DR HOLLAND – 9GEO3

Tourism Research Report
The Great Sphinx of Giza- Guardian of the horizon.
Bebe Lees Date Due: 30th August 2010

Contents
1- Introduction 2- Location 3- Description 4- Statistics 5- Impacts
Figure 1. The Great Sphinx of Giza 6- Conclusion

7- Bibliography

Introduction

The Sphinx of Giza is a symbol that has represented the essence of Egypt for thousands of years. Carved from the sandstone of the Giza plateau, the sphinx represents strength and wisdom. In this report I will refer to the history of the Sphinx, the importance of the Sphinx to Egypt’s economy, how tourism has changed over time in Egypt and the impacts and benefits tourism has on Egypt.

Location

Figure 2. Location Description of Giza Egypt

Legend:

- Location of The Sphinx is a mythological creature with a feline body with a human Sphinx head. In ancient Egyptian tradition, Sphinx statues were used as royal - Water tombs or religious temples. The largest Sphinx found is the Great Sphinx - Land of Giza, located on the Giza plateau on the west bank of the Nile River. N Surrounding (Egypt Cairo, accessed on the 19th of August- 2010) The Sphinx is the countries largest monolith statue in the world, standing 74 meters long, 6 meters wide, and 20 meters high. (Egypt Cairo, accessed on the 19th of August 2010)
< http://sistercities.lacity.org/images/map/giza.jpg Date: 15th August 2010. Edited by B. Lees using Microsoft Word and MSPaint

One reason why the Sphinx is such a well known attraction is because of its age and uniqueness. The age of the sphinx is still unknown, with guesses varying between six-thousand and even thirteen-thousand years old, but it was constructed during the period when pharaoh Khafra 3. Giza - Egypt Figure ruled Egypt, between 2520 and 2494. (The Great Sphinx, Egypt, accessed on the 19th of August 2010) As shown in the annotated image below, weathering and erosion has damaged the sphinx. The nose, beard, paint, design and some parts of the lion’s body are missing. Tourists, along with locals, are amazed by what’s known as “The riddle of the Sphinx”. Because of the limited writing on and around the sphinx, not much is known about its history. A piece of stone covered in writing called the Dream Stela tells of a young prince who fell asleep against the parts
> http://pymd.com/giza-map-names-prisse.jpg Scale: promising him kingship over Egypt Unknown. Date: 15th August 2010

untouched by the sand drifts and dreamed the sphinx talked to him, if he could clear all of the sand. (Monuments of the world, accessed on the 19th of August 2010) The Sphinx, along with other tourist attractions, is very important in Egypt. Along with providing jobs to people and income to businesses, tourism also has a big impact on the lives of the locals. With tourists
N

coming from all over the world, Egyptians have a great understanding and respect for different cultures, and tourists also have a great understanding of the lives and culture of Egypt.

The sphinx used to be painted, but weathering has faded it.

Figure 4. The Great Sphinx of Giza.
Erosion has also destroyed the original design and detail of the sphinx

Path all around the sphinx so tourists can get a view from all sides

Statistics
20.22m high 73.5m long The Dream Stella- the only writing on the sphinx, part of the ‘Riddle of the Sphinx’.

6m wide

Source: The Sphinx http://www.toptenz.net/wpcontent/uploads/2010/08/great-sphinx-mystery.jpg Date: 15th August 2010. Annotated by B. Lees using Microsoft Word

2006 Tourism $million) 7, 591
Figure 7- Tourism receipts receipts (US

2007 9, 303

2008 10, 572

Figure 5. Egypt Statistics, accessed on the 19th of August 2010, Figure 6. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. Accessed on the 21st of August 2010 Figure 7. Egypt Statistics, accessed on the 22nd of August 2010

As shown in the table to the left (Figure 7), between 2006 and 2008, there has been an increase of $2,981 brought in by tourists between 2006 and 2008. This could be because of the growing interest in Egypt’s culture and attractions leading to more tourists. In figure 5, tourism contributes to most of Egypt’s gross domestic product (GDP). In 2002 tourism contributed to 26% of Egypt’s GDP. As shown in figure 6. The highest percentage of tourists to Egypt comes from Europe, probably because they have come to get a greater understanding of Egypt. Tourist

Impacts
Positive Social •

(Egypt Statistics, Tourism and Sustainable Development in Egypt UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. Volume 6. No# 2. June 2008 accessed on the 19th of August 2010,)

Negative

Egyptians develop a greater understanding of different cultures due to the multiple countries of origin tourists come from

Communities crowded with tourists, traffic congestion

Economic

Supplies jobs for locals i.e. tour guide

Other businesses competing with tourism

Income for accommodation and souvenir shops

Environmental

Income is used to help conserve the Sphinx and surrounding area

Tourists may not understand the environment and how to sustain it.

Too many tourists can destroy fragile monuments

Conclusion
The Great Sphinx of Giza is a wonderful monument showing off Egypt’s great history and tradition. The mystery surrounding the Sphinx attracts tourists from all over the world to come and experience its true beauty for themselves. The numbers of tourists arriving in Egypt are increasing every year, businesses are thriving, and there is growing interest in Egypt’s culture and society. In my opinion, the benefits of tourism outweigh the negatives of tourism at this time, however, in the future with more technology and possibly less care for the ancient world; the interest in this area may decrease.

Bibliography
References: Websites: Egypt Tourism, Egypt Cairo, accessed on the 19th of August 2010, http://www.egypt-cairo.com/egypt_tourism.html The Great Sphinx, Egypt, accessed on the 19th of August 2010, http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/the-great-sphinx.html The Great Sphinx of Giza, Monuments of the world, accessed on the 19th of August 2010, http://www.guardians.net/egypt/sphinx/ Tourism and Sustainable Development in Egypt, accessed on the 26th of August 2010, http://www.planbleu.org/publications/livreblanc_egy.pdf

Books: Martin, J 2009, Who built the pyramids? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Images: Figure 1. The Great Sphinx of Giza, accessed on the 18th August 2010, http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/geography_images/Egypt_Sphin x_Giza_Pyramid.jpg Figure 2. Map of Egypt, accessed on the 15th of August 2010, http://sistercities.lacity.org/images/map/giza.jpg Figure 3. The Sphinx.

Figure 4. The Great Sphinx of Giza, accessed on the 15th of August 2010, http://www.toptenz.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/great-sphinxmystery.jpg Figure 5. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. Volume 6. No# 2. June 2008) accessed on the 21st of August 2010 http://www.tourismroi.com/Content_Attachments/27670/File_6335137500 35785076.pdf Figure 6. Tourism and Sustainable Development in Egypt, accessed on the 26th of August 2010, http://www.planbleu.org/publications/livreblanc_egy.pdf Figure 7. Egypt Statistics, accessed on the 19th of August 2010, http://www.euromonitor.com/factfile.aspx?country=EG

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