You are on page 1of 23

Reference Problem # Type Reason

Kaplan Gmat 2005 PS - 4 Percents Word Trick


Kaplan Gmat 2005 PS - 10 Algebra Careless
Kaplan Gmat 2005 PS - 11 Algebra Other
Kaplan Gmat 2005 PS - 13 Ratios Other
Kaplan Gmat 2005 PS - 14 Algebra Other

Kaplan Gmat 2005 PS - 19 Ratios No idea


Kaplan Gmat 2005 PS - 43 Geometry Forget Principal
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 7 Algebra Careless
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 12 Geometry Lack of knowledge
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 18 Algebra Careless
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 19 N.Properties Careless
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 20 Geometry Other
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 35 Algebra Forget Principal
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 37 Percents Careless
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 38 Algebra Careless
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 44 Geometry Forget Principal
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 45 N.Properties Lack of knowledge
Kaplan Gmat 2005 DS - 46 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Kaplan Online P9 Percents Lack of knowledge
Gmat Kaplan Online R2 Ratios Careless
Gmat Kaplan Online R3 Ratios Lack of knowledge
Gmat Kaplan Online R5 Ratios No idea
Gmat Kaplan Online R7 Ratios Lack of knowledge

Gmat Kaplan Online R8 Ratios Word Trick


Gmat Kaplan Online R9 Ratios Other
Gmat Kaplan Online R16 Ratios No idea
Gmat Kaplan Online R17 Ratios Careless
Gmat Kaplan Online R26 Ratios Other
Gmat Kaplan Online R27 Ratios Lack of knowledge
Gmat Kaplan Online R30 Ratios Forget Principal
Gmat Kaplan Online F1 Factors Forget Principal
Gmat Kaplan Online F6 Factors Lack of knowledge
Gmat Kaplan Online F8 Factors Careless
Gmat Kaplan Online F11 Factors No idea
Gmat Kaplan Online F12 Factors Lack of knowledge
Gmat Kaplan Online F15 Factors Other
Gmat Kaplan Online F24 Factors Careless
Gmat Kaplan Online G26 Geometry Word Trick
Gmat Kaplan Online G36 Geometry Forget Principal

Gmat Kaplan Online G38 Geometry Other


Gmat Kaplan Online G40 Geometry Lack of knowledge
Gmat Kaplan Online G41 Geometry Word Trick
Gmat Kaplan Online G44 Geometry Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review P9 Algebra Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review P16 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review P37 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review P60 Algebra Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review P61 Averages Careless
Gmat Review P74 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review P80 Probability Forget Principal
Gmat Review P90 Algebra Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review P114 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review P112 Algebra Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review P129 Averages Other
Gmat Review P126 Algebra Careless
Gmat Review P127 Algebra Careless
Gmat Review P130 Ratios Forget Principal
Gmat Review P132 Probability Other
Gmat Review P133 Algebra Other
Gmat Review P137 Averages Careless
Gmat Review P139 Geometry Careless
Gmat Review P144 Factors Word Trick
Gmat Review P147 Algebra Careless

Gmat Review P148 Statistics Forget Principal


Gmat Review P149 Algebra Careless

Gmat Review P151 Probability Other


Gmat Review P152 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review P160 Factors Other
Gmat Review P167 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review P169 Factors Other
Gmat Review P175 Geometry Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review D1 Percents Word Trick
Gmat Review D4 Geometry Careless
Gmat Review D67 Algebra Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review D72 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review D78 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review D79 Algebra Careless
Gmat Review D83 Factors Other
Gmat Review D85 Algebra Careless
Gmat Review D86 N.Properties Careless
Gmat Review D87 Geometry Forget Principal

Gmat Review D90 Algebra Forget Principal


Gmat Review D91 Geometry Hard
Gmat Review D92 Algebra Careless
Gmat Review D94 Algebra Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review D96 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review D99 Averages Word Trick
Gmat Review D101 Algebra Other
Gmat Review D102 Algebra Hard
Gmat Review D113 Algebra Forget Principal
Gmat Review D116 Algebra Careless
Gmat Review D117 Geometry Lack of knowledge
Gmat Review D115 Algebra Other
Note In Knowledge Base?
Yes
Confused b-a with a-b No
Got it right, but technique would help Yes
d = r*s plus picking numbers No
Use fractions instead of decimals, quicker Yes

Did not understand question no


All about special triangles and ratios Yes
Failed to read No
Square and triangle theory Yes
No
Failed to pick good numbers No
I think they are wrong about (2) No
Square root algebra! Yes
Failed to undestand the question No
Equations! 1 eq for each unknown No
a^2 + b^2 = c^2 no
And careless, integers not specified. Yes
Division / Multiplication and inequalities Yes
Tricky group problem No
Read question! Found error in problem no
Ratios different then actual Yes
I think Lis sufficient. Book wrong. no
Rate is comparing one thing against Yes
another! Be careful as to which is which. r
can be quantity over time or time over
Quantity
Just two equations. But tricky no
NO
hard No
read mofo! Don't assume. No
good problem No
tricky No
Ratios different then actual Yes
Yes
see 8 divisible rule YES
read mofo. no
No
Yes
Hard no
Yes
Easy , but tricky No
no

identification of similar triangles Yes


issue with symbolism used Yes
imp. Of angles Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
I always forget this trick! Yes
1-chance of NOT occurring = occurring! yes
estimate No
No
No
Yes
unacceptable No
unacceptable No
solve for time! yes
yes
hard No
Yes
No
Yes
Remember if "integers" is not stated Yes
anything goes!
Need to visualize numbers laid out. No
Remember to use TABLEs to lay out info No

Yes
always look for factoring! Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Easy , but tricky No
no need to solve! no
I don't agree no
No
greater than -1 is 1, not negative 2! Yes
im an asshole No
good problem yes
rewrite equations to see answers no
read mofo No
read "represent two positions of same No
ladder!"
No
No
No
No
No
No
good problem Yes
good problem No
No
No
best yet Yes
Hard Yes
Percents

How does one convert a decimal to a .875 = 875/1000. Then reduce.


fraction?

How do you convert a fractions to a Multiple by 100%. 1/12 x 100% = 100/12 = 8.33
percent?

How do you convert a percent into a 32% = 32/100 = 8/25


fraction?

What is the % equiv of 1/8, 1/12, 1/6? 12.5%, 8.33%, 16.66%

How do you calculate % change? (Original - New)/Original = 600-450/600 = 150/600= 1/4(100%)


= 25% change

What is the percent formula? ((increase/decrease)/original number)(100%) = %

X% of a number is what? 220% of 100 = 100*2.2 = 220


60% of 100 = 100*.6 = 60

How to find numbers divided by 406/1.16 for example. BACKSOLVE! Take the reasonable
complicated decimails? answer choices and do reverse!!! If not, multiple by 100 to
make easier calculation.
What are the principal interest Simple interest occurs when interested in not reinvested into
formulas? Difference between simple the principal. Principal (1 + %)years = simple interest
and compound interest Compound = P(1+%)^years.
A percent of a percent is what? Like a fraction of a fraction. 25% of 25% is 1/4 of 1/4 = (1/4)
(1/4)= 1/16. And these can be added to find percents of
totals~!!! See Data Sufff. Challen Quiz problem 3
20% on x and 20% on remainder of x. 80% is the remainder. So the answer would be .2*.8(x)
What is the remainder?

5 of 23
N. Properties

What are the odd/even rules for odd + odd = even, even + even = even, even + odd = odd. So
addition? when they are mixed = odd.

what are the odd/even rules for Even x Even = Even, Odd x Odd = Odd, Odd x Even = Even.
Multiplication? So anything times Even is even. So anything with even is
EVEN.

What is a prime number? A prime number is a number that only have two factors: Itself
and 1.

Is 1 a prime number? No, because is has only 1 factor: Itself.

What are the first 10 prime numbers? 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,29

What quantity can we subtract or add |a+b| = |a-b| when b=0


from a positive number that leaves us
with the same absolute value?

Is C an integer when A^3 = Square of Yes, because = to A^6 = C. Hence, C is an integer


C?

What is Z=Z^3 It can be -1 or 1.

Is Z^3 < 2 1? We can tell because nothing says that z had to be an integer!

If a,b,c are consecutive integers. How a = b-1 and c = b+1


are a and c related to b?

If the sum of 3 consecutive integers = A/3 = middle consecutive integer, so add to that. (a/3 +2) +
A. What is the sum of the next 3? (a/3 +3) etc….

What is the implication of having a the It means that the middle term is thus odd and that there is an
average of a set of consecutive odd number of consecutive numbers. Means the sum of those
numbers be odd? number will be odd to. (worth playing with this to learn more)

6 of 23
N. Properties

3^0 is what? 1. Anything to power of 0 is 1.

If X is POSITIVE, is x Prime? X^3 has 4 2^3 meets criteria. 6 also has 4 factors, but cube root of 6 is
factors. X^2 - x -6 = 0 not even an integer! For the second one, you can get two
answers, but as the stem mentions - X IS POSITIVE - so there
can only be one answer which means that x is prime!
Is 0 positive or negative? Neither!

How many multiples of 4 are there Well, 96/4 = 24. 12 has 3 but since it said inclusive you can't
between 12 and 96 inclusive? count 12. So 24-2 = 22. There are 22 multiples of 4 between
12 and 96 inclusive.

You have two sets Y and X. Y has 10 The union is the amounts in X and Y minus the intersection
and X has 18. 6 integers are in both (which the number in both). So, 10+18-6=22. That is the total
sets. What is the union? What is the number of member in both groups accounting for those
intersection? What number is in either members that they share! To find the number that is in either
Y or X, but no both? but not both you must subtract the intersection again. 22-6 =
16. Also, think about a Venn Diagram to make it easier.

7 of 23
Algebra

What are the two types of exponent 2^3 x 2^7 = 2^10 (they are added)
calculations that are easily confused? (2^3)^7 = 2^21 (they are multipled)
What does the square root sign mean? The square of 16 can be -4 or 4
But the common Square sign can only mean the
POSITIVE square. This is important in terms of
data sufficiency.
What is the quickest way to find out which of Cross multiply. Whichever has the bigger
two fractions have the larger decimal number on top wins.
equivalent?
Is the reciprocal of a fraction between 0 and 1 It is greater than 1. 2/3 => 3/2
smaller or larger than the original
Is the reciprocal of a fraction between 0 and -1 It is less than -1. -2/3 => -3/2
smaller or larger than the original
Is the square of a fraction larger or smaller than It is smaller. (1/2)^2 = 1/4
the original fraction?
Is the square of a negative fractions larger or It is larger. (-1/2)^2 = 1/4
smaller than the original?
What is the equation of line? y = mx + b.
When is a formula "undefined" When its denominator = 0
What does value of X in terms of y mean? Means x = y
How are units found from a product of two Multiple they units. 93x95? 3x5=15 so 5 is units.
numbers?
How to you find the sum of consecutive Take the average say 10+50 / 2 = 30
integers? Take number of terms 50-10+1 = 41
Sum = 30*41 = 1230
How do you solve group problems involving Gp1 +Gp2 + neither -both = total
both/Neither?
3^0 = ? 1
subtracting b from both sides of b = 2b is b=0,
what?
How are 1/3^7 and 1/3^8 Related? 1/3^8 = 1/3^7 (3^1)
(13^3) and 7^3 are equivalent to what? 13*7 = 91^3
4^k+1 is = ? (4^k)(4^1)
What is the squ. root Of x if x = 9a^2 and a<0?
Doesn't sound intuitively but plug in number and
see.: -3a.
a = root 2 + root 5, a^2 = ? (root 2 + root 5)(root 2 + root 5), not individual
squares of roots!
simplify (1/x)^n+1 (1/x)^n * (1/x)^1
Sequence starting with 6 and has sum of 63. 6+7=13
How many in sequences? 13+8 =21 and so on until 63
0 < p < 1. When comparing 1/p^2 and 1/(p+1)^2 Fractions! Instead of something like .4, use
what is quicker? Decimals or Fractions? something like (1/9). It squares nicely and will
make comparisons quicker.
If M and N are both + what is the value of M The key here is to remember that you can
root n if MN/Root N = 10? multiple by 1 or root n / root n then use that to
simplify.
What are the rules of inequalities? If you multiple or divide by a negative number,
you must switch the direction of the sign.

8 of 23
Algebra

If X is not = to 0, is 1/x > 1? (1) y/x > y (2) x^3 > Analyze the stem and try to simplify. Remember
x^2 the rules of inequalities. What can make this
true? Only if x is positive can this be true, so
x>0. Also, if x is positive then 1>x, so we are
really asking is 0<x<1? (1) is dependent on y
being positive or negative since it would switch
the inequality signs giving two answers - so
insufficient. (2) Since we know x <> 0, then we
know that x^2 is positive. Simplify we get x>1 so
that answer is NO.

cube root -89 is between what two integers? minus 4 n 5


xy=-6 and x-y=5. can I get definite x? no! x will have two answers! So despite two
equations no definite - ds problem trick
What is the ratio of 3/4 / 4*3/4? Don't let this trick you. Just cross out the 3/4 on
the top and bottom and you get 1/4!
N / T = S and remainder V. What does N = to? N = TS + V NOT T(S+V) The remainder is
tricky!!
X^4 and Y^4 = 100 what is the greatest Remember! Nothing is mentioned about integers
possible value for X? so keep that in mind. 3^4 is 81 and 4^4 is 256
so X is in between 3 and 4. Does not have to be
an integer!
0 < x < 1 Is x^4 - x^5 < x^2 - x^3? Remember to factor out. X^4(x-1) < x^2(x-1), so
x^4<X^2 so true!
X received 1/3 more votes than Y is what x = 4/3Y
mathematically?
X^2>x? if x>-1? Becareful! X>-1 means -1/2,0,1/2,2 BUT NOT
-2.
Is r > 0? 1. rt = 12 2. r+t=7 Need to solve because you get a quadratic
equation.
x^y < y^x. (1) x=y^2 (2) y>2. How can you Use substitution, then look at the exponents.
compare?

9 of 23
Ratios

What is a ratio? A ratio is the proportional relationship between two quantities.

What is a rate? A rate is a special kind of ratio that relates one kind of quantity
to a completely different kind of quantity.

Formula for speed? S = D/T or rate = quantity/time

Can rates be added? yes. 200 meters/hr + 100 meters/hr = 300 meters/hr. 1800 sq
meter / 300 meters/hr = 6 hr when working together

Can time in rates be added? (work It takes me 2 hours it take her 3 hours. How long does it take
problems) together? (1/2) + (1/3) = 5/6 = 1/T => T = 72 minutes or 6/5
hours

What is the work formula? T = ab/a+b (a,b time it takes to complete job). Or the inverse of
total time = sum inverse of time of individuals.

Explain the reasoning behind the work if a task takes 3 days to complete, then 1 day of working would
formula be 1/3 of the task. These one day ratios can be added. Then
take the reciprocal of that addition to get total days agains.
(1/3)+(1/2) => then reciprocal! = axb/(a+b)

In rate problems, when trying to solve for a The equation you are NOT trying to solve for gets changed.
variable which one get altered? Hence t+10 or r - 10 (would be for the equation that is not
being asked to solve for.

What should one do when picking number in Pick the lowest common multiple of the numbers available if it
time distance based problems? makes sense.

When looking for "average speed" what "Total Distance / Total Time" Remember you can't add the
formula should one be thinking about? rates!

What is something that always catches me I fail to read whether "round trip" or one way!!!!!!! Always!!!!!!!!!
in distance, speed type problems? Pay attention!!!!!!!!!

10 of 23
Ratios

How to solve problem when we have speed Since distance is the same. S(t) = S(t). Think about this: How
and we want to find time and distance is the much distance is covered in (t) time? Will the one on the left or
same right "cover" more distance? So 30 (t + 5/6) will cover 30 per hr
plus whatever it's advantage is over the other side. Use some
degree of logic.

What do you do if have rates irregardles of 3 day for 1 and 5 days for 1. Means 5n=3n => 5/3n=n if 42 is
time? total, then 5/3n + n = 42. Solve for n. Then subtract n from 42
to find where they will meet.

When doing a d/s = d/s problem how does if the distances are crazy. Normalize to 0. So if something
one normalize? starts off at 11. then subtract both distances by 11 to get one
to 0. Then 0 = d.

what is the alternative way to find "when will Add the speeds together, then d/(s1 + s2) = T. Multiple T by
they meet problems"? either rate to find the distances they will travel when they
meet!!!

What do you do if you have rates and time x/5 + x/6 = 2 hrs/ , x = distance.
for the entire trip, but are trying to total
distance?

If you have a proportion, say 3/4 and wanted 3/4 = x//16, the solve to find x.
to find how of a missing component is
necessary when you have for example, x/16,
what do you do?

How do you determine a combined ratio? A:b = 7:3 and b:c = 2:5 what is the ratio of A:C? Multiple the
common variables in the two ratios so that they are equal.
Then you can put a:c properly.

If working with ratios is difference in speeds Yes. 50% faster than x is not the same as x + 4 feet. It's a trick.
the same as different in ratios of speeds? the former an be used the latter not.

what is the trick with rate problems? Be careful to which Quantity is being compared to which.
miles/ hr is not the same as hours per mile. See problem R7 in
black book

11 of 23
Factors

What is a multiple? A multiple is a product of a specified number and an integer.


3(1) = 3 3(2)=6. 3 and 6 are multiples of 3.

How are multiples and factors tied A number that is evenly divisible by another number is also a
together? multiple of that second number.

What is a prime factorization? It is a number expressed in terms of the product of its prime
factors (the factors that are prime numbers).

What is the method 1 of prime what is the prime factorization of 210? Start low, then go up!
factorization? 210/2 = 105 (since 105 is not divisible by two, we go to 3)
105/3 = (2)(3)(35)
35/5 = (7)(5)
210 = (2)(3)(5)(7)
What are factors? Factors, or divisors of an integer are the POSITIVE intefegers
by whuch it is evenly divisible (leaving no remainder).

How can you find the Greatest Break down both integers into the PRIME factors and multiple
Common Factor? all prime factorizations they have in common. 36 = (2)(2)(3)(3),
48 = (2)(2)(2)(2)(3). Therefore they have (2)(2)(3) in common =
12 greatest common factor.
What is method 2 of prime Find any set of factors, then drill down
factorization?

What is the least common multiple? The LCM is the smallest number is a multiple of each of the
numbers.

When is the least common multiple When those two integers share any factors in common.
smaller than simple the product of two
integers?

How can you find the LCM? 1. Determine the prime factorization of each integer
2. Write out each prime number the maximum number of times
that it appears in any one multiple.
3. Multiple those number together to get the least common
multiple.
Take 12 and 15. it would be 2x2x3x5. You wouldn't include the
3 in 12 because it only has prime.

An integer is divisible by 3 if? If all of its digits ADD up to a multiple of 3

12 of 23
Factors

An integer is divisible by 4 if? If the last two digits are a multiple of 4

An integer is divisible by 6 if? If it is divisible by 2 and 3

An integer is divisible by 9? If its digits ADD up to be a multiple of 9

an integer is divisible by 8? must also be divisble by 4 - BUT ALL DIVISIBLE BY 8 ARE


ALSO DIVISIBLE BY 4, BUT NOT ALL DIVISIBLE BY 4 ARE
DIVISIBLE BY 8. TOOL TO LIMIT OPTIONS ONLY.

How do you find the number of factors Find the prime factors, then combine to see if you can rewrite
of an integer? with exponents. Add 1 to each exponent. Then multiply those
exponents. This will give you number of factors!

How do you find which factors of an say you have 2,2,5,3 as prime factors (and 1) and want to find
integer are divisible by a certain number of factors divisible by 3. Well you have 2, 5, 2x2, 2x5,
integer? 2x2x5, 1 = 6 factors that will not be divisible 3. Then subtract
this number from the total number of available factors.
What are the first 10 prime numbers? 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,29

How best to find factors from prime Stop from bottom - be systematic!
factors? 2x2x2x2x3x5? 2, 3, 5
2x2, 2x3, 2x5
2x2x2, 2x2x3, 2x2x5 etc…
How to tell if a number is divisible? Use one of the test. 51 for example = 5+1 = 6, which is
divisible by 3.

If a number has the following Any combination of prime factors that at least includes 2x3
2x2x2x2x3. Which of its
divisors(factors) are also multiple of 6?

is 71 a divisor or factor of 71? Yes! So 142 and 71 share one divisor: 71

13 of 23
Factors

If a factor of a number is divisible by x The implication is that the other factors is also divisible by x.
and the number itself is divisible by x r/x = integer and r+q/x = integer, then q/x must also be an
what is the implication for the other integer because r/x + q/x must both be integers to make r+q/4
factor(s) of the number? an integer.
Is 14 a factor of M if 14 is a factor of
Yes. Since the factors of 15 are 5x3, then the factors of 14,
15M? 7x2 must be part of M. However, if one had 16M instead, it
would not necesarrily be the case because the 2 factor could
be present in 16 but no in M thereby not making 14 a factor of
M
How do you find the number of factors Say 580 and 60? Prime factors of 540 are 2x2x3x3x3x5.
of a number that are also multiples of Prime factors of 60 are 2x2x3x5. Divide 580/60 and get 9. 9
one of the factors? has three factors 1,3,9. So there are three multiples of 60 that
are also factors of 580: 60(1), 60(3), and 60(9)
If a number is said to be a factor of That implies that the factor is either a prime factor or a
another number what does that imply? combination of the multiplication of a number's prime factors.

What does it take in terms of prime There must be 2 of each prime factors: 2x2x3x3x4x4 for
factors for a number to be a perfect example.
square?

4/x +5/x + 6/x is an int and x too. Is 5/x it doesn't have to be because 15/x can be 1,3,5,15. 5/x would
an int? have to be an int for all those factors. Next would be 30/x or
2(15/x)

How many prime numbers are there None


between 6! + 2 and 6! + 6 inclusive?

14 of 23
Prob.

What is the combination formula? N!/k!(n-k)!, where n=number of items in group as whole;
k! = number of items in each subgroup formed.

What does ! Mean? ! Is factorial. Factorial of 5 = 5x4x3x2x1


What do you do if asked to find potential Multiply the potential combinations from each group.
combinations from multiple groups?
How do you find the number of possible The number of possible subgroups will equal the
subgroups when choosing one item from a set? number of items in the set. 5 apps, 20 main courses, 4
desserts. How many different meals? (5)(20)(4) = 400
diff meals.
What are permutations? The arrangements within a group. Permutations differ
from combinations in that they are ordered. Typically
you subtract out 1 from each descending component.
ABC has (3)(2)(1) = 6 possible combinations. In
essense, a factorial.
What is a probability? A probability is the numerical representation of the
likelihood of an event or combination of events. This is
expressed as a ratio of the number of desired outcomes
to the total number of possible outcomes.
What is independent probability? Independent probability occurs when events do not
depend on prior events. The probability that several of
these occur is the product of the probability of each
event occuring individually.
How is dependent probability calculated? It's like independent but you multiple the changing
probabilities. (5/10)(4/9)
How to calculate probability of an event not If at least one win is necessary, and 30% chance of
occuring? winning any one game and there are 3 games. So 70%
of not winning any one game. So .7 x .7 x .7 = .346. So
1-.346 = answer!
What is the difference between a permutation abc, abd, ace are combination since no group has all
and a combination? the same elements. Abc, cba are permutations since
that have the same elements just arranged differently.
They are different permutations of the same
combination. Permutation are the arrangement of
sequences. Combinations are the number of
DISTRINCT groups that can be pulled out of a larger
group.

How should one think about permutations when if 8 people but only 4 positions. Say how many in first
trying to solve? position? 8. If that position is filled, then in next position
only 7 people would be available to fill it. So 8x7x6x5
would be answer.
how does one think about multiple group Can the multiple groups be combined differently? If so,
permutations? you need to do each permutation for each combination,
then add them together.
How does one deal with indistinguishable like having a,a,b,c. Divide 4!/2! With the bottom being
elements in permutations? the number of indistinctual elements. If a,a,b,b,b,c,d,
then 6!/2!x3!
How does one calculate the probability that If the probably of one is 1/2 and the other 2/3, then ADD
either one thing will occur? the probabilities together to find one or another.

15 of 23
Prob.

How does one calculate the probability that Multiple their individual probability, regardless if
both things will occur? independent or not.
How does one calculate the probability of Find the probability of each scenario, then add them
multiple scenarios? together. However, within each scenario there could
issues where you need to multiple AND probability type
stuff. IMPORTANT. For 1-opposite probability, better to
find probability of one scenario, then add them all
together (especially if each scenario has different
number of slots! SEE grape flavor question in
permutation quiz!).

When should one use the subtraction method of If you are in an a multiple scenario situation where there
probability? are fewer way for an event not to occur.

16 of 23
Geometry

What is the relationship between the angle of the The larger the angle, the larger the opposing side.
triangle and the opposing side?
How can you find the internal angles of a Make triangles in it, then count the number of triagles.
polygon?
What are pythagorean triples? They are a set of integer ratios that always satisfy the
pythagorean theorem. 3,4,5 or 5,12,13 or 6,8,10
(MEMORIZE)
What are the sides of the isosceles right triangle? 45 degree sides = X, the 90 degree side = x (square
root 2)
What are the side of the 30, 60, 90 triangle? 30 = x, 60 = x(square of 3), 90 = 2x
What is a parallelogram? Has two pairs of parallel sides. Opposite sides are
equal in length.
What is the circumference of a circle? C = d(pie)
What is the area of a circle? A = r^2(pie)
How do you calculate the arc length? arc length = n/360 (circumference). n = central angle

How do you calculate the area of a sector of a Area = n/360(area of circle)


circle?
How can knowing the chord help you find the A chord is the hypotenuse of an isosceles triangle. If
other sides? the central angle is 45 degrees, then it is an isosceles
right triangle.
circles and datasufficieny? If you are given any measurement (area,
circumference, chord, arc) you can determine all other
measurements.
How can you find the length of a line segment on Use the right triangle method. Pythagorean theorem.
a coordinate plane?
What is unique about an inscribed triangle which It means that it is also a right triangle.
has one leg that is the diameter?
What is true about a right angle inscribed in a The two chords are the leg of the right triangle with a
circle? And not true? hypotenuse that is a diameter. It doesn't mean it is a
special triangle unless both chords are the same
length!
Take an inscribed quadrilateral. If one side is NO! If one side equals r, then the hypotenuse is 2r or
equal to the radius, is it a square? diameter. If the other chord is also equal to r (which
would be required since are testing whether it is a
square), then the two chords would be equal to the
hypotenuse which is impossible because two side of a
triangle must be larger than the third -- not equal to or
smaller. Hence, it is impossible for this to be a square.

Take an inscribed quadrilateral. The degree No. To be a square arc of each side must be 90
measure of a minor arc is 45 degrees, is it a degrees.
square?
what is the rule of triangles related to its sides?a side must be greater than the difference or smaller
than the sum of the two other sides
what is the mid point formula? average of the sum of x 1 and x 2.
What is the relationship between the exterior the exterior angle is = to the sum of the remote interior
angle of a triangle and the remote interior angles angles. See gmat review ds 117.
of the abutting triangle?

17 of 23
Geometry

Triangles formed within rectangles. The See problem g38. Excellent example.
transversal that cuts across a rectangle can be
used to create smaller triangles that are similar
because they share same angles but different
sized legs. IF TWO ANGLES of triangle are the
same, then if means the third is as well and it
means that they are SIMILAR!!!

What is the difference between a trapezoid and a The trapezoid only have 1 set of parallel sides unlike
parallelogram? the parallelogram which has two.
What is the area formula for a trapezoid? Average of parallel sides / height
What is the area formula for a parallelogram? Base * height
How do you find the diagonal of a rectangular You have to use the pythagorean formula twice or look
solid? out for special triangles.
How do you find the volume of a sphere? 4/3PiR^3
□BAE=□BCD ? This means that the triangular portion of two sides of a
trapezoid are the same.
If you have two sides of a triangle 8 and 12 what That the 3rd sides can vary between 20 and 4. That
do you know? the greatest area will occur when 12 and 8 are
perpendicular to one another. There can be no area
greater than that. See G44
Inscribed square that whose area has a ratio of It could be any positive integer. See PS 175.
25 to 39. What could be the width in inches for
the strip between the inscribed square and the
larger area?

18 of 23
Geometry

19 of 23
Geometry

20 of 23
Averages

What is the balanced value concept and how can The net sum of the difference between each value and
it be used to find the missing average? it's average must be 0. 3-5, 7-5, 4-5, x - 5: -2 + 2 + -1 +
(x-5) = 0: therefore x = 6

How can use combine averages? Use the weighted average formula. What is the average
score? 100 average of 4 games, 200 average of 8
games= (100*4) + (200*8)/12 = 400+1600/12 = 2000/12
= 166.66
Averages and data suffiency? know the formula! Sum of terms/number of terms =
average!

What is the median? Is the middle number if the groups of terms is odd. If
even, then the average between the two middle
numbers.

What is mode? The term that appears most frequently in a set.

What is the implication of having a the average of It means that the middle term is thus odd and that there
a set of consecutive numbers be odd? is an odd number of consecutive numbers. Means the
sum of those number will be odd to. (worth playing with
this to learn more)
Dec Sales are 4 times that average for the rest of x for each of the first months, 4x for december. Total of
the 11 months. Dec sales are what fraction of the 15x. So 4x/15x is answer.
entire years sales?

Rememer how to do long division? 20100/26. This Since all the answer choices start with 7 you know you
seems hard. Answer choices all start with 7 can use that. Then narrow it down until you can
differentiate the choices. See P137.

21 of 23
ToMemorization

What are pythagorean triples? They are a set of integer ratios that always satisfy the
pythagorean theorem. 3,4,5 or 5,12,13 or 6,8,10 (MEMORIZE)

What are the first 10 prime numbers? 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,29


What is the % equiv of 1/8, 1/12, 1/6? 12.5%, 8.33%, 16.66%

22 of 23
References Types Reason Data
Kaplan Gmat 2005 Algebra Careless Yes
Gmat 800 Averages Forget Principal No
Gmat Review Factors Lack of knowledge Need To
Gmat Quantitative Geometry No idea
Gmat Coursebook N.Properties Other
Gmat Kaplan Online Percents Word Trick
Probability Guessed
Ratios Hard
Statistics