You are on page 1of 13

SEPTEMBER 27, 2017

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES-2
LAB REPORT

SUBMITTED BY: ASIF JUTT


REG. NO.: 2015-IM-37
SUBMITTED TO: MAAM SANA EHSAN
Lab Session 2 & 3
To perform Turning, Taper Turning and Facing on Lathe Machine.
Lathe Machine: (1)

Lathe is a machine that helps in shaping several material pieces in the desired shapes. A lathe is a machine
that rotates the piece on the axis in order to perform various operations like cutting, facing, knurling,
turning and more.

Cutting Speed:
Cutting speed is defined as the speed at which point on a work piece moves past the cutting tool. If the
cutting speed se too fast the tool loses its edge quickly and if the speed is too low the job takes a too long
to be done economically.

The cutting speed decreases as the work piece gets smaller at constant rpm. Therefore, spindle speed
must be higher for smaller work piece to obtain correct cutting speed.

Spindle Speed:
Spindle speed is quite a different thing from the cutting speed. Spindle speed is set according to specified
or correct rpm for proper cutting speed.

The Hardness of a work piece material and hardness of a tool affect the cutting speed.
The Harder the work piece material, lower will be the cutting speed.
The Harder the cutting tool, higher will be the cutting speed.

Feed Rate:
The rate at which the cutting tool is fed into the work piece. It is measured in mm or inches per revolution.

It depends on the rigidity of cutting tool and the work piece.

1
High feed rate removes metal quickly but shortens the life of cutting tool.

Turning Tools:
Turning tools are used for cutting diameters. The cutting edge is on the side of the tool and tool is fed
parallel to the axis of work piece.

Right Hand Turning Tool:


Right hand turning tool cuts from tailstock to headstock.

Left Hand Turning Tool:


Left hand turning tool cuts from the headstock to tailstock.

Setting Cutting depth:


The cross feed dial is just below the cross feed hand wheel. It sets the depth of cut.

Cross feed Graduations:


Direct Reading Dial:
The dial on the machine represents 0.001 inch (0.01 mm) on the diameter of work piece. When dial is
turned through one increment (such as 0.001 inch), the diameter of the work piece changes by 0.001 inch.

Indirect Reading Dial:


The dial on the machine represents 0.001 inch on the radius. When the dial is turned through one
increment (such as 0.001 inch) the diameter of work piece is reduced by 0.002 inch (twice the radius).

Finishing Cuts:
A finish cut gives a work piece a smooth surface finish and an accurate size.

Centering of Cutting Tool: (1)

Before any turning takes place it is common practice to check that the point of the lathe tool is centered.
This means that the lathe tool point should be at the same height as the tip of the tailstock center or it
should be at the height equivalent to the height of center of work piece. If this is not done and the tool
point is either above or below the centre point - usually the finish to the steel will be poor. Also, a
significant amount of vibration could take place during turning.

2
Lathe Operations:
1. Turning (1)

Turning includes rotating of a work piece and reducing its diameter with a cutting tool.

The lathe rotates a work piece at the rpm set by the operator. The carriage feeds the cutting tool into the
work piece at a specified rate for each revolution of the spindle.

Fig.6 Turning operation (2)

Turning is the operation when the metal removal takes place from the surface of the cylindrical work
piece. In this process the tool is fed along the axis of the spindle. Turning is the removal of metal from the
outer diameter of a rotating cylindrical work piece. Turning is used to reduce the diameter of the work
piece, usually to a specified dimension, and to produce a smooth finish on the metal. Often the work piece
will be turned so that adjacent sections have different diameters.

Factors on which rpm and feed rate depends:


Material of the work piece.

3
Material of the cutting tool.
Operation being performed.
2. Taper Turning:
Taper turning is the gradual reduction in diameter from one part of a cylindrical work piece to another
part. In Taper turning, the tool moves at an angle to the axis of work piece and tapers are produced.
Angle of tool post is 90 degrees.

Tapers can be internal or external. If a work piece is tapered on the outside, it has external taper.
If work piece is tapered from the internal side it has internal tapers.

Taper turning operation being done

Methods for Taper Turning:


Taper turning can be done by using compound slide and its limit is 45 degrees.
Taper turning can also be done by tailstock offset method and the limit of this method is 10
degrees.
For taper turning of larger shafts tailstock offset method and taper attachment method are used.
Taper Attachment Method can also be used for taper turning and the limit for it is 10 degrees.
3. Facing: (3)

Facing is the square finishing of the ends of the work piece and is often used to bring the piece to a desired
length.

4
The job is held on a faceplate or chuck and the tool is fed at right angles to the bed to obtain flat surfaces.
Most often, the work piece is cylindrical, but using a 4- jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped
work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes. To safely perform a facing operation the end of
the work piece must be as close as possible to the jaws of the chuck. The work piece should not extend
more than 2-3 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end.

4. Drilling:
Drilling is a common lathe operation. The work piece rotates instead of drill, but the result is same. You
can calculate the rpm using the cutting speed of the work piece and the dill diameter.

Drill bits are made up of HSS.

Types of Drill bits:

Straight shank drill bits:

The diameter of straight shank drill bits is 1mm to 13mm of half inch.

Tapered shank drill bits:

The diameter of tapered shank drill bits is above 13mm.

Dill bits are held by socket or sleeves.


Drill cuts only nominal sizes.
Drilled hole is not fixed at axis of cutting.
Always center-drill the work piece and drill a hole before drilling the desired diameter.

Drilling in a lathe. (5)


Always center-drill the work piece and drill a pilot hole before drilling the desired diameter.

5
Depth of a centre-drilled hole. (5)

(5)

When drilling mild steel, the chips come out of the hole as continuous spirals. Clear the chips from the
hole by withdrawing the drill form time to time. Direct steam of the coolant at the point of where the drill
enters the work piece. On a very deep hole, the coolant might not flow all the way to the cutting edge, so
remove the drill more often and pump in coolant.

5. Boring:
When a single point tool is used to machine an internal feature, it is called boring. Boring is the same as
parallel to turning, but the cutting tool is held at the end of boring bar clamped to the tool post. A boring
bar enlarges an existing hole, but cannot start a new one. Drill the hole first using drill slightly smaller than
the bore.

(9)

Depth of cut in boring is given by moving the dial anti-clockwise.


Although boring is difficult and time consuming it offers advantages over drilling.
A bored hole runs true with the axis of the work piece, while a drilled can wander from the true
axis.

Bored holes can be of any diameter, while drills cut only nominal sizes.

Boring bar types: (7)


Boring bars are available in steel, solid carbide, and carbide-reinforced steel. The capacity to resist
deflection increases as the coefficient of elasticity increases. Since the elasticity coefficient of carbide
is three times larger than that of steel, carbide bars are preferred for large overhangs. The

6
disadvantage of carbide is its poor ability to withstand tensile stress. For carbide-reinforced bars, the
carbide sleeves are prestressed to prevent tensile stresses.
Boring bars can be equipped with ducts for internal cooling, which is preferred for internal turning.
An internal coolant supply provides efficient cooling of the cutting edge, plus better chip breaking and
chip evacuation. In this way a longer tool life is obtained and quality problems, which often arise
because of chip jamming, are avoided.

Mounting a boring bar.

Techniques to reduce chatter:


Chatter is often a problem when using a boring bar. The following are the techniques to reduce it.

Make the set up as rigid as possible by choosing a boring bar that will fit the hole.
Mount the boring bar with the minimum overhang.
If chatter occurs, reduce the spindle speed and increase the feed rate until the chatter ceases.
Dampen the chatter by holding a piece of wood against the boring bar.
Use a boring bar made of carbide. Carbide boring bars, bars are costly, but they chatter less.

Chip Clearance:
Chip clearance is limited when using a boring bar. A continuous chip is a problem because it wraps around
the boring bar, jamming in the bore and ruining the surface finish of the work piece. Try adjusting the feed
rate or modifying the chip breaker to produce a broken chip.

7
It is hard to know when to disengage the feed because the tip of the tool is hidden inside the bore. The
following techniques are useful.

Clamp a stop to the ways of lathe.


Make a small mark on the boring bar to signify the end of its travel, using a black marker or a
pencil.
Position a dial indicator on the ways of the lathe so that the dial reads zero when the carriage feel
must be disengaged.
6. Knurling:
Knurling process involves pushing a form tool against a work piece to form raised ridges. The process
increases the diameter of the work piece. Knurling a worn piston is an example of increasing diameter to
make a part suitable for re-use. Changing the finish appearance of a work piece and providing a gripping
surface are other uses of knurling.

Knurling is usually done at low rpm i.e. 38 rpm.

Types of Knurls:
There are three types of knurling.

1. Diamond Knurling.
2. Straight Knurling.
3. Inclined Knurling.
Diamond Knurl:
A diamond knurl consists of a pattern of small pyramids. A pyramid knurl can be fine, medium or coarse,
depending on the size of pyramids.

Straight Knurl:
A straight knurl consists of series of small ridges that run parallel to the axis of the work piece. Sometimes
a straight knurl is used to raise a bearing surface when a temporary repair s required.

Special Knurling Precautions: (8)

Never stop the carriage while the tool is in contact with the work and the work is still revolving
as this will cause wear rings on the work surface. Check the operation to ensure that the knurling
tool is not forcing the work from the center hole. Keep the work and knurling tool well oiled
during the operation. Never allow a brush or rag to come between the rollers and the work or
the knurl will be ruined.

8
Knurling Tools:
a) A knurling tool consists of a holder with two rollers. Some holders carry the rollers close together
and exert considerable side pressure on the work piece. Other holders carry the rollers at the end
of a pair of arms. The arms are adjusted into the work piece from the above and below.
b) Knurling should be done at a low spindle speed and a high feed rate. As a rule, use a 0.010 inch
feed rate for a fine knurl, 0.020inch for a medium knurl and 0.030 inch for a coarse knurl. Prepare
the work piece for knurling by turning a smooth surface where the knurl is to be made.
c) Mount the knurling tool in the tool post and drive the rollers into the work piece so they leave an
impression. Engage the power feed and start the spindle. Do not allow the rollers to track in the
same spot or the knurl will not form properly. Flood the area with coolant to flush away any five
shavings, as they will mar the surface.
d) When knurling tool works its way to other end of the knurled section, stop the spindle, reverse
the direction of feed, drive the rollers further into the work and start the spindle again. Continue
this process until the pyramids are sufficiently formed. If the knurl does not track correctly, start
it again in a different place.

Knurled work (10)

9
Knurling tool (11)

7. Parting off:
Paring off cuts a work piece from a piece of stock. Parting must be done as close to the chuck as possible
because of the high side pressure on the work piece. Set the parting tool in the tool post and set the
spindle speed. If the tool chatters reduce the spindle speed.

Parting is done at 375 rpm.


The material used for cutting of work piece is HSS.

(4) (7)

Observations:
Material of tool for facing, turning, boring: High speed steel (HSS)

10
Material of drill bit: HSS (Chromium coating)
10 mm drill bit was used in lab.
Material of work piece: Mild steel (MS)
Observations Operation name Speed Depth of Cut
1 Facing 375 rpm 0.5 mm
2 Turning 375 rpm 1 mm
3 Taper turning 375 rpm 0.5 mm
4 Drilling 375 rpm -
5 Knurling 38 rpm -
6 Parting off 0.1,0.2..until part off
Important Points:
While turning, clockwise feed is given to automate lever and carriage moves by pushing it inwards.
Taper turning can be done by using compound slide and its limit is 45 degrees.
Taper turing can also be done by tailstock offset method and the limit of this method is 10 degrees.
For taper turning of larger shafts tailstock offset method and taper attachment method are used.
Drilling tool, boring tool, knurling tool and cutting tool are always centered first.
Knurling is always performed at lowest rpm.
First operation to perform drilling is always center drill operation.

References:
(1) http://www.technologystudent.com/equip1/mlathe6.htm, retrieved 19th September 2017.
(2)https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=turning+operation+on+lathe+machine&source=lnms

&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUsZO51LHWAhVBOxQKHbZsBZcQ_AUIDCgC&biw=1366&bih=
599#imgrc=He38Utbc163hzM:&spf=1505838233673 , retrieved 19th September 2017.
(3) http://www.qhunt.com/2015/10/various-types-of-operations-performed.html, retrieved 19th
September 2017.
(4)https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=parting+off+lathe&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ve
d=0ahUKEwiXlo7ZwrvWAhUDNhoKHbdlAEY4ChD8BQgLKAE&biw=1366&bih=599#imgrc=LJuwiP
CkATJshM:&spf=1506178722619, retrieved 23rd September 2017
(5) http://www.technologystudent.com/equip1/mlathe4.htm, retrieved 23rd September 2017.
(6) http://www.americanmachinist.com/machining-cutting/cutting-tool-applications-chapter-
10-boring-operations-and-machines, retrieved 23rd September 2017.
(7) http://www.sandvik.coromant.com/en-gb/knowledge/parting_grooving/choice-of-
application/parting-off, retrieved 23rd September 2017.
(8) https://smithy.com/machining-handbook/chapter-3/page/25, retrieved 23rd September
2017.
(9) http://engineering.myindialist.com/2009/lathe-operations-boring/#.WcZgGxFrzIU, retrieved
23rd September 2017.

11
(10) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=knurling+operation+on+lathe+machine&tbm=isch&t
bo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi7lY7yjLvWAhXHA8AKHcK6BmcQsAQILw&biw=1366&
bih=599#imgrc=QedUmKBwtrsCtM:&spf=1506175308424, retrieved 23rd September 2017.
(11) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=knurling+operation+on+lathe+machine&tbm=isch
&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi7lY7yjLvWAhXHA8AKHcK6BmcQsAQILw&biw=1366&bih=5
99#imgrc=QedUmKBwtrsCtM:&spf=1506175308416&imgdii=pnnFkYtRYQCIuM, retrieved 23rd
September 2017.

12