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CHAPTER I

INCREASING VOCABULARY KNOWLAEDGE BY GUESSING FROM

CONTEXT

I. Background of the study

Vocabulary is a listing of words and frequently phrases, generally organized


alphabetically and described or translated; a lexicon or thesaurus. (Definition of
vocabulary via the loose on line Dictionary, word list and Encyclopedia.htm).
meanwhile Graves (2000, as referred to in Taylor, 1990) defines vocabulary as the
whole store of phrases belonging to a branch of knowledge or recognized by an
individual. He also states that the lexicon of a language is its vocabulary, which
includes phrases and expressions. while Krashen (1998, as noted in Herrel, 2004)
extends Graves definition in addition with the aid of mentioning that lexicon
organizes the intellectual vocabulary in a speakers mind.

An individuals intellectual lexicon is that man or womans knowledge of


vocabulary (Krashen, 1998, as referred to in Herrel, 2004). Miller (1999, as noted
in Zimmerman, 2007) states that vocabulary is a fixed of phrases which can be the
basic constructing blocks used inside the generation and expertise of sentences.
The cause of vocabulary getting to know should include both remembering words
and the ability to apply them mechanically in a huge variety of language context
whilst the need arises (Mc Carthy, 1984).

Children's vocabulary acquisition is also found to be improved when they are


actively encouraged to participate through activities such as labelling words (e.g.
Senechal, Thomas & Monker, 1995), answering open-ended questions
(Whitehurst et al. 1988), and engaging in analysis and prediction as the stories are
being read (Dickinson & Smith, 1994).

Hunt (1996) implied that inferring meaning from context will work best when
learners have the ability to recognize several thousand high-frequency words in
context that is not too challenging for readers. This is consistent with Laufers
lexical threshold (as cited in Coady & Huckin, 1997). Furthermore, Nation
(2001) illustrious between methods of learning vocabulary and teaching it. On the
other hand, he stated that learning vocabulary might come through three main
techniques: namely, noticing; retrieving; and generating. Guessing words, from
the context, was one of the noticing methods. On the other hand, he explained that
vocabulary could be taught, in classrooms, through massed or spaced repetition;
by communicating meaning or rich instruction. Another classification stated that
learning vocabulary came through two main types: namely, metacognitive; and
cognitive. Guessing, from the context, was part of both of them (Gu & Johnson,
1996). Moreover, guessing, from the context, could be learnt deductively, which
was more suitable for young learners, or inductively which was suitable for
teaching learners how to use clues successfully (Nation, 2001).
Technical vocabulary is words or phrases that are primarily used in a specific
line of work orprofession. For example, an electrician needs to know technical
words such as capacitor and surge capacity, words that people outside that
industry never use. Academic vocabulary on the other hand is the vocabulary
critical to understanding the concepts of the content taught in schools (Stahl and
Fairbanks, 1986 as cited in Zwiers, 2008).

I.1 Empirical reason


According to my observation, the score of vocabulary lack of the minimum
score.

I.2 Statement of the problem


There are several factors that affect the lack of knowledge about reading, one
of which is the lack of ability of students in vocabulary. Vocabulary plays an
important role for students hone their reading skills. By way of guessing from
context, students are expected to increase their vocabulary and comprehension in
reading. According to the background, the researcher tries to propose research
problem, as question as follow:

a. How can an effectiveness of vocabulary by guessing context to improve

reading ability of students?


I.3 Purpose of the study
Based on statement of problem, the purposes of study are:
1. To improve the reading ability of students in English language through
Vocabulary by guessing context
2. To know the effect of vocabulary by guessing from context method to the
reading ability of students

I.4 Significance of the study


- theoretical of study
The result is expected to detect the significant effect the use of vocabulary by
guessing from context to improve the reading ability for the students in SMP
NU 2 Gresik.
- Practical significance of the Study
The expectation of the researcher can develop education and also reading skill
of the students of the school. For teacher and school, they can use more better
media or material for the students when the students learning vocabulary. It
can support students to more active and enthusiasm to follow the lessons.
The end result of the research is expected to be useful data and a reference for
the english trainer of SMP NU 2 Gresik. they're additionally expected to present a
new perception in improving English analyzing comprehension through by way
of the use of contextual guessing method.

I.5 Action hypothesis

I.6 Definition of key terms

Master learning in the classroom is not easy for teachers. In developing


learning in English class required special techniques to attract students. So that the
learning in the classroom can be more effective. To create a more interactive
classroom, the teacher must prepare components such as learning media, learning
strategies and learning techniques.

Teaching and learning process in the junior high school are different

from teaching and learning in kindergarten or elementary level. There are some
aspects which close with the students psychology whereas students of junior high

school are included in the teenagers position. Teacher should be more understand

how to develop the material well. So, it needs an appropriate technique and media

for teaching them.

In english lanage learning, There are four skills, listening, spaking,

reading and writing. Concerning with the explanation above, in teaching english

need some technique in order the students can have spirit and mastery vocabulary

easily. One of techniques in teaching vocabulary is trough games

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


II. Reading

2.1 Definition of reading

Reading can be seen as an interactive technique among a reader and a


text which results in automaticity or (studying fluency). in this manner, the reader
interacts actively with the textual content as he/she attempts to elicit the meaning
and wherein various forms of knowledge are being used: linguistic or systemic
know-how (thru bottom-up processing) as well as schematic expertise (via top-
down processing). for the reason that analyzing is a complex system, Grabe
argues that many researchers try to recognize and explain the fluent studying
method by means of studying the procedure into a set of thing talents (1991, p.
379)

Analyzing is a important skill that any learner desires. regrettably, how to


train studying has no longer been given due care in a few colleges. in the past,
consistent with the conventional view, reading begins with the kid's getting to
know the names of the letters, learning the letter-sound relationships, then,
gaining knowledge of a few smooth words in isolation, and, subsequently, reading
easy testimonies with tremendously managed vocabularies (Harp and Brewer,
1996: 17).

Goodman in Burt, Peyton, and Adams (2003: 33) states that analyzing is

basically the system of getting critical and meaningful facts from written

language. The interaction between the readers cognition and the textual content is

visible to be the natural interest that occurs while a reader is studying.

2.2 The significance of reading


Hedge (2003) states that any reading component of an English language
course may include a set of learning goals for
a. The ability to read a wide range of texts in English. This is the long-range goal
most teachers seek to develop through independent readers outside EFL/ESL
classroom.
b. Building a knowledge of language which will facilitate reading ability
c. Building schematic knowledge
d. The ability to adapt the reading style according to reading purpose (i.e.
skimming, scanning)
e. Developing an awareness of the structure of written texts in English
f. Taking a critical stance to the contents of the texts.
In reading, learners vocabulary size affects their comprehension of a reading
text (Nuttall, 1989), while in writing, vocabulary contribute to the success in
writing compositions up to 20% of the achievement level (Hartfiel, et al., 1985).

2.3 Concept of Reading


Studying is an interactive and optimistic system regarding the reader, the
text, and the context of the reading enjoy. reading involve the improvement of an
knowledge of text, considering text in special approaches, and using variety of
textual content sorts for extraordinary reason (from the framework for the NAEP
reading assessment, Grigg, Daane, Jin, & Campbel,2003, P.3). different definition
that studying is a complex developmental challenge that we realize to be
intertwined with many others developmental accomplishments : attention,
reminiscence, language, and motivation. For instance, studying isn't only a
cognitive Psycholinguistic pastime but also asocial activity. ( snow, burns &
Griffin, 1998, P. 15).
One in every of any other abilties should be carried out by students is
analyzing, and it is able tot be denied that analyzing is one of the crucial factor in
the student ability. The definition of studying in step with Nunan (1989:17) in his
ebook said that analyzing is a procedure of interpreting written symbols, running
from smaller gadgets (person letters) to larges ones (phrases, clauses and
sentences). any other definition is come from Grigg, Daane, Jin, & Campbel
(2003) reading is an interactive and positive system concerning the reader, the
textual content, and the context of the reading enjoy. reading involve the
improvement of an expertise of text, thinking about text in special ways, and the
usage of variety of textual content types for exclusive cause.
1.3 Strategies of Reading
Language teachers are often pissed off with the aid of the truth that
students do now not mechanically transfer the techniques they use whilst reading
of their local language to studying in a language they are studying. as a substitute,
they appear to assume studying means starting at the beginning and going phrase
by way of phrase, stopping to appearance up every unknown vocabulary object,
till they reach the give up. when they do that, college students are relying
completely on their linguistic knowledge, a bottom-up approach. one of the most
critical functions of the language instructor, then, is to help students move past
this concept and use pinnacle-down strategies as they do of their native language.
Effective language instructors display students how they can adjust their
analyzing behavior to cope with a selection of conditions, types of input, and
reading purposes. They assist college students increase a hard and fast of reading
techniques and in shape suitable strategies to each studying scenario. Techniques
that could assist students examine more speedy and efficiently consist of :
1. Previewing, reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions to get a
experience of the structure and content material of a analyzing selection
2. Predicting, the usage of knowledge of the problem count to make predictions
approximately content and vocabulary and test comprehension; the use of
know-how of the textual content kind and motive to make predictions
approximately discourse shape; the usage of expertise about the author to
make predictions about writing fashion, vocabulary, and content material
3. Skimming and scanning: using a short survey of the text to get the primary
idea, identify text shape, confirm or query predictions
4. Guessing from context: the usage of previous know-how of the subject and the
thoughts inside the textual content as clues to the meanings of unknown
words, in preference to stopping to appearance them up
5. Paraphrasing: preventing on the cease of a phase to check comprehension with
the aid of restating the information and ideas inside the text
6. The Purpose of Reading
There are six purpose in reading. They are :
a. To be able to identify and remember specific facts as a main idea
b. To enjoy/relax
c. To be able to follow instruction to reach a goal
d. To critical the logic or data presented
e. To study according to an assignment or test requirement
f. To solve problems
In while-reading activities, students check their comprehension as they
read. The purpose for reading determines the appropriate type and level of
comprehension.

1.4 The Important of Reading


Ach person is aware of reading is critical, but have you ever requested
your self why is it so essential? here I listing out 8 motives why reading is vital.
desire you may virtually find out the purpose why analyzing is so important for
you, so that you got a current will to discover the area of studying. So why
analyzing is essential?
a. Building Knowledge
The use of various studying activities enhances know-how of content.
instructors need to search the expert journals and conference presentations for
those sports. as an instance, a class can study The Diary of Anne Frank, collect
information approximately international struggle II, and look for materials
approximately the Jewish communities, economics, and lifestyle in Europe.
these college students may also analyze extra than the easy capability to retell
the tale of Anne Frank.
b. Building vocabulary
Vocabulary, taught in context, enhances expertise. concept mapping is an
particularly a hit device for social production of know-how. students
awareness on a word and brainstorm definitions, descriptions, examples,
features, and different aspects as they contribute from their private previous
knowledge. Then a few college students search the dictionary for definitions,
roots, prefixes, and suffixes whilst others seek the internet for applications and
gildings of the concept. other students may additionally truly keep their non-
public vocabulary journals associated with the essays. They become aware of
unknown phrases, searching for a relevant definition and pronunciation, and
comprise the phrase in a sentence applicable to the essay.

1.5 Difficulties in Reading


There are some difficulties in reading that frequently accurs. They are :
a. Sub Vocalizing
One undesirable habit that commonly happens is that the readers
unconsciously form word with the lips or in throat in reading the habit of sub
vocalizing in reading, this habit should be aroided abandoned. In this case
Brewton, et al, 1962 : 121 explain : perhaps you have some readings that are
holdovers from the habits you formed when you first learned to read. On such
habit is quite coming among adults is that of unconsciously forming words
with the lips of in the throat such as habit called sub vocalizing.
b. Habit of regression
Brewton, et, al (1962: 122) also point out that another habit to avoid in
reading is that of going back over your track, almost everyone reads in this
way that is by doing the habit of regression. When reading very difficult
materials, the reader sometimes rereads the passage, this habit is allowed.
However, in ordinary reading, that habit should not be frequent because it can
block reading and comprehension. In this following, the emphasize another
habit to avoid is that of going back over tracks. Almost everyone is guilty of
habit of regression to a degree, if you are reading very difficult materials, you
form understanding what come next. But such a return should not be
deliberate one and it should not be frequent on ordinary reading. Do let
yourself jump back and fort of close the of what you are reading, if you keep
reading the next sentence or paragraph may clear what is puzzling you.
c. Word-by-word reading
The reader who reads word by word may provide himsellf and handicap or
roadblock to understand meaning rapidly and to speed his reading in this case
relation. Let us deal with the following statement the word by word reader is
getting his information too slowly. This though wonder, other ideas come and
before long. The reader is not concentrating on the meaning of what his eyes
see because he is unable to keep his mind fully involved. Based on the
statement above, it is abvious that word by word
d. Poor concentration
Concentration is very important in effective reading. The reader can not
submerge himself completely in the reading prices, if he has poor or less
concentrations in reading. Consequently, high reading speed and perfect
comprehension can not be realized well. Therefore, good and high
comprehension is considerable needed. In these relations Bakka (1989:27)
comments that poor concentration makes the readers unable speed up his
reading rate and to get understands all meaning of he passage he is reading. In
this case, he says the effectiveness of every part of the modern reading
technique is depending on the ability to submerge you completely on the
reading process. Concentration is the secret you can not get at your faster
speed ans still get all meanings unless you concentrate.
Bakka (1989: 27). This statement indicates that convention is needed. Of course,
good concentration is extremly needed in reading activity. That is why a reader
should concentrate in reading.

1.6 The Purpose of Reading


There are six purpose in reading. They are :
a. To be able to identify and remember specific facts as a main idea
b. To enjoy/relax
c. To be able to follow instruction to reach a goal
d. To critical the logic or data presented
e. To study according to an assignment or test requirement
f. To solve problems

1.7 Teaching Vocabulary

Sokmen (1997) identified some key vocabulary teaching standards after


undertaking surveys. Examples include:
a. Integrate new words with the antique
b. Offer some of encounters with a phrase
c. Sell a deep degree of processing
d. Facilitate imaging and concreteness
e. Use a variety of strategies
f. Encourage independent gaining knowledge of strategies

1.8 Vocabulary in Context

Using context clues to apprehend the which means of unfamiliar phrases will
help in several ways:
a. It'll shop the time while studying. it will no longer have to forestall to look up
phrases in the dictionary. (Of direction, wont usually be able to understand a
phrase from its context, so it need to usually have a dictionary close by as
study.)
b. After parent out the that means of the identical word greater than as soon as
through its context, it is able to grow to be part of the running vocabulary. it's
going to therefore upload to the vocabulary genuinely through analyzing
thoughtfully.
c. You may get an excellent sense of ways a phrase is truly used, inclusive of any
sunglasses of meaning it'd have.

1.9 The Contextual Guessing Technique


Talking about context, Mikulecky and Jeffries (1997: 119) nation that context
is the sentence or sentences round a phrase. The context can inform the readers a
lot approximately a word. furthermore, context can help them understand new
words or surprising words. our kinds of Contexts

a. Directive (offers effective clues)


Sue turned into talkative however invoice changed into taciturn.
b. Preferred (facilitates categorize a word)
Shed had measles, mumps, and varicella.
c. Nondirective (offers little or no help)
The dress was taupe.
d. Misdirective (may be deceptive)
He was large, muscular, and adroit.
Beck & McKeown (2004)

Teaching Students about Context

a. Remind them that context does not always provide strong clues.
b. Remember that many students may have difficulty making inferences about
words from context.
c. Model the process when possible.

Beck & McKeown (2004)

Guessing from the context is one of the maximum useful skills


inexperienced persons can collect and apply inside and outside lecture room and,
greater importantly, may be taught and applied highly easily (Thornbury, 2002, p.
202). Guessing the meaning of unknown vocabularies within a textual content is a
manner of studying new words which is named textual vocabulary acquisition. the
main motive of this study is to research the effectiveness of a textual guessing
strategy on vocabulary getting to know at the intermediate degree. If language
structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides
the vital organs and the flesh (Harmer, 1991:153). Vocabulary is defined as all
the words in a particular language (Wehmeier, et al., 2005:1707), Walters (2004)
agreed that this type of exercise might be useful in raising the students awareness
about using the context as a clue.

Moreover, Li (1988) found that guessing, from the reading context, was
more successful than guessing from the listening context. The National Reading
Panel (NRP; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000)
analyzed scientific studies that led them to conclude that readers vocabulary is
strongly related to their understanding of text.

Richards (2002: 255) states that vocabulary is a core component of


language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak,
listen, read and write. According to Stanovich (1986), it is understandable that
students with limited vocabularies tend to read less and, therefore, have fewer
exposures to new words in running text. It means that the students do not
comprehend the whole passage because they have less vocabulary. Texts are
frequently complete of redundancy and therefore college college students can use
the relation among certainly one of a kind gadgets within a textual content to get
the which means. Our previous understanding of the arena may additionally
moreover contribute to recognize what an expression approach.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

III. Research Design


This research was Classroom Action Research and this research purpose to
improve reading ability through guessing vocabulary in context.

III.1 Subject and Setting


The researcher chose the students grade VII in SMP NU 2 Gresik in the
academic year of 2015/ 2016 as the source of collecting the data. It was because
the students grade VII had problems in reading ability. It was also based on the
discussion with the English teacher and the agreement with the headmaster.

III.2 The Producer of classroom action research


a. Pre test, to know the score of students reading ability before treatment
b. Treatments, the effort to improve
There will be two cycles in this step
1. Cycle 1
a. Planning, identifying the problem from action 1 and give the problem
solving
b. Actions, doing the program
c. Observation, observing and make a note the situation and condition when
the action
d. Reflection, evaluation of action 2
2. Post test, to know the score of students reading ability after giving treatment

Diagram Kammis and Mc Taggart

III.2.1 Problem identification

The students not many know about the vocabulary in reading text. And
dont understand the meaning
3.2.2 PLAN

Lesson Plan

School : SMP NU 2 GRESIK


Class : VII Grade
learning material : Reading text
Skill Aspect : Reading skills
Time Allocation : 2x45 minutes

Standard Competency

1. Comprehend the meaning and the new vocabulary of reading text in context.
And helps them remember it easier.

Basic Competence

Express and memorize new vocabulary from reading text by guessing


from context.

Indicators

1.1.1 The students are able to reading some words correctly


1.1.2 The students are able to write some words based on the text reading with
the context
1.1.3 The students are able to remember the new vocabulary

Aspect / Skills Reading Skills

Time Allocation 2 x 45 minutes

A. Goals
The goal is the students can increas reading ability through vocabulary by
guessing from context
B. Learning Material
Reading text
C. Method
1. Giving explanation
2. Give reading text assessment
3. Discussion
D. Steps
1. Pre activities :- Greeting , cheking the attendance list.
- Prepare the material
- Give motivation for students
- Confirming students
2. Whilst activity : - Teacher giving material
- Teacher giving explanation about vocabulary in
reading text
- Students and answer the question
3. Post activities : - Check the answer together and students
- Memorize the answer as vocabulary
- Teacher closing the class and greeting for the students
-
E. Learning Source :
1. Dictionary
2. Internet
3. Teacher made material.
F. Assesment

10 x 10 = 100

3.3.3 Implementation / Action

Divide into 3 steps , pre-listening, while-listening and post-listening

1. Pre- Listening
a.) give students warming up by asing the questions, what they know about
vocabulary.
b.) Explain about the procedure of reading activity
c.) The paper given to the students
d.) Give the several minute to read the paper
2. While Listening
a.) After reading the text, answer together (discussion about the answer)
b.) Discuss again if the students still understand
c.) Discussion
3. Post Listening
a.) Students reading the text and answer the questions

3.3.4 Evaluation / Observation


In action, the researcher observe the students in learning reading ability
trhough vocabulary by guessing from context. The researcher see that the students
feel happy and more active in the class. Some of students asked and answer the
questions.
3.3.4.1 Data Collections

Instruments

The instruments of the reearch was test : reading text were given in pre-
test, action and post-test. The instruments was the same test. The test consist of 10
items, the items of the missing words.

Instrument Validity

Have four strategies to make the instrument valid , according to Lather


Arikunto, S., Suharjono & Supardi (2006 : 128) :

1. Face validity. check, make a score.


2. Triangulation. Using some data to improve the quality evaluation.
3. Critical reflection. Plan to improve the quality.
4. Catalyc validity. From reasearcher knowledge to get improvement.

In this research, the researcher using face validity and critical reflection.

Techniques of Data Analysis

(Arikunto, 2002)

The five scales interval


85-100 very good
75-84 good
60-74 moderate
40-59 low
0-39 failure
Score in pre test
Name of students Score Interval
Abel Yafi H 41 Low
Ahmad Rosyidi Fahmi 40 Low
Ahsan Mulyadi 35 Failure
Arya Setya Hermawan 37 Failure
Ermania Galuh 45 Low
Jihan Fatimah 30 Failure
Mayang Haristia sari 45 Low
Moch.Angga Mulya 40 Low
Mufti Akbar 45 Low
M.Arifin 46 Low
M.Dimas Adi 33 Failure
M. Yusuf 40 Low
Nur Arbai 50 Low
Nurul Afiah 34 Failure
Putri Tasnim 36 Failure
Rachmad Wahyudi 40 Low
Raihan Fajrul 30 Failure
Rezanudin Abbas 45 Low
TotalTotal : 712
Mean score : 39,55 Failure
Score in post test

Name of students Score Interval


Abel Yafi H 45 Low
Ahmad Rosyidi Fahmi 45 Low
Ahsan Mulyadi 40 Low
Arya Setya Hermawan 41 Low
Ermania Galuh 55 Low
Jihan Fatimah 41 Low
Mayang Haristia sari 50 Low
Moch.Angga Mulya 59 Low
Mufti Akbar 40 Low
M.Arifin 50 Low
M.Dimas Adi 40 Low
M. Yusuf 45 Low
Nur Arbai 50 Low
Nurul Afiah 45 Low
Putri Tasnim 50 Low
Rachmad Wahyudi 45 Low
Raihan Fajrul 56 Low
Rezanudin Abbas 50 Low
Total : 847
Mean score : 47,06 Low
3.3.5 Reflection

From the observation shown that students have higher motivation than
before. The students have interest and enthusiasm .

Conclusion

Increasing reading ability through vocabulary by guessing from context


can interested students to learn more vocabulary. It is can helpful from students to
comprehend they reading skills.

Suggestion

From this research there are several ways to increasing reading ability
through vocabulary by guessing from context. The teacher can use one of the
methods according to students' abilities.