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AR6702 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING

Syllabus

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9
Elements of Human Settlements human beings and settlements nature shells& Net work their functions and Linkages Anatomy &
classification of Human settlements Locational, Resource based, Population size & Occupational structure.

UNIT II FORMS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 9


Structure and form of Human settlements Linear, non-linear and circular Combinations reasons for development advantages and
disadvantages case studies factors influencing the growth and decay of human settlements.

UNIT III PLANNING CONCEPTS 9


Planning concepts and their relevance to Indian Planning practice in respect of Ebenezer Howard Garden city concepts and contents
Patrick Geddes Conservative surgery case study C.A. Perry Neighborhood concept Le Corbusier concept and case studies.

UNIT IV URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN RENEWAL 9


Scope and Content of Master plan planning area, land use plan and Zoning regulations zonal plan need, linkage to master plan and land
use plan planned unit development (PUD) need, applicability and development regulations - Urban Renewal Plan
Meaning,Redevelopment, Rehabilitation and Conservation JNNURM case studies.

UNIT V ISSUES IN CONTEMPORARY URBAN PLANNING IN INDIA 9


Globalization and its impact on cities Urbanisation, emergence of new forms of developments self sustained communities SEZ transit
development integrated townships case studies.
AR6702 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
TERMS

BOULEVARD:

a wide road in a city,


usually with trees on each
side or along the centre
STRUCTURE |

Planning concept

1.Ebenezer howard
Garden city
Ebenezer howard

Patrick geddies
2.Patrick geddies
Conservative surgery concept

3.C.A.Perry
Neighbourhood concept

4.Le Corbusier .
Grid concept
Le Corbusier
C.A.Perry
GARDEN CITY |

Ebenezer howard
Garden city most potent(strong) planning in western urban planning

Created by Ebenezer howard in 1898 to solve urban and rural problems

Source of many key planning ideas during 20th century.


AR6702 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
TERMS
Garden city :

The garden city is part of


urban movement and is a
method of urban
planning that was
initiated in 1898 by
Sir Ebenezer Howard in
the United Kingdom.

Garden cities were


intended to be planned,
self-contained
communities surrounded
by "greenbelts",
containing proportionate
areas of residences,
industry, and agriculture.
GARDEN CITY |

Redirecting the urban growth into


new towns that would surround
existing cities.

These towns were called

Garden Cities.
GARDEN CITY |

IMPORTANT YEARS

1899 published garden city of tomorrow

1903 Garden city association was formed

LETCHWORTH was designed for 35000 person

1920 Welwyn was designed for 40000 persons

1947 LETCHWORTH had 16000 population & 100 factories

Welwyn was designed for 18000 population & 75 factories

UK Europe US rest of the world


GARDEN CITY |
THE CONCEPT

Garden City an impressive diagram of


THE THREE MAGNETS namely the
town magnet, country magnet with their
advantages and disadvantages and the third
magnet with attractive features of both town
and country life.

Natural people preferred the third one


namely garden city.
GARDEN CITY |
THE CONCEPT

Core garden city principles


Strong community
ordered development
environmental quality
These were to be achieved by:
Unified owner ship of land to prevent individual
land speculation and maximize community benefit.
Careful planning to provide generous living and
working space while maintaining natural
qualities
Social mix and good community facilities
Limits to growth of each garden city
Local participation in decisions about
development.
GARDEN CITY |
AFFORDABILITY :
Howard wanted garden city of all incomes
Most originally for those of modest incomes
Their attractiveness as living environments has
often made them become more popular with
better off people.
EXAMPLES OF MODEST INCOME GARDEN CITY-
developments build just after ww1 are
Kapyla ( Finland )
Colonel light gardens (Adelaide, Australia)
Orechova (prague, Czech republic)

SOME GARDEN CITY DEVELOPMENTS ALWAYS


INTENDED FOR WEALTHY COMMUTERS

Denenchofu ( Tokyo, japan ) was an example of


this developed by railway company
GARDEN CITY |
GARDEN CITY |
APPLICATION
GARDEN CITY |
APPLICATION
GARDEN CITY |
APPLICATION

After 1945, the garden city model was mutated in to satellite or new towns in
many countries Examples in Sweden ,UK or Hong Kong
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |

C.A.Perry
Clarence Arthur Perry (1872-1944) was an American planner.

He formulated his early ideas about the neighborhood unit and community life which is 5-minute walk to
define walking distances from residential to non-residential components.

Perry was very concerned about the walkability to and from schools. His ideas were realized in neighborhoods
like Radburn through the work of Clarence Stein.
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |
Vision of Neighbourhood
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |
concept of Neighbourhood
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |
Vision of Neighbourhood
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |
The Neighbourhood is the planning unit for a Town
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |
The Neighbourhood is the planning unit for a Town
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |

SIX BASIC PRINCIPLES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD THEORY

[1] Traffic routes should not pass through residential neighbourhood.

[2] Interior street pattern should be designed and constructed through use of cul-de-sacs, curve layout and light
duty surfacing.

[3] The population of the neighbourhood should be that which is necessary to support its elementary school.

[4] The neighbourhood focal point should be the elementary school centrally located on a common or green
along with other institutions that have services area coincident with the neighbourhood boundaries.

[5] The radius of the neighbourhood should be a maximum of 1/4 mile

[6] Shopping districts should be sited at the edge of the neighbourhood.


NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |
Principles of Neighbourhood
NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT |
Updated Neighbourhood unit
AR6702 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
TERMS

CONURBATION:

an extended urban area,


typically consisting of
several towns merging
with the suburbs of a
central city.
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |

Patrick geddies
Father of modern town planning.

First to link sociological concepts into town planning

Survey before plan. i.e. Diagnosis before treatment


CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
GEDDISIAN TRIAD

IMPORTANT YEARS

1854- 1932 PATRICK GEDDES

1886 Settled in EDINBERGH

1892 outlook tower worlds first sociological observatory

1911 exhibition on CITIES AND TOWN PLANNING

1915 published cities in evolution | visited India

1920 -23 professor of civics and sociology in university of Bombay

1924 settled in Montpellier, France


CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
GEDDISIAN TRIAD

Geddes was concerned with the relationship between people and cities and how they affect one another.

He emphasized that people do not merely needed shelter, but also food and work, the recreation and social life.
This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighbourhood, the city and the surrounding open country and the
region.

Shelter Food work Recreation Social life

CITY = + + + +
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
GEDDISIAN TRIAD

Organic relation ship between


Socio
Physical&
Economical environment
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Planning concept

Geddes was the originator of the idea and technique of Regional survey and city survey

Head of valley section


CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Planning concept
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Planning concept

Highlights:

1.Old town issue ..>>> new town issue


difficulties ...>>> opportunities

2. Lack of contact .>>> cooperation

3. Civic survey..>>> value to be considered


CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Planning concept

Highlights :

Removal/renewal process
Slum removal
Not encourage grid pattern
Smooth traffic
Spot study is necessity
More spacies
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Application
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Planning concept
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Planning concept

DELHI NCR London , UK


CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
Planning concept
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
OUTLOOK TOWER
CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT |
OUTLOOK TOWER
GRID CONCEPT |

Le Corbusier 1887-1965
He was a French architect whose ideas have greatly influenced the modern town planning

Corbusier wanted man to live in urban life in truth with security and ease collectively and individually.

The meaning and idea of visual order and relationship and the city as a synthesis of form embracing verities of
structures and systems is the theme repeatedly proclaimed by him.
GRID CONCEPT |

He tried to create totally different world from the exiting ones . He wanted to grow with the machine and take full
advantage of its potential for speed and verticality .

He depended on pure forms.


eg. 1.Contemporary city 2. Radiant city 3. Linear city

1.5 million population


3 million population
GRID CONCEPT |

Background
ofcity developmentin

th
the early 20 century
GRID CONCEPT |
Background of city development in the early 20th century

Its impact and influence can be seen mainly in the following aspects:
1) The growth of industry in city attracted a large number of people flowing into the city causing the increase of the density
of urban population.
2) The traditional urban pattern has been broken by the industrialization needs, and a new structure with the commercial
and industrial centers, transport hub centers has been formed.
3) The industrial development as well as population expansion has led to the traffic congestions.
4) The city has been polluted because of the industrial production and the living condition was very poor.
GRID CONCEPT |
Le Corbusiers principles of reconstruction and development of cities

Corbusier advocated urban centralism and believed that this form can bring energy to the city.

By centralization of the space and transformation of function the new urban environment can be created to meet the
requirement of modern society. Le Corbusier considered that the main problems in city were the greatly increasing
density of population in city center, the conflict between the growth of the number and speed of transportation and the
existing road system and the lack of enough green land and public space to provide enough sunshine, good ventilation
and outdoor activities.
GRID CONCEPT |
LE CORBUSIER'S FOUR PRINCIPLE IN CITY PLANNING

1) Decrease the congestion in the city center

2) Increase the density of population in city center

3) Diversify ways of transportation

4) Expand the green area


GRID CONCEPT |

Le Corbusier
1.Contemporary city
GRID CONCEPT |

Le Corbusier's City for Three Million


GRID CONCEPT |
GRID CONCEPT |
GRID CONCEPT |

Le Corbusier's City for Three Million


GRID CONCEPT |

Le Corbusier
2.Radial city
GRID CONCEPT |

Dwelling area
GRID CONCEPT |
GRID CONCEPT |

Le Corbusier
3.Linear city
GRID CONCEPT |
GRID CONCEPT |
GRID CONCEPT |

Le Corbusier
Chandigarh planning
GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning

Genesis of the city


CHANDIGARH was the first planned city after independence from
British rule in 1947. It is the capital city of the states of Punjab and
Haryana.

The city is located at the picturesque junction of foothills of the


Himalayas Mountain range and the Ganges plains.

It houses a population of 1 ,054,600 inhabitants (2001 ) and is


one of the richest cities of the nation.

American architects Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki were the


first architects to be appointed for the project.

After the death of Novicki in 1950, Le Corbusier was


commissioned.
GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning
GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning
Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of
Chandigarh as analogous to human body,
with a clearly

Head (the Capitol Codified mplex, Sector 1 ),

Heart (the City Centre Sector-17),

Lungs (the leisure valley, innumerable open


spaces and sector greens),

Intellect (the cultural and educational institutions),

Circulatory system (the network


of roads,the 7Vs) and

Viscera (the Industrial Area).


GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning
In 1951 It Was Given To Le Corbusier

In Chandigarh Le Corbusier System Of Self Supporting


Neighborhood Unit Known as a Sector Has Worked Very Well

Sector Which Is Introverted In Character Communicates Only


At 4 Junctions With The Adjoining Neighbourhood Units

All The Houses Open Up Inside

Grid Planning Is Done

Chandigarh Planning Was Done In An Manner That Everything


Was Easily Clear About The Routes And Sectors

7 Vs Road System Is Used

The Roads Are Classified As V1 ,V2 ,V3v7

Corbusier's conceptual sketch showing the v-road system


GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning

The basic planning of the city is a sector:

To accommodate 3,000 to 25,000 persons.


30 sectors in Chandigarh
24 are residential.
The sectors surrounded by high speed roads
bus stops every 400m.

The main principle of the sector is that never a door will


open on the surrounding of fast vehicular road.

The size of the sector is based on the concept of no


pedestrian need to walk for more than 10min .
GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning

The primary module of citys design is a Sector, a neighborhood


unit of size 800 meters x 1200 meters.

Each SECTOR is a self-sufficient unit having shops, school, health


centers and places of recreations and worship.

The population of a sector varies between 3000 and 20000


depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the
area.
GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning
A Hierarchy of Green Spaces can be observed
in the layout ranging from Public Greens at
City Level to Semi-Private to Private Green
Areas
GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning

The Leisure Valley is a green sprawling space extending


North-East to South-West along a seasonal river let
gradient and was conceived by Le Corbusier as the lungs
of the city.

Apart from large Public Parks and special Botanical


Gardens, it houses series of Fitness Trails, amphitheaters
and spaces for open-air exhibitions.
GRID CONCEPT |
Chandigarh planning