11 as helping to clarify a developing styIe." and " H e o Goodbye. Analyze any composition of your choice." Make as many cornmenm about similarities and differences as you can." analyze as in the previous examples. bass. you should analyze the finished C O ~ ~ ~ O S as ~ Rthis O ~is. Ron McCluse. Look at rhe included harmonic synapsis of the composition "Litde One" by Herbie Hmcock.CHAPTER X I SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1.

HARMONIC CONTOUR Example 1 1-1 7: "Hello Goodbye" by Ron McClure Locrian h2 altered h6 altered b6 Phrygian h6 Id A *eolian Mixofydian altered h6 altered b6 Lydian Lydian 112 minor 1 I .

U .CHAPTER XI Example 11-1 8:#tittle One" by Herbie Hancock US Solos F(4) F Aeolian F(4) FAmlian Phrygian d-11 Phryg~anh6 Phrygian b6 ~ 5 9 ~ s F-1 7 G-1IfF I R (Vamp) T (min.3rd) R C PhrygianlF Aeolian bS n II -v.

C H A P T E R XI1 The Modes and Chords of Altered Diatonic No. 2 c Minor) .

and Hungarian minor. As an example. 2 . Gcarnple 12-1: The Modes aF&e Altered Diatonic No. This would make it more active than unalrered Aeolian. Norice rhat Aeolian b7 has two critones: D ro Ab and E to B. the remaining three tetrachords are used in the construction process: harmonic. having the seventh sharped. THE TETRACHORD FORMULAS Because of the amount of alteration. would be brighter rhan Aeolian.b6) Aeolian 47 Locrian h6 lonian B1S altered bb7 . In addition. The best process is to compare each mode to its immediate predecessor and determine its quality by rhe aIreration. b6). Aeolian b7. the number and placement of tritones in the mode will affecr its stabiliry.CHAPTER XI1 Using Ehe tetrachord method of consrruction.Harmortic Miner (lonian 63. Hungarian major. the order oFdarkness is nor obvious by looking at the retrachord formulas. T o restate: Learn to hear these modes and their chords as a form of alcered Ionisn (Ionian $5 or Ionian b3.

not seen too much. i THE TABLE At least rhe fmt t h m of the cones are needed to define the mode. b6.The following tabIe of coIor tones is derived again. but less stable. CHORD EXAMPLES 1. The order of the last three i s noc strict.A brighter form of Aeolian. One of the most used of this Example 12-2: C-A $6 . by camparison with the parent Ionian mode. Ionian b3. 2. Example 12-3: C Locrian h6 . LOCRIAN Q6 Brighter than Locrim b6. Ionian #5. it could be used as a substitute for auxiliary diminished.Harmonic Minor) These are mixed spacings which include use of the grip methad of chord construcricn. AEOLIAN h7 . T H E M O D E S A N D C H O R D S OF H h A H W N l C M l H O R CONSTRUCTION O f THE CHORDS OF HARMONIC MINOR (Altered Diatonic No. A Aeolian hi' - 2.

- 92 . it can be used with rhe auxiliary diminished scale. B Dorian 94 5 . it had use in pw-modal compositions.A brighrer Phrygian. Example 12-7: D Lydian $2 DOA . DORIAN 114 . 3.so it is a s o f t e r s a ~ n d i n Lydian- ~ augmented or a less stable Ienian 44. G Phrygian 43 E7addb2 6.A brighter form ofDorian.Tends co sound like Lydian-augmentedb4. It can be used as a substitute €or a Lydian- augmented chord in mart romantic <ornpositions. Note the optional substiturion for a &mished scale aver a Mixolydian 99 chord (chord 2).Mosc often used as a slash chard (VII/I). PHRYGIAN b3 . Z)ccasianalIy used on club dates. IONFAN #5 . LYDIAN 12 . Example 12-4: 4. The first chord is found in the Horace Silver tune "Sweet Stveery Dee" from Silver's S m a d e . This chord is aIso known as diminished major 7.

Construct a number OF chords with all spacings. 2. . Play all the chords with an ear training goal in mind and try to identify their use on I recordings.CHAPTER XI1 SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1 1. include a number of grip method I consrmctions.

#3) are used by only rhe most adventuresome of today's composers. Although rhe modes of harmonic minor have been used in improvisation the chords are not found that o h n in compositional use. Phrygian b3 is brighrer than Phrygian 46. both brighter than Phrygian b6. ALTERED bb? . the higher the degree of rension. Check out their recordings. Before we construct the modes and chords of the remaining two p u p s we will look ar one more harmonic connecdon/composition technique: slash chord harmony. Kei& Jarretr.Its best use is as a slash chord (vr/I). Phrygian \3 is not as mysterious due to its more "open: bright qualityI bur i s stdl exotic. It is best to group the chords by ear. The brighter the alterarion. Since there are multiple alterations in the last three sets ofchords. As an example. Phrygian 66 is considered dark and mysterious. The theorist experimentalist among you might warn to work with the rnodes/chords of Ionian #2 as weU. and Joey Calderazzo occasionally use these chords. Example 12-8: C altered bb7 This group ofchords is rhe first of the groups of esoteric modes and chords. Ralph Towner. The chords ofharmonic rnajor and melodic minor 115 (Ionian b3. Richie Beirach. . The emotional description of these modes can be determined in the same way as with aU the alcered modes: thac of raking the descriptions of the parent unaltered modes and considering the alceration as an enhancement. It dso is closely related to she Mixolydian b9 chord and can be used rhac way. David Liebman. clear categorization is not so easy. Harmonic major and melodic minor 85 are the last two. THE MODES AND CHORDS Of M A A H Q H I C HIWOR 7.

Polych 3. Tension C . CHAPTER Xlll Slash Chord Harmony Slash C !.< 4. Sy 5.

CHORD CONSTRUCTION The construction of slash chords follows the same process as Found in the chapter on the grip merhod. or major niad a major third above the rooc E/C. The sonority of a consonant triad over a root is stark and sametimes creates missing note. offering all possibilities of consmction. Example 13-1:Slash Chords I Tonian Mixolyd~an Lydian Aeol~an Lydian 95 Phrygian altered Cb7 tocrian Lydian !2 . Slash chords differ from polychords in that poIychords are nvo. but has a desired beaury because of irs transparency. their order is dfecred by both modal contour and sonuric tension/relaxanon. non-modal chords. the tension order has priority. the chords are placed in an order ofincreased rension as determinedby subjective class poll. To comrmct slash chords. separated by the slash character. eEc. the triad a s upper structure has predominant use in the harmony of pop and pop-jazz compositions. a Lydian-augmentedis a m/I. is obscure. Because all ofthe upper strucmres have the same sonorig. A slash chord is a m p a r t chord made up of an upper srructure over a bass nare. The emphasis of rhis chapter is on slash chord usage with triadic US. A n entry level grip. G- C7 Cb - Ak F- Iris the slash chord thar is used most oFten in modal harmony and. it is suggested char the student learns the ratio of upper structure to root and its implied modality. D EXAMPLE: . The following is a c o n s t d o n of major Eliads over dl OF the nores of the chromatic scale. L e a n the ratios and the tension index number.CHAPTEA X l l l Slash chord harmony reEen to the harmonic style in which the chordal relationships and overall development can be applied separately rw the upper structure and bass parrs o f a group of chords. The notation for a polychord is a lerrer separated by a hori- zontal line.or three-part chords in which each part can be a whole chord. A7/P. As an example. EXAMPLE: E/C. In addition. it i s the major triad chat is irs upper structure.And because the rnodali~. Db/C. D-9 - . T h e "slash"in the name refers to che standard chord symbol For this kind of construction: a lercer representing rhe upper chord's tonality and a lercer representing a single bass pitch.in most cases.in addition. If you refer ro that chapter you will find rhac t h e basic rnajor triad in first inversion is one of the listed grips.

bur could be pIaced anywhere. that follow a preset conrour of tense to relaxed.this is the organization of a group of chords. SLASH CHORD HARMONY CHORD CONNECTION Since the means o f chord connecdon for upper structure chords have been covered in a previous chapter. The additiod methods used in this chapter are rhe resulr ofrheway that ghaups OFchords with transparent sonoriry need ro show a sense of development HETHQDS O f CONNECTION 1. the point OF emphasis in this method is on the melodic aspem of the roots of the diaronic cadence and the resoIution qualities of voice-leading. Modd conrour 4. You can organize the upper structures as a V-1. pecuIiar to slash chords. only rhe new methods. TENSION CONTOUR R~ferringto the tension index number rather than the modal contour. wiIl be shown in this chapter. Tension courour 6. or a mix BE the m o . The upper srmcntre. Rather than mimic modal comparisons. and tempo when composing these. Common upper structure 2. usually three to six. being a basic triad. harmonic melody. You must bear in mind the effects of other musical elements: tessituta. harmonic rhythm. Symmetric patterns The first three are covered in previous chapters. Pedal poinr 3. Note that this technique is used most in areas of transition just prior to a repose ama. Example 13-2: TENSE MO!X TENSE REW(ED CRYPTlC CADENCES This is the slash chord version of cadence parody as found in Chapter W. always has its tonic as pan of the chord so can be created as a separate tonality. the toots as a V-I. . It is the dif- ferent ratios OF the US to the bass chat give a variety of results. relaxed m cense. and both the US a d roots as Ieading tones resolving upward or upper neighbor tones resolving downward. Review the methods in the chapwr on upper s m c t u r e chord cannection if needed.

whoIetone and chromatic scales. You may find ic musicaIly advantageous co be able w compose your o m The process is mathematical.C H L P T E R XI11 Example 13-3: Pmkofiev: Romeo &Juliet SYMMETRIC PAmERNS Symmetry in itself defines a sense of organization. In addition. a u g mented. . SymmecricaI patterns are basicaIIy m o 6 6 t h a ~are sequenced repeatedly at an increasing symmetric ratio. so i t is a workable combi- nation to be explored here. you have access to the symmetric scales of everyday use: the diminished. An interval o f sequence 3. The most comprehensive is probabIy Tbe %atam of Scales and Symmehic P u f t m ~ ~bys the theorist Nicholas SIonimsky. F i s t note down four semitones (major third). You need to select: 1. the transparency of the triadic dash chord in no way obscures the symmetric melodic contour.. and quire applrcable to computer programming (see appendix). 2. 3. There are many sources of examples of melddic symmemy available for reference. 2-note motif plus one for sequence. EXAMPLE: 1. Second note up three semitones (minor third). A basic 2 to 6-note motif (a)select number ofsemirones for interva[s (b) select direcdons (up or down) (c) seIecc note d u e s 2. Of course. R direction of sequence T h e combination of t h e motif and the sequence interval gives the rota1 leng~hof the morif.

by selecting a Gft for the srarting note oFthe top melody. Each one of those choices Ereaces a chord with modality that diffets from the resuIcs of another choice. with the selected inversion of che triad. start: 0 d4 u3 (u3) d4 u3 (u3) d4 u3 result: E C Eb Ffl D F Ab E Getc. The easiest way to begin is to determine a median range tessitura for the cop and bass melodies within their u s d y found ranges. select a modalicy for the first chord. To create symmetric scales.Had the top melody started an a G natural instead. SLASH CHORD HARMONY 4. A I-note motif is best. You will need to experiment with various starting notes to create a group of chords wich aesrhetically satis- fying modal contour. The harmonic results of chis technique are used in active areas of che harmonic scheme: rumarounds. if the top melody has six notes which span over an ocmve going downward. As an example. where the top melody's starringnote is placed. a s e t of these chords could be the entire content of a section. .This wouId resuIt in the overall melody being in a median tessitum FoIlo~vt h e same procedure fur the bass melody. if the harmonic rhythm is slow enough. you wilt need to start the melody above the second C above rniddIe C. There are thirty-sixpossible modal tesuIrs of the combination of a triad over its root. the first chord would have been a C-7. Sequence interval up three semitones (minor chid). Once the tessintras are set. the resulting rnoddity i s Lydian augmented. There is the choice o f one of twelve semitones of the chromatic scale. multipIied by t h e choice of one ofr h e three inversions of the upper criad. the process is co place the US triad with the top note following the symrnecdc melody. diminished scale) EXAMPLE 2: rnotiE 1 3 sequence 2 resuIe 0 1 3 2 1 3 2 C Db E F4 G Bb C(~vorkswithCalt) HARMONIZ1NG THE SYMIMETR!C PATTERNS PROCEDURE Once you have created or selemd the symmerric patrems you will me. the first root is a C. Refer ro Example 13-4(bar I). mociE ul u4 d3 sequence: u2 result: 0 ul u4 d3 (u2) ul u4 d3 (u2) u l ~4 d3 C DL F D E F A F# GB A CR A# erc. EXAMPLE 1: motiE 1 sequence: 2 result 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 C Db Eb E Ffl G A Bb C (aw. the transirion areas that approach a repose area and. keep the mvuf length under three and keep them all in rhe same direction.

CHAPTER Xlll &ample 13-4: Harmonized Symmetric Patcerns TOP: chromatic scale. . no 3 As you can see from the examples. The modal contour repeats as welt When creating these examples. the symmetric motif starts to repeac after a number of chords. down Top: chromatic down Bass: cycle of ficths Bass: cycle Start: Lydian-augmented Start: Locrian bb7 Top: chrornaric down Top: sequenced pattern Bass: sequenced thirds Bass: sequenced partem Start: Mixolydian sus 4 Starc Mixolydian sus 4 Top:auxiliary diminished scale Bass: sequenced Dorian tetrachord Starc Ionian.you need to include enough chords to show the pattern oFrepetitian.

now we need to point out tension CQntOUiS. S L ~ S HC W O R D H A R M O N Y ANALYSIS OF SLASH CHORD HARMONIC CONTOURS The analysis of slash chord harmonic contours is pretty much the same procedure as with non-slash chord contours. Where we had concern for brightness to darkness comparisons and momenmm contours. we will poinr our US to bass ratios.1978 This is a very srark sounding composition. LOST ILLUSIONS" . and cryptic cadences. one h r the "head" and one for "blowing. its harmonic construction being primarily derived From slash chords. 1. In addition ro that which was covered with non-slash chord harmonic schemes. au have harmonic contours chat can be organized as slash chords and all have typically romantic meIodles (covered in Volume 2).RON MILLER. We will look a t four compositions. Its tempo is very fast. qmrnerric parrerns." chis is to make the irnprovisacion more accessible and gives t h e composition a s m n g e r sense of development. Example 13-5: Blowing: A/F C#/A F/G E/C E~/F D/B~ DL/& C/D B/G B~/C r!! . There are two sers of changes. T h e emorional intent is anger.

bass-cycle of frfrhs 11-17 comman tone connection 18-20 upward movement to increase tension for resolution tu the top of the tune C. .a dominant sus 4 chord as the last chord which \viU resolve to the f i s r chord. rhe chords of the bridge were derived from symmetric parterns: rap-chromatic down. Clear cycle of fifths in the bridge with. 2. rhe differences are: 1. the emotional quality of Lydian-augmented-active. . root movemenrs of a f i f i are the most active of any. Although more plateau rhan linear. COMMENTS ON THE BLOWING CHANGES Actually very close to rhe "head" changes." . BASS MELODY CHOWS: 1-2 increased rension with the upward skip 3 passing note to set up tessitura of the bridge section 4-9 cycles sequenced down chromaticalIy 10-11 another cycIe. up a major second from last 12 upper neighbor to nexr section 13-15 common tone (pedal point) connection 16-17 rhe much used minor third upward movement B.. 2. More syrnmerric harmonic rhyzhrn.. upper neighbor down in bass 5-6 common US 7-8 common US 9-10 pattern. approaching linear 3-20 the Lydian-augmented.it is verticd modal - and due ro the implied cycie.a shift of the symmetric patrern ar chord 8 re &w.. 4. 3.. contrary motion minor third up for rop. GENERAL QUAUTlES 1. HARMONIC MATERIAL CHORDS: 1-2 paralIel Lydian-augmentedchords. giving a "rounded" form. minor third down in bass 11-12 common US 13-15 modal shift 16-17 common US and rhe much used diatonirdiy related Phrygian to Mixolydian 18-19 p a r d e l Mixolydian sus chords 19-20 cryptic cadence a. Mixolydian sus combinarion thar is a result of the symmetric partern merhod of C O ~ S E ~ U C ~ ~ O ~ ~ 3-4 cryptic cadence-V-I in upper.CHAPTER X l l l COMMf NTS (the "head" portion) A.. A11 ofthe above show a concern for making lthe tune more *playable.. TOP MELODY CHORDS: 1-2 color tones 3-4 conrrary morion 5-6 common mne 7-8 common tone 5-18 general overall downward chromatic melody. rense and bright comes through. The bridge is still very active dde to the Faster harmonic rhythm .. plateau modal..

......... Lydian 15 A L Blowing changes: Lydian C5 Mixolydian Lydian 15 Mixolydian Lydian 15 Mixolydian Mixolydian Lydian 15 Mixolydian . SLASH C H O R D HARHOMY Example '13-6:"Lost Ilfusions" by Ron Miller Lydian #5 Lydian 15 sus Lydian $5 minor 17 Lydian #5 sus Lydian l S sus Lydian AS Mixolydian Lydian 85 Lydian 15 (4) Mixolydian..

. HARMONIC MATEREAL CHORDS: 1-2 common upper structure. Eberhard is one ofthe contemporary "masters. another partern like 7-8 C. relaxed and find. j: I I .use of a chord from melodic minor fl5 (see Chapter XV) 7-8 a pattern of top triad down a major second. ' ! I I ! COMMf NTS A. cense to less tense (9 to 6) 3-4 common US. rhe sus 2 ( 9 no 7)nonmodal chord being very bright."All his compositions show a great d d of inrelligence and musicality. BASS MELODY CHORDS: f -4 duwnward srepwise. YELLOW f IELDS" . bass up a minor third. TOP MELODY CHORDS: 1-2 common tones 3-4 common tones 5-6 implied voice-leading 06 a cycle 6-7 common cone 7-8 contmry motion ro bass rneIody.tothe starkness of the harmonic Example 3 3-7: C C/A cL/A~ B/G C/k ~ l l / E b B/D A/F min. an impbed cycle 7-8 upward minor third.his is a great example of cryptic cadence D. The melody. This is a vetywell written and compact compositian. less reme to tense (6 to 8) 5-6 a hidden C triad CUS. CHAPTER X l l l 2. a slash chord parrern 9-13 stamng high in the ressirura. part of a patrern 9-13 pardie1 motion to bass melody 13-14 contrary motion to bass. . adds . GENERAL QUALITIES 1. contrary morion to top melody. the downward contour assists in serring up the climax 13-14 the root movement of a v-f B.11 sus B~/B ~(9) I:. also a release of tension 9-13 paralIel modal chords setdng up the climax on a very tense Lydian 82 chord 13 the point of climax 13-14 a V-I release of all che prwiolls tension. Being vertical modal.EBERHARD WEBER This i s a compact and dearly vertical modaI composition with good examples oFsIash chord formulas. not being romantic in style. 2. the emotiond COnEOUr is derived from other zpecrs rhan modaIity. nondiatonic 5-6 the tritone skip down is very active.

But. Example 13-9: COMMENTS A. The composition is one large rension ronrour with a gradual increase to a find release. preparation for t h e fallowing . there is hidden darkness here. SLASH CHORD HARMONY Example 13-81"Yellow Fields" by Eberhard Weber Phrygian minor 9 minor 9 Lydian $5 minor11 minor11 sus sus Lydian12 E9no7 3..leading tone up .. SOLSTICE^) . as the analysis reveals. 1973 This very shorc. repose area 5-7 transition area by c y d e 8-10 repose 1) Bdongh& ECM 1U50 11-12 shorc transition. BASS MELODY CHORDS: 1-4 common tone.upper neighbor resolution downward 8. 11-12 . TOP MELODY CHORDS: 1-8 lengthy chromatic melody. ar first g h c e seems quire simple. through-composed piece.KEITH JARRETT ca. getting dark= 8-1 1 a short upward return.. downward..

modal cadence with f i s r inversion D to a G Mixolydran chord 67 modal cadence as dominant cycle Mixolydian #4 to Lydian-au.. 2. HARMONIC MATERIAL CHORDS: 1-5 rension contour wirh gradual decrease.7.CAaPTER Xlll C. 8.."In addition.. The overall rense and dark harmonic quality is sofrened by the composition's romantic melody.GENERAL QUALlTIES 1.menred 8-10 tension contour with increase b y index R 4.4 4-5 cryptic cadence with typical rnlnor third movement in US D-F. . The long tension contour creates an emotional qudiq of being "rhapsodic. index +k 12. Exarnple 13-1 0: "Solstice" by Keith f'arrett Lydian #2(N) Mixoyian #4 Lomian Aeolian Mixolydian 5us Mixolydian 14 loniar h5 Lydian tS(44) Mixolydian sus Lydian 85 Phm-an Mixolydian sm Awlian . 11. chis is the emotional quality of the subsequent improvisation. 10-11 index i? 4.. 9 resolving to. resolution of previous tension 11-12 pattern o f chromatic contrary motion D.

Create four symmetric scales. 1 2. SLASH C H O R D HaRMONY SUGGESTED fXERCISES PART I 1. Analyze che finished composition. Harmonize six examples of symmemc parterns in both the upper and bass parts. Create four symmetric parrems. AnaIyze rhe included synopsis of the composition "Ana Maria" by Wayne Shorter by the methods shown For previous examples. or cryptic cadences. Create a set ofchords for a composition in which all or a large section of the chords is derived from symmetric patrerns. 3. label tension index. Create four tension contours. I. 4. label method used (see examples i n cext). tension contour. 5. T t is found on the CD Native Danc~r(CBS VCK 46159) if you need a listening. present like in the previous pages. Create four cryptic cadences. using t h e examples OF this chapter as a guide. motif length two to four. and include cresendo and decresendo markings to show i n m d e d contour. 2 . .

CHAPTER Xltl .

HARMONIC SYNOPSIS 11 Phrygian Aeolian II lonian Aeolian sus Aeolian Aeolian Lydian minor 1 1 Lydian minor 9 sus Aeolian lonian Mixolydian b2 minor 9 minor 11 Lydian minor 9 Mbclydian lonian minor 9 minor 9 sus sus minor 9 5 ~ 5 (1 lonian Mixolydian bZ minor 9 minor 9 4/2 minor 9 Mimlydian lonian minor 11 II Phrygian Aeolian II . S L ~ I M CHORD HAAHOHY "ANA MARIA" BY WAYNE SHORTER .

CHAPTER X1II 'ANA MARIA'" BY WAYNE SHORTER Latin Phrygian Aeolian Aeolian SUS Aeolian Mixolydian Miwlydian Locrian 42 Mimlydian lonian Mixolydian b2 minor 9 .

Upper Structure rds .

V r5m I I .T H E ROOT 2. A N lNNER !XRLICWRE which contains a rrirone. Example 14-1 :The acoustic source s d e s wit31 triads on their fourth and fifth degrees and suggested inner simctures diatonic - melodic minor IV V I . this is a form of the grip rnerhod of chord construction wish the addition of the upper structure triad Also known as "roorless" voicings. are the grips found in Chapter VI. for keyboard playing. These. the process for creating chords k [he same as with two-part chord constnrcrion: placing h e US over alE the roots of the parent acoustic source or aperimenring by pIacing them w e r the remaining roots rhat are i n the chromatic scale.CHAPTER X I V Three-pm upper structure chords are chords which can be separated inro three parts. The three parts are: 1. THE UPPER !3TUCrCIRE TRIAD i s one of rhe mads found on either the fourth or fifrh degrees o f the parent scak.. The root is completed by a bass player or by prior playing by the pianist's left hand in t h e rnechod of "scride" pianists. each parz conrributing to the chord's modal definition. the grip is played by the left hand with the rrfads played by rhe right. 0 ad *) See Chapter XV Wish the inner smcrure and the top d a d s togerheractingas a combined upper structure. 3. - V d U harmonic mi nor IV G _ *melodic minor #5 IV V G G - *harmonic major IV V w rMm I m a = I I - 0 a1 fl - I V 61 hi I 4:. the one conraining the third of rhe acouscic source scale is preferred. as found in rhe acoustic source scaIe. If there is more than one rritone presenr. As you can see. which is usudy a major triad unless it has alterations. of course. Example 14-2: Placing the upper structures over the acoustic source unaltered ~onianb3 .

THREE-PART U P P E R STRUCTVRE CHORDS

ronian 63 56 harmonic maior

The resulting modality of all of the above is found in previous chapters.

To find the acoustic source, resolve the tritone that has the leading-tone natural 7.
EXAMPLE: T h e C meIadic minosexample (bar 2 ofExample 142) has the tritone F ro $3 which
resoIves to C Ionian b3.
Because one triad by irseIf, in most cases, dosen'c fully define a chord's modaliry, you often
find that both triads are used in combination, on dlfferenr bears, of course.

Example 14-3: Use of both US triads

melodic minor $5 melodic minor A5

It' " I.
-
6 w

melodic minor unaltered

The three-way upper structure technique is not found only in jazz harmonic systems; it is a
prominent technique of film scoring, big band arranging, and classical music-Try to identi+
its use in your listening sessions.

SUGGESTED EXERCISES

Construct the following chords with three-~arrUS. ~ n c l u d eboth US for four oF them. Also
include a chord symbol over the chord.

2. E Phrygian \3

4. Bb Dorian
5 . Db Amlian b.5
6. E altered

7 . F Mixolydian 84
8. F Lydian C2
9. C AeoIian \7
10. G Mixolydian b6

CHAPTER XV

The Mode! 7d Chords of

Diatonic No.3 and N

,JNIAN b6 (Harmonic Major) ana iONlAN b3 #5 (Melodic Minor n 3 I .

Use of material from rhe firsc p u p is found on onIy the most contemporary of harmony b a e d compositions. pointing out the difirences obrained by the alrerarion Ionian 66 is a darker version of Ionian. the descriptions can be determined by a comparison wich the parent Ionian. Use of some chords from rhe second group can be found in early j~ harmony but withont a reference to its source. Example 15-1 : The Modes o f Harmonic Major lonian b6 Dorian 6.5 Ph tygiari b4 . IONIAN b6 (HARMON3C MAJOR) THE TiTRACHORD FORMULAS As with previous altered diatonic modes. Lydian-augmented $2 a brighter and more tense version oFLydian. A. etc.CHAPTER X V These Iast two sers of modes and their chords are the most esoteric of rhe jazz harmonic vocabulary.

PHRYGIAN b4 .Similar to aIrered b6. include rhe & to show that it isn't Ionian #5 or Lydian-augmented. 3 AND 4 CONSTRUCTION Of THE CHORDS OF WARMONlC MAJOR THE TABLE OF COLOR TONES A t least the first three of the cones are needed ro define the mode. Example 15-2: 2. T H E M O D E S A N D C H O R D S Of A L T E R E D D I A T O N I C N O .Sounds W e a dreamy Lydran-augmentedor a dark Ionian. Example 15-4: . L a m ple 1 5-3: 3. including the b5 verifies i r isn't IEhas a wry "domi- nanr" sound. T h e order of che lasr three i s not strict. ION1A N b6 . DORIAN bS . including rhe 44 verifies that it isn't Dorian t4. REPRESENTATIVE CHORD EXAMPLES 1 .Has an irnelikd diminished sound.

Example 15-7: 7 . rhey should be either mixed with more conventional chords or used with slower harmonic rhythm. include the b2 for verificarion (see "Mike1l'sn by Calderazze. LYDIAN b3 . Example 15-8: ~b-/C F Locrian bb7 Because of the arnbiguiy and resident tension of most of these chords.Can sound like a slash chord. Example 15-6: 6.A brighter. LYDIAN-AUGMENTED $2 .Being similar to Lydian 12. more active sounding Locrian. .CHAPTER XY 4. LOCRIAN bb7 . or poIychord D/Eb#5. Of course. AAJF.This is the source of the much used dominant 69 chord. MIXOLYDIAN 52 . there will be a number of composers who find these chords to quite satisfy their aesthetic require- ments. Example 15-5: 5.

d s o . Looking at the exotic ternchord combinations. explanation of their source and consuucrion. if any.or for improvisors. nore that these modes are a Form of missing note diminished scaIe and a l l che chords can be used with a diminished scale . wne wouldn't think these rnodes/chords would sound as good as they do. nvo new tetrachords are introduced and used in the mode's coastruccion. In addition. of "interest"A number of these chords have been in use from the times ofMingus to Brecker. THE TETRACHORD FORMULAS Example 75-9: T h e Modes oFMelodic Minor #5 Dorian A7 15 Phtygian b6 #4 Lydian 13 15 A Mixolydian 82 M altered bb6 bbJ Aeolian 65 47 altered 46 . 3 A N D 4 43. THE MODES hHD CHORDS OF ALTFRED D I A T O N I C NO.Two such chords found in common use are the Mkmlydia 19 and rhe dtered 46. but there has noc been too much. the diminished scale can be used with any of the chords (see tetrachord consrruixion in the appendix). T h e combination of the darkness of the flatted third with rhe brigfimess of che sharped fifth of h e source scale offers a great qudir). IQNIAN b3 $5 (MELODIC MINOR #5) This group ofmodes contains some very beautiful chords for achieving a modern sound.

sounds "dominant" . DO RlAN b7 115 . 'PHRYGIAN h6 #4 .brighter 3. LYDIAN-AUGMENTED fl3 .bright and rense Example 3 5-10: 2.CHAPTER XV CONSTRUCTION OF THE CHORDS OF MELODIC MINOR $5 Tftf TABLE OF COLOR TONES 1 Dorian 15 1 es Ib3 I h6 1 h7 ( 2 1 4 1 Phrygian b6 #4 #4 b2 h6 b9 b3 5 Lydian-augmented #3 83 #5 i7 84 6 2 ' Mixolydian #Z 14 #2 b7 3 114 6 5 Altered bb6 bb7 bb6 bb7 b4 k2 b3 65 Aeolian bS p7 1 b 5 1 h 7 1 b 6 ) b 3 ( 2 1 4 1 f ? E P R E S € N ~ T I V fCHORD fXAMPLES 1.

MiXOLYDtAN #2 #4 . Bat experiment anyway. ALTERED b6 . we have a formidable palette OF thirty-five modaI caIots with which to work.AEOLIAN h7 b5 . has a very positive sound C altered \6 This completes the consmcuon of aIt the chords that will be presented for use in Volume 1 afthis textbook. eventually che wodd will "catch up.the most used of this group. ALTERED bb6 bb7 .nor used much Example 1 5-14: G altered bb6 bb7 I 6.not much Aeolian quality left Example 15-15: 7. Of course. one can see the possibiliries of unusual sombinanans and the creation of many more esoteric modes and their chords." . the much used b7#9 chord is in this group Example 1 5-1 3: 5. more than a Few of rhese and the newly created chords may not be accessible. hoking a t the section on tetrachord construction in r h e appendix. 3 APED 4 4. with the btener of your creative efforts taken into account. THE MODES AHD C H O R D 5 O F h L S E R E D D I A T O N I C N O . Not including the nonrnodal group ofchords.

Atered h6 34. MixoIydian b6 12. there is much harmonic ambiguig introduced.Determining a n accurate order ofbrighr r o dark is not as easy as ir would seem. Locrian b4 32. Aeolian \7b5 21. AItered bb6 bb7 The emotional qualities also can be obscured by rhe added rension of the alterations. AeoIian h7 1'15 20. Phrygian b3 b6 27. Ianian #5 7. Ionian b 6 9.CHAPTER X Y THE COLLATED ORDER Of ALL CONSTRUCTED MODES With the many alterations of rhe later consrmcted modes. Locrian 66 30. Phrygian h6 C4 25. Dorian 47 16. Mixolydian R2 #4 has the same qualiries as the unalrered hiixvlydian h4 bur a bit brighter and more active. Lydian hS 5. Lydian $5 $3 2. Locrian bb7 31. Dorian b7 #4 18. Phrygian h6 h4 26. Dorian 47 bS 17. Lydian #5 113 3. Ionian h5 8. MixoIydian 112 $4 10. this is the resulring orcler: 1. Mixolydian &' h4 13. Mixolydian b2 h4 14. . Locrian \4 33. Lydian b3 6. Dorian b7 b4 f 9. Mixolydian b2 #4 11. Locrian h6 29. Phrygian 63 66 28. Aeolian b7 bS 23. Dorian b7 $5 f 5. Aeolian b7 @ 22. Phrygian hi' 35 24. but considering as before. the basic qualities of the unaltered modes being enhanced by rhe alteration. Bur by considering a sharping oFa pitch as a brightening and a flaming as a darkening. Altered bb7 35. The effects OF the ambiguity is to obscure a clear comparison. Lydian #2 4.

1 2. THE MODES AND CHORDS O F ALTERED D l A f O N l C NO. include a number of grip method I construcdons and a fern three-part upper smtcmre consrmctions. PIay all rhe chords with an ar training goal in mind. try to idendfy char use on recordings. . Constructa number of chords wirh all spacings. 3 A N D 4 SUGGESTED EXERCISES I.

. Mingus. Group c~rnposirionalstyles Wirhour access to furcher volumes. Charles Mingus. The serious jazz composer should be aware ofthose means of implementationand be abIe to compose in any of the lisred styles. Avant-garde jazz compositions 6. Tadd Dameron and Benny GoIson . harmony alone does not define music. Even if the primary goal of rhe composer Is to develop a single personal sryle. the smdent should pursue his own regimen ofstudy by transcribing and analyzing a number of compositions from each category and compose within the studied style. and orchesrral implementations. style. and tonal harmony.TheIonious Monk. rhythmic concepts. and hardbop 4. Awarenes of its use within style categories is imponant to acquiring a well-rounded harmonic concept In pardcular. i t is apparent rhar there 1s a diversity of jazz styles. che abilisy m compose in all styles wiII only enhance and clarify the development of one's own s q l e . Tonal harmony is so prevalent in the student's continuing educational and listening back- ground chat f u r r h e r study is not that critical.Romantic melody writing 5. looking at the use OF tonal harmony by the masters of rhat genre .can be of benefit. whether through a live performance or &rough the recording process. each tvivich their own particular descriptions of harmonic. Tonal harmony: Monk. rhythmic. Referring t o T h e Categories ooFJazz Cornpositians found in the introduction of this book. melodic. Although there is suGcient information for the creation oFbeautiFuI and forward-looking harmonic schemes. We cannot conclude wirhout reminding the student that h e rnusr bting the precess to its consummation: The presentation of his efforts m an attentive audience. with the presentation o f the following subjects: 2. The goals of further volumes of this book are toward char end.This concludes che presentation oFthe materia15 oSVolumc 1 of this book. Needed to be covered are the elements of melody. Penratnnic and bIues tunes 3.

DISCOGRAPHY-BIBLIOGRAPHY 7.ABOUTTHE AUTHOR . ADDITIONAL EXAMPI (a) Common C onnectic~n - ( b j Symmetric patterns (c) Computer Generated Examples 4.TREE OF INFLUENTIALJAZZ COMPOS 6. 1. EAR T R A I N I N G i. ACOUSTICS AND MOD (a) Th me Serie (b) D e t errninlng ~ the PARENT SCALE and ACOUSTIC (c) Chord Stability ( d ) D e t e n rlining th e Color Tones 3.

allowing a complere state ofrepose. rhe - overtones are: 2x = 128. Ic is suggesnld that the serious student memorize the ratio of the pitches a€ the OS. o r if h e fundamenta1 is 64 hz. triad on the tonic o f the scale. which is C below middle C.P8.. The interval of the resolved mtone is the point of reference for determining a scale's degree of stability. the partids are: l x . only lonian has a The filled plrchesarc slightly out tritone resolution r h a produces ~ a difference cone that completes the construction of a major oTme. Any sounded tone produces ad&- tion4 tones (overtones and sometimes undertones) of varying intensity." Taking a look at all asymmetric scales. q The point of all rhis is that oF all the possible asymmetric scales in use.. The OS consists oFpartiats: a fundamend pirch and its overtones. etc.e. AIl acoustic explanation for that which occurs in harmonic and melodic application can be derived from a reference to the Overtone Series. is the Ionian mode or commonly knmvn as the major scale. or Modem Humonic T ~ h n i q w by Gordon Delarnont. i. Contemporary Hamony by Lurnila Ulehla. The f~Ilowmgis not meant to be a rreatise on the science of amusria but a cursory introduction ro the subject for referenrial purposes. 3x. the OS produces a series o f pitches following strict natural Iaw. our point of reference in the stabilig comparisons. .. It is this variation af the intensity o f the generated overtones that creates timbre. 3x 192..P5. T h e student whose interests require a more in-depth study should consult eicher The Crufi of Mil~ictaIComposiiion by Paul Hindemith. When nvo pitches (an interval) are sounded together. Overtones are computed by increasing mulriples of the frequency of the Fundamertcal. a third pirch (or somecirnes more) is generated naturally.. i f che two tones being produced are middle C and G a P5 above. Combination tones are usualIy determined by finding the difference in che ratio of rhe frequency ofthe sounding pitches.We know by inruirion and by actual listening experience that the mode seems totally u"at rest. T H E OVERTONE SERIES: DETERMINING THE PARENT SCALE T h e parent scale. 2x. This pitch is c d e d a cornbinauon tone. bur: rhey are usually inaudible and not o f parricular interest M us. the difference tone in this case wodd be 6-4 = 2 or rhe second pardal. Just as the prism splits the spectrum oflighc into a fked order. The spaces benveen the individd parrials grow progressively smdler as the partial number gets higher.. Tritona have a strong desire to resolve. Our use of she OS requires only the knowledge af parcial &o and pardd number. If x = rhe F d a m e n t a l . It is suff~cientco refer only to the parrial number. one wilI find an interval of a trirone (sometimes there are two in dtered scales). The overtone series (0s)is a phenomenon which is as much a part of our narural universe as is the force of gravity. As an example. nx. their partial numbers ace 4 and 6.There are cases where additive tones are produced. the i n t e n d s .up or down depending on the acoustic source. P4*etc...

The degree of difference gives rhe resulting chord qualicy a "bite. with the tritone in filled notes. OK - 2. 3. .G. The major scale. note the result. A . APPENDIX .displaced an ocavt.right on! - 1. the resulting placement of ics fundarnend may be below the range of hearing. etc.altcmd & displactd. ~b . Eb . In addition. G . The resulting interval and parrial numbers. with the tritone in filled notes. nor too u n d e Rtsulr: nor too dark. T h e results. Eb altered. 5 .1 d 5 ( . CHORD SllBI LITY A chord's stability or instability is a result of the divergence of the verdcal spacing of the chord's sones from the natural piacemenr ofthose tones in the overrone series. F .drspkrrd b altered d.altered &dispkrrd. darker 2. E . it can be transposed. A Phrygian mode. iris C Ionian. Ff where it should be 1. a k c Resdc r brighr and slightly rmnsc weak chard k u I r quite dark and tense The nexr: scep here is to pIay chtsc chords and compare the subjective resulm TTry m e r e n t tessimras. Try to hear an increase in "heaviness" in the tense spacings.D-OK 2. If a chord is too low. The computed difference tone. not too mnse mse - 5. or it can be both altered and rransposed. A chord's spacing can pervert the QS in these ways: a partid can be altered.alrcred.nu Junge L Bb . ACOUSTIC SOURCE The acoustic source is the Ionian mode whose root is h e f u n d m e n d of the ovettone series.down an octave.C-OK Resulc quire dark. dark & 4. G . Hindemith points out that the changes in partial placement md spelling resdcs in an actud increase in energy through molecular acduiry. AL . 1.j : i ? mnic - * tonic - a F F 1. the chord's ressimra can effect a dark or brighr qualig by a diffusion of the chord's fundamental. creating the effect of a11 the chord's pitches being transposed partials. J% . or consonance.uk & tense - 3 Bb d~sptaccdown a n o c u m rmse 3. btighr & 4.alarcd &down an o c m . a bir darker 3.Fmdamcntal. Eb Aeolian's is Gb. a bad r c t w 3. For the Phrygian exampIe above. 2. a rriad not built upan the mode's tonic. C O L bur not th. defined by the critone resolution shown above." starkness.creating a mad. dark & 4. Of course. 4. D .unchanged eense tense sr ablt 5. a bit less 4. the quick way is to refer to a mode's key signature: C Lydian's is 6.OK 2.

the sharp 4 being the only difference between Ionian and Lydian built on the same root Dorian could be thoughc of as Mixolydian with a flat third or as Ionian with ics third and seventh flatred. the listener "knaws" h a t the Ionian mode is the one wich the least desire ro resolve. to determine the modal definition of any scale. T H E METHOD As shown an previous pages. Lydian #4b7 LYDIAN is brighter than Ionian and refers m a sharper key.APPEHDIX DWERMINING THE COLOR TONES A chord that would most clearly define the modalicy of a scale would conrain all seven notes of chat scale.. flat 7 and natural 4 are its primary qualities. of note selecrion. whether they are brighter or darker than rhe compared Ionian. . lonian @ \4 -47 Mixolydian 113 L14 b7 MIXOLYDIAN has che same spellings as Ionian except for che alteration of rhe flat 7. Even without investigating its acoustic properties. To determine the primaty color cone. that would not be too musical. Irt order EO selea fewer notes that wi1I give mi the transparent spacing that is needed while still defining the particular modalicy of the scale we are representing. we need to make a nore-to- note comparison wich the Ionian mode that has the same roor as rhe mode to which it is being compared. we need a method to determine a priorir). from this poinc an. So. With this in mind. Ic is like bnian with a sharp 4. Sharp 4 is its primary color tone. and the remaining color mncs are derived from cycling back to the original Ionian As one can see> this wouId give us a flat sixth as the primary color r o n e of Aeolian and a namrd sixth as the primary color cone of Dorian. the primary color tones of Ionian are rhe natural 4 and the natural 7.. As rhe following examples show: Lydian could be thought o f as Ionian wich a sharp 4. a group of chords all voiced rhac way would be much roo dense and overbearing as well as inhibitive of any sense ef voicing con- tour. the Ionian mode is the most srable of all the 35* modes available for use in contemporary jazz composition. The nores that differ are rhe notes we will use to define the new mode chordally.we will consider it axiornadc thac the Ionian mode will be the point oF cornpxison for all other modes. A t &is point. DERIVING THE COLOR TONES ronian h447 . Obviously. The process goes on. a comparison with a mode's immediate pre- decessor must be made.

LOCRIAN is so altered ir approaches anocher key center. the primary quality of Dorian is natural 6. Flat 6 is its primary E O ~ O ~ wne. . APPENDIX lonian q4 96 47 Dotian b3 46 bJ DO R lAN is a darker version of Mixolydian. Looking ahead to Aeolian. Zhe method for determining color tones is the s a m e for the altered diatonic modes. Looking a t the a ~ o u r t i csource &ere is a trimne between rwo oFthe notes: C lonian's are F and 8. because A e o h has a SIar 6. Notice that many of t h e note choices include the pitch that is found a tritone from the primary color tone. natural 2 (9) completes it. the fifth oEPhrygian). and che two usually are found irr the first two notes oFche order table. I t is like Phrygian with a flat 5 . lonian 42 h3 h4 h6 47 Phrygian 62 $4 PS PHRYGIAN" primacy color tone is flat 2 . Hat 5 is the primary quality o f hcrian. (Ex:the natural 2 ofAeolian. that pitch is usually definitive of the mode. with so many flats. I lonian $2h3 b6 47 Aeolian 42 45 b6 AEOUAN is clearly in the redm of darkness. This also exphins why Lydian and Locrian are special modes regarding resolution tendencies. There d l be mote Phrygians to come and flat 2 is a primary quaLty of aII of them. The above example should be sufficient as a guide iEa student wants to pursue &at assignrnenr. they both have a tritone built From the root.

The onIy "rulesnta follow are to incIude four notes and to keep the sum of che semitones of the tetrachord within the definitive limit. x* tl. IFthe terrashod is to be used to conscrucr modes. A few will be included here and the subject will be covered in more detail in Volume 2 of this rextbook. Example: 4 Semitones Dorian b4 Spanish Phrygian 6b3 Example: 5 Semitones Ianian Dorian Phrygian u I I I Blues harmonic Blues Example: 6 Semitones Lydian Hungarb pentatonic Hungarian major Hungarian Phrygian unnamed Erebird I I tl * it. C D E F.a limit of less than four semitones would give a tetrachord chat couId not be transposed. A semitone Iimit above six allows the creation OFpentatonic and ocher specid use tetrachords. 7T . h addition. as well as a means for deriving new ones. err. the sum should not be higher than s i x semitones .APPENDIX CONSTRUCTION OF TETRACHORDS There are many more tetrachords that can be used by the forward-looking composer than is Found in contemparary examples. one should assure that the pitch sequence folIow the normal alphabetical sequence: A B C D. T h e following is a method for construcring the tetrachrsr& presently in use.

there are quice a few possibilities for tetrachord construcrion. T h i s procedure can be of greac use for the Irnpsonsor/cornposes for the inscant creation of exotic "lines" while "blowing" over changes with relaxed harmonic rhyhrn . The examples include common tone connection. for ear raining. COMMON CHORD CONNECTION Mixolydian altered h6 Locrian bb7 Mixolydian tonian . A number of&ern were created by computer ptograms . A. both upper and root. as long as there is the four note Iimit. or for clarification of concepts.but this is a subject for another book. symmetric patterns.Example: Pentatonic Tetrachords (perfect fifth limit) As one can see.and are still useful. examples ro pIay at a keyboard. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES The following miscelIaneous examples are included for further reference for ideas. Wirhin the exarnpIes are additional chord voicings for further study. and harmonizations.

Aeolian 1 Aeolian lonian A .

APPENDIX C. COMPUTER GfNERATED EXAMPLES .

APPENDIX

COMPUTER GENERATED PATTERNS

APPENDIX

EAR TRAINING GUIDE
Ic has been emphasized more than a few times that one cannot work creatively w i h
chromatically related modal chords wirhout first *hearingnthem in a rnusicd conrexr. The
student whose musical background or innate tebiliries show a weakness in the area of aural
identification of modal chords can use chis guide to ease the pain o f whac is a very difficult
chore. There is no real shartcutro acquiring these aural skills - it is hard work, requiringhours
of frustrating practice.
As a musician who acquired his knowledge and skills before there was a Concept of jazz
education, the aurhor and ochers of his generation learned all they could by the "aural
tradition" of listening to records, attending concerts or jazz clubs, consrant 'Tammind and
badgering our peers and heros for information. The listening to records was nor just for the
inspiration rhey provided, but for all one could glean from &em - they were the "textbooks"
of our group, as they are to many of today's students. Because there was so litde written
information at chat time, the aural identlficarion of whac was on rhose recordings was more
than an enhancement OFour skills, it was an absoIute requirement to attaining any skills.
Transcribing improvisations,or learning them by playing along with the recordings is one OF
the best ways KO team to play jazz. In the same way, one shouId transcribe compositions with
all the correct chord voicings, melodies and bass and drum parts. This aurhor can attest that
the rranscribi~lgof three compositions changed his musical life: "Little One" by Herbie
Hancock, Tilles de KiIirnanjaro" by W a y n e Shorter, and "Power to che People" by Joe
Henderson.These compositions became avaiIable to the listening public in the middle ro late
'60s, when the author was writing runes rhat showed an influence of Horace Silver,
Thelonious Monk, and the compsitions typical of those performed by CanntrnbaIl AdderIey
and the Jazz Messengers. It was very painful to transcribe so far above one's abilities - but
truly worth the effort.
The plan ofattack For improving your "ear" abilities folIows:
I. Learn to identify dl the termchords played both up and down.
2. Learn to hear and identify retrachorb hidden within the playing o f chords.

3. Do as the above with the modes.
4. Be able to identify rhe primary cobr tones as an inrervd of root to coIor cone. This first
part wiIl not be me diff~cultbecause of the arnounr of melodic ear training rhat is a part
of one's early training.
5. Learn to identify the arpeggiated unaltered diatonic modal chords - this, still a Form o f
melodic ear training, shouldn't be too difficult
6. Try to hear the unaltered chords with three notes only root, primary, and secondary color
cones. Refer to the following guide.

THE GUIDE
This is organized by categories of a primary color tone with its added secondary qualities.
Once you learn the primary qualiry as an intervalic definition, add the secondary color tone.

1. Groups of 117 Ionian 2. Groups of b7 Mixolydian

Ionid0 lonian b4 Lydian 1 minor 7 Mixolydian Mixolydian * Mixolydian 14
II

learn to identify rhe ratio of that roar to the root of the chord (see ExampIe 9). go for d you hear. Lydian BZ. etc. As you will recall. reed size and mouthpiece and even synthesizer makes and "patchesn.9ash chords down major 3rd up rninorfd Once you are fairly proficient with modal chord identification you should move on to the mansccibing of h I l compositions. .the film scores have some great scuff. all you know and hear. Moving on ro full spacings. maybe by groups of major thirds.7. In addition t o "ear raining" practice. much keyboard playing of the chords will be of benefic. Everyone has different abiIities for aurd identificadon. identification of makes of instruments. IF needed. An ultimate goal is to be abIe ro identi$ everything that you hear and to be able to transcribe it to musical notation: all drum parts. Learning the chords by their composite sound has no real shortcut . from those wivh perfect pitch so those whose listening background has been mostly "pop" harmony . 8. particularly for the "grip"merhod of idmcification (see Exampk 8). S m by learning the voidrrgs that are most commonly used. your right hand should have a "Feel" for what you are hearing. Minor rhird group 4. it is best to learn the chords by their composite sound and by their grip.you musr spend a lot of time in practice. a11 the altered types or all Lydians: Lydian. Your ear training shodd not just be in the academic environment or in the car listening ta the stereo: while watchingw at movies. with fuU transcriptions of the chordal voicings. rhey are available within the pages of this book. When you hear a chord. bass parrs. the upper structure triad has a root as part of its construction. 3.in shocc. Grips 9. horns. The remaining groups 51 Lydian Lydian $7 Lydian 12 e II II il You can further organize the chords iE you wish.. identify and. rhythmic figures. chord vaicings. Lydian-augmented. And for the meticulous. b2 Phrygian {I rnim 7 Dorian Aeolian minor s ( Phrygian b7 P h ~ a in6 Phtygisn I S Locrim Phrygian Phryg*n h3 1 5. Slash chard idmtificatian c a n be Iearned by an inrervaIic method. The mamre student should include identificatiort of the players by style and sound. voices. later transcribe the music . practice with atpeggiations at first.but all can benefit from more ear training. Try to rranscribe Stravinsky or Gil Evans. and drnbral or instrumencaI assignrnenrs.

using t h e FolIowing visual reference.great tunes. So. Cedar Walton. Freddie Hubbard. but no movements starred because o€ them. Benny GoLon and Hank MobIey . Yet. because ofthe strength of their compositional skills. it emphasizes the composers whose materials are closer to the materials presented in this rext- book.APPEN DlX THE TREE OF INFLUENTIAL Jazz COMPOSERS T h e Following is nor meant to be a comprehensive representation of the evolution ofjazz and its composers. In addition. there are composers who. names that once mentioned bring forth memories oFgreat compositians. ic is meant to be a guide for the discography chat foliows. I Blues / Church / ( ~lassical I -M - ! -+ Horace Silver Monk Andrew Hill 1 Herb~eHancock -+Randy Weston +Billy Strayhorn 'If Joe Hedederson Chick Corea v . C h a r l ~Mingus 4 Eberhard Weber Ralph Townw if Kenny Wheeler Omette Coleman r k v Ron Miller 4 Par Merheny Cada Bley David Liebrnan 4 Keith Jarretr I Albert Ayler . rcy to hear rhe influences as you listen to the suggested recordings found in the discography. have inspired others to wtite in a sirn~larstyle. That is tvhy some names are nor included. The key word here is infienhifi because mosr jazz musiciarfi arc composers. Names Iike Kenny Dorharn.

Aj-o Bossa 9.EI!ington 6. Pdge One 4.And His Mother Called Him Bill 3. Cmsringr 3. DUKE ELLINGTON 1. knowing the music on these recording is essential to mastery of the harmonic/composicionaI techniques presented. Live at thc Eiue Spot 2. Paww to tbc People 2. Q#i& Ni@& 2. E!lmgron At Newpwt 7. although net complete and not torally up to dace. Such Sweet Thnder WAYNE SHORTER JOE HENDERSON 1. Ma-ieces Ly . Etcemd 3. Barnlab Sessimrr 2. Silwr'r S d e 2.r&hIism . as there are so many new releases each month. are represencarive of the composer's works as advocated By this . N r b h Ddncer 6. Miles + 12 3.T h e Far East Suite 2. Juzz C m w of tfic W d d THELONIOUS MONK CHARLES MINGUS 1. Adam's Apple 4. isnw Utge 5. M& Voyage 1.RECORDINGS The following. In P u m i t of B k k f i e s i 3. TSle Black Saint The Sinner Lady CANNONBALL ADDERLEY GIL EVANS / MILES DAVlS 1.Anatomy Of R Murder 5. Speak Like A Child 2. Ahatis HERBIE HANCOCK MILES DAVIS 1.Finger Poppin' 1. Who's A f i d of the Big B a d Monk 1.texr As mentioned early o n in rhe text. Nkht Dreamer I . Live in New York I. Live in &pun 2. Live i?? Sari Frankco 3. The Ellington Suites 8. T%e Sorcerer 2. id. ESP HORACE SILVER JAZZ MESSENGERS 1. My Fwnny V a h t i n e 3. More than a cursory listening. trgetslc 2. New Odeans Suite 4. Spedk No E d 2. the music must become a part of your inner being: it must change your musical life. Ah Urn 3.

The FollowfngMornkg 2.Th Rtkne~ 3.In the Door 9.McCoy Tyner . Jan Garbarek . the skills of the rrtorld's best composers. Rachrnaninov . LaswelI . 2 3.B k k Pi# 10. Andrew Hill .Romeo and Juliet 6. Little M o v e m m 3. Rave1 .Pulcinella IS.Romeo and Juliet 2.Tristm und IsoIde 14. making notes of particular areas of interest Like the jazz recordings.Rodea 13. B h e Stsn AVANT-GARDE MISCELLANEOUS I.Belonging T r e m ~ mIsland 2.Weacher Report . Rimsky Korsakov . Tmdm Mmnenh 4. of course. Tchaikovsky . Kenny B a m n . Ornerte Coleman . Stravinsky . Zawinnb 6.APPEHDlX EBERWARD WEBER RALPH TOWNER / OREGON 1.Baseltnes 6.Songs Without Words 4.Valses Nobles e t Sentinencdes 8. Yellow Fields I . SoI5ricc 2. Joe ZawinuI .Seven Haiku 12. Stravinsb .Pines of Rome 9. romantic harmony and. Paul Bley . Sun Ra .VioIin Sonata in A . Keith Jarcert . Respighi . Mendelssohn .Daphnis er ChIoe 7.Expansions. Winter L i t 3.Golden Lohsr CLASSICAL LISTENING The following sample selection should provide good starting point for additional harmonic and meIodic source rnateriaL Most of h e non-idiomaric harmonic and melodic mawrials. Albert Ayler . as presented in this book. Copland .Kenny Wheeler . 1. I t is suggested that you obrain rhe scores and read along with the recording. You 7.D ~ a b kDouble . Ghosrs 3. you should attempt co make rhese musicaI exampIes a permanent part of your inner self.Symphony of Psalms 11. Ravel . Prokofiev .Dave Liebman . Wagner .Memoly S m s 5.Scheherezzde 5.Barrage 1. Mareria1 .Dmm O d e 8. chord voicing. Frank .Omette on Tmm 2.Firebird 1 0 Stravinsky .Piano Concerto No.HeluKenhic Worlds 4.Weunber Reporl 5. Joey Calderazza . Messiaen . are derived from rhe listed sourcex Romantic melodies are very much a panr of the jazz Ianguage and these compositions also provide great examples OF modal harmony.

Jazz Arranging and Composing .C e n t q Com+tion by Leon DalIin 12. The Poeh'cr ofMusic by lgor Stavinsky . MlSCELLANEOUS 1. Mmic Mdnscscllpt Techniques by Paul Harder f 1. Anything by Jerry Coker 2. Minps by Brian Priestly 3. HISTORY 1. APPENDIX BOOKS A. A C h w d c Approach tujl~zzH a m m y and Mehdy by David Liebrnan 7. Changes Over T i . 3 dnd 2 by Paul Hindemith 8. Conternply Harmony by Ludrnila UIehla 9. Thesdwcs of S c d u &' Syrnmetricd P u m s by Nicholas SIonirnsky 13.A Linear Appmch by Bill Dobbins 5. Milei Davir by Tan Carr 2. JmS t y h by Mark Gridley C. The Music ofRon Miller 2. AU books by Godon Delamonc 10. Tuvntierh. Thej d z r Composer's Companion by Gil Goldstein 8. Cmfi of Wc6sicrsl Connpon'tiotn VoZ. Jazz Hmmony by Andy Jaffe 4.n e EvoEurion ofJcz Andngivg by Fred Stunn 6. THEORY I. % ] ~ z z T h e 0 9 IVorkbook by Mark Bofing 3.

APPEMDIX ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ron MilIer is a professor OFjazz studies at the Univesicy of Miami."Ira Sdlivan. Stwe Morse. uE1ernen~s. Mart Harris. He also directs he Monk-Mingus. and Stan G e m Composition students OF Ron's that have accained notoriety include Par Metheny. and jazz piano. Denis DiBIasio. advanced improvisation. and Rick Margiba . Horace Silver. Gil Goldsrein. Ron's compositions have been perfomed worldwide by many musicians including the faculty and studena at the Jamey Aebsrsold clinics. His areas of expertise are jazz composition. Mark Egan. His compositions also have been recorded and/or performed by notable musicians such as Hal Gaiper. Bruce Hornsby. ECM and Avant-Garde ensembles. 'T'Lavitz. Red Rodney.

and I highly recammend this most recent m n r n i n to jm writen uf all lmIs a! expen'meY Ffsk) -. 8 r t L DOBBIWS Jazz Arranging and Composing a Linear Approadr ORDER NO. are provided 20 ranforce theoretical concepts by immediate applicationt o the instrument. intendedto prepare the nudent for the serious study of jazz imprwiutwn. Ralph Towner.. and Harmony. Jim Hall. Rhythm. 7he rest ir up to you. Appropriate w e h e r . 'Gil doer a service here on a high level. G ~ GOLDSTEIH L - Jazz Composer's Companion O R D E RN O . laco Pastonou.. -A chapter on witing far t h e rhythm section dearly illustrates the techniques mmmanly d by jan anangus and cornpasem -Six complete scows in concert key are ideal for a n a w for playing the horn parts on the piano or for followingthe pehrrnamces an the CD.am induded in order t o illustrate &fic compositional techniques. Oliver NeTsorr. Richie Beinch. Theory WarkbwK is a primer i n j z theory. 11201 (125 P A G E B O O K ) T h e 1. 31305 (BOOK W/CD) Many different p i b i l i i e s for harmonizingthe same melody n iflustrated and analysed.. Chick Carea. 43304 (116 P A G E B O O K ] T h i s book i s divided imo three main sectiom: Melody. The m&I exarnpl~and om urn we!! organized and the anriw~is clmr and txces~ible.I have bng known Bill's unique abrlities ar a pfted pianist and cornparer. Pat M&eny." (EllFvum) . .and Clare Fixher. 4 and 5 horns.. Pat Metheny Michael t i b b s ao. Bifly Strayhorn. -A useful diswgraphy is includeda t the end of each chapter. " J w Amrnging and Carnw"g: Lineer Apprwch is a w&me and greatly mrded addition to jan educafional lit~ratureIt ir the jrrt bwk to provide a dear and lagicnl b-e Jram the more basic techniques of arranging and melody hmmenishn m the m r e adwrrred linear metham employ& by mme ofthr most interm'ng and infhren- oal jm m g e n d cumparerr. using techniques by such influential arrangers and composers ar.. linear rvriting and hourrterpoint for 2..*. Lyk Map. features interviews with jazz composers Bill E m s . -An extemive h p w r on form and development deals with e x t e d e d mmpasitional f o m and the use of cumpositional techniques in m t i n g for the small jazz ensemble. Steve Swdlour. Home Srlver..The Jazz hed dry Workbook O R D E RNO. The mnrcpn he ofm impuse im stye and thur. An extensive rhapter on fhe Grnpositiamal Pr. Gil Evans. Anthony Davis. Duke Enington. Herbie Hancock. The harmonic language of that period is still the framework nn which contemporary jan musiciam build Included are many musical examples and written assignments for pracrice in the theoretical skilk. -Techniques of melody harmonisah. George Rwell. anangement and c o r n p i t i o n The f o c u is on the harmonic Tanguage djan. W p h Towner.3. can be used and extended fa enrich my mw&s vocubdaly. Dozens musical examples x well as mmpwkions by 8ill Evans (pianist). Carla Bley. especially the harmonic practjEes which malasced in the bebop and pwt bop periods of the 19405 and 1950s when M o p and standard tunes formed the care of the mainstream repertoire. a n .

Lead Sheetr. Bob Bmokmq. Manhatrun Sdruol ofhlurrc. Rhythm Chang- Caltrane's 3-Tonic Syscem. Minor Key Hanmny. is the under- M n g a f why such an underdeterminatecondition may exist "I bve ued diir b o o k ~ n n a l y r i r f i rwading and ar a creative mol in rrq own cmparitkn* h i s e n m w l y use- ful md p m ~ m t i v e(Robert . and the arrangements assmiated d h each of the crig~nalworks were examined t o determine the level of quality. Benny Carter. Don Rdman's Chant ofthe W. Secondary Dominant Chords. Chords. mrnpleteb w i s e d and enlarged.er. Song Forms and Melodic Variations. . the span of jazz history represent- e d a d the number of renditions creatod by historically significantjam arrangefi. Through the detajledanalysis of the musical characteristjcs that dominate a specific styie of writing. The Blues. and dare Fixher The c a s studteq were n a r m d to 35 arrangements of three classic jazz mrnp&ions and one Amenan papular standard song: Jelly "Roll" M o m ' s Kimg Porter Smrnp. " J m Harmony is a brilfimt addirmn to the fwMofjm theory. Substitute Dominant Sewnth Chords and Tritone Subr. rhc Tweh. Chord Progresrionr and Voice- Leadin% Modulation. The mplanat~om de~ribmg each techn~queare thoroqk They are dsfgned to help the teacher and the nudent ree i h e many extenuating circumshnces that affect a particular analpid decision. and the infirmation i t mntvins is drornughg mearchedsnd aurhmtiral~prrrented I mcammmd it hrgh. a graduated plan is o r p i z e d and presented here in the fawn of explanations and exemses. Billy Strayham. 100 P A G E S ] 2nd edition.-Tmc R a cal method substitutes fur the diatonic figured bass and makes exercises and the analysis of non-diatonic I h t U r e mum manageable. Fletmer Henderson. New York) "Qntonpomry Harmony is& anly b w b that adquatdy matr conmpomry urmposithml t h i q u e r ar rhemn'ml erpansions upon the part . Gfl Evans. Slash Chords and Hybrid Chord Voi~ngs. 17440 (534 PAGE BOOK) The undemandingof the musical techniques of campasitioncan rrot be reduced to a handbook of sim- plified ruler Music is complex and ever changin~It is the p p o s e of this b d t o tracethe path of musical growth fmm the late Romantic period to the serial techniques of the contemporary composer. For classmom and mdivi- dual use. A new analyti- CONTEMPORARY HARMONY n?rrmuun ch. 11210 (CA." (David Baker) FRED S T U R M Changes Over Time: The Ewlution of J a n Arranging O R D E RNO. the dramatic development of rhythmic. m o n s t n r w d from sketches or tranwnlxd from recording. for example. Nnin) 'Conremporary Hmmony IS one oj the finest. orchcstrat~ond. L U D M I L A ULEHLA Contemporary Harmony - Romanticism through the 12-Tone ROW O R D E RNO. bwrowed from colkctions. The first edition was one of the most widely wed b o o k on jan harmony. Blues Variations. More important than a dogmatic decision on a particular key cmter or a rowt tone. including Dan Redman.one OJ t h e m andpiml essays oJ our century' (Ron mamas. thmugh cornpamtive case srudiec.Duke fllinpn. Modal Interchange and Minor 8 1 ~ sCommon . and/or parts representing nine decades were suppl~edby llving mangers. Modes.~ M Abranm~u. Thad J o n q Bill Hdman. most comprehensive tertr wef written od thc subject A unique and imaluaMe ronrribardon to MIthe nudolt a d the pmfexknal muskinn" (fiAnthoqy R l c i g l h . Pentatoniuand Other SymmeWic Scdu. Gerald Mavks' and kpmur Simon's All OfMe. ANDY J A F F E Jazz Harmony * O R D E R NO. 14 chapters induding exercises and assignments: I m a l s . mel* harrnorric.and nrucrural variation in jm arranging from the 1920s to the present A broad -Dry of cornpitions that have each inspird numerous jazz arrangements was ertablished.The JuifIiilliord 5rhwl. 11350 ( 2 1 4 P A G E B O O K W / C D ) 'Chanps Over Tme: The Evolutian of J a n Arranging" was conceived to illustrate. It ir well-wdm and beautiJullyarganited. New York) . and Billy Strayhorn's Tuk The "A* Train. Fmr contemporary rnaners were ultimately mmmissiuned ta create new arrangements af four selected mrnpositions. Inversions. DiatwlicAnd Modal Chard Progrersions.