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MANUEL L.

QUEZON UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY ON COCONUT SHELL AND EGGSHELL AS A


PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF AGGREGATES TO ACHIEVE THE
ACCEPTABLE STRENGTH OF STRUCTURES

RESEARCHERS:
ANGELO, RHENZEL M.
MENDOZA, ZENETH R.
TANATO, GARY R.

INSTRUCTOR:
MR. JARON E. AGUSTIN
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................... 2
The Problem and Its Setting..................................................................................................... 2
1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Objectives........................................................................................................................... 4
1.3 Statement of the problem ............................................................................................... 4
1.4 Significance of the study................................................................................................ 5
1.5 Scope and Delimitations ................................................................................................ 9
1.6 Definition of terms.......................................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER II ................................................................................................................................. 12
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ................................................................................... 12
2.1 Eggshell ............................................................................................................................ 12
2.2 Coconut shell .................................................................................................................. 15
CHAPTER III ................................................................................................................................ 23
Summary and Recommendations ........................................................................................ 23
3.1 Summary........................................................................................................................... 23
3.2 Recommendations ......................................................................................................... 24

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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

1.1 Introduction
The current human population worldwide is approximately 7 400 000 000.

Due to this rapid population growth, there is also a rapid increase in the

development of infrastructures and construction activities both in developing and

developed countries. It created a high demand for the production and consumption

of construction materials across the globe. The worlds most used construction

material, Concrete, is a manmade composite which consists of ingredients such

as aggregate, cement, and water and admixtures. It is used world-wide as a

building material twice as much as all other building materials combined. Also,

second most consumed substance in the world-behind water. About 7.23 billion

tons of concrete is produced every year. Annual production represents one ton for

every person on the planet. Hence, it has been labeled as the backbone to the

infrastructure development of a nation. (EcoSmart Concrete.com).

This huge demand and production raises a serious question about the

preservation for sustainable development. Today, the concrete industry is not

sustainable. The rising cost of conventional construction materials is a dominating

factor of great concern affecting construction industry around the world. The

reason for the increase in cost is the high demand of concrete, scarcity of raw

material and high price of energy which is now a global concern. Currently, the

construction industry is in search of suitable, effective, economical, sustainable

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and environment friendly alternative constituents of natural resources for

conventional concrete. This has necessitated engineers and researchers for an

extensive research and development works towards new ingredients or alternative

materials for the production of concrete. In view of this challenge, there were many

experimental works conducted to improve the properties of concrete by partially or

fully replacing it with new materials, whether natural materials, recycled materials

or synthetic materials in the concrete mix. The additional material can replace the

aggregate, cement or just be an additive.

Recently, an increasing attraction has been paid by several researchers to

use the waste materials in concrete according to their properties. At the same time

due to rapid industrialization and fast population growth, production of waste

material is increasing accordingly. Its disposal has become a real problem.

Solution is either to minimize the waste at production level or to utilize it. One

material is coconut shell which can be used in concrete making by partially

replacing aggregate which is a very important component in concrete. Another is

calcium rich egg shell, a poultry waste with chemical composition nearly same as

that of limestone. Determining the use of these wastes: Coconut Shell and eggshell

powder as potential partial replacements for aggregates in the production of one

of the applications of concrete which is concrete hollow block is the aim of this

study.

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1.2 Objectives
1. Determine the best design of the combination of coconut shells and eggshells

as aggregates as partial replacement in concrete hollow block.

2. Analyze the performance and the effectiveness of the Coconut shells and

eggshells as partial replacement for aggregates in concrete hollow blocks in

terms of physical properties like color, texture and size.

3. Analyze the performance and the effectiveness of the Coconut shells and

eggshells as partial replacement for aggregates in concrete hollow blocks in

terms of mechanical property compressive strength.

1.3 Statement of the problem


1.3.1. What is the best mix design for experimental coconut shell-eggshell

concrete hollow block that will meet the standards of a conventional

concrete hollow block?

1.3.2. What is the difference between the experimental CHB and conventional

CHB in terms of physical properties?

a. Color

b. Texture

c. Size

1.3.3. What is the difference between the experimental CHB and conventional

CHB in terms of the mechanical property which is compressive strength?

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1.4 Significance of the study
1.4.1. Environmental significance

A. Conservation of Natural Resources

The amounts of resources on the earths surface are finite; and the

more we extract these resources, the less we leave for ourselves, and for

the future generation. If we continue to waste our resources, there might

come a time that they will all be used up and we will be left with nothing.

Making new products out of recycled materials reduces the need for the raw

materials to be exploited. This means that recycling helps to protect and

preserve raw materials and natural habitats for future generations.

B. Preservation of Energy.

Utilization of recycled materials in the manufacturing process uses

considerably less energy than what is required in producing new products

from raw materials. This is because when products are made from raw

materials, energy is not only expended in the production process. Energy is

also required in the extraction of the virgin materials from the earth and the

transportation of these virgin materials to the manufacturing plants.

Whereas for production using recycled materials, the raw materials are

already available and the recyclables merely are needed to be broken down

into their basic components for use in manufacturing.

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C. Reduction of Pollution

Because manufacturers can reuse materials instead of creating new

ones which is more energy efficient, Recycling helps minimize pollution.

One way we can minimize pollution is through recycling and reusing

garbage. When people burn garbage, this can harm the ozone layer and

produce harmful gases which can lead to respiratory diseases like cough

and asthma, among others. When garbage is thrown in the ocean, it could

kill and affect marine resources and coral reefs. Thats why every time we

reduce waste, reuse, and recycle our garbage, we get to save the earth and

even millions of lives from the harmful effects of pollution.

D. Decrease in the size of Garbage Landfills

Existing landfill sites are filling up fast and there is a very limited

space for new ones. Landfill sites are taxed and there are penalties for

exceeding limits of disposal at one time in many regions. Such costs are

passed onto the taxpayer. Recycling minimizes these additional landfill

costs to a great extent. Also, by utilizing waste products in a constructive

way, we can slowly decrease the size of our landfills. As the population

grows, it will become difficult for the landfills to hold so much and trash.

Recycling reduces the amount of waste sent to landfills and incinerators

with less waste. There would also be less need for landfills and incinerators.

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Subsequently, acres and acres of landfill space can be saved, and be

diverted for other uses.

E. Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emission

In landfall sites, when the non-biodegradable products in our waste

are burned, they often emit gases that deplete the ozone layer in the

atmosphere, which in turn allows more ultraviolet radiation to reach our

living atmosphere, giving rise to global warming and rising sea levels. Also

these wastes are slow to decompose and remain in landfill sites for

centuries, often emitting gases that could be harmful to the environment.

Wastes in landfills emit gases as it rots. This can pollute the environment.

1.4.2. Economic significance

A. Employment Generation

When communities invest in efforts to recycle garbage and other

waste materials, people are given the chance to work and earn money.

From collecting garbage, segregating, transporting, to recycling them into

useable products, people are given the opportunity to help save the

environment and at the same time earn money for a living. The manpower

involved in the logistics and processing of waste is considerable providing

jobs and aid in welfare of the people. Unlike jobs in waste disposal, jobs in

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the recycling industry add value to the materials; as such contribute to a

growing labor force of skilled workers, such as material sorters, dispatchers,

truck drivers, sales representatives, process engineers and even chemists.

Many of these jobs pay more than the average national wage and many are

in urban areas where jobs are desperately needed. Certainly, one of the

major benefits of recycling is that it creates more jobs in the community and

provides stability to the entire process. Also, statistics show that for every 1

job in waste management there are 4 jobs in the recycling industry.

B. Economic Stability

Other than making money by selling recyclable materials and

providing jobs, there is definitely a market for recyclable materials and the

returns on investments in the recycling industry can be quite high.

(http://www.all-recycling-facts.com/recycling-benefits.html) Increased

collection of materials attracts businesses that are interested in processing

or using the materials. Recycling manufacturers compete in a high-pressure

global economy. It creates new businesses such as for transporting,

processing and selling recovered materials as well as companies that

manufacture and distribute products made with recycled materials. Indeed,

the recycling business sector is growing and developing into an extremely

promising industry. As a sunrise industry, it certainly has a lot of potential

for flourishing and generating jobs and revenues worth millions.

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1.4.3. Educational significance

A. To Civil Engineering Students

It will provide the students a better understanding and application

of the properties, importance, laboratory procedures and composition of

concrete.

B. To Civil Engineering Instructors

It will improve and update the laboratory experiments conducted in

the subject Construction Materials and Testing involving concrete.

C. To Future Researchers

It will serve as a reference and guide for a research about

concrete composition. This study is also open for further research and

development.

1.5 Scope and Delimitations


This research is limited to application of concrete in a form of Concrete

Hollow Block. This investigation was conducted to propose an alternative way to

produce concrete hollow block which is through the utilization of waste materials

limited to coconut shell and eggshells and water. The experimental procedures

involved are limited to locally available instruments and machines only.

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1.6 Definition of terms
1. CONCRETE- A composite material which consists essentially of a binding

medium, within which are embedded particles or fragments of a relative

inert filler in Portland cement concrete, the binder is a mixture of Portland

cement and water; the filler may be any of a wide variety of natural or

artificial, fine and coarse aggregates; and in some instances, an

admixture. ( Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete

making materials Lamond, Pielert 2006 )

2. AGGREGATES - Minerals such as sand, gravel, and crushed stone.

Divided into two sizes - fine & coarse, when added to cement and water

produces concrete. Sand is considered a fine aggregate and stone or gravel

a coarse aggregate. (www.engineering-dictionary.org)

3. CEMENT- binding material used in construction and engineering, often

called hydraulic cement, typically made by heating a mixture of limestone

and clay until it almost fuses and then grinding it to a fine powder.

(encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com)

4. COCONUT SHELL-the hard outer covering of coconut obtained by

removing coconut milk from it. (www.wikipedia.org)

5. EGGSHELL- the hard porous protective outer layer of a bird's egg,

consisting of calcite and protein. (www.collinsdictionary.com)

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6. LIMESTONE- a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium

carbonate or dolomite, used as building material and in the making of

cement. (www.memidex.com)

7. ADMIXTURES- A material other than water, aggregates, or cement that is

used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar to control setting and early

hardening, workability, or to provide additional cementing properties.

(www.aboutcivil.org)

8. WASTE HIERARCHY- The evaluation of processes that protect the

environment alongside resource and energy consumption to most favorable

to least favorable actions. (www.wikipedia.org)

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 Eggshell
Calcium rich egg shell is a poultry waste with chemical composition nearly

same as that of limestone. Use of eggshell waste instead of natural lime to replace

cement in concrete can have benefits; eggshell waste can be used as fertilizer,

animal feed ingredients and other such uses. However, majority of the eggshell

waste is deposited as landfills. Eggshell waste in landfills attracts vermin due to

attached membrane and causes problems associated with human health and

environment. Few investigations were conducted to use eggshell waste in civil

engineering applications. Yerramala (2014)

Amu et al., (2005) carried out the practical experiment and reported that

Egg Shell Powder (ESP) can be used as a supplement for industrial lime

on an expansive clay soil and also reported that the combination can be

used where high subgrade performance is not necessary. Freire and Holanda

(2006) also conducted a study on egg shell waste and found out its use in a

ceramic wall tile paste. Based on the presence of CaCO in egg shell it can

be used as an alternative raw material in the production of wall tile materials.

They also found that egg shell can be used as an excellent alternative for

material reuse and waste recycling practices.

Lau yih bling (2010) researched on egg albumen and reported that

foamed concrete were prepared by egg albumen which has reduce the cost

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and time of project. 1 percent and 5 percent egg albumen were used. From the

investigation it is concluded that 5 percent of Egg Albumen Foamed Concrete

(EAFC) consists of unstable compressive strength and higher flexural strength

with increased density when compared with control foamed concrete which

was 64 percent and 35 percent. In this study it is proved that Egg Albumen

Foamed Concrete (EAFC) can produce light weight concrete which is more

environment friendly and improved properties.

Mtallib and Rabiu (2009) also made a research study on properties of eggshell

as an admixture in concrete. They conducted consistency test on eggshell powder.

It was observed that higher the contents of it in the cement, the faster the setting

of cement. The decreased setting time of Portland cement is due to addition of

eggshell as an accelerator.

Okonkwo et al., (2012) have concluded in his research that eggshell ash can

be used as an alternate for cement which resulted in higher compressive strength

on lateritic soil. Ultimately they found that soil-cement egg shell mixture can be

used for road pavements.

In an experiment conducted by Arash Barazesh et al., (2012) the effect of

eggshell powder on plasticity index in clay and expansive soils and reported that

plasticity index of the soil can be improved by adding egg shell wastes with the

clay soil and can be used in construction projects including earth canals and earth

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dams. Apart from these studies, no other investigations were found in literature to

use eggshells in civil engineering applications.

An experimental investigation was carried out to study the effects of fly ash

on strength development of mortar and the optimum use of fly ash in mortar. The

optimum fly ash content was observed to be 40% of cement. 40% fly ash

replacement mortar showed 14% higher compressive strength than OPC mortar

after 90 days curing. The corresponding increase in tensile strength was reported

to be around 8%. Moinul and Saiful (2010)

Jayasankar et al (2010) also conducted an experimental study on properties

of concrete by substituting rice husk ash, fly ash and eggshell powder to cement

in concrete. M20, M25 and M30 mix design was used with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%

variation of eggshell powder, rice husk ash and fly ash to cement and also in the

combination of ESP +fly ash, ESP + RHA, fly ash + RHA, fly ash + RHA + ESP. It

was observed that M20 and M25 cubes was taking equal load compared to

conventional concrete but M30 grade concrete's load carrying capacity was slightly

decreased. Therefore they concluded that RHA, ESP and flyash mixed cubes

when added with grades above M25 may results in the decreased strength level.

A comparative study on effects of concrete properties by partially replacing

ordinary Portland cement of varying grades by fly ash was carried out by Marthong

and Agrawal (2012). It was also observed that at the age of 90 days the rate of

strength gain for 33, 43 and 53 grades concrete was increased and had been

maximize up to 20% fly ash replacement. They concluded that influence of fly ash

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on shrinkage was negligible. Increase in normal consistency with increase in fly

ash content was observed. Setting time and soundness were decreased with the

increase in grade of cement.

In the same study carried out by Sathanantham et al (2014), properties of

M25 concrete by replacing fine aggregate partially by rice husk ash and eggshell

powder. The maximum strength was observed at 20% for compressive, split tensile

and flexural strength.

2.2 Coconut shell


Considered the most useful tree in the world, the coconut provides food, drink,

clothing, shelter and financial security. Hardly an inch of the coconut palm goes to

waste in countries such as the Philippines where families rely on the coconut palm

for survival and refer to it as the "tree of life." Coconuts show a wide diversity in

size, weight, shape and color, depending on genetic variety and maturity of the nut

at harvest (Ohler, 1999).

Olanipekun et al., (2006) Investigated the comparative cost analysis and

strength characteristics of concrete produced using crushed, granular coconut and

Palm kernel shell as substitutes for conventional coarse aggregate. It was

concluded that the coconut shell were suitable as low strength-giving lightweight

aggregate when used to replace common coarse aggregate in concrete

production.

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Yerramala (2012) in his experimental study shows that coarse aggregate

was partially replaced by coconut shell and fly ash. Percentages of

replacement by coconut shell were 10%, 15%, 20% and percentages of

coconut shell replacement by fly ash were 5%, 25%. He concluded in his

study that workability decreased with increase in CS replacement.

Compressive and split tensile strengths of CS concretes were lower than control

concrete.

Ganiron Jr (2013) used coconut shells and fibre as substitute for

aggregates in developing concrete hollow block. The study was carried out

for various percentage of coconut shell content as partial replacement of

conventional aggregate. Results showed that replacement of appropriate

coconut shell content produces workable concrete with satisfactory strength.

Integration of coconut shell enhanced the strength of concrete .

Ahlawat & Kalurkar (2014) explored the possibility of producing M20

grade of concrete by replacing conventional aggregate of granite by coconut

shell. Forty five cubes were casted. Percentage of replacement of conventional

coarse aggregate by coconut shell were 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%. Compressive

strength were 19.71, 19.53, 19.08, 18.91 N/mm2 respectively at 28 days.

Workability and compressive strength had been evaluated at 7, 14 and 28

days. The compressive strength of concrete reduced as the percentage

replacement increased. By these results, it can be concluded that coconut

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shell concrete can be used in reinforced concrete construction. Author

concluded that its utilization is cost effective and eco-friendly.

Limited studies have been utilized by different researchers. From the research

works reviewed above, we can understand that coconut shells can be successively

used as a substitute for aggregates in concrete and eggshell to cement as well.

We focused our study on finding out the optimum range of replacement of these

waste materials based on their properties.

Tukiman and Mohd (2009) replaced the coarse aggregate by coconut shell

and grained palm kernel in their study. Percentage of replacement by coconut shell

were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusion is that the

combination of these materials has potential of being used as lightweight

aggregate in concrete and also has reduce the material cost in construction.

On the other hand, Olutoge (2010) studied the saw dust and palm kernel

shells (PKS). Fine aggregates are replaced by saw dust and coarse aggregates

by palm kernel shells in reinforced concrete slabs casting. Conventional

aggregates were replaced by saw dust and PKS in same ratios of 0%, 25%,

50%,75% and 100%. Compressive and flexural strengths were noted at different

time intervals. It was seen that at 25% sawdust and PKS can produce lightweight

reinforced concrete slabs that can be used where low stress is required at reduced

cost. 7.43% reduction can be achieved in terms of cost for every cubic meter of

slab production with use of sawdust/PKS.

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In an observation by Ries (2011) lightweight aggregate plays important role

in todays move towards sustainable concrete. Lightweight aggregates contributes

to sustainable development by lowering transportation requirements, optimizing

structural efficiency that results in a reduction in the amount of overall building

material being used, conserving energy, reducing labour demand and increasing

the life of structural concrete.

Abubakar and Abubakar (2011)compared the physical and mechanical

properties of coconut shell and crushed granite rock also a total of 72 concrete

cubes of size 150x150x150mm with different mix ratios of 1:2:4, 1:1.5 :3 and 1:3:6

were casted and tested for evaluating different properties. Aggregate crushing

value (ACV) for coarse aggregate was 21.84 and 4.71 for coconut shell. Elongation

and flakiness index were 58.54 and 15.69 respectively for gravels, while for

coconut shell it was 50.56 and 99.19 respectively. Compressive strength of

concrete cubes in N/mm2 of coconut shell at 7,14,21 and 28 days with mix ratios

of 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3, and 1:3:6 are (8.6, 8.9 ,6.4,), (9.6, 11.2, 8.7), (13.6, 13.1, 10.7)

and (15.1, 16.5, 11) respectively, likewise (19.1, 18.5, 9.6), (22.5, 23.0, 10.4),

(26.7, 24.9, 12.9) and (28.1, 30.0, 15) respectively for gravel. Since the concrete

strength of coconut shell with mix ratio 1:1.5:3, attained 16.5 N/mm2 compressive

strength at 28 days it can be used in plain concrete works, cost reduction of 48%

will be achieved.

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Ramachandrudu C (2012) in his experimental study, coarse aggregate was

partially replaced by coconut shell and fly ash. Percentages of replacement by

coconut shell were 10%, 15%, 20% and percentages of coconut shell replacement

by fly ash were 5%, 25%. He concluded in his study that workability decreased

with increase in CS replacement. Compressive and split tensile strengths of CS

concretes were lower than control concrete.

A review paper published by Kaur & Kaur (2012) concluded that use of

coconut shells in cement concrete can help in waste reduction and pollution

reduction. It is also expected to serve the purpose of encouraging housing

developers in investing these materials in house construction. It is also concluded

that the coconut shells are more suitable as low strength-giving lightweight

aggregate when used to replace common coarse aggregate in concrete

production.

Kulkarni et al (2013) studied that aggregates provide volume at low cost,

comprising 66 percent to 78 percent of the concrete. M20 Concrete is produced by

0%, 10%, 20%, 30% replacement of coarse aggregate by coconut shell. There is

no need to treat the coconut shell before use as an aggregate except for water

absorption. No bond failure was observed, confirming that there was adequate

bonding between the coconut shell aggregate concrete and the steel bars.

In another experimental study, coarse aggregate is partially replaced by

coconut shell. Percentages of replacement by coconut shell were 0%, 20%, 30%,

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40%, 50%, 100%. He concluded that coconut shell can be used to produce

lightweight concrete and 18.5% replacement of crushed granite with coconut shells

can be used to produce structural concrete. Osei (2013)

Ganiron Jr (2013) used coconut shells and fibre as substitute for aggregates

in developing concrete hollow block. The study was carried out for various

percentage of coconut shell content as partial replacement of conventional

aggregate. Results showed that replacement of appropriate coconut shell content

produces workable concrete with satisfactory strength. Integration of coconut shell

enhanced the strength of concrete.

Kambli & Mathapati (2014) prepared three different Mix Designs for M20,

M35, M50 grades of concrete. Percentage replacement by coconut shell varied as

0%, 10%, 20%, 30%,40% respectively. It is concluded in this study that for M20

grade concrete cubes with 30% replacement of CS aggregates had given strength

of 23 MPa at 28 days. Concrete cubes with 30% replacement of CS aggregates

had given strength of 42 MPa at 28 days for M35. For M50 grade concrete cubes

with 30% replacement of CS aggregates had given strength of 51 MPa at 28 days.

Ahlawat & Kalurkar (2014) explored the possibility of producing M20 grade

of concrete by replacing conventional aggregate of granite by coconut shell. Forty

five cubes were casted. Percentage of replacement of conventional coarse

aggregate by coconut shell were 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%. Compressive strength

were 19.71, 19.53, 19.08, 18.91 N/mm2 respectively at 28 days. Workability and

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compressive strength had been evaluated at 7, 14 and 28 days. The compressive

strength of concrete reduced as the percentage replacement increased. By these

results it can be concluded that coconut shell concrete can be used in reinforced

concrete construction. Author concluded that its utilization is cost effective and

eco-friendly.

Behera and Behera presented the comparative cost analysis and strength

characteristics of concrete produced using crushed coconut shell as substitutes

for conventional coarse aggregate. The main objective was to encourage the use

of coconut shell waste as construction materials in low-cost housing.

Shraddha and Varpe (2014) replaced conventional coarse aggregate with

coconut shell and concluded that with 50% replacement of coarse aggregates by

coconut shells, the strength attained reduces invariably from 10%-20% as

compared to the conventional coarse aggregate concrete. With 50% replacement

of coarse aggregates by coconut shells, the flexural strength attained reduces

invariably from 10%-15% as compared to the coarse aggregate concrete.

Jayabalan and Rajaraman (2014) carried out experimental investigation to

know the effects on concrete by addition of natural coconut fibre and replacement

of cement (by weight) with different percentages of fly ash on flexural strength,

splitting tensile strength, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Test

results demonstrate that the replacement of 43 Grade ordinary Portland cement

with fly ash showed an increase in compressive strength, modulus of elasticity,

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flexural strength, and splitting tensile strength for the chosen mix proportion.

Addition of coconut fibres resulting in fly ash mixed concrete composite (FMCC)

did enhance the mechanical properties of fly ash mixed concrete composite and

at the same time increased the energy levels reflected by increased failure strain,

making the material suitable or seismic sustenance.

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CHAPTER III

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

3.1 Summary
The worlds most used construction material, Concrete, is a manmade

composite which consists of ingredients such as aggregate, cement, and water

and admixtures. It is used world-wide as a building material twice as much as all

other building materials combined. (EcosmartConcrete.com). This huge demand

and production raises a serious question about the preservation for sustainable

development. Recently an increasing attraction has been paid by several

researchers to use of the waste materials in concrete according to their properties.

Limited research has been conducted on mechanical properties of concrete

with coconut shells as aggregate and eggshell as cement replacement

respectively. However, further research is needed for better understanding of the

behavior of utilization of these waste materials.

Determining the use of these wastes, coconut shell and eggshell powder as

a potential partial replacement for aggregates and cement respectively in the

production of one of the applications of concrete which is concrete hollow block is

the aim of this study.

This research is limited to application of concrete in a form of Concrete

Hollow Block. This investigation was conducted to propose an alternative way to

produce concrete hollow block which is through the utilization of waste materials

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limited to coconut shell and eggshells and water. The experimental procedures

involved are limited to locally available instruments and machines only. The

timeline to complete this study is limited to one year only.

This study made use of the experimental research method. It is an

experimental analysis of the properties of coconut shell and eggshell as a potential

alternative to aggregates and cement respectively in the production of concrete

hollow block.

The CHB sample dimensions are 100x200x400 mm and are designed to be

non- load bearing normal weight concrete hollow block for wall partitions. Water

cement ratio is 0.5. Mixed Designs were limited to certain ranges according to

past theses references and dissertations and standards.

3.2 Recommendations
1. Aside from aggregates and cement, the effect of different types of water

used in concrete hollow block mixture can also be investigated in future

work.

2. A need for further testing like modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity,

moisture content, thermal conductivity, chemical resistance and fire

resistance of concrete hollow block may be studied.

3. The effect of temperature on the concrete hollow block developed can be

further studied.

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