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AIM

To determine the resistance of the given wire and hence to calculate the resistance

per unit length.

APPARATUS

Resistance wire, battery eliminator, one way key , Voltmeter, Ammeter, Rheostat

THEORY

Ohms law states that the current flowing through a conductor is directly

proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor provided the

temperature remains constant.

VI

V = IR

where R=V/I is called the resistance of the conductor. Resistance is the opposition offered by

the conductor to the flow of current due to the attraction of the free electrons by the atoms

of the conductor.

If l is the length of the wire then the resistance per unit length=R/l

Procedure :

2. Clean the ends of the connecting wires with sand paper and make them shiny.

3. Make the connections as per circuit diagram. All connections must be neat and tight.

Take care to connect the ammeter and voltmeter with their correct polarity. (+ve to +ve and

-ve to -ve).

4. Determine the zero error and least count of the ammeter and voltmeter and record them.

6. Insert the key K and slide the rheostat contact to see whether the ammeter and voltmeter

are showing deflections properly.

11. The graph will be a straight line which verifies Ohm's law.

12. Determine the slope of the V-I graph. The reciprocal of the slope gives resistance of the

wire.

13. Measure the length of the resistance wire and calculate the resistance per unit length.

Precautions :

3. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is passed for a

long time there will be heating of the wire.

4. Rheostat should be of low resistance.

5. Check for zero corrections of voltmeter and ammeter.

Result

Sources of Error

1.Non uniform cross section of the wire.

2. Loose screws of the instruments.

3. High resistance of the rheostat.

4. Resistance of coil may change due to over heating.

Circuit Diagram:

A=Ammeter

V=Voltmeter

R= Resistance wire

K=Key

Observations:

Least count of the given voltmeter = .....................V.

reading Voltmeter reading Ammeter the wire

reading (V) reading (I) R=V/I

Volts Amperes

Volts Amperes ohms

1

2

3

4

5

6

Calculations

Mean Resistance of the wire R =

EXPERIMENT- 2

METRE BRIDGE- SPECIFIC RESISTANCE

AIM

To determine the unknown resistance of a wire and hence to calculate the specific

resistance of the wire.

APPARATUS

Metre bridge, Resistance wire , battery eliminator, one way key , resistance box ,

galvanometer , jockey , and connecting wires.

THEORY

R1 = R3

R2 R4

position on the metre-bridge wire

R = Sl / (100-l)

PROCEDURE

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Touch the jockey at the left end and

then at the right end of the metre bridge wire AB. If the galvanometer shows opposite

deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.

Now introduce a resistance S in the resistance box in the right gap such that the

galvanometer shows zero deflection almost at the middle of the wire AB. Touch the jockey

on the left end A of the wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no

deflection. Measure the balancing length AJ from the left(l).Take at least six observations by

changing the value of the resistance S in the Resistance box S. Calculate the resistance R

using the formula R = Sl / (100-l)

Determine the diameter of the wire using a screw gauge and length of the wire using

ascale. Hence calculate the specific resistance of the wire.

Precautions

1.The ends of the connecting wires should be rubbed and clean with sand

paper.

5. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is

passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.

6. A high resistance to be used in series to the galavanometer to protect it from

flow of high current.

Result :

Source of Error

1. The wire of the metre bridge may not be of uniform area of cross section

through out its length.

2. Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.

3. The screw guage may have backlash error.

4. Error in measuring the length.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Observations:

Resistance of wire

the resistance (l) cm resistance

(100-l) cm

box

R = Sl / (100-l)

S ()

()

1

5

Mean value of the resistance , R = ohms

Length of wire,L = .. cm = m

Diameter of wire

Zero correction =

Pitch scale Circular Corrected Corrected Observed

reading(PSR) Scale CSR = CSRXLC diameter =

reading(CSR) CSR+Zero PSR+(corrected

mm mm

correction CSRXLC)

mm

1

Calculations

Mean diameter,d = mm

EXPERIMENT 3

AIM

APPARATUS

Metre bridge, Two Resistances , battery eliminator, one way key , resistance box ,

galvanometer , jockey , and connecting wires.

THEORY

R1 = R3

R2 R4

position on the metre-bridge wire

R = Sl / (100-l)

resistance is given by

R = R1 + R2

PROCEDURE

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Touch the jockey at the left end and

then at the right end of the metre bridge wire AB. If the galvanometer shows opposite

deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.

Now introduce a resistance S in the resistance box in the right gap such that the

galvanometer shows zero deflection almost at the middle of the wire AB. Touch the jockey

on the left end A of the wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no

deflection. Measure the balancing length and calculate the resistance R1 using the formula.

Repeat the experiment for different values of S and find the average resistance of wire R1.

Now replace the first wire in the left gap with the second wire and find the resistance

R2 by the same procedure. Now connect the series combination of resistors in the left gap

and determine the resistance Rs. Compare the experimental and theoretical values of

resistance in series combination.

Precautions

1.The ends of the connecting wires should be rubbed and clean with sand

paper.

5. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is

passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.

6. A high resistance to be used in series to the galavanometer to protect it from

flow of high current.

Result :

Source of Error

1. The wire of the metrebridge may not be of uniform area of cross section

through out its length.

2. Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.

3. The screw guage may have backlash error.

4. Error in measuring the length.

Write the following in left side

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

R-Unknown resistance

S- Resistance box

J- Jockey

E- Battery eliminator

K- Key

Observations:

No in the length resistance Resistance

resistance

(l) R = Sl / (100-l)

box

() cm cm () ()

3

1

3

1

Series 2 R s=

combination

3

Calculations

EXPERIMENT 4

AIM

(i) To study the variation of angle of deviation (d) with angle of incidence (i) and to

find the angle of minimum deviation (D) from i-d curve.

(ii) To find the refractive index of the material of the prism using A and D.

Materials required:

Glass prism

Drawing board

Paper

Pins

Scale

Pencil

Protractor

Theory:

The angle through which the emergent ray deviates from the direction of

incident ray is called angle of deviation 'd'.

reaches minimum value. If the angle of incidence is further increased, the angle of

deviation is increased.

A graph is drawn between angle of incidence (i) and angle of deviation (d) by

taking angle of incidence i along X-axis and angle of deviation d along Y-axis. It

should be a curve as shown below.

The angle of minimum deviation is obtained from the graph. Let D be the

angle of minimum deviation, then the refractive index (n) of the material of the prism

is calculated using the formula,

Procedure:

Place the given glass prism on the center of the paper.

Using the pencil, mark the outline ABC of the prism on the paper.

Remove the prism, and using the scale and pencil, normal NN is drawn to the

face AB .

Using the protractor, measure an angle 30 from the normal.

Another line is drawn making the angle 30 (angle of incidence i) with the

normal.

Viewing the pins from the face AC of the prism, two other pins Rand S are

fixed so that P,Q,R and S are in a line.

meet at a common point G.

Using the protractor, measure the angle HGM. This is the angle of deviation d.

Repeat the experiment for different values of angle of incidence i and the

corresponding angle of deviations are measured.

Draw a graph with angle of incidence i along the X-axis and angle of deviation

d along the Y axis.

The angle of deviation corresponding to the lowest bend of the curve is the

angle of minimum deviation D.

Angle of the prism A is directly measured from the outline of the prism using

the protractor.

Calculate the refractive index of the material of the prism using the formula,

Precautions

1. The drawing pins should be fixed vertically and their tips should be sharp.

2. Use a sharp pencil

5. For all observations use the same prism

Result

A graph showing the variation of angle of deviation with the angle of incidence

is plotted.

Angle of minimum deviation, D = --------

Refractive index of material of the prism, n = ------------

Sources of Error

2. Improper measuring of angles.

3. Lack of smooth curve in graph.

Observations:

Sl No. Angle of Incidence (i) Angle of Deviation (d)

1 30

2 35

3 40

4 45

5 50

6 55

7 60

Calculations:

From graph, angle of minimum deviation D = ------------

Refractive index of the material of the prism,

EXPERIMENT 5

AIM

APPARATUS

Metre bridge, Two Resistances , battery eliminator, one way key , resistance box ,

galvanometer , jockey , and connecting wires.

THEORY

R1 = R3

R2 R4

When the galvanometer current is made zero by adjusting the jockey position

on the metre-bridge wire

R = Sl / (100-l)

resistance is given by

1/Rp = 1/R1 + 1/R2

Rp=R1R2/(R1+R2)

PROCEDURE

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Touch the jockey at the left end and

then at the right end of the metre bridge wire AB. If the galvanometer shows opposite

deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.

Now introduce a resistance S in the resistance box in the right gap such that the

galvanometer shows zero deflection almost at the middle of the wire AB. Touch the jockey

on the left end A of the wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no

deflection. Measure the balancing length and calculate the resistance R1 using the formula.

Repeat the experiment for different values of S and find the average resistance of wire R1.

Now replace the first wire in the left gap with the second wire and find the resistance

R2 by the same procedure. Now connect the parallel combination of resistors in the left gap

and determine the resistance Rp. Compare the experimental and theoretical values of

resistance in parallel combination.

Precautions

1.The ends of the connecting wires should be rubbed and clean with sand

paper.

5. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is

passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.

6. A high resistance to be used in series to the galavanometer to protect it from

flow of high current.

Result :

Source of Error

5. The wire of the metrebridge may not be of uniform area of cross section

through out its length.

6. Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.

7. The screw guage may have backlash error.

8. Error in measuring the length.

Write the following in left side

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

R-Unknown resistance

S- Resistance box

J- Jockey

E- Battery eliminator

K- Key

Observations:

No in the length resistance Resistance

resistance

(l) R = Sl / (100-l)

box

() cm cm () ()

3

1

3

1

Parallel 2 Rp=

combination

3

Calculations

EXPERIMENT 6

POTENTIOMETER (COMPARISON OF EMFs)

Aim :

To compare the emf of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.

Apparatus required :

Potentiometer , Battery eliminator,Two primary cells, one way Key, two way key, Rheostat,

Galvanometer, resistance Box

Theory :

E 1 = l1

Similarly, if another cell of emf E2 is balanced against the length l2, we have

E 1 = l1

E1 / E2 = l1 /l2

Procedure

Connect the different components as per the circuit diagram. Now, touch the

jockey at the two ends P and Q of the potentiometer wire. If the galvanometer shows

opposite deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.

By adjusting the two-way key plug in the first cell E1 in the circuit. . Touch the jockey

on the end P of the potentiometer wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer

shows no deflection. Measure the balancing length l1.

Now using the two way key plug in the second cell E2 in the circuit and measure the

balancing length l2.

Repeat the experiment by changing the current by slightly moving the rheostat

contact. Find the average ratio of emfs.

Precautions

2. All positive terminals should be connected to one point.

3. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is

passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.

4. Length should be measured from the point where all positive are

connected.

5. Jockey should not be pressed on wire too hard.

Result :

Sources of Error

Potentiometer wire may be not be having uniform cross section through out its

length.

Circuit diagram

Rh: Rheostat

E1 , E2: primary cells

K : Key

K1, K2:Two way key

G: Galvanometer

PQ: Potentiometer wire

RB: High Resistance Box

J : Jockey

Observations:

S.No Balancing length when Balancing length Ratio of emfs

E1 is in the circuit (l1) when E2 is in the

circuit (l2)

cm cm

1

Calculations

Average ratio of emfs(experimental value) = .

Theoretical value

EXPERIMENT 7

AIM

its figure of merit.

Materials Required

A battery or battery eliminator

Two resistance boxes

Two one-way keys

Connecting wires

Theory

A galvanometer is a device used to detect feeble electric currents in a circuit.

It consists of a coil suspended between the poles of a powerful magnet. As current

passes through the coil, it deflects. It can be detected from the deflection on

galvanometer needle. The deflection is proportional to the current passed through it.

deflection of one division in the galvanometer scale. It is represented by the letter k,

and is given as,

k= E/(R+G)

Procedure

Arrange the components on a table and connect them as per the circuit

diagram.

Make sure that plugs of the resistance boxes are tight.

Take out a high resistance from the resistance box 1 and insert the key k 1.

Adjust the resistance from this resistance box to get maximum galvanometer

deflection.

Note the deflection and record it as in the tubular column.

Insert the key k2 also, without changing the value on the resistance box.

Now, adjust the resistance from the low resistance box such that

galvanometer shows deflection which is exactly half of the previous reading.

Record the value of low resistance box S.

We can repeat the experiment by changing the value of high resistance R and

adjusting low resistance S.

The resistance of the given galvanometer can be calculated each time by

using the relation G= RS/(R-S).

We can find the figure of merit of the galvanometer by using the equation,

k= E/(R+G)

Precautions

2. All the plugs in the resistance box should be made tight.

3. Emf of cell should be constant.

4. Use high resistance voltmeter to measure the emf of cell.

5. Before inserting plug in key K2 introduce some resistance in the Shunt

resistance box to avoid short circuit of the cell.

Result

The figure of merit of the given galvanometer, k =---------- Amp / div.

Sources of error

1. Loose plugs in the resistance box.

2. Emf of battery may not be constant

3. Unequal size of divisions on the galvanometer.

4. Error in the resistance coils in the Resistance box.

Circuit diagram

E- Battery of emf E

G- Galvanometer

Observations

Emf of the cell , E =

R resistance Deflection galvanometer Galvanometer

S /2 G= RS/(R-S)

k= E/(R+G)

Amp/Div

5

Calculations

Mean figure of merit of the given galvanometer, k =---------- Amp / div.

EXPERIMENT 8

AIM

APPARATUS REQUIRED

THEORY

Focal length is the distance between the pole and principal focus.

f = uv

u+v

where u= Object distance

v= Image distance

f= focal length

PROCEDURE

1. Rough Focal length

towards a distant object like distant tree or window. A screen is adjusted on the

other side of the mirror to get a clear image. The distance between the mirror

and screen is measured as the rough focal length(f).

a definite distance (say u= 13 cm) from the pole of the mirror. A screen is

adjusted on the other side of the mirror to get a clear image. The distance

between the mirror and screen is measured as the image distance (v). Hence

foal length is calculated using the formula

f = uv

u+v

The experiment is repeated for different object distances u and average focal

length is calculated.

PRECAUTIONS

1.All the distances should be measured from the pole of the lens.

2. The object, mirror and screen should be in the same horizontal level.

PRECAUTIONS

2. The object should be in line with the pole of the mirror. The

aperture of the mirror should be small.

3. All the distances should be measured from the pole of the mirror.

4.

RESULT

SOURCES OF ERROR

Write the following in left side

RAY DIAGRAM

P- Pole

F- focus

C- Centre of curvature

u- Object distance

v- Image distance

f- focal length

OBSERVATIONS

Radius of curvature , R = 2f = cm

distance distance

f = f = uv

(u) (v)

u+v

cm cm cm

1 18

2 20

3 25

4 30

5 35

6 40

EXPERIMENT 9

POTENTIOMETER (INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A CELL)

potentiometer.

Apparatus required :

Potentiometer , Battery eliminator, One primary cell, one way Key, Rheostat,

Galvanometer,Resistance Box

Theory :

Resistance offered by the electrolyte of a cell to the flow of ions inside the

electric cell is its internal resistance.

Formula to determine the internal resistance of a cell using potentiometer is

given by

r=

where r = internal resistance of the cell

l1 = balancing length for the emf of the cell (open circuit)

l2 = balancing length for the potential difference of the cell(closed circuit)

R = external resistance

Procedure

Connect the different components as per the circuit diagram. Now, touch the jockey at the

two ends P and Q of the potentiometer wire. If the galvanometer shows opposite deflections

in the two cases the connections are correct.

Introduce a resistance R in the shunt resistance box. Keep the key K2 open. So the

emf of the cell E act in the circuit. Touch the jockey on the end P of the potentiometer wire

and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no deflection. Measure the balancing

length l1.

Now close the key K2 also. So the terminal potential difference of the cell V acts in

the circuit. Measure the balancing length l2 for the terminal potential difference. Calculate

the internal resistance r of the cell using the formula.

Repeat the experiment by changing the value of resistance R in the shunt resistance

box and find the average internal resistance r.

Precautions :

1. Ensure that emf of driver cell is greater than emf of primary cell.

2. All positive terminals should be connected to one point.

3. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is

passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.

4. Length should be measured from the point where all positive are

connected.

5. Jockey should not be pressed on wire too hard.

Result :

Sources of Error

Potentiometer wire may be not be having uniform cross section through out its

length.

Circuit Diagram

Rh: Rheostat

E: Primary cell

K1 ,K2: Keys

R : Resistance Box

RB : High Resistance

G: Galvanometer

PQ: Potentiometer wire

J : Jockey

Observations

resistance length for emf terminal potential

(K2 open) difference(K2 closed)

R r=

l1 l2

() cm cm ()

1

2

3

4

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