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Concept Mapping

Dr. Tapan Dutta


Panskura Banamali College
Please
reset to
silent mode
all the
mobile
phone in
this session

Thank you
Cognition
(Cognitive Learning)
What does this word mean?
How about Recognize or Incognito?
(do these help)
What then is a cognitive view of
learning?
How might this contrast with a
behaviorist perspective?
Consider

Does our knowledge have a unique


structure in our minds, or is it just an
accumulated pile of information?
Changes in Epistemology

1950s Positivism and Logical


Positivism are Dominant
Cumulative progression of knowledge in a
rational and objective way

1960 to 1980s Constructivism and


Realist philosophies emerge
Knowledge as unique to the learner
Theory of Knowledge:

All knowledge is constructed by


human beings.

The process is influenced by:


idiosyncratic differences
I say treeand you visualize a concept of a pine, while
someone else thinks maple
the cultural milieu.
Tree for Easterner is not the same (potentially) as
Tree for someone who lives among cacti
Changes in Psychology

1950s -- Behavioral Psychology


is dominant, especially in USA

1963 -- Ausubels Psychology of


Meaningful Learning published

1980s Cognitive psychology moves to


dominance
David Ausubel (1968):
If I had to reduce all of educational
psychology to just one principle I
would say this:

The most important single factor


influencing learning is what the learner
already knows. Ascertain this and
teach him accordingly.*

* Epigraph, Educational Psychology: A cognitive view


Learning may vary from highly rote to highly meaningful
A Theory of Knowledge

Concept:

A perceived
regularity in events
or objects, or
records of events or
objects, designated
by a label
A Theory of Knowledge

Proposition:

Two or more
concepts combined
to form a statement
about something: a
unit of meaning
A Theory of Knowledge

All knowledge is
built up
from Concepts
and Propositions
A Theory of Knowledge

Concept Maps:

A tool to represent
the structure of
knowledge.

A tool to facilitate
Learning.
Building a Map

Start with a central question


What causes leaves to change color?
List relevant concepts
Sort, add, edit the concepts
Arrange concepts locally according to logical
relationships
Promote hierarchy (I dont follow this as much as I
should)
Use linking words/arrows to create propositions
Promote as many connections (links) as feasible
Concept Map about Concept Maps
New Theory of Learning

Key idea:

Each person must


construct her/his own
meanings for concepts
and propositions from
experiences over time,
building her/his
knowledge structure
Concept map for Paul drawn
from an interview in grade two
Concept map for Paul drawn
from an interview in grade twelve
Learning
Denny, a six year old, is asked to draw a map that shows his understanding of
8 common concepts

Concepts:

Water
Solid
River
Vapor
Steam
Ice
Liquid
Gas
Evaporate

Dennys knowledge does not include a meaning for vapor


Learning

Concepts:

Water
Solid
River
Vapor
Steam
Ice
Liquid
Gas
Evaporate

We can easily teach Denny the meaning of vapor and a new concept,
evaporate, by showing how they relate to his current knowledge.
Expert concept maps can scaffold learning.
Internet and other resources can be attached creating a knowledge model.
Expert Skeleton concept maps
can be prepared to aid study
Sample of concept maps that
might be built using the skeleton
Map made by three year old children
A 4-year old concept mapping relatives
Uses for Concept Maps

What did the Novak article indicate as


possible uses? (lets list some of these)
Cognitive Learning?

How might your own map about a topic


differ from a second graders?
# concepts included
# links
Differing degrees of hierarchy invoked
Let us try to map

Why do leaves turn colors?

What concepts are important here, do you


think? (Ill list them on board). Lets shoot
for 10.

Your group should build a map using our


map construction method.