6 views

Uploaded by ari

- Formula_Sheet.pdf
- Nov_Dec_2014.pdf
- Fem Bits Mid 3 Modiofied
- Unit 2 Invideo Quiz
- THE FINITE STRIP METHOD IN THE ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL RECTANGULAR BENDING BRIDGE PLATES.pdf
- Nmce Theory
- 1-s2.0-0022460X89904902-main
- decanter
- Book1
- ISO 8528-9 1995
- mecbesy
- The fundamental structure
- newmark2dof
- Ijvnv Abubakar
- Vibrations-main
- Geotech Chapter 10 Stress Distribution - Question
- Basic Dyn
- 10-Numerical simulations of fast crack growth in brittle solids.pdf
- EM_93
- FEM Questions

You are on page 1of 17

April 2001

The MechMat project has been carried out with the support of the Commission of

the European Communities under the Leonardo da Vinci programme (contract number

CZ/98/1/82500/PI/I.1.1.b/FPI).

2

Prof. V. Stejskal

Project coordinator

Czech Technical University

Karlovo nam. 13

CZ-12135 Praha

Czech Republic

stejskal@vc.cvut.cz

Prof. P. Dehombreux

Facult Polytechnique de Mons

Belgium

pierre.dehombreux@fpms.ac.be

Prof. A. Eiber

University of Stuttgart

Germany

ae@mechb.uni-stuttgart.de

Prof. R. Gupta

Uppsala University

Sweden

ram.gupta@material.uu.se

Prof. M. Okhroulik

Czech Academy of Sciences

Czech Republic

ok@it.cas.cz

Contents

1.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2 How to use this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.3 Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.4 M ATLAB basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.4.1 Basic calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.4.2 Solving linear algebra problems with M ATLAB . . . . . . . 13

1.4.3 Plotting data in M ATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.4.4 Other useful M ATLAB commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2 Kinematics 16

2.1 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.2 Kinematics of a particle. Rectilinear and curvilinear motion . . . . . 16

2.2.1 Position vector. Velocity vector. Acceleration vector . . . . 16

2.2.2 Average and instantaneous velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.2.3 Average and instantaneous acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.2.4 Absolute frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.2.5 Tangential and normal coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.2.6 Rotation around a fixed point in a plane . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.3 Kinematics of a rigid body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.3.1 Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.3.2 Rotation about a fixed axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.3.3 Particular case: Motion in plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.3.4 General motion in space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.3.5 Rolling without slipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.4 Kinematics of systems of rigid bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.4.1 Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.4.2 Degrees of freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.4.3 Lower pairs and higher pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2.4.4 Kinematics exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

1

CONTENTS 2

3 Statics 61

3.1 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.1.1 Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.1.2 Moment of a force about a point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

3.2 Moment of a force about an axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

3.2.1 Couples of forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

3.2.2 Principle of transmissibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

3.2.3 Force systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

3.2.4 Equivalence of two systems of forces . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

3.2.5 Equilibrium of force systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

3.3 Equilibrium of a particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

3.4 Equilibrium of a rigid body in a plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

3.5 Equilibrium of a rigid body in space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

3.6 Systems of rigid bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

3.7 Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

3.8 Bodies and systems of bodies with friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

3.8.1 Journal bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

3.8.2 Thrust bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

3.8.3 Rolling resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

3.8.4 Belt friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

3.9 Centre of gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

3.10 Internal forces in a body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

3.11 Work and potential energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

3.12 Principle of virtual work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

3.13 Solutions of exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

4 Dynamics 190

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

4.1.1 Issues of applied dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

4.1.2 Modelling of Mechanical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

4.2 Mechanical Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

4.2.1 Elements of Multibody Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

4.2.2 System forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

4.2.3 Kinematical constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

4.3 Mathematical modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

4.3.1 Introduction to mathematical modelling . . . . . . . . . . . 204

4.3.2 Mathematical models and procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

4.3.3 Formulation of governing equations of mechanical systems . 214

4.4 Application of Computational Procedures in Dynamic Analysis (draft

version of the chapter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

4.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

CONTENTS 3

4.4.3 Dynamics of slider-crank mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

5 Vibrations 301

5.1 Introduction to vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

5.2 Harmonic and periodic motions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

5.3 Phase and group velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

5.4 Fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

5.5 Fourier integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

5.6 Discrete Fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

5.7 Deriving governing equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

5.8 Numerical methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

5.8.1 Numerical methods for steady state vibration

problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

5.8.2 Numerical methods for transient problems . . . . . . . . . . 337

5.9 Vibration with 1 DOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

5.9.1 Undamped free linear vibration of a one-degree-of-freedom

system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

5.9.2 Undamped forced linear vibration of

a one-degree-of-freedom system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

5.9.3 Damped linear vibration of a one-degree-of-freedom sys-

tem with a harmonic excitation force . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

5.9.4 Overdamped, critically damped and underdamped linear vi-

brations of a one-degree-of-freedom system . . . . . . . . . 357

5.9.5 A vibrating system attached to a moving support . . . . . . 361

5.9.6 Behaviour of a one-degree-of-freedom linear system at res-

onance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

5.9.7 Vibration with Coulomb friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

5.10 Systems with 2 DOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

5.10.1 Undamped free and forced vibrations of a two-degrees-of-

freedom linear system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

5.10.2 Comparison of analytical and numerical approaches to the

solution of the transient response of a two-degrees-of-freedom

linear system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

5.11 Systems with n DOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

5.11.1 Vibration of a linear system with n degrees of freedom . . . 394

5.12 Continuous systems and their discretizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

5.12.1 Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

5.12.2 Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

Chapter 1

1.1 Objectives

Although the basic concepts and laws of mechanics are known for centuries, radical

changes occurred in techniques of application of these concepts in technical practice

during the last decades. These new, up-to-date approaches, allowing to solve com-

plicated technical problems with strong non-linearities, are efficiently implemented

on powerful computer platforms in forms of widely available commercial software

packages. Both HW and SW resources are easily accessible at universities as well

as in industrial sites.

These changes significantly influence the demands of employers on employ-

ees. Tough competition calls for designers who are able to use computer tools

extensively and efficiently for securing the production and frequent modification of

cheap and reliable products able to survive on the market. Many engineers on the

labour market, however, have finished their studies in times when computers were

not so frequent and methods of computational mechanics were virtually unknown

and thus were not covered by their curricula. This, together with a natural pro-

cess of forgettery, results in insufficiency of skills in training of basic principles of

mechanics in engineering community. The profound idea of liberation of designers

from routine and cumbersome computations leading to their creativity can be hardly

accomplished under the present unfavourable conditions.

The presented electronic learning tool (ELT) is a response to the fact that the

increasing availability of computers in engineering community is not always fully

accompanied by proper knowledge of numerical and programming techniques re-

quired to employ efficiently the principles of mechanics. These, in turn, are needed

for finding the sought-after results concerning the response of a mechanical system

to external loading.

The presented ELT is not a textbook in a traditional sense of the word. Its main

concept is based on new methodology of presentation called "learning by action"

4

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 5

which means that its user (reader, learner) is expected to learn by working out nu-

merous case studies based on real problems of technical practice by himself/herself.

The modern personal computers are fully suited to the purpose. The learner

has an immediate access to reviews of basic principles and to the high-performance

numeric computation and visualisation software at the same time. Moreover, he/she

is supplied by correct numerical solutions of the numerous problem by means of

simple computer procedures.

The ELT is based on very common hardware. Any PC or Unix machine con-

nected to the internet will allow for downloading the text and computer programs.

The local Matlab installation then will permit running and modifying the worked-

out examples. The Matlab version 5.3 was used.

Matlab was used for its wide spread availability and for its ability to deal effi-

ciently with matrix algebra mathematics.

The main aim of the proposed ELT is to increase the horizons of young people

in initial training and to help designers in practice in their lifelong training to master

the basic principles of computational mechanics and their application to the practi-

cal engineering problems. This will facilitate the starts of their professional careers

and will improve their position on the labour market.

The specific objective of the ELT is to improve the knowledge and skills level

of the mechanical and civil engineering university students and practising engineers

in one of the most important basic subject of engineering which is the science of

mechanics. This knowledge and skills can be used in nearly all branches of industry.

The international co-operation in the preparation of the project secures that the

choice of practical problems to solve meets the demands of numerous engineers.

The common experience of university teachers of mechanics from different Euro-

pean countries contributes to the European level of knowledge in this particular

field.

The following impact on training is expected:

selves

their everyday problems.

It has been said that this document is not a textbook in the traditional sense at all.

It is designed to supplement standard texts and to assist students of engineering

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 6

be very difficult subject. The autors are convicted that numerous solved problems

is the best way for belief that student knows the principles and he is able to apply

them when solving problems taken from technical practice. This, of course, leads

to self-confidence.

The material presented here corresponds to standard introductory mechanics

courses but does not match any particular textbook. So any standard textbook of

mechanics (see references) can be used. Each chapter, however, begins with def-

initions, statements, principles, and theorems without pretence to be complete. A

glossary of common terms was included at the end of the text for students conve-

nience.

One of the main aims of the text is not to finish solution of problems by writting

down equations of equilibrium, equations of motion or kinematic equations without

solving them. At the end of engineering solution should stand a number. Very

often the numerical result proofs validity of the solution. But numerous of practical

problems are not so simple to allow for analytical solution. So a tool for numerical

computation is needed. The autors select M ATLAB for the purpose. The reason is

its versatility, easy use, and good graphical capabilities. Last but not least M ATLAB

is in common use within nearly all universities.

The text is designed for students who study or have studied mechanics to help

them to master the subject. The standard use is to study material displayed and

to try solve examples presented by oneself. In case of difficulties the solution can

be consult. There are M ATLAB m-files ready and by playing with constants and

modifying programs student is able to discover the base of the problem. Using

Windows capabilities it is convenient to open a window of text and another window

for M ATLAB simultaneously. Commnets in m-files can be very helpful.

The autors hope that solved problems help the students to illustrate the theory,

present methods of solution and enable them to apply the basic principles of me-

chanics correctly and confidently.

1.3 Modelling

The phenomena of nature are inherently complex and it is impossible to consider

their every detail when trying to describe, formulate and predict their future be-

haviour or occurrence. Always certain simplifications have to be accepted. The

idea behind modelling is to neglect what seems to have a negligible or small influ-

ence on what is to be grasped. Accepting simplifying assumptions, however, leads

to limited validity of models.

Engineering modelling is well defined within the scope of Newtonian physics

that admits the notion of inertial frame of reference and the notion of absolute time

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 7

independent of space.

The Newtonian description is unchanged under a Galileo transformation which

is a mathematical device relating a single phenomenon recorded by two observers

whose frame of reference differ by virtue of their travelling at different uniform ve-

locities. According to Newtons concept, while the position of two observers differ

by virtue of their relative motion, both have an identical perception of time, which

does not depend on the frame of their reference. Newtonian mechanics provides

a vital tool, which still perfectly works in all manners of ways from the motion

of billiard balls or galaxy formation. The Newtonian concept is deterministic. If

positions, velocities and masses of various bodies are given at one time, then their

positions, velocities and accelerations are mathematically determined for all later

times. And for earlier as well.

Mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the analysis of behaviour of

objects under the action of forces. Historically the subject dealt with rigid bodies

only, since then it is extended and applied to problems of solid and fluid continuum.

In the latter scope it is sometimes called classical mechanics as a contrast to quan-

tum mechanics. Continuum mechanics is concerned with formulation of equations

describing the motion and mechanical and thermal behavior of matter and with the

solution of these equations for prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Usually

solid and fluid continua are being distinguished and treated by somewhat different

approaches. In the text we will devote our attention to solid mechanics.

Very often mechanical structure can be modelled by a systems having finite

number of degrees of freedom. In such a case we talk about discrete mechanical

models.

Bodies we are dealing with could be considered rigid or deformable. Rigid body,

within the scope of solid continuum, is a model characterized by infinite stiffness

of matter. By definition a rigid body perfectly resists deformation due to the action

of forces, as such it cannot be deformed.

Deformable body is a body (mechanical system, structure) which deforms under

the action of an applied force. Within the scope of solid continuum it is a model

characterized by a proper constitutive relation between force and displacement, and

stress and strain.

Very often we simplify the modelling process by accepting assumptions of lin-

earity. If all basic components of a system behave linearly, the response of the

system is known as linear. This means that there is a linear relation between dis-

placements and forces, velocities and damping forces, etc. Linear systems are based

on assumptions of small strains and small displacements. Equations of equilibrium

are written for an undeformed configuration of the structure and the principle of

superposition can safely be used. The resulting system of differential equations is

of linear nature as well. On the other hand if any of the basic components behave

nonlinearly, the system is nonlinear.

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 8

Setting the mechanical model. The most engineering systems are complex, it

is impossible to consider every detail of them and so certain simplifications have to

be accepted. Model can be viewed as an idealization of a real or conceived machine

or structure obtained by accepting certain simplifying assumptions. We accept the

validity of Newtonian mechanics as far as the inertia frames of references are con-

cerned and thus do not deal with principles of relativity. We accept the assumptions

upon which the continuum mechanics is based, i.e., that the matter, when divided

into infinitesimal elements, has always the same mechanical properties that are in-

dependent of their size - by other words we do not deal with molecular and atomic

structure of the matter. Considered bodies or structures could be smooth or rough,

material properties could be taken as homogeneous or non-homogeneous, isotropic

or unisotropic, linear or non-linear, constraints and loading could be simplified, etc.

Very often it is expedient to model a part of the structure under consideration as

fully rigid and to neglect inertia effects of flexible parts. All together, it is a tricky

procedure and what is adequate for one purpose may not be adequate for other pur-

poses.

Derivation of governing equations. Once the mechanical model is established

we use principles of mechanics and derive the equations of motion or the equations

of equilibrium. Many approaches are commonly used - among them are free body

diagrams using the balance of forces including the inertial ones, energy balance

principles and others.

Solution of governing equations. Depending on the nature of the problem we

can use analytical methods (Fourier series, integral transforms, etc) or numerical

methods (boundary element method, finite element method, etc.)

Interpretation of results. Results must be carefully interpreted with a clear

view of physical significance and compliance with assumed simplifications. All the

mentioned steps depend essentially on the experience and judgement of the person

analyzing the problem.

In this text the modelling in mechanics is treated by distinct chapters devoted to

statics, kinematics, dynamics and vibration, with a special emphasis to numerical

treatment of numerous examples and on the discussion of results.

Statics is branch of mechanics dealing with analysis of behaviour (usually in

terms of displacements, strains, stresses and forces) of bodies (mechanical systems,

structures) while neglecting inertia effects. It is based on equilibrium conditions,

time plays no role in the analysis.

Kinematics is concerned with study of motion of bodies (mechanical systems,

structures) without regard to the forces causing the motion.

Dynamics is a branch of mechanics where due emphasis is paid to inertial ef-

fects as opposed to statics where such effects are ignored.

Vibration is a subset of dynamics of rigid and deformable bodies dedicated to

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 9

the worked-out examples in the above-mentioned chapters. Matlab is a tool that

efficiently deals with matrix algebra mathematics and has a very high level of pro-

gramming primitives. As such it is almost predestined to be a good teaching tool

for learning how to implement mechanical and numerical principles needed for the

solution of a wide class of mechanical problems in engineering.

M ATLAB is a commercial interpreter devoted to numerical matrix algebra comput-

ing and graphical representation. This section summarizes some basic commands

showing how the exercises can be solved using the software. The reader is assumed

to already have some knowledge of M ATLAB . A prior reading of the Getting started

with M ATLAB handbook ([2]) is therefore recommended.

One can perform the following elementary operations simply introducing the cor- + * - /

responding commands after the > sign. The complex numbers can be used without

restriction:

> 2*4+2

ans =

10

> (2+sqrt(-1))^2

ans =

3.0000 + 4.0000i

In M ATLAB , the variables do not need a prior declaration. Their names may variables

be of any length, using most most printable characters and are case-sensitive. If

the semicolon terminates a command, no output is produced in the active M ATLAB

window.

> rayon = 1e-1;

> surface = pi * rayon * rayon

surface =

0.0314

Matrices are defined using square brackets [ and ]. In each row, the ele-

ments are distinguished using commas , or spaces and the rows are distinguished

using semicolons ;. To address matrix elements, one has to specify them in paren-

theses ( and )by means indices. vectors

matrices

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 10

MAT =

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 10

> MAT(3,3) = 17

MAT =

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 17

> vec = [10; 0; 1000]

vec =

10

0

1000

row-vectors (1-by-m matrices).

The colon : can either be used to define ranges or, alternatively, to generate a

series of numbers. In parentheses, the colon : refers to all elements included in a

row (column) of a matrix.

> t = 1:5

t =

1 2 3 4 5

> lin = MAT(1,:)

lin =

1 2 3

> col = MAT(:,1)

col =

1

4

7

> 1:0.3:2

ans =

1 1.3000 1.6000 1.9000

Many problems may arise from a possible confusion between row-vectors and

column-vectors. With M ATLAB , it is quite natural to generate row-column vectors

(t=1:5). A straight method to be sure that a vector is of a column is to use the :

operator:

> tt = t(:)

tt =

1

2

3

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 11

A. unconjugated transpose of A

conj(A) conjugate of A

Table 1.1: Conjugated and transposed matrices

4

5

> sum = vec - 2*col

sum =

8

-8

986

> lin * col

ans =

30

> product = MAT * vec

product =

3010

6040

17070

element if the related operator (product * for example) is preceded by a dot ..

. element-by-

> MAT.*MAT element

ans = operations

1 4 9

16 25 36

49 64 289

Transpose

One can transpose a real matrix (or vector) using the apostrophe . As shown Conjugate

in Table 1.1, if the matrix (or vector) is complex, one has to use the dot-apostrophe

operator . to simply transpose it; in that case, the sole apostrophe provides the

conjugated transpose.

It is quite easy to call and work with a function but it needs the prior definition of

a text file which name is identical to the name of the function and which extension

is .m. Any text editor can be used for this purpose. For example, the file myfunc.m

will include the following operations:

function [result] = myfunc (x)

x3 = x*x*x;

result = x3 + sin(x) - 2;

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 12

The functions define within themselves local variables that can not be reached out-

side this context. The local variables do not exist outside the scope of their defini-

tion.

Any function can be directly used from the directory wherein it has been saved

(use the pathtool command to browse, define or edit the current path).

> myfunc(1,-2)

ans =

-2.1585

> x3

x3 = Result is undefined

A function defines inputs and outputs that may vary in number and type (real,

scalar, matrix, other function, ...).

The logical variables are either 1 (true) or 0 (false). One can carry out compar- logical

isons between scalars using the following operators: >, >=, <, <=, == (equality), ~= operations

(non equality). The logical and and or operations are defined by the & and

| operators, respectively.

M ATLAB supports test structures like : if then

else

x=input(Value);

if x > 5

x greater than 5

else

if x == 5

x equals 5

else

x is less than 5

end

end

x = 1:5

for i = 2:4

x.^i

end

% Comment: gives second, third and fourth powers for x evolving from 1 to 5

i=2;

while i<5

x.^i

i=i+1;

end

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 13

The solution of a classical linear system of equations A:x = b can be easily ob- Linear

tained using the \ operator that should not be confused with the / division systems

operator.

> x = MAT \ vector

x =

993.33

-2006.7

1010

Ax Bx

The eigenvalue problem : = : is solved using the function eig(A,B) Eigenvalues

that produces two outputs: val for the eigenvalues and vec, for the eigenvectors

x :

> [vec,val] = eig (A,B);

As long as the eigenvalues are not sorted by the eig function, one has to use the

sort function to do so, if necessary.

A polynomial ak xk + : : : + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 is defined by the row vector of its Polynomial

coefficients [ak ; : : : ; a2 ; a1 ; a0 ]. The polyval function evaluates this polynomial for

a given argument.

> pol=[1,2,3,4]

pol =

1 2 3 4

> polyval(pol,-1)

ans =

2

The roots of a polynomial are computed using the roots function that takes Polynomial

the coefficients of that polynomial as input. One can therefore find the roots of roots

x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 4 computing:

> pol=[1,2,3,4]

pol =

1 2 3 4

> roots(pol)

ans =

-1.6506+ 0.0000j

-0.1747+ 1.5469j

-0.1747- 1.5469j

If one wants to fit a set of values y (x) in a least-square sense, the polyfit polynomial

function can be used to determine the coefficients of that optimal polynomial. For regression

example, to establish the best straight line through the coordinates (1,10), (3,18)

and (10,37), one has to compute:

CHAPTER 1. THE MECHMAT PROJECT 14

> y=[10 18 37];

> polyfit(x,y,1)

ans =

2.92537 8.01493

To find the zeros of a nonlinear function, the nonstandard rroots function can zero of a

be used : function

> racines=rroots(myfunc,-1,10,100,1e-6)

> racines =

1.0434

The rroots function works with the following input arguments: the name of

the studied function, the lower and upper bounds for the zeros to be determined, the

number of sub-intervals for the bisection algorithm to be applied and the tolerance

related to the function residue(see the rroots.m file for details).

The numerical integration of the equations of motion Newmark

integration

matrices, and submitted to the generalized forces F can be performed using the

newmark and defphy functions. See mckf*.m files for examples.

plot

M ATLAB provides a wide library of visualization functions to work with line and

surface plots, histograms, 3D objects with shading and animation. One can refer to

[1] for a detailed description of the available features.

We recall that the plot(x,y) command produces a classical y vs. x graph. An

example is provided here under. The result is shown in Figure 1.1

x=(-5:0.1:5);

plot(x,sin(x)./(x.*x+1));

xlabel (X axis)

ylabel (Y axis)

grid on

title (A plot with MATLAB)

M ATLAB commands who and whos list the existing variables. The clear command who

clears all variables. close all closes all the active figure windows. whos

clear

BIBLIOGRAPHY 15

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

Y axis 0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

X axis

Bibliography

[1] Using MATLAB Graphics. The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA, 1996.

[2] Getting Started with MATLAB. The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA, 1997.

Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA, 1996.

- Formula_Sheet.pdfUploaded by蒲俊雄
- Nov_Dec_2014.pdfUploaded byumesh
- Fem Bits Mid 3 ModiofiedUploaded byallakagopichand
- Unit 2 Invideo QuizUploaded byCesar Renteria
- THE FINITE STRIP METHOD IN THE ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL RECTANGULAR BENDING BRIDGE PLATES.pdfUploaded byAravind Bhashyam
- Nmce TheoryUploaded byRohit Pandey
- 1-s2.0-0022460X89904902-mainUploaded byMonaGoyal
- decanterUploaded byali25199
- Book1Uploaded bybhatmusaib
- ISO 8528-9 1995Uploaded byGeorge Ponparau
- mecbesyUploaded byAnupam Kulkarni
- The fundamental structureUploaded byDhrubajyoti deb
- newmark2dofUploaded byFunda Yenersu
- Ijvnv AbubakarUploaded byLuis Morales
- Vibrations-mainUploaded byVinayak Rao
- Geotech Chapter 10 Stress Distribution - QuestionUploaded bygautam
- Basic DynUploaded byparagbhole
- 10-Numerical simulations of fast crack growth in brittle solids.pdfUploaded bymichael.cretzu
- EM_93Uploaded byChad Hunt
- FEM QuestionsUploaded bySudhakarreddy Badireddy
- prob60Uploaded byJorge Gustavo Hilgenberg
- Bridge Design (Wally) S=40 R=126.3Uploaded by3ces
- VFD Pump MultiChannelCaseIVUploaded bypadminitt
- Continuum MechancsUploaded byMahmoud Hefny
- CivilUploaded byPeter D.
- 465-469Uploaded byPawan Chaturvedi
- Undergraduate Team Space Systems 2018 2019Uploaded bykhat
- Modern Methods in the Study of Beam VibrationsUploaded byjanani2004
- Chapter 1.pdfUploaded bymarinamovia
- Example 09Uploaded byIhab El Aghoury

- An Improved Intelligent Water Drops Algorithm for Achieving Optimal Job Shop Scheduling SolutionsUploaded byari
- Nature and Scope of EthicsUploaded bySreekanth Reddy
- maintence and safety.pdfUploaded byari
- 1-s2.0-S1026309811001246-mainUploaded byari
- HW1 SolutionUploaded byblakk archimedes
- qUploaded byari
- Advanced IWDUploaded byari
- maintence and safety.pdfUploaded byari
- 563060 Fundamentals of Automation TechnologyUploaded byoak2147
- Matlab TutorialUploaded byPinaki Mishra
- e ChapterUploaded byNewsBharati
- 0B5FicWBLFEbBSktqODBSWTNkWVkUploaded byRam Pal
- FMS AGV.pptUploaded byari
- ENER Handbook EnUploaded byMarija Bojkovic

- Lecture 32 Plane Strain Indtn Bound TheoremsUploaded byprasanna
- Interaction Diagram for Columns pUploaded byeph
- C-A Coulomb BmatterUploaded bySç-č Ababii
- Thin & Thick CylindersUploaded byhassan
- IS 1786 2008 - TMT barUploaded byananda_beloshe75
- Static Pushover Analysis Based on an Energy-Equivalent SDOF SystemUploaded byAna Miranda
- Behavior and Strength of Slab Edge Beam Column Connections Under Shear Force and MomentUploaded byCarlos Ivan Troncoso Ortega
- 1978 a Machine for Static and Dynamic Triaxial TestingUploaded bySurapaneni Praneetha
- Basha Soil Structure Interaction IntroductionUploaded byJithin Payyanur
- Strength of MaterialsUploaded byTanmay India
- EG-120Uploaded byMikey Haken
- Playbook Flexible PkgUploaded byMl Agarwal
- Stress Versus StrainUploaded byGopala Rao
- concrete elasticidad.pdfUploaded byJules Ag
- Abaqus_Local buckling.pdfUploaded bySakis
- sol700_ugUploaded byHrishikesh Phadke
- lecture_notes_understanding fundamentals.pdfUploaded byjosej
- The effect of surface texturing in soft elasto-hydrodynamic lubricationUploaded bysaateh
- Fatigue 2014.1 Doc TheoryUploaded byOlli1974
- Strength_Of_Materials_parts_IandII-Timoshenko.pdfUploaded bySaurabh Gaikwad
- JNTUH M.tech Aerospace Engg Course Structure and Syllabus 19Uploaded byJaipal Reddy Puli
- Numerical Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier under earthquackUploaded byrwaidaabbas
- Heat TreatmentUploaded bySyed Abudhakir
- 105108070Uploaded byRon Jacob
- Sokolnikoff Theory of ElasticityUploaded byAdam Taylor
- Tensor AlgebraUploaded byAnna Robertson
- Indentation of Metals by a Flat-Ended Cylindrical PunchUploaded bySIU KAI WING
- mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardnerUploaded bypurijatin
- SlipUploaded byCharles Odada
- Generalized Hookes LawUploaded byBerkay Çetin