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p pp

To determine the air flow rate in a Venturi Tube.

The purpose of this experiment is to understand the relationship between the pressure, P(Pa) ,
cross section of area, A(m²) and the speed of the fluid, v (m/s). The concept of the equation of
continuity for steady, one dimensional fluid flow states that the velocity of the fluid must
increase in a constricted area while the pressure must decrease. The formula for this equation
is [ Q = Aivi = Ajvj] where Q is the volume flow rate in m3/s. It is known that in holes with smaller
cross section area, the speed of the fluid is higher. Hence, we can say that an increase in the
cross sectional area, A causes an increase in the pressure of the fluid. In this experiment we use
the Venturi Tube, which consists of 7 different sized holes in it. Thus, by measuring the pressure
difference between two cross sections using a precision manometer, we can calculate the flow
speed at either of the cross sections. With the data collected, we can see that this experiment
satisfies the equation of continuity.

  O O 

The venturi tube is a device with a pipe system with various different cross sectional areas. The
purpose of these different cross section areas is to induce changes in the pressure of the fluid.
Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs
simultaneously with a decrease in pressure. The precision manometer or inclined manometer is
used because it is capable of measuring small pressure changes accurately.

1>| Blower
2>| Nozzle
3>| Venturi tube with 7 measuring points
4>| Precision manometer
5>| Connector hose


1)| The speed potentiometer of the blower is set to a minimum setting.

2)| Then, the power is switched on. The blower is let to run for 1-2 minutes to stabilize it
before any measurement is taken.
3)| Hole 1 is always connected using the hose to the to the over pressure side of the
manometer. Hole 2 is connected to the under pressure side of the manometer.
4)| The initial and final pressures are noted and the pressure change reading is recorded.
The above steps are repeated for holes 3 to 7.
5)| The speed, v and the volume flow rate, Q of the fluid is calculated using the formulas.

Hole ȴP (Pa) v (m/s) Q (m3/s) area, A (m2)

2 5 ј 4.925 0.0313 6.36x10-3
3 10 ј 4.685 0.0180 3.85x10-3
4 113 14.172 0.0278 1.96x10-3
5 20 љ 6.625 0.0255 3.85x10-3
6 17 љ 9.081 0.0578 6.36x10-3
7 6 љ V7 V7(7.85x10-3) 7.85x10-3

Formula͛s : (1) volume flow rate ,   


a l ‰ È 
(2) flow speed , 
 È l  ‰
density of air, ö   

cross sectional area,

Hole 2



a  È l 

= o!" #

Q = (4.925)(6.36x10-3)

= $$ #

Hole 3



a  È l 

= o%&" #

Q = (4.685)(3.85x10-3)

= $$&$ #




a  È l  
= o' #

Q = (14.172)(1.96x10-3)

= $$'& #




a  È l 

= %%" #

Q = (6.625)(3.85x10-3)

= $$"" #




a   l 

= !$& #

Q = (9.081)(6.36x10-3)

= $$"'& #

Hole 7

Since cross sectional area, A1 = A7, so v1 = v7.


a>| The reason the speed potentiometer of the blower is set to a minimum setting is to
avoid the manometer fluid from being sucked in and atomized by the Venturi tube.
b>| We have to let the blower run for a few minutes before starting the experiment in order
for it to be stabilized to obtain more accurate results.
c>| The reader must keep his eyes parallel to the scales on the manometer when taking the
reading of pressure to avoid the parallax error.
d>| After taking the reading of pressure for different holes with respect to hole 1, we see
that the pressure in hole 1 alone changes slightly. This could be due to many factors
such as the stability of the blower or a change in the surrounding temperature. The
blower gives off heat after some time due to its running motor. This could affect the
pressure changes in hole 1.
e>| The reading of the manometer must only be taken once the manometer fluid has risen
to its peak and stopped moving.
f>| The inclined manometer must be well balanced before starting the experiment. This can
be done by checking that the bubble on the manometer is at the centre.
g>| From the data we can see that when the pressure increases, the fluid speed decreases.
h>| As fluid flows through a venturi, the different cross sectional areas in it cause the
pressure inside the venturi to change, and thus causing the speed to change as well.
i>| The flow speed, v for hole 7 is the same as the speed in hole 1 because both holes have
the same cross sectional area. There should be no pressure change between hole 1 and
hole 7 if they are set in a horizontal manner.

O O 

Anincrease in the cross section area in the vernier tube causes an increase in pressure as well.
On the other hand, an increase in cross sectional area causes a decrease in the fluid speed.
Hence, an increase in pressure will decrease the flow speed of the fluid. As a conclusion, the
flow rate, v can be determined using a vernier tube and manometer using the concept of