1

GENES AND MEMES
Matti Pitk¨anen
K¨oydenpunojankatu D 11, 10900, Hanko, Finland
Contents
0.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.2 Basic Ideas of TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.2.1 TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.2.2 TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.2.3 Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time concept . . 2
0.3 The five threads in the development of quantum TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.3.1 Quantum TGD as configuration space spinor geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.3.2 p-Adic TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.3.3 TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory consciousness . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.3.4 TGD as a generalized number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
0.3.5 Dynamical quantized Planck constant and dark matter hierarchy . . . . . . . . 7
0.4 Bird’s eye of view about the topics of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
0.5 The contents of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
0.5.1 PART I: Some Physical and Mathematical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
0.5.2 PART II: Physics inspired models for genome and evolution of genetic code . . 12
0.5.3 Part III: Number theoretical models for genetic code and its evolution . . . . . 20
I SOME PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND 27
1 About the New Physics Behind Qualia 29
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.1.1 Living matter and dark matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.1.2 Macroscopic quantum phases in many-sheeted space-time . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.1.3 Mind like space-time sheets as massless extremals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.1.4 Classical color and electro-weak fields in macroscopic length scales . . . . . . . 30
1.1.5 p-Adic-to-real transitions as transformation of intentions to actions . . . . . . . 31
1.1.6 Exotic super-Virasoro representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.2 Dark matter and living matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.2.1 Quantum criticality, hierarchy of dark matters, and dynamical . . . . . . . . 32
1.2.2 From naive formulas to conceptualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.2.3 Dark atoms and dark cyclotron states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.2.4 Dark matter and mind: general ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.2.5 Dark matter hierarchy, sensory representations, and motor action . . . . . . . . 48
1.3 MEs and mes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.3.1 Massless extremals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.3.2 About the electro-weak and color fields associated with massless extremals . . 55
1.3.3 MEs as absorbing and emitting quantum antennae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
1.3.4 Quantum holography and quantum information theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
1.3.5 MEs and quantum control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
1.3.6 Experimental evidence for MEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
1.4 Bio-systems as superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
1.4.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
1.4.2 Superconductivity at magnetic flux quanta in astrophysical length scales . . . . 71
1.4.3 Fractal hierarchy of EEGs and ZEGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
1.4.4 TGD assigns 10 Hz biorhythm to electron as an intrinsic frequency scale . . . . 72
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iv CONTENTS
1.5 Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive life
forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
1.5.1 Evidence for many-sheeted space-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
1.5.2 Laboratory evidence for plasmoids as life forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
1.5.3 Universal metabolic quanta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
1.5.4 Life as a symbiosis of plasmoids and biological life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
1.6 Exotic color and electro-weak interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
1.6.1 Long range classical weak and color gauge fields as correlates for dark massless
weak bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
1.6.2 Dark color force as a space-time correlate for the strong nuclear force? . . . . . 92
1.6.3 How brain could deduce the position and velocity of an object of perceptive field? 94
1.6.4 Boolean mind and dark neutrinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
1.7 The relationship between p-adic and real physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
1.7.1 p-Adic physics and the construction of solutions of field equations . . . . . . . 98
1.7.2 A more detailed view about how local p-adic physics codes for p-adic fractal
long range correlations of the real physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
1.8 Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
1.8.1 Exotic p-adic representations as representations for which states are almost p-
adic fractals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
1.8.2 Mersenne primes and Gaussian Mersennes are special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
1.8.3 The huge degeneracies of the exotic states make them ideal for representational
purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
1.8.4 Could one assign life-forms to the exotic Super-Virasoro representations? . . . 109
2 Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe 123
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.1.1 Evolution of basic ideas of quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.1.2 Quantum computation and TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.1.3 TGD and the new physics associated with TQC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.1.4 TGD and TQC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2.2 Existing view about topological quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.2.1 Evolution of ideas about TQC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.2.2 Topological quantum computation as quantum dance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
2.2.3 Braids and gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
2.2.4 About quantum Hall effect and theories of quantum Hall effect . . . . . . . . . 133
2.2.5 Topological quantum computation using braids and anyons . . . . . . . . . . . 136
2.3 General implications of TGD for quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
2.3.1 Time need not be a problem for quantum computations in TGD Universe . . . 137
2.3.2 New view about information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
2.3.3 Number theoretic vision about quantum jump as a building block of conscious
experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.3.4 Dissipative quantum parallelism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.3.5 Negative energies and quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
2.4 TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . 140
2.4.1 Topologically quantized generalized Beltrami fields and braiding . . . . . . . . 141
2.4.2 Quantum Hall effect and fractional charges in TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
2.4.3 Does the quantization of Planck constant transform integer quantum Hall effect
to fractional quantum Hall effect? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
2.4.4 Why 2+1-dimensional conformally invariant Witten-Chern-Simons theory should
work for anyons? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
2.5 Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
2.5.1 Concrete realization of quantum gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
2.5.2 Temperley-Lieb representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
2.5.3 Zero energy topological quantum computations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
2.6 Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
2.6.1 Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
2.6.2 Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones inclusions? 165
CONTENTS v
2.6.3 A simple model of fractional quantum Hall effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
II PHYSICS INSPIRED MODELS FOR GENOME AND EVOLUTION
OF GENETIC CODE 175
3 Genes and Memes 177
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
3.1.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy of codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
3.1.2 The product model for the evolution of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
3.1.3 General ideas about codes and languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
3.2 Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
3.2.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a model for abstraction process . . . . . . . . . . . 182
3.2.2 Interpretation of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
3.2.3 Genetic Code as a result of geometric symmetry breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
3.2.4 Symmetry breaking scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
3.2.5 In what sense the physical genetic code is unique? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
3.2.6 Hierarchy of Genetic Codes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
3.2.7 The structure of the negation map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
3.2.8 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a hierarchy of formal systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
3.2.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
3.3 Genes, memes, and universal language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
3.3.1 Genes-memes, biology-culture, hardware-software? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
3.3.2 Pulse and frequency representations of the genetic and memetic code words . . 197
3.3.3 Mapping of the memetic code to microtubular code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
3.3.4 Genes, memes, and language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
3.3.5 Does memetic code make possible communications between different species? . 208
3.3.6 Intronic portions of genome code for RNA: for what purpose? . . . . . . . . . . 211
3.4 Corals and men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
3.4.1 Why corals and vertebrates should have common genes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
3.4.2 Did corals and vertebrates receive their common genes via horizontal transfer? 214
3.4.3 What happened in Cambrain explosion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
3.4.4 What ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle means at the level of DNA? . 217
3.4.5 Where did those 223 genes pop up? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
4 Many-Sheeted DNA 229
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
4.1.1 Many-sheeted DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
4.1.2 Realization of the genetic program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
4.1.3 Are nonchemical transcription factors and nonchemical gene expression possible?232
4.1.4 Model for the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.1.5 The relationship between genetic and memetic codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.1.6 Super-genes and hyper-genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
4.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
4.2.1 DNA and RNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
4.2.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
4.2.3 Replication, transcription, translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
4.2.4 Introns, pseudogenes, repetitive DNA, silent DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
4.2.5 Is Central Dogma an absolute truth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
4.2.6 Is life nothing but biochemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
4.3 Many-sheeted DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
4.3.1 Many-sheeted DNA as hierarchy of genetic programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
4.3.2 Possible answers to the basic questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
4.3.3 What is the number of the levels in program ieharchy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
4.3.4 Band structure of chromosomes as an evidence for many-sheeted DNA? . . . . 246
4.4 Model for the genetic program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
4.4.1 Genes as statements of conscious formal system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
vi CONTENTS
4.4.2 Genes as modules of a genetic program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.4.3 How gene expression is regulated? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.4.4 Model for the physical distinction between exons and introns . . . . . . . . . . 251
4.4.5 Are the properties of the introns consistent with the proposed model? . . . . . 255
4.4.6 The phenomenon of superimposed genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
4.4.7 About genetic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
4.4.8 Possible explanations of the silent DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
4.5 TGD inspired ideas about the regulation of morphogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
4.5.1 Biological alarm clocks and morphogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
4.5.2 Could vacuum quantum numbers control gene expression via Josephson currents 262
4.5.3 Early morphogenesis of Drosophila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
4.5.4 Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
4.5.5 Evolution of Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
4.5.6 Characteristic features of Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
4.5.7 TGD based model for Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
4.6 The new view about genetic code and evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
4.6.1 Basic vision about dark matter hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
4.6.2 How to identify the personal magnetic body? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
4.6.3 Generalization of the notion of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
4.6.4 The new view about genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
4.6.5 Dark matter hierarchy and evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
5 DNA as Topological Quantum Computer 279
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
5.1.1 Basic ideas of tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
5.1.2 Identification of hardware of tqc and tqc programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
5.1.3 How much tqc resembles ordinary computation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
5.1.4 Basic predictions of DNA as tqc hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
5.2 How quantum computation in TGD Universe differs from standard quantum computa-
tion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
5.2.1 General ideas related to topological quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
5.2.2 Fractal hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
5.2.3 Irreducible entanglement and possibility of quantum parallel quantum compu-
tation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
5.2.4 Connes tensor product defines universal entanglement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
5.2.5 Possible problems related to quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
5.3 DNA as topological quantum computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
5.3.1 Conjugate DNA as performer of tqc and lipids as quantum dancers . . . . . . . 289
5.3.2 How quantum states are realized? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
5.3.3 The role of high T
c
superconductivity in tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
5.3.4 Codes and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
5.4 How to realize the basic gates? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
5.4.1 Universality of tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
5.4.2 The fundamental braiding operation as a universal 2-gate . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
5.4.3 What the replacement of linear braid with planar braid could mean? . . . . . . 300
5.4.4 Single particle gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.5 About realization of braiding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
5.5.1 Could braid strands be split and reconnect all the time? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
5.5.2 What do braid strands look like? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
5.5.3 How to induce the basic braiding operation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
5.5.4 Some qualitative tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
5.6 A model for flux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
5.6.1 Flux tubes as a correlate for directed attention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
5.6.2 Does directed attention generate memory representations and tqc like processes? 308
5.6.3 Realization of flux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
5.6.4 Flux tubes and DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
5.7 Some predictions related to the representation of braid color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
CONTENTS vii
5.7.1 Anomalous em charge of DNA as a basic prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
5.7.2 Chargaff’s second parity rule and the vanishing of net anomalous charge . . . . 313
5.7.3 Are genes and other genetic sub-structures singlets with respect to QCD color? 313
5.7.4 Summary of possible symmetries of DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
5.7.5 Empirical rules about DNA and mRNA supporting the symmetry breaking picture319
5.7.6 Genetic codes and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
5.8 Cell replication and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
5.8.1 Mitosis and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
5.8.2 Sexual reproduction and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
5.8.3 What is the role of centrosomes and basal bodies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
5.9 Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
5.9.1 Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
5.9.2 Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones inclusions? 328
5.9.3 A simple model of fractional quantum Hall effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
6 The Notion of Wave-Genome and DNA as Topological Quantum Computer 339
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
6.1.1 The findings of Peter Gariaev and collaborators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
6.1.2 The relevant aspects of TGD based view about living matter . . . . . . . . . . 340
6.1.3 The basic assumptions of model explaining findings of Gariaev . . . . . . . . . 340
6.2 TGD counterpart for wave-genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
6.2.1 The notion of bio-hologram in TGD framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
6.2.2 How to fuse the notion of bio-hologram with the model of DNA as tqc? . . . . 342
6.3 The effects of laser light on living matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
6.3.1 Phantom DNA effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
6.3.2 Effects of the polarization modulated laser light on living matter . . . . . . . . 343
6.3.3 PLR spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
6.4 The scattering of incoherent UV-IR light on DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
6.4.1 Basic facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
6.4.2 TGD based model for the replicas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
6.5 Water memory, phantom DNA effect, and development of tqc hardware . . . . . . . . 349
6.5.1 A possible realization of water memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
6.5.2 Could virtual DNAs allow a controlled development of the genome? . . . . . . 352
7 Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time 365
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
7.1.1 Questions and answers about evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
7.1.2 Topics of the chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
7.2 What is known about pre-biotic evolution? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
7.2.1 Some believed-to-be facts about the early history of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
7.2.2 Standard approaches are mechanistic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
7.2.3 The notion of primordial ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
7.2.4 Urey-Miller experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
7.2.5 RNA world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
7.2.6 How biochemical pathways and DNA-amino-acid code emerged? . . . . . . . . 370
7.2.7 Problems with the polymerization in primordial ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7.2.8 The notion of protocell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
7.3 TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
7.3.1 Basic prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
7.3.2 TGD based vision about pre-biotic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
7.3.3 Pre-biotic chemistry and new physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
7.3.4 DNA as a topological quantum computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
7.4 Physical model for genetic code and its evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
7.4.1 RNA world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
7.4.2 Programming of bio-molecular self assembly pathways from TGD point of view 393
7.4.3 The archeology of tRNA molecules as a guideline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
7.4.4 Recent genetic code as a fusion of singlet and doublet codes? . . . . . . . . . . 399
viii CONTENTS
7.4.5 Is RNA era continuing inside cell nuclei? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
7.4.6 Could nanno-bacteria correspond to predecessors of the triplet life-forms? . . . 403
7.5 Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
7.5.1 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion . . . . . 406
7.5.2 Did pre-biotic life evolve in mantle-core boundary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
7.5.3 What conditions can one pose on life at mantle-core boundary? . . . . . . . . . 412
7.5.4 What about analogs of EEG? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
7.6 Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
7.6.1 General ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
7.6.2 Enzyme action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
7.6.3 Quantum evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
7.6.4 Plasmoid like life forms in laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
7.7 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion . . . . . . . . . 437
7.7.1 The claims of Adams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
7.7.2 The critic of Adams of the subduction mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
7.7.3 Expanding Earth theories are not new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
7.7.4 Summary of TGD based theory of Expanding Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
7.7.5 Did intra-terrestrial life burst to the surface of Earth during Cambrian expansion?442
8 A Model for Protein Folding and Bio-catalysis 453
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
8.1.1 Flux tubes as correlates of directed attention at molecular level . . . . . . . . . 453
8.1.2 The model of folding code based on flux tube connections between amino-acids 454
8.1.3 A model for protein folding based on flux tubes between amino-acids and water
molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
8.2 A model for flux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
8.2.1 Flux tubes as a correlate for directed attention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
8.2.2 Does directed attention generate memory representations and tqc like processes 457
8.2.3 Realization of flux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
8.2.4 Flux tubes and DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
8.2.5 Introns and DNA-protein attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
8.3 Model for the folding code based on interactions mediated by flux tubes between
aminoacids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
8.3.1 4-D spin glass energy landscape and code of catalytic action . . . . . . . . . . . 461
8.3.2 Flux tubes and amino-acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
8.3.3 Trying to identify the folding code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
8.4 A simple quantitative model for protein folding and catalyst action assuming flux tubes
between amino-acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
8.4.1 The model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
8.4.2 Basic mathematical consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
8.4.3 Model for the helical structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
8.4.4 Model for β sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
8.4.5 Secondary protein structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
8.4.6 Model for protein-protein binding sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
8.5 A model for protein folding based on flux tubes connections between water molecules
and amino-acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
8.5.1 Could there be new physics behind hydrophily and hydrophoby? . . . . . . . . 477
8.5.2 An improve model for protein folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
8.5.3 A model for which the magnetic body of water is involved . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
9 Three new physics realizations of the genetic code and the role of dark matter in
bio-systems 483
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
9.1.1 The notions of dark matter and magnetic body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
9.1.2 Realizations of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
9.1.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
9.2 A vision about evolution and codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
CONTENTS ix
9.2.1 Basic insights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
9.2.2 The simplest scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
9.2.3 How dark baryon code could be involved with transcription and translation
mechanisms? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
9.3 DNA as topological quantum computer: realization of the genetic code in terms of
quarks and anti-quarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
9.3.1 Basic ideas of tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
9.3.2 Identification of hardware of tqc and tqc programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
9.3.3 How much tqc resembles ordinary computation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
9.3.4 Basic predictions of DNA as tqc hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
9.4 Realization of genetic code in terms of dark baryons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
9.4.1 Dark nuclear strings as analogs of DNA-, RNA- and amino-acid sequences and
baryonic realization of genetic code? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
9.4.2 DNA as tqc hypothesis and dark baryon code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
9.5 Flux tube realization of the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
9.5.1 Divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
9.5.2 Topological interpretation of the divisor code in TGD framework . . . . . . . . 495
9.5.3 About detailed correspondence between DNA codons, dark baryon codons, and
their divisor code counterparts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
9.6 A model for protein folding and catalytic action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
9.6.1 Earlier model for the folding code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
9.6.2 Hydrophily and hydrophoby number theoretically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
9.6.3 Could there be new physics behind hydrophily and hydrophoby . . . . . . . . . 500
9.6.4 An improved model for protein folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
9.6.5 The model for which the magnetic body of water is involved . . . . . . . . . . . 501
9.7 Appendix: Generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
9.7.1 Generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
9.7.2 Phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
III NUMBER THEORETICAL MODELS FOR GENETIC CODE AND
ITS EVOLUTION 511
10 Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically? 513
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
10.1.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
10.1.2 The chain of arguments leading to a number theoretical model for the genetic
code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
10.1.3 What is the physical counterpart of the number theoretical thermodynamics? . 515
10.2 The first model for the evolution of the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
10.2.1 Does amino-acid structure reflect the product structure of the code? . . . . . . 515
10.2.2 Number theoretical model for the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
10.3 Basic ideas and concepts underlying second model of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
10.3.1 Genetic code from the maximization of number theoretic information? . . . . . 522
10.3.2 Genetic code from a minimization of a number theoretic Shannon entropy . . . 522
10.3.3 High temperature limit for bosonic, fermionic, and supersymmetric thermody-
namics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
10.4 Could finite temperature number theoretic thermodynamics reproduce the genetic code?525
10.4.1 How to choose the Hamiltonian? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
10.4.2 Could supersymmetric n
0
> 0 polynomial thermodynamics determine the ge-
netic code? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
10.4.3 Could small perturbations of Hamiltonian cure the situation? . . . . . . . . . . 529
10.4.4 Could one fix Hamiltonian H(r) from negentropy maximization? . . . . . . . . 530
10.4.5 Could the symmetries of the genetic code constrain number theoretical thermo-
dynamics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
10.5 Confrontation of the model with experimental facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
10.5.1 Basic facts about aminoacids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
x CONTENTS
10.5.2 Could the biological characteristics of an aminoacid sequence be independent
on the order of aminoacids? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
10.5.3 Are the aminoacids and DNAs representing 0 and 1 somehow different? . . . . 537
10.5.4 The deviations from the standard code as tests for the number theoretic model 537
10.5.5 Model for the evolution of the genetic code and the deduction of n →p(n) map
from the structure of tRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
10.5.6 Genetic code as a product of singlet and doublet codes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
10.6 Exponential thermodynamics does not work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
10.6.1 What can one conclude about p-adic temperature associated with the genetic
code in the case of exponential thermodynamics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
10.6.2 Low temperature limit of exponential thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
10.6.3 How to find the critical temperature in exponential thermodynamics? . . . . . 544
10.7 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
10.7.1 Computational aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
10.7.2 Number theoretic model for singlet and doublet codes as a toy model . . . . . 547
11 Unification of Four Approaches to the Genetic Code 551
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
11.2 Unifying various approaches to the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
11.2.1 Geometric approach to the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
11.2.2 4-adicity and 5-adicity as possible realizations of the symmetries of the genetic
code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
11.2.3 Number theoretical thermodynamics and genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
11.2.4 Group theoretic interpretation of the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
11.2.5 Divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
11.2.6 Topological interpretation of the divisor code in TGD framework . . . . . . . . 554
11.2.7 Is the fusion of geometric, thermodynamical, and divisor code approaches pos-
sible in the 5-adic case? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
11.3 5-adicity or 4-adicity? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
11.3.1 The problems of the 4-adic model of the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
11.3.2 5-adic model works for thermodynamics based on partitions . . . . . . . . . . . 557
11.4 5-adic thermodynamical model for the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
11.4.1 The simplest model for the 5-adic temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
11.4.2 The simplest possible model for thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
11.4.3 Number theoretic Hamilton depending on the number of partitions of integer
characterizing DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
11.4.4 Number theoretical Hamiltonian identified as spin-spin interaction . . . . . . . 563
11.5 A possible physical interpretation of various codes in TGD framework . . . . . . . . . 565
11.5.1 Generalization of imbedding space and interpretation of discrete bundle like
structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
11.5.2 A possible interpretation for the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
11.5.3 About the geometric interpretation for the thermodynamics of partitions of n
2)
566
11.5.4 About the physical interpretation for the thermodynamics of partitions of n
2)
. 566
11.5.5 A possible interpretation for the p-adic prime labeling amino-acid and DNAs
coding it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
11.6 Appendix: 4-adic realization of n → n + 32 symmetry, divisor code, and labeling of
amino-acids by primes are not mutually consistent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
A Appendix 575
A-1 Basic properties of CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
A-1.1 CP
2
as a manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
A-1.2 Metric and K¨ahler structures of CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
A-1.3 Spinors in CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
A-1.4 Geodesic submanifolds of CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
A-2 Identification of the electroweak couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
A-2.1 Discrete symmetries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
A-3 Space-time surfaces with vanishing em, Z
0
, K¨ahler, or W fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
CONTENTS xi
A-3.1 Em neutral space-times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
A-3.2 Space-times with vanishing Z
0
or K¨ahler fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
A-3.3 Induced gauge fields for space-times for which CP
2
projection is a geodesic sphere585
List of Figures
2.1 a) Illustration of Bratteli diagram. b) and c) give Bratteli diagrams for n = 4 and
n = 5 Temperley Lieb algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
3.1 The imbedding X
64
⊂ Z
126
reproducing Genetic Code and possessing Z
3
type symme-
try. The lengths of radial lines are 6 +d, where d = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 is the number of DNA:s
associated with amino-acid. The angular distance between points on Z
3
(Z
7
) orbits is
to 20 (2.85) degrees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
3.2 Z
7
type imbedding X
64
⊂ Z
126
reproducing Genetic Code. Symmetry breaking is
much larger for this imbedding although visually the imbedding looks perhaps more
symmetric than Z
3
type imbedding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6.1 The left hand side figure is from [42] and represents the replica images of the instruments
and the image interpreted by experimenters as a replica image of DNA sample (second
method). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
6.2 The picture shows the discrete replica like structure of the band like image interpreted
by experimenters as replica image of DNA sample (first method). . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
6.3 The picture reveals the 5-fold fine structure of the band like image interpreted by ex-
perimenters as replica image of DNA sample. The 5-fold character probably correspond
to five red LEDs above the sample (second method). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
6.4 Illustration of a possible vision about dark nucleus as a nuclear string consisting of
rotating baryonic strings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
7.1 The structure of DNA hairpin (stem loop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
7.2 The structure of tRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
9.1 Illustration of the reconnection by magnetic flux loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
9.2 Illustration of the reconnection by flux tubes connecting pairs of molecules. . . . . . . 485
9.3 Illustration of the book-like structure of the generalized imbedding space. . . . . . . . 496
9.4 Illustration of the selection rules for magnetic flux tubes connecting magnetic bodies of
tRNA and amino-acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
10.1 The chemical structure of amino-acids. The first group (ala,. ..) corresponds to non-
polar amino-acid side groups, the remaining amino-acids to polar side groups. The two
lowest groups correspond to acidic (asp, glu) and basic side groups. . . . . . . . . . . . 520
11.1 Illustration of the book-like structure of the generalized imbedding space. . . . . . . . 555
11.2 Illustration of the selection rules for magnetic flux tubes connecting magnetic bodies of
tRNA and amino-acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
xiii
0.1. Background 1
0.1 Background
T(opological) G(eometro)D(ynamics) is one of the many attempts to find a unified description of basic
interactions. The development of the basic ideas of TGD to a relatively stable form took time of about
half decade [16]. The great challenge is to construct a mathematical theory around these physically
very attractive ideas and I have devoted the last twenty-three years for the realization of this dream
and this has resulted in seven online books [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] about TGD and eight online books
about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15].
Quantum T(opological)D(ynamics) as a classical spinor geometry for infinite-dimensional configu-
ration space, p-adic numbers and quantum TGD, and TGD inspired theory of consciousness have been
for last decade of the second millenium the basic three strongly interacting threads in the tapestry of
quantum TGD.
For few yeas ago the discussions with Tony Smith generated a fourth thread which deserves the
name ’TGD as a generalized number theory’. The work with Riemann hypothesis made time ripe
for realization that the notion of infinite primes could provide, not only a reformulation, but a deep
generalization of quantum TGD. This led to a thorough and extremely fruitful revision of the basic
views about what the final form and physical content of quantum TGD might be.
The fifth thread came with the realization that by quantum classical correspondence TGD predicts
an infinite hierarchy of macroscopic quantum systems with increasing sizes, that it is not at all clear
whether standard quantum mechanics can accommodate this hierarchy, and that a dynamical quan-
tized Planck constant might be necessary and certainly possible in TGD framework. The identification
of hierarchy of Planck constants whose values TGD ”predicts” in terms of dark matter hierarchy would
be natural. This also led to a solution of a long standing puzzle: what is the proper interpretation of
the predicted fractal hierarchy of long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge fields. Quantum
classical correspondences allows only single answer: there is infinite hierarchy of p-adically scaled up
variants of standard model physics and for each of them also dark hierarchy. Thus TGD Universe
would be fractal in very abstract and deep sense.
TGD forces the generalization of physics to a quantum theory of consciousness, and represent TGD
as a generalized number theory vision leads naturally to the emergence of p-adic physics as physics
of cognitive representations. The seven online books [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] about TGD and eight online
books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15]
are warmly recommended to the interested reader.
0.2 Basic Ideas of TGD
The basic physical picture behind TGD was formed as a fusion of two rather disparate approaches:
namely TGD is as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation and TGD as a generalization of the
old-fashioned string model.
0.2.1 TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation
The first approach was born as an attempt to construct a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation.
Space-time, rather than being an abstract manifold endowed with a pseudo-Riemannian structure,
is regarded as a surface in the 8-dimensional space H = M
4
+
CP
2
, where M
4
+
denotes the interior
of the future light cone of the Minkowski space (to be referred as light cone in the sequel) and
CP
2
= SU(3)/U(2) is the complex projective space of two complex dimensions [2, 18, 19, 5]. The
identification of the space-time as a submanifold [21, 22] of M
4
CP
2
leads to an exact Poincare
invariance and solves the conceptual difficulties related to the definition of the energy-momentum
in General Relativity [Misner-Thorne-Wheeler, Logunov et al]. The actual choice H = M
4
+
CP
2
implies the breaking of the Poincare invariance in the cosmological scales but only at the quantum
level. It soon however turned out that submanifold geometry, being considerably richer in structure
than the abstract manifold geometry, leads to a geometrization of all basic interactions. First, the
geometrization of the elementary particle quantum numbers is achieved. The geometry of CP
2
explains
electro-weak and color quantum numbers. The different H-chiralities of H-spinors correspond to the
conserved baryon and lepton numbers. Secondly, the geometrization of the field concept results. The
2 LIST OF FIGURES
projections of the CP
2
spinor connection, Killing vector fields of CP
2
and of H-metric to four-surface
define classical electro-weak, color gauge fields and metric in X
4
.
0.2.2 TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model
The second approach was based on the generalization of the mesonic string model describing mesons
as strings with quarks attached to the ends of the string. In the 3-dimensional generalization 3-
surfaces correspond to free particles and the boundaries of the 3- surface correspond to partons in
the sense that the quantum numbers of the elementary particles reside on the boundaries. Various
boundary topologies (number of handles) correspond to various fermion families so that one obtains
an explanation for the known elementary particle quantum numbers. This approach leads also to a
natural topological description of the particle reactions as topology changes: for instance, two-particle
decay corresponds to a decay of a 3-surface to two disjoint 3-surfaces.
0.2.3 Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time
concept
The problem is that the two approaches seem to be mutually exclusive since the orbit of a particle like
3-surface defines 4-dimensional surface, which differs drastically from the topologically trivial macro-
scopic space-time of General Relativity. The unification of these approaches forces a considerable
generalization of the conventional space-time concept. First, the topologically trivial 3-space of Gen-
eral Relativity is replaced with a ”topological condensate” containing matter as particle like 3-surfaces
”glued” to the topologically trivial background 3-space by connected sum operation. Secondly, the
assumption about connectedness of the 3-space is given up. Besides the ”topological condensate”
there is ”vapor phase” that is a ”gas” of particle like 3-surfaces (counterpart of the ”baby universies”
of GRT) and the nonconservation of energy in GRT corresponds to the transfer of energy between the
topological condensate and vapor phase.
0.3 The five threads in the development of quantum TGD
The development of TGD has involved four strongly interacting threads: physics as infinite-dimensional
geometry; p-adic physics; TGD inspired theory of consciousness and TGD as a generalized number
theory. In the following these five threads are briefly described.
0.3.1 Quantum TGD as configuration space spinor geometry
A turning point in the attempts to formulate a mathematical theory was reached after seven years
from the birth of TGD. The great insight was ”Do not quantize”. The basic ingredients to the new
approach have served as the basic philosophy for the attempt to construct Quantum TGD since then
and are the following ones:
a) Quantum theory for extended particles is free(!), classical(!) field theory for a generalized
Schr¨odinger amplitude in the configuration space CH consisting of all possible 3-surfaces in H. ”All
possible” means that surfaces with arbitrary many disjoint components and with arbitrary internal
topology and also singular surfaces topologically intermediate between two different manifold topolo-
gies are included. Particle reactions are identified as topology changes [23, 24, 25]. For instance,
the decay of a 3-surface to two 3-surfaces corresponds to the decay A → B + C. Classically this
corresponds to a path of configuration space leading from 1-particle sector to 2-particle sector. At
quantum level this corresponds to the dispersion of the generalized Schr¨odinger amplitude localized
to 1-particle sector to two-particle sector. All coupling constants should result as predictions of the
theory since no nonlinearities are introduced.
b) Configuration space is endowed with the metric and spinor structure so that one can define
various metric related differential operators, say Dirac operator, appearing in the field equations of
the theory.
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 3
0.3.2 p-Adic TGD
The p-adic thread emerged for roughly ten years ago as a dim hunch that p-adic numbers might be
important for TGD. Experimentation with p-adic numbers led to the notion of canonical identification
mapping reals to p-adics and vice versa. The breakthrough came with the successful p-adic mass
calculations using p-adic thermodynamics for Super-Virasoro representations with the super-Kac-
Moody algebra associated with a Lie-group containing standard model gauge group. Although the
details of the calculations have varied from year to year, it was clear that p-adic physics reduces not
only the ratio of proton and Planck mass, the great mystery number of physics, but all elementary
particle mass scales, to number theory if one assumes that primes near prime powers of two are in a
physically favored position. Why this is the case, became one of the key puzzless and led to a number
of arguments with a common gist: evolution is present already at the elementary particle level and
the primes allowed by the p-adic length scale hypothesis are the fittest ones.
It became very soon clear that p-adic topology is not something emerging in Planck length scale
as often believed, but that there is an infinite hierarchy of p-adic physics characterized by p-adic
length scales varying to even cosmological length scales. The idea about the connection of p-adics
with cognition motivated already the first attempts to understand the role of the p-adics and inspired
’Universe as Computer’ vision but time was not ripe to develop this idea to anything concrete (p-adic
numbers are however in a central role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness). It became however
obvious that the p-adic length scale hierarchy somehow corresponds to a hierarchy of intelligences and
that p-adic prime serves as a kind of intelligence quotient. Ironically, the almost obvious idea about
p-adic regions as cognitive regions of space-time providing cognitive representations for real regions
had to wait for almost a decade for the access into my consciousness.
There were many interpretational and technical questions crying for a definite answer. What is the
relationship of p-adic non-determinism to the classical non-determinism of the basic field equations
of TGD? Are the p-adic space-time region genuinely p-adic or does p-adic topology only serve as an
effective topology? If p-adic physics is direct image of real physics, how the mapping relating them
is constructed so that it respects various symmetries? Is the basic physics p-adic or real (also real
TGD seems to be free of divergences) or both? If it is both, how should one glue the physics in
different number field together to get The Physics? Should one perform p-adicization also at the level
of the configuration space of 3-surfaces? Certainly the p-adicization at the level of super-conformal
representation is necessary for the p-adic mass calculations. Perhaps the most basic and most irritating
technical problem was how to precisely define p-adic definite integral which is a crucial element of any
variational principle based formulation of the field equations. Here the frustration was not due to the
lack of solution but due to the too large number of solutions to the problem, a clear symptom for the
sad fact that clever inventions rather than real discoveries might be in question.
Despite these frustrating uncertainties, the number of the applications of the poorly defined p-adic
physics growed steadily and the applications turned out to be relatively stable so that it was clear
that the solution to these problems must exist. It became only gradually clear that the solution of
the problems might require going down to a deeper level than that represented by reals and p-adics.
0.3.3 TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory consciousness
General coordinate invariance forces the identification of quantum jump as quantum jump between
entire deterministic quantum histories rather than time=constant snapshots of single history. The
new view about quantum jump forces a generalization of quantum measurement theory such that
observer becomes part of the physical system. Thus a general theory of consciousness is unavoidable
outcome. This theory is developed in detail in the books [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15].
Quantum jump as a moment of consciousness
The identification of quantum jump between deterministic quantum histories (configuration space
spinor fields) as a moment of consciousness defines microscopic theory of consciousness. Quantum
jump involves the steps
Ψ
i
→UΨ
i
→Ψ
f
,
4 LIST OF FIGURES
where U is informational ”time development” operator, which is unitary like the S-matrix charac-
terizing the unitary time evolution of quantum mechanics. U is however only formally analogous to
Schr¨odinger time evolution of infinite duration although there is no real time evolution involved. It is
not however clear whether one should regard U-matrix and S-matrix as two different things or not: U-
matrix is a completely universal object characterizing the dynamics of evolution by self-organization
whereas S-matrix is a highly context dependent concept in wave mechanics and in quantum field
theories where it at least formally represents unitary time translation operator at the limit of an in-
finitely long interaction time. The S-matrix understood in the spirit of superstring models is however
something very different and could correspond to U-matrix.
The requirement that quantum jump corresponds to a measurement in the sense of quantum field
theories implies that each quantum jump involves localization in zero modes which parameterize also
the possible choices of the quantization axes. Thus the selection of the quantization axes performed
by the Cartesian outsider becomes now a part of quantum theory. Together these requirements imply
that the final states of quantum jump correspond to quantum superpositions of space-time surfaces
which are macroscopically equivalent. Hence the world of conscious experience looks classical. At
least formally quantum jump can be interpreted also as a quantum computation in which matrix U
represents unitary quantum computation which is however not identifiable as unitary translation in
time direction and cannot be ’engineered’.
The notion of self
The concept of self is absolutely essential for the understanding of the macroscopic and macro-temporal
aspects of consciousness. Self corresponds to a subsystem able to remain un-entangled under the
sequential informational ’time evolutions’ U. Exactly vanishing entanglement is practically impossible
in ordinary quantum mechanics and it might be that ’vanishing entanglement’ in the condition for
self-property should be replaced with ’subcritical entanglement’. On the other hand, if space-time
decomposes into p-adic and real regions, and if entanglement between regions representing physics in
different number fields vanishes, space-time indeed decomposes into selves in a natural manner.
It is assumed that the experiences of the self after the last ’wake-up’ sum up to single average
experience. This means that subjective memory is identifiable as conscious, immediate short term
memory. Selves form an infinite hierarchy with the entire Universe at the top. Self can be also
interpreted as mental images: our mental images are selves having mental images and also we represent
mental images of a higher level self. A natural hypothesis is that self S experiences the experiences
of its subselves as kind of abstracted experience: the experiences of subselves S
i
are not experienced
as such but represent kind of averages 'S
ij
` of sub-subselves S
ij
. Entanglement between selves, most
naturally realized by the formation of join along boundaries bonds between cognitive or material space-
time sheets, provides a possible a mechanism for the fusion of selves to larger selves (for instance, the
fusion of the mental images representing separate right and left visual fields to single visual field) and
forms wholes from parts at the level of mental images.
Relationship to quantum measurement theory
The third basic element relates TGD inspired theory of consciousness to quantum measurement theory.
The assumption that localization occurs in zero modes in each quantum jump implies that the world
of conscious experience looks classical. It also implies the state function reduction of the standard
quantum measurement theory as the following arguments demonstrate (it took incredibly long time
to realize this almost obvious fact!).
a) The standard quantum measurement theory a la von Neumann involves the interaction of brain
with the measurement apparatus. If this interaction corresponds to entanglement between microscopic
degrees of freedom m with the macroscopic effectively classical degrees of freedom M characterizing the
reading of the measurement apparatus coded to brain state, then the reduction of this entanglement in
quantum jump reproduces standard quantum measurement theory provide the unitary time evolution
operator U acts as flow in zero mode degrees of freedom and correlates completely some orthonormal
basis of configuration space spinor fields in non-zero modes with the values of the zero modes. The
flow property guarantees that the localization is consistent with unitarity: it also means 1-1 mapping
of quantum state basis to classical variables (say, spin direction of the electron to its orbit in the
external magnetic field).
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 5
b) Since zero modes represent classical information about the geometry of space-time surface
(shape, size, classical K¨ahler field,...), they have interpretation as effectively classical degrees of free-
dom and are the TGD counterpart of the degrees of freedom M representing the reading of the
measurement apparatus. The entanglement between quantum fluctuating non-zero modes and zero
modes is the TGD counterpart for the m−M entanglement. Therefore the localization in zero modes
is equivalent with a quantum jump leading to a final state where the measurement apparatus gives a
definite reading.
This simple prediction is of utmost theoretical importance since the black box of the quantum
measurement theory is reduced to a fundamental quantum theory. This reduction is implied by the
replacement of the notion of a point like particle with particle as a 3-surface. Also the infinite-
dimensionality of the zero mode sector of the configuration space of 3-surfaces is absolutely essential.
Therefore the reduction is a triumph for quantum TGD and favors TGD against string models.
Standard quantum measurement theory involves also the notion of state preparation which reduces
to the notion of self measurement. Each localization in zero modes is followed by a cascade of self
measurements leading to a product state. This process is obviously equivalent with the state prepa-
ration process. Self measurement is governed by the so called Negentropy Maximization Principle
(NMP) stating that the information content of conscious experience is maximized. In the self mea-
surement the density matrix of some subsystem of a given self localized in zero modes (after ordinary
quantum measurement) is measured. The self measurement takes place for that subsystem of self for
which the reduction of the entanglement entropy is maximal in the measurement. In p-adic context
NMP can be regarded as the variational principle defining the dynamics of cognition. In real context
self measurement could be seen as a repair mechanism allowing the system to fight against quantum
thermalization by reducing the entanglement for the subsystem for which it is largest (fill the largest
hole first in a leaking boat).
Selves self-organize
The fourth basic element is quantum theory of self-organization based on the identification of quantum
jump as the basic step of self-organization [I1]. Quantum entanglement gives rise to the generation
of long range order and the emergence of longer p-adic length scales corresponds to the emergence of
larger and larger coherent dynamical units and generation of a slaving hierarchy. Energy (and quantum
entanglement) feed implying entropy feed is a necessary prerequisite for quantum self-organization.
Zero modes represent fundamental order parameters and localization in zero modes implies that the
sequence of quantum jumps can be regarded as hopping in the zero modes so that Haken’s classical
theory of self organization applies almost as such. Spin glass analogy is a further important element:
self-organization of self leads to some characteristic pattern selected by dissipation as some valley of
the ”energy” landscape.
Dissipation can be regarded as the ultimate Darwinian selector of both memes and genes. The
mathematically ugly irreversible dissipative dynamics obtained by adding phenomenological dissipa-
tion terms to the reversible fundamental dynamical equations derivable from an action principle can be
understood as a phenomenological description replacing in a well defined sense the series of reversible
quantum histories with its envelope.
Classical non-determinism of K¨ahler action
The fifth basic element are the concepts of association sequence and cognitive space-time sheet. The
huge vacuum degeneracy of the K¨ahler action suggests strongly that the absolute minimum space-time
is not always unique. For instance, a sequence of bifurcations can occur so that a given space-time
branch can be fixed only by selecting a finite number of 3-surfaces with time like(!) separations on the
orbit of 3-surface. Quantum classical correspondence suggest an alternative formulation. Space-time
surface decomposes into maximal deterministic regions and their temporal sequences have interpre-
tation a space-time correlate for a sequence of quantum states defined by the initial (or final) states
of quantum jumps. This is consistent with the fact that the variational principle selects preferred
extremals of K¨ahler action as generalized Bohr orbits.
In the case that non-determinism is located to a finite time interval and is microscopic, this sequence
of 3-surfaces has interpretation as a simulation of a classical history, a geometric correlate for contents
of consciousness. When non-determinism has long lasting and macroscopic effect one can identify it as
6 LIST OF FIGURES
volitional non-determinism associated with our choices. Association sequences relate closely with the
cognitive space-time sheets defined as space-time sheets having finite time duration and psychological
time can be identified as a temporal center of mass coordinate of the cognitive space-time sheet. The
gradual drift of the cognitive space-time sheets to the direction of future force by the geometry of the
future light cone explains the arrow of psychological time.
p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and intentionality
The sixth basic element adds a physical theory of cognition to this vision. TGD space-time decomposes
into regions obeying real and p-adic topologies labelled by primes p = 2, 3, 5, .... p-Adic regions obey
the same field equations as the real regions but are characterized by p-adic non-determinism since
the functions having vanishing p-adic derivative are pseudo constants which are piecewise constant
functions. Pseudo constants depend on a finite number of positive pinary digits of arguments just like
numerical predictions of any theory always involve decimal cutoff. This means that p-adic space-time
regions are obtained by gluing together regions for which integration constants are genuine constants.
The natural interpretation of the p-adic regions is as cognitive representations of real physics. The
freedom of imagination is due to the p-adic non-determinism. p-Adic regions perform mimicry and
make possible for the Universe to form cognitive representations about itself. p-Adic physics space-
time sheets serve also as correlates for intentional action.
A more more precise formulation of this vision requires a generalization of the number concept
obtained by fusing reals and p-adic number fields along common rationals (in the case of algebraic
extensions among common algebraic numbers). This picture is discussed in [E1]. The application
this notion at the level of the imbedding space implies that imbedding space has a book like structure
with various variants of the imbedding space glued together along common rationals (algebraics). The
implication is that genuinely p-adic numbers (non-rationals) are strictly infinite as real numbers so
that most points of p-adic space-time sheets are at real infinity, outside the cosmos, and that the
projection to the real imbedding space is discrete set of rationals (algebraics). Hence cognition and
intentionality are almost completely outside the real cosmos and touch it at a discrete set of points
only.
This view implies also that purely local p-adic physics codes for the p-adic fractality characterizing
long range real physics and provides an explanation for p-adic length scale hypothesis stating that
the primes p · 2
k
, k integer are especially interesting. It also explains the long range correlations
and short term chaos characterizing intentional behavior and explains why the physical realizations
of cognition are always discrete (say in the case of numerical computations). Furthermore, a concrete
quantum model for how intentions are transformed to actions emerges.
The discrete real projections of p-adic space-time sheets serve also space-time correlate for a logical
thought. It is very natural to assign to p-adic pinary digits a p-valued logic but as such this kind
of logic does not have any reasonable identification. p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggest that the
p = 2
k
−n pinary digits represent a Boolean logic B
k
with k elementary statements (the points of the
k-element set in the set theoretic realization) with n taboos which are constrained to be identically
true.
0.3.4 TGD as a generalized number theory
Quantum T(opological)D(ynamics) as a classical spinor geometry for infinite-dimensional configura-
tion space, p-adic numbers and quantum TGD, and TGD inspired theory of consciousness, have been
for last ten years the basic three strongly interacting threads in the tapestry of quantum TGD. For
few yeas ago the discussions with Tony Smith generated a fourth thread which deserves the name
’TGD as a generalized number theory’. It relies on the notion of number theoretic compactifiction
stating that space-time surfaces can be regarded either as hyper-quaternionic, and thus maximally
associative, 4-surfaces in M
8
identifiable as space of hyper-octonions or as surfaces in M
4
CP
2
[E2].
The discovery of the hierarchy of infinite primes and their correspondence with a hierarchy de-
fined by a repeatedly second quantized arithmetic quantum field theory gave a further boost for the
speculations about TGD as a generalized number theory. The work with Riemann hypothesis led to
further ideas.
After the realization that infinite primes can be mapped to polynomials representable as surfaces
geometrically, it was clear how TGD might be formulated as a generalized number theory with infinite
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 7
primes forming the bridge between classical and quantum such that real numbers, p-adic numbers, and
various generalizations of p-adics emerge dynamically from algebraic physics as various completions of
the algebraic extensions of rational (hyper-)quaternions and (hyper-)octonions. Complete algebraic,
topological and dimensional democracy would characterize the theory.
What is especially satisfying is that p-adic and real regions of the space-time surface could emerge
automatically as solutions of the field equations. In the space-time regions where the solutions of
field equations give rise to in-admissible complex values of the imbedding space coordinates, p-adic
solution can exist for some values of the p-adic prime. The characteristic non-determinism of the
p-adic differential equations suggests strongly that p-adic regions correspond to ’mind stuff’, the
regions of space-time where cognitive representations reside. This interpretation implies that p-adic
physics is physics of cognition. Since Nature is probably extremely brilliant simulator of Nature, the
natural idea is to study the p-adic physics of the cognitive representations to derive information about
the real physics. This view encouraged by TGD inspired theory of consciousness clarifies difficult
interpretational issues and provides a clear interpretation for the predictions of p-adic physics.
0.3.5 Dynamical quantized Planck constant and dark matter hierarchy
By quantum classical correspondence space-time sheets can be identified as quantum coherence regions.
Hence the fact that they have all possible size scales more or less unavoidably implies that Planck
constant must be quantized and have arbitrarily large values. If one accepts this then also the idea
about dark matter as a macroscopic quantum phase characterized by an arbitrarily large value of
Planck constant emerges naturally as does also the interpretation for the long ranged classical electro-
weak and color fields predicted by TGD. Rather seldom the evolution of ideas follows simple linear
logic, and this was the case also now. In any case, this vision represents the fifth, relatively new thread
in the evolution of TGD and the ideas involved are still evolving.
Dark matter as large phase
D. Da Rocha and Laurent Nottale [53] have proposed that Schr¨odinger equation with Planck constant
replaced with what might be called gravitational Planck constant
gr
=
GmM
v
0
( = c = 1). v
0
is
a velocity parameter having the value v
0
= 144.7 ± .7 km/s giving v
0
/c = 4.6 10
−4
. This is rather
near to the peak orbital velocity of stars in galactic halos. Also subharmonics and harmonics of v
0
seem to appear. The support for the hypothesis coming from empirical data is impressive.
Nottale and Da Rocha believe that their Schr¨odinger equation results from a fractal hydrodynamics.
Many-sheeted space-time however suggests astrophysical systems are not only quantum systems at
larger space-time sheets but correspond to a gigantic value of gravitational Planck constant. The
gravitational (ordinary) Schr¨odinger equation would provide a solution of the black hole collapse (IR
catastrophe) problem encountered at the classical level. The resolution of the problem inspired by
TGD inspired theory of living matter is that it is the dark matter at larger space-time sheets which
is quantum coherent in the required time scale [D7].
Already before learning about Nottale’s paper I had proposed the possibility that Planck constant
is quantized [E9] and the spectrum is given in terms of logarithms of Beraha numbers: the lowest
Beraha number B
3
is completely exceptional in that it predicts infinite value of Planck constant. The
inverse of the gravitational Planck constant could correspond a gravitational perturbation of this as
1/
gr
= v
0
/GMm. The general philosophy would be that when the quantum system would become
non-perturbative, a phase transition increasing the value of occurs to preserve the perturbative
character and at the transition n = 4 → 3 only the small perturbative correction to 1/(3) = 0
remains. This would apply to QCD and to atoms with Z > 137 as well.
TGD predicts correctly the value of the parameter v
0
assuming that cosmic strings and their decay
remnants are responsible for the dark matter. The harmonics of v
0
can be understood as corresponding
to perturbations replacing cosmic strings with their n-branched coverings so that tension becomes
n
2
-fold: much like the replacement of a closed orbit with an orbit closing only after n turns. 1/n-
sub-harmonic would result when a magnetic flux tube split into n disjoint magnetic flux tubes. Also
a model for the formation of planetary system as a condensation of ordinary matter around quantum
coherent dark matter emerges [D7].
8 LIST OF FIGURES
Dark matter as a source of long ranged weak and color fields
Long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge fields are unavoidable in TGD framework. The
smallness of the parity breaking effects in hadronic, nuclear, and atomic length scales does not however
seem to allow long ranged electro-weak gauge fields. The problem disappears if long range classical
electro-weak gauge fields are identified as space-time correlates for massless gauge fields created by
dark matter. Also scaled up variants of ordinary electro-weak particle spectra are possible. The
identification explains chiral selection in living matter and unbroken U(2)
ew
invariance and free color
in bio length scales become characteristics of living matter and of bio-chemistry and bio-nuclear
physics. An attractive solution of the matter antimatter asymmetry is based on the identification of
also antimatter as dark matter.
p-Adic and dark matter hierarchies and hierarchy of moments of consciousness
Dark matter hierarchy assigned to a spectrum of Planck constant having arbitrarily large values brings
additional elements to the TGD inspired theory of consciousness.
a) Macroscopic quantum coherence can be understood since a particle with a given mass can
in principle appear as arbitrarily large scaled up copies (Compton length scales as ). The phase
transition to this kind of phase implies that space-time sheets of particles overlap and this makes
possible macroscopic quantum coherence.
b) The space-time sheets with large Planck constant can be in thermal equilibrium with ordinary
ones without the loss of quantum coherence. For instance, the cyclotron energy scale associated with
EEG turns out to be above thermal energy at room temperature for the level of dark matter hierarchy
corresponding to magnetic flux quanta of the Earth’s magnetic field with the size scale of Earth and
a successful quantitative model for EEG results [M3].
Dark matter hierarchy leads to detailed quantitative view about quantum biology with several
testable predictions [M3]. The applications to living matter suggests that the basic hierarchy cor-
responds to a hierarchy of Planck constants coming as (k) = λ
k
(p)
0
, λ · 2
11
for p = 2
127−1
,
k = 0, 1, 2, ... [M3]. Also integer valued sub-harmonics and integer valued sub-harmonics of λ might
be possible. Each p-adic length scale corresponds to this kind of hierarchy and number theoretical
arguments suggest a general formula for the allowed values of Planck constant λ depending logarith-
mically on p-adic prime [C2]. Also the value of
0
has spectrum characterized by Beraha numbers
B
n
= 4cos
2
(π/n), n ≥ 3, varying by a factor in the range n > 3 [C2]. It must be however emphasized
that the relation of this picture to the model of quantized gravitational Planck constant h
gr
appearing
in Nottale’s model is not yet completely understood.
The general prediction is that Universe is a kind of inverted Mandelbrot fractal for which each
bird’s eye of view reveals new structures in long length and time scales representing scaled down copies
of standard physics and their dark variants. These structures would correspond to higher levels in self
hierarchy. This prediction is consistent with the belief that 75 per cent of matter in the universe is
dark.
1. Living matter and dark matter
Living matter as ordinary matter quantum controlled by the dark matter hierarchy has turned out
to be a particularly successful idea. The hypothesis has led to models for EEG predicting correctly the
band structure and even individual resonance bands and also generalizing the notion of EEG [M3].
Also a generalization of the notion of genetic code emerges resolving the paradoxes related to the
standard dogma [L2, M3]. A particularly fascinating implication is the possibility to identify great
leaps in evolution as phase transitions in which new higher level of dark matter emerges [M3].
It seems safe to conclude that the dark matter hierarchy with levels labelled by the values of
Planck constants explains the macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence naturally. That
this explanation is consistent with the explanation based on spin glass degeneracy is suggested by
following observations. First, the argument supporting spin glass degeneracy as an explanation of
the macro-temporal quantum coherence does not involve the value of at all. Secondly, the failure
of the perturbation theory assumed to lead to the increase of Planck constant and formation of
macroscopic quantum phases could be precisely due to the emergence of a large number of new degrees
of freedom due to spin glass degeneracy. Thirdly, the phase transition increasing Planck constant has
concrete topological interpretation in terms of many-sheeted space-time consistent with the spin glass
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 9
degeneracy.
2. Dark matter hierarchy and the notion of self
The vision about dark matter hierarchy leads to a more refined view about self hierarchy and
hierarchy of moments of consciousness [J6, M3]. The larger the value of Planck constant, the longer
the subjectively experienced duration and the average geometric duration T(k) ∝ λ
k
of the quantum
jump.
Quantum jumps form also a hierarchy with respect to p-adic and dark hierarchies and the geometric
durations of quantum jumps scale like . Dark matter hierarchy suggests also a slight modification of
the notion of self. Each self involves a hierarchy of dark matter levels, and one is led to ask whether
the highest level in this hierarchy corresponds to single quantum jump rather than a sequence of
quantum jumps. The averaging of conscious experience over quantum jumps would occur only for
sub-selves at lower levels of dark matter hierarchy and these mental images would be ordered, and
single moment of consciousness would be experienced as a history of events. The quantum parallel
dissipation at the lower levels would give rise to the experience of flow of time. For instance, hadron
as a macro-temporal quantum system in the characteristic time scale of hadron is a dissipating system
at quark and gluon level corresponding to shorter p-adic time scales. One can ask whether even entire
life cycle could be regarded as a single quantum jump at the highest level so that consciousness would
not be completely lost even during deep sleep. This would allow to understand why we seem to know
directly that this biological body of mine existed yesterday.
The fact that we can remember phone numbers with 5 to 9 digits supports the view that self corre-
sponds at the highest dark matter level to single moment of consciousness. Self would experience the
average over the sequence of moments of consciousness associated with each sub-self but there would
be no averaging over the separate mental images of this kind, be their parallel or serial. These mental
images correspond to sub-selves having shorter wake-up periods than self and would be experienced as
being time ordered. Hence the digits in the phone number are experienced as separate mental images
and ordered with respect to experienced time.
3. The time span of long term memories as signature for the level of dark matter hierarchy
The simplest dimensional estimate gives for the average increment τ of geometric time in quantum
jump τ ∼ 10
4
CP
2
times so that 2
127
−1 ∼ 10
38
quantum jumps are experienced during secondary p-
adic time scale T
2
(k = 127) · 0.1 seconds which is the duration of physiological moment and predicted
to be fundamental time scale of human consciousness [L1]. A more refined guess is that τ
p
=

pτ gives
the dependence of the duration of quantum jump on p-adic prime p. By multi-p-fractality predicted
by TGD and explaining p-adic length scale hypothesis, one expects that at least p = 2-adic level is
also always present. For the higher levels of dark matter hierarchy τ
p
is scaled up by /
0
. One can
understand evolutionary leaps as the emergence of higher levels at the level of individual organism
making possible intentionality and memory in the time scale defined τ [L2].
Higher levels of dark matter hierarchy provide a neat quantitative view about self hierarchy and
its evolution. For instance, EEG time scales corresponds to k = 4 level of hierarchy and a time scale of
.1 seconds [J6], and EEG frequencies correspond at this level dark photon energies above the thermal
threshold so that thermal noise is not a problem anymore. Various levels of dark matter hierarchy
would naturally correspond to higher levels in the hierarchy of consciousness and the typical duration
of life cycle would give an idea about the level in question.
The level would determine also the time span of long term memories as discussed in [M3]. k = 7
would correspond to a duration of moment of conscious of order human lifetime which suggests that
k = 7 corresponds to the highest dark matter level relevant to our consciousness whereas higher levels
would in general correspond to transpersonal consciousness. k = 5 would correspond to time scale of
short term memories measured in minutes and k = 6 to a time scale of memories measured in days.
The emergence of these levels must have meant evolutionary leap since long term memory is also
accompanied by ability to anticipate future in the same time scale. This picture would suggest that
the basic difference between us and our cousins is not at the level of genome as it is usually understood
but at the level of the hierarchy of magnetic bodies [L2, M3]. In fact, higher levels of dark matter
hierarchy motivate the introduction of the notions of super-genome and hyper-genome. The genomes
of entire organ can join to form super-genome expressing genes coherently. Hyper-genomes would
result from the fusion of genomes of different organisms and collective levels of consciousness would
express themselves via hyper-genome and make possible social rules and moral.
10 LIST OF FIGURES
0.4 Bird’s eye of view about the topics of the book
The topics of this book relate to DNA and genetic code in several manners.
1. The oldest layers in the stratigraphy are the vision about DNA inspired by the notion of many-
sheeted space-time and the model of genetic code inspired by the notion of Combinatorial Hi-
erarchy predicting also the existence of what I have called memetic code. Additional number
theoretical models of genetic code based on p-adic thermodynamics for small p-adic primes and
maximization of entropy or negentropy emerged much later. One must however admit that
although these models reproduce the genetic code they fail to predict it. Models also fail also
to make interesting predictions.
2. The almost exact symmetries of the code table with respect to the first letter lead to the proposal
that the genetic code could has evolved from a simpler code involving only two letters and this
leads to concrete suggestion about how the genetic code might have evolved as a fusion of two
letter code and single letter code. These symmetries were also an essential element of number
theoretical models.
3. The work with a model of topological quantum computation inspired by the vision about dark
matter hierarchy and the idea that genome and cell membrane act as topological quantum
computer generated several new chapters. The magnetic flux tubes as carriers of dark matter
characterized by a large value of Planck constant would make living matter a macroscopic
quantum system. DNA nucleotides and lipids of the cell membrane would be connected by
magnetic flux tubes and the flow of the 2-D liquid formed by lipids induces braiding of flux tubes
providing both temporal dynamics defining topological quantum computation and a storage of
the program to memory by the braiding of flux tubes in the final state.
4. This model led to a cascade of ideas about quantum control in living matter. Quite generally,
magnetic flux tubes would make living matter kind of Indra’s net explaining the strange features
of gel phase. For instance, the phase transitions changing Planck constant inducing a contraction
or lengthening of the flux tubes would explain why bio-molecules are able to find each other
extremely selectively in the dense soup of bio-molecules inside cell. The anomalies related to
ionic currents find an explanation and a model of nerve pulse and EEG emerges along these
lines.
5. The discoveries of Peter Gariaev about the interaction of ordinary and laser light with genome
combined with the ideas about dark matter and water memory led to a concrete model for the
interaction of photons with DNA. One prediction is that it is possible to ”see” dark matter
by allowing ordinary matter interaction with DNA and Peter Gariaev might have already done
this. In this process ordinary photons would transform to dark ones, scatter from dark matter,
transform back to ordinary photons and arrive at camera. A second discovery - certainly one of
the greatest surprises of my professional life - was an end product of an attempt to understand
the mechanism behind water memory for which rather strong support exists now. The idea was
that dark nuclei which sizes zoomed up to atomic size scale could provide a representation of
genes. It indeed turned out that the model for dark nucleon consisting of three quarks predicts
counterparts of 64 DNAs and RNAs and 20 aminoacids and allows to identify genetic code as a
natural mapping of DNA type states to aminoacid type states. The numbers of DNAs mapped
to a given aminoacid are same as for the vertebrate genetic code. This would mean that genetic
code would be realized at the level of elementary particle physics and chemical realization would
be only one of the many. In fact, the quite recent experimental discoveries suggest that this
kind of representation must exist besides the representation based on the temporal patterns of
polarization direction discovered by Gariaev.
The topics of the book are organized as follows.
1. In the first part of the book I will discuss the new physics relevant to biology suggested by
TGD and consider a general model for how TGD Universe could act as topological quantum
computer.
0.5. The contents of the book 11
2. In the second part of the book the idea that there exists a hierarchy of codes based on the
notion of Combinatorial Hierarchy is discussed. The hierarchy would contain at least three levels
including predecessor of genetic code, genetic code, and what I have coined as memetic code.
The chapter devoted to the notion of many-sheeted DNA represents rather old contributions.
The remaining chapters are devoted to the model of DNA as topological quantum computer
and the ideas inspired by this work. This includes a model of protein folding and biocatalysis, a
model for evolution in many-sheeted space-time, and a model for the above mentioned Gariaev’s
findings. The model for nucleon predicting correctly vertebrate genetic code is certainly the
most fascinating predictions of this line of approach.
3. The third part of the book is devoted to the number theoretical models of the genetic code.
The seven online books about TGD [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] and eight online books about TGD inspired
theory of consciousness and quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15] are warmly recommended
for the reader willing to get overall view about what is involved.
0.5 The contents of the book
0.5.1 PART I: Some Physical and Mathematical Background
About the new physics behind quantum biology
This chapter was originally about the new physics behind qualia. The model of qualia indeed involves
a lot of new physics: many-sheeted space-time; massless extremals; exotic Super Virasoro repre-
sentations associated with discrete qualia; magnetic and cyclotron phase transitions associated with
quantum critical quantum spin glass phases of exotic super conductors at cellular space-time sheets;
classical color and electro-weak gauge fields in macroscopic length scales, to name the most important
ingredients. Gradually the chapter however expanded so that it touches practically all new physics
possibly relevant to TGD inspired quantum biology. Various physical mechanisms are discussed in
exploratory spirit rather than restricting the consideration to those ideas which seem to be the final
word about quantum biology or qualia just at this moment.
Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
Topological quantum computation (TQC) is one of the most promising approaches to quantum com-
putation. The coding of logical qubits to the entanglement of topological quantum numbers promises
to solve the de-coherence problem whereas the S-matrices of topological field theories (modular func-
tors) providing unitary representations for braids provide a realization of quantum computer programs
with gates represented as simple braiding operations. Because of their effective 2-dimensionality anyon
systems are the best candidates for realizing the representations of braid groups.
TGD allows several new insights related to quantum computation. TGD predicts new information
measures as number theoretical negative valued entanglement entropies defined for systems having
extended rational entanglement and characterizes bound state entanglement as bound state entan-
glement. Negentropy Maximization Principle and p-adic length scale hierarchy of space-time sheets
encourage to believe that Universe itself might do its best to resolve the de-coherence problem. The
new view about quantum jump suggests strongly the notion of quantum parallel dissipation so that
thermalization in shorter length scales would guarantee coherence in longer length scales. The possibil-
ity of negative energies and communications to geometric future in turn might trivialize the problems
caused by long computation times: computation could be iterated again and again by turning the
computer on in the geometric past and TGD inspired theory of consciousness predicts that something
like this occurs routinely in living matter.
The absolute minimization of K¨ ahler action is the basic variational principle of classical TGD and
predicts extremely complex but non-chaotic magnetic flux tube structures, which can get knotted and
linked. The dimension of CP
2
projection for these structures is D = 3. These structures are the corner
stone of TGD inspired theory of living matter and provide the braid structures needed by TQC.
Anyons are the key actors of TQC and TGD leads to detailed model of anyons as systems consisting
of track of a periodically moving charged particle realized as a flux tube containing the particle inside
it. This track would be a space-time correlate for the outcome of dissipative processes producing the
12 LIST OF FIGURES
asymptotic self-organization pattern. These tracks in general carry vacuum K¨ahler charge which is
topologized when the CP
2
projection of space-time sheet is D = 3. This explains charge fractionization
predicted to occur also for other charged particles. When a system approaches chaos periodic orbits
become slightly aperiodic and the correlate is flux tube which rotates N times before closing. This
gives rise to Z
N
valued topological quantum number crucial for TQC using anyons (N = 4 holds
true in this case). Non-Abelian anyons are needed by TQC, and the existence of long range classical
electro-weak fields predicted by TGD is an essential prerequisite of non-Abelianity.
Negative energies and zero energy states are of crucial importance of TQC in TGD. The possibility
of phase conjugation for fermions would resolve the puzzle of matter-antimatter asymmetry in an
elegant manner. Anti-fermions would be present but have negative energies. Quite generally, it is
possible to interpret scattering as a creation of pair of positive and negative energy states, the latter
representing the final state. One can characterize precisely the deviations of this Eastern world view
with respect to the Western world view assuming an objective reality with a positive definite energy
and understand why the Western illusion apparently works. In the case of TQC the initial resp. final
state of braided anyon system would correspond to positive resp. negative energy state.
The light-like boundaries of magnetic flux tubes are ideal for TQC. The point is that 3-dimensional
light-like quantum states can be interpreted as representations for the time evolution of a two-
dimensional system and thus represented self-reflective states being ”about something”. The light-
likeness (no geometric time flow) is a space-time correlate for the ceasing of subjective time flow during
macro-temporal quantum coherence. The S-matrices of TQC can be coded to these light-like states
such that each elementary braid operation corresponds to positive energy anyons near the boundary
of the magnetic flux tube A and negative energy anyons with opposite topological charges residing
near the boundary of flux tube B and connected by braided threads representing the quantum gate.
Light-like boundaries also force Chern-Simons action as the only possible general coordinate invariant
action since the vanishing of the metric determinant does not allow any other candidate. Chern-Simons
action indeed defines the modular functor for braid coding for a TQC program.
0.5.2 PART II: Physics inspired models for genome and evolution of ge-
netic code
Genes and memes
In this chapter the basic TGD inspired ideas about genetic code are discussed.
1. Genetic and memetic code from the model of abstraction process
The basic numbers of genetic code are probably not accidental. This led for more than ten years ago
to an attempt to construct a model for abstraction process reproducing the basic numbers of the genetic
code. The simplest model for an abstraction process is based on a repeated formation of statements
about statements starting from two basic statements. If one drops at each step of the construction
the statement corresponding to empty set in the set theoretic realization of Boolean algebra, one
obtains a hierarchy allowing to understand the basic numbers of genetic code, including the number
of amino-acids. What one obtains is so called Combinatorial Hierarchy consisting of the Mersenne
numbers 2, M(1) = 3, 7 ,127, 2
127
− 1, .. constructed using the rule M(n + 1) = M
M(n)
= 2
M(n)
− 1.
The explicitly listed ones are known to be primes. Combinatorial Hierarchy emerges from a model of
abstraction process as subsequent transitions from level to meta level by forming Boolean statements
about Boolean statements of level n and dropping one statement away.
The infinite hierarchy of possible genetic codes suggests the possibility of an infinite hierarchy
of increasingly complex life-forms. The natural question is whether a counterpart of the genetic
code could make sense for our ideas, memes. Combinatorial Hierarchy model for abstraction process
predicts that memetic code should correspond to the level M
127
of the hierarchy. This leads to a
precise realization of the memetic code in terms of binary sequences. Codewords, counterparts of
mRNA, correspond to 126-bit sequences. Also almost-127-bit code with 2
127
−1 codons is possible.
2. Frequency and pulse representations of codes
p-Adic length scale hypothesis and identification of codes as special cases of a hierarchy of p-adic
cognitive codes allows quantitative predictions. The most general assumption assigns to any prime
p · 2
k
, k integer, a hierarchy of cognitive codes with codeword having a duration equal to n-ary
p-adic time scale T
p
(n) such that the number of bits is factor k
1
of k. Codewords could be realized
either as k
1
harmonics of the fundamental frequency f
p
(n) = 1/T
p
(n) or as temporal sequences of bits
0.5. The contents of the book 13
of duration τ = T
p
(n)/k
1
represented as pulses of maximal duration τ. Pulse-frequency dichotomy
corresponds to dichotomies like particle-wave, nerve pulse-EEG, and talking left brain-singing right
brain.
Genetic code would correspond to k = 2
7
− 1 = 127 and have 6 bits (64 DNA triplets). These
codewords could be realized dynamically as temporal field patterns. For genetic code primes p · 2
k
,
k = 6 n define candidates for the duration of the genetic code word if all factors of k are assumed to
define a possible number of bits of the code word. The time scales come as powers of 8 so that they
cover the entire range of biologically relevant time scales down to CP
2
length scale, and genetic code
could appear as fractally scaled versions unlike memetic code and perhaps also outside the biological
context. k = 2 126 = 2 6 21 = 252 allows the representation of both 126-bit memetic codeword,
6-bit genetic codeword, and almost-7-bit genetic code word. For pulse representation genetic codon
would have a duration of 50 ms whereas the bit would have duration of 8.3 ms so that the realization
using nerve pulse patterns is in principle possible. Frequency representation would be realized as 6
first harmonics of the fundamental frequency f
1
= 2
n
20 Hz, where f
1
= 20 Hz defines the lower
end of audible frequency range and also the rate for the translation of mRNA triplets to amino-acids.
126-bit memetic code allows a representation as sequence of 21 nerve pulses of duration 2.4 ms each
of them accompanied by 6-bit genetic codon realized at the microtubular level (this representation of
genetic code has been suggested by Koruga).
The secondary p-adic time scale associated with M
127
is .1 seconds and defines the duration of
the almost 127-bit memetic codeword. For frequency representation is realized as 127 first harmonics
of f
1
= 10 Hz and the duration of the bit for pulse representation is .8 ms which is shorter than the
duration of nerve pulse. The duration .1 seconds of code word might be identified as the minimal
duration of cortical mental images, and the so called features introduced by Walter Freeman could
define pulse representation of memetic code words of 127 bits. The highest frequency in the frequency
representation is 1270 Hz and could define the frequency responsible for synchronous neuronal firing
known to be about 1 kHz. Various numerical co-incidences suggest that language corresponds to a
particular realization of memetic and genetic codes closely related to their realization at DNA level.
3. Model for the evolution of genetic code from the symmetries of the code
TGD leads to a model for the evolution of the genetic code motivated by the observation that the
genetic code possesses an exact A-G and almost exact T-C permutation symmetry with respect to
the third nucleotide of the DNA triplet. This leads to the hypothesis that genetic code has evolved
as a fusion of doublet and singlet codes accompanied by a small breaking of the product symmetry.
The hypothesis is highly predictive, and it is possible to reproduce genetic code and its variants by
this mechanism in a natural manner. The mechanism has deep implications for the models of the
bio-chemical evolution before genetic code: in particular a detailed model for the evolution of genetic
code and pre-biotic evolution emerges.
4. Mapping memetic code to 169-bit micro-tubular code
169-bit micro-tubular code words is excellent candidate for a representation of long term memories
as a temporal list of activated memes. The model for the mapping of memetic code to 169-bit
microtubular code is dictated by the general ideas about realization of intentions and p-adic cognitive
codes. When combined with general number theoretical arguments and physical considerations the
model becomes highly unique. The prediction for the intronic representation of the memetic codon
involving 9 DNA triplets as parity bits is readily testable, and also the prediction for the microtubular
electric field pattern is in principle testable.
5. Genes, memes, and universal language
Also static representations of the memetic code are possible and intronic DNA could provide
representation of memetic codewords as sequences of 21 DNA triplets. At DNA level memes and
genes should relate like computer software and hardware. In the case of language the rules producing
a given linguistic expression can be seen as the high level software, main programs, whereas words
can be seen as hardware-like lower level subprograms. This leads to the idea that memetic codewords
define the basic program modules producing linguistic expressions by activating genes which express
themselves in terms of field patterns generating nerv pulse patterns generating words or word sequences
very much analogous to proteins.
Time mirror mechanism and the structure of the computer language LISP inspire a concrete model
for memes as intronic programs initiated from magnetic body and calling genes as subprograms in turn
calling other genes as subprograms and generating at the lowest level field patterns generating nerve
pulses patterns giving rise to the motor action producing speech. Phonemes could directly correspond
14 LIST OF FIGURES
to DNA triplets and define the basic building blocks of language having as such no meaning. If this
view is correct, the development of spoken and written language would mean basically the emergence
of a higher level of intentionality, which utilizes an already existing repertoire of memes expressed in
many other manners. This would in turn suggest that animals and even plants possess some kind
of languages realized at cellular level, and that even inter-species communications using common
memetic grammar and genetic vocabulary.
6. Corals and men
A strong support for the idea of interspecies communications come from the sensational finding
that the genome of corals, known to be the most primitive animals having nervous system, share a
large number of common genes with vertebrates whereas they share much less common genes with
flies and worms. This finding challenges profoundly the existing view about the evolution of animals
and adds a further mystery to the halo of mysteries surrounding Cambrian explosion.
Since corals are usually regarded as relatively simple creatures, the most obvious questions concern
the function of the complex genome. The TGD inspired answer is that the common genes provide a
common vocabulary making possible communications between corals and vertebrates such as fishes.
The genes express themselves in terms of electromagnetic field patterns and cyclotron transitions
of Ca
++
ions giving rise to primitive EEG are crucially involved. The calcium containing skeleton
possessed by both corals and vertebrates could amplify the field patterns representing genes and make
possible interspecies communications.
Coral reefs can be also seen as super organisms with cells replaced by double cell layers forming
the corals. This forces to consider the possibility that coral reefs are super-organisms perhaps even
possessing super-neural system consisting of super-neurons defined by differentiated corals. Accord-
ingly, in TGD Universe coral reefs could be seen as descendants of higher level intra-terrestrial life
forms which boosted Cambrian explosion by horizontal transfer of genes to much simpler life forms
and providing also them with a nervous system.
7. Does ontogeny recapitulate also the future phylogeny at the level of genes and memes?
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny means that the morphogenesis of the embryo repeats the evo-
lutionary steps leading to the organism. One might ask whether and how this process is realized at
the level of genes and memes (introns expressing themselves electromagnetically): this could provide
further understanding of the mysterious ”junk DNA”. Combining this question with some recent
puzzling findings leads to a rather radical revision of the view about evolution proceeding through
random mutations.
1. The second strange finding besides coral genome reported in New Scientist (5 June, 2004) was
that the removal of large portions of conserved intronic DNA from mice has no detectable
effects on the basic biological functions. Conserved parts of DNA are usually thought as being
an outcome of a long selection process and far from genetic trash. This could be understood
if the conserved introns have been radiated from corals and the selection process has occurred
already before the Cambrian explosion induced by the emergence of the corals and leading to
the sudden emergence of new highly developed life forms. That mouse introns did not have any
identifiable function could mean that they are still waiting for time to become ripe for their
expression.
2. A third strange discovery relates to morphogenesis and is known as Ciba Geigy effect. Chemists
Guido Ebner and Guido Schuerch exposed germs, seeds, and eggs to an electric field with strength
in the range .5-2 kV/m. For instance, the resulting trouts appeared to resemble their ancient
predecessors. The leaves of certain plants represented a series of snapshots from evolution with
the oldest leaves dating back to 300 million years. This suggests that the memone and genome
represent ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle quite concretely, and that static electric
fields could provide the practical manner to activate and study the ancient morphologies. Even
partial transmutation of life forms to each other might be possible (beautiful swan to ugly
duckling at least!). The activation of morphologies not yet realized is probably more difficult:
new memetic programs require new genetic hardware.
The resulting vision about evolution of higher organisms would be as the activation of conserved
memes and genes basically inherited from corals rather than by the emergence of new genes by
random mutations. Very much like learning new features of a text processing program. The explosive
evolution of human civilization could correspond to a rapid shift of the activated portion of memone
0.5. The contents of the book 15
and genome. The fact that 95 per cent of our DNA consists of introns suggests that an enormous
evolutionary potential exists also at the level of personal evolution during single life cycle. TGD
view about space-time as a 4-dimensional living organism would mean that this personal evolution
continues after the biological death since the 4-body of geometric past does not disappear in the
biological death.
Many-sheeted DNA
The problems of how genes code information about the morphology of organism and how this informa-
tion is expressed, belong to the great puzzles of the developmental biology. A closely related mystery
is the differentiation of cells. The notion of the genetic program is far from precise and it is not clear
how close the analogy with a computer program is. There are also several problems which challenge
the basic dogmas of genetics.
1. Only 1 per cent of DNA of human genome actually codes polypeptides. Eukaryote genes contain
intron sequences which are transcribed into hnRNA but snipped of when hnRNA is transformed
mRNA in process called slicing. The higher the evolutionary level of organism, the higher the
fraction of introns is. Molecular Darwinistis see introns as ”junk DNA” but there is evidence
that introns are far from junk. For instance, the splicing of intron contribution from hnRNA
to give mRNA can give several different outcomes depending on the stage of development of
the organism and introns are crucial for the effectiveness of immune system. Hence one can
wonder whether intronic mRNA and protein mRNA could both form the real output of gene
subprograms serving in some sense as input for other gene subprograms. This interpretation
obviously conflicts with ”gene-single protein” dogma in its basic form.
2. There are large amounts of highly repetitive DNA which is silent. One can wonder whether there
is some fundamental mis-understanding involved. Could it be that this DNA is analogous to
control DNA not transcribed to RNA and therefore not all useless. There is also active repetitive
DNA.
3. There is large amount of silent DNA in control sections between genes. Could it be that this
silent DNA expresses itself in some nonchemical manner? Chemical expression is very slow,
translation rate being twenty aminoacids per second, and one can wonder whether life might
have invented faster modes of gene expression and control of gene expression.
4. Plant genome is often by a factor of hundred longer than human genome. One could argue
that the complexity of organism is measured by the length of the shortest program coding the
organism. It is however not at all obvious how the genome of plants could be more reduntant
than human genome since repetitive sequences common to all animals are present. Introns are
in fact more frequent in human genome. This suggests that some new unidentified degrees of
freedom giving rise to complexity might be present and that the chemistry of DNA in the sense
of standard physics is perhaps not all that is needed to understand genetic program.
5. Various self-organization process such as self-assembly and de-assembly are very frequent in
living systems. The problem how genes give rise to morphology of the organism is poorly
understood. This forces to challenge the dogma of genetic determinism. One should be able
to understand what is determined by genes and what is determined by self-organization and
whether the genes of the standard physics are enough.
The reason why the above mentioned problems have turned out to be so untractable might be due
to a wrong view about space-time. Many-sheeted space-time concept of TGD might be absolutely
crucial for the expression of genetic code. Gene itself might be many-sheeted space-time structure
coding faithfully the topology of the expression domain of gene. This many-sheeted structure of DNA
could allow to understand the miraculous looking features of DNA replication and cell differentiation.
TGD based view of evolution as p-adic evolution implied by the basic quantum theory, should be
a crucial element of the picture. Together with p-adic length scale hypothesis, with Combinatorial
Hierarchy model for genetic code allowing to interpret genes as Boolean statements, and general vision
about quantum control and coordination based on a hierarchy of weakly coupled super conductors,
the notion of many-sheeted DNA leads to precise quantitative predictions and a general model for
16 LIST OF FIGURES
genetic program. In particular, one can understand the mystery of introns. What interesting from
the point of view of our consciousness is that it might be possible to interpret the Boolean statements
represented by the exon and intron parts of genes as a physical representation for our belief system.
Thus genes would code both matter– and mind like hardware of the living system.
DNA as Topological Quantum Computer
This chapter represents a vision about how DNA might act as a topological quantum computer (tqc).
Tqc means that the braidings of braid strands define tqc programs and M-matrix (generalization of
S-matrix in zero energy ontology) defining the entanglement between states assignable to the end
points of strands define the tqc usually coded as unitary time evolution for Schr¨odinger equation. One
can ends up to the model in the following manner.
1. Darwinian selection for which the standard theory of self-organization provides a model, should
apply also to tqc programs. Tqc programs should correspond to asymptotic self-organization
patterns selected by dissipation in the presence of metabolic energy feed. The spatial and
temporal pattern of the metabolic energy feed characterizes the tqc program - or equivalently -
sub-program call.
2. Since braiding characterizes the tqc program, the self-organization pattern should correspond
to a hydrodynamical flow or a pattern of magnetic field inducing the braiding. Braid strands
must correspond to magnetic flux tubes of the magnetic body of DNA. If each nucleotide is
transversal magnetic dipole it gives rise to transversal flux tubes, which can also connect to
the genome of another cell. As a matter fact, the flux tubes would correspond to what I call
wormhole magnetic fields having pairs of space-time sheets carrying opposite magnetic fluxes.
3. The output of tqc sub-program is probability distribution for the outcomes of state function
reduction so that the sub-program must be repeated very many times. It is represented as
four-dimensional patterns for various rates (chemical rates, nerve pulse patterns, EEG power
distributions,...) having also identification as temporal densities of zero energy states in various
scales. By the fractality of TGD Universe there is a hierarchy of tqcs corresponding to p-adic and
dark matter hierarchies. Programs (space-time sheets defining coherence regions) call programs
in shorter scale. If the self-organizing system has a periodic behavior each tqc module defines a
large number of almost copies of itself asymptotically. Generalized EEG could naturally define
this periodic pattern and each period of EEG would correspond to an initiation and halting of
tqc. This brings in mind the periodically occurring sol-gel phase transition inside cell near the
cell membrane. There is also a connection with hologram idea: EEG rhythm corresponds to
reference wave and nerve pulse patters to the wave carrying the information and interfering with
the reference wave.
4. Fluid flow must induce the braiding which requires that the ends of braid strands must be
anchored to the fluid flow. Recalling that lipid mono-layers of the cell membrane are liquid
crystals and lipids of interior mono-layer have hydrophilic ends pointing towards cell interior,
it is easy to guess that DNA nucleotides are connected to lipids by magnetic flux tubes and
hydrophilic lipid ends are stuck to the flow.
5. The topology of the braid traversing cell membrane cannot be affected by the hydrodynamical
flow. Hence braid strands must be split during tqc. This also induces the desired magnetic
isolation from the environment. Halting of tqc reconnects them and make possible the commu-
nication of the outcome of tqc.
There are several problems related to the details of the realization.
1. How nucleotides A,T,C,G are coded to the strand color and what this color corresponds to
physically? There are two options which could be characterized as fermionic and bosonic.
i) Magnetic flux tubes having quark and anti-quark at their ends with u,d and u
c
, d
c
coding for
A,G and T,C. CP conjugation would correspond to conjugation for DNA nucleotides.
ii) Wormhole magnetic flux tubes having wormhole contact and its CP conjugate at its ends
with wormhole contact carrying quark and anti-quark at its throats. The latter are predicted
to appear in all length scales in TGD Universe.
0.5. The contents of the book 17
2. How to split the braid strands in a controlled manner? High T
c
super conductivity provides
a possible mechanism: braid strand can be split only if the supra current flowing through it
vanishes. A suitable voltage pulse induces the supra-current and its negative cancels it. The
conformation of the lipid controls whether it it can follow the flow or not.
3. How magnetic flux tubes can be cut without breaking the conservation of the magnetic flux?
The notion of wormhole magnetic field could save the situation now: after the splitting the
flux returns back along the second space-time sheet of wormhole magnetic field. An alternative
solution is based on reconnection of flux tubes. Since only flux tubes of same color can reconnect
this process can induce transfer of color: ”color inheritance”: when applied at the level of amino-
acids this leads to a successful model of protein folding. Reconnection makes possible breaking
of flux tube connection for both the ordinary magnetic flux tubes and wormhole magnetic flux
tubes.
4. How magnetic flux tubes are realized? The interpretation of flux tubes as correlates of directed
attention at molecular level leads to concrete picture. Hydrogen bonds are by their asymmetry
natural correlates for a directed attention at molecular level. Also flux tubes between acceptors of
hydrogen bonds must be allowed and acceptors can be seen as the subjects of directed attention
and donors as objects. Examples of acceptors are aromatic rings of nucleotides, O = atoms
of phosphates, etc.. A connection with metabolism is obtained if it is assumed that various
phosphates XMP, XDP, XTP, X = A, T, G, C act as fundamental acceptors and plugs in the
connection lines. The basic metabolic process ATP →ADP +P
i
allows an interpretation as a
reconnection splitting flux tube connection, and the basic function of phosphorylating enzymes
would be to build flux tube connections as also of breathing and photosynthesis.
The model makes several testable predictions about DNA itself. In particular, matter-antimatter
asymmetry and slightly broken isospin symmetry have counterparts at DNA level induced from the
breaking of these symmetries for quarks and antiquarks associated with the flux tubes. DNA cell
membrane system is not the only possible system that could perform tqc like activities and store
memories in braidings: flux tubes could connect biomolecules and the braiding could provide an
almost definition for what it is to be living. Even water memory might reduce to braidings. The
model leads also to an improved understanding of other roles of the magnetic flux tubes containing
dark matter. Phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant for the magnetic flux tubes could
be key element of bio-catalysis and electromagnetic long distance communications in living matter.
For instance, one ends up to what might be called code for protein folding and bio-catalysis.
The Notion of Wave-Genome and DNA as Topological Quantum Computer
Peter Gariaev and collaborators have reported several strange effects of laser light and also ordinary
light on DNA. These findings include the rotation of polarization plane of laser light by DNA, phantom
DNA effect, the transformation of laser light to radio-wave photons having biological effects, the
coding of DNA sequences to the modulated polarization plane of laser light and the ability of this
kind of light to induce gene expression in another organisms provided the modulated polarization
pattern corresponds to an ”address” characterizing the organism, and the formation of images of
what is believed to be DNA sample itself and of the objects of environment by DNA sample in a cell
irradiated by ordinary light in UV-IR range. In this article a TGD based model for these effects is
discussed. A speculative picture proposing a connection between homeopathy, water memory, and
phantom DNA effect is discussed and on basis of this connection a vision about how the tqc hardware
represented by the genome is actively developed by subjecting it to evolutionary pressures represented
by a virtual world representation of the physical environment. The speculation inspired by this vision
is that genetic code as well as DNA-, RNA- and amino-acid sequences should have representation in
terms of nuclear strings. The model for dark baryons indeed leads to an identification of these analogs
and the basic numbers of genetic code including also the numbers of aminoacids coded by a given
number of codons are predicted correctly. Hence it seems that genetic code is universal rather than
being an accidental outcome of the biological evolution.
18 LIST OF FIGURES
Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
The topics of the chapter has been restricted to those, which seem to represent the most well-
established ideas. There are many other, more speculative, ideas such as the strong form of the
hypothesis that plasmoid like life forms molecular life forms has evolved in ”Mother Gaia’s womb”,
maybe even in the hot environment defined by the boundary of mantle and core.
1. Basic facts about and TGD based model for pre-biotic evolution are discussed.
2. A model for the ATP-ADP process based on DNA as topological quantum computer vision, the
identification of universal metabolic energy quanta in terms of zero point kinetic energies, and
the notion of remote metabolism is discussed.
3. A model for the evolution of the recent genetic code (3-codons) as a fusion of codes for which
codons are nucleotides (1-codons) and di-nucleotides (2-codons) is discussed. The symmetries
of the genetic code, the observation that tRNA can be seen as a fusion of two hairpin like DNA
molecules, and the finding that the first nucleotides of 3-codon code for the reaction path leading
from a precursors of the aminoacid to aminoacids for hydrophobic/hydrohilic dichotomy, serve
as motivations of the model. 1- and 2-codes corresponding to the two forms of RNA (the exotic
2

−5

RNA and the usual 3

−5

RNA) would have prevailed in RNA world. Aminoacids would
have served as catalysts for the copying of RNA on one hand, and RNA molecules would have
catalyzed the formation of aminoacids from their precursors on one hand, meaning the presence
of a positive feedback loop. In the transition to DNA-aminoacid era RNA began to be translated
to aminoacid sequences.
4. Cambrian explosion represents a rather mysterious period in biology: new highly developed
phylas emerged out of nowhere. A second strange finding is that continents would fit together
to form single super-continent covering entire Earth’s surface at time of Cambrian explosion
if the radius of Earth would have been one half of its recent value. This finding has inspired
Expanding Earth theories but it has not been possible to identify the mechanism causing the
expansion. The success of the standard tectonic plate theory requires that possible expansion
must have occurred in relatively short geological time scale. The hierarchy of Planck constants
implies that cosmic expansion has occurred in quantum leaps increasing the value of and
thus of quantum scales by factors which tend to be powers of 2. Cosmic expansion would have
occurred as jerks even in the case of planets. In the proposed model Cambrian explosion would
have accompanied the expansion of the Earth’s radius by a factor of 2: during this period an
outburst of highly developed life forms from underground seas to the surface of Earth would
have taken place.
5. The last section of the chapter compares TGD based view about the evolution of genetic code to
the views of McFadden. This section is a little bit out of date. For instance, the hypothesis that
magnetic body of DNA could induce mutations purposefully is not discussed. This hypothesis
is natural if one believes that magnetic flux tubes connecting bio-molecules play a key role in
bio-catalysis. This idea is discussed in the chapter devoted to protein folding.
A Model for Protein Folding and Bio-catalysis
The model for the evolution of genetic code leads to the idea that the folding of proteins obeys a
folding code inherited from the genetic code. The flux connections between molecules containing dark
matter in macroscopic quantum phase and characterized by two integers are the basic new physics
element of the model.
After some trials one ends up with a general conceptualization of the situation with the identifica-
tion o magnetic flux tubes as correlates of attention at molecular level so that a direct connection with
TGD inspired theory of consciousness emerges at quantitative level. This allows a far reaching gener-
alization of the DNA as topological quantum computer paradigm and makes it much more detailed.
By their asymmetric character hydrogen bonds are excellent candidates for contracted magnetic flux
tubes serving as correlates of attention at molecular level.
One can consider two models. For the first model the flux tubes between amino-acids are assumed
to determine the protein folding.
0.5. The contents of the book 19
1. The constant part of free amino-acid containing O − H, O =, and NH
2
would correspond to
the codon XYZ in the sense that the flux tubes would carry the ”color” representing the four
nucleotides in terms of quark pairs. Color inheritance by flux tube reconnection makes this
possible. For the amino-adics inside protein O = and N − H would correspond to Y Z. Also
flux tubes connecting the acceptor atoms of hydrogen bonds are required by the model of DNA
as topological quantum computer. The long flux tubes between O = atoms and their length
reduction in a phase transition reducing Planck constant could be essential in protein-ligand
interaction.
2. The model predicts a code for protein folding: depending on whether also = O − O = flux
tubes are allowed or not, Y = Z or Y = Z
c
condition is satisfied by the amino-acids having
N−H−−O = hydrogen bond. For = O−O = bonds Y −Y
c
pairing holds true. If one identifies
hydrogen bond with flux tube (Y (n) = Z(n + k)) the model works badly for both options. If
one assumes only that the presence of a flux tube connecting amino-acids in either direction
(Y (n) = Z(n + k) or Z(n) = Y (n + k)) is a prerequisite for the formation of hydrogen bond,
the model works. Y = Z
c
option predicts the average length of alpha bonds correctly. Y = Z
rule is however favored by the study of alpha helices for four enzymes: the possible average
length of alpha helix is considerably longer than the average length of alpha helix if gene is the
unique gene allowing to satisfy Y = Z rule. The explicit study of alpha helices for four enzymes
demonstrates that the failure to satisfy the condition for the existence of hydrogen bond fails
rarely and at most for two amino-acids (for 2 amino-acids in single case only). For beta sheets
there ar no failures for Y = Z option.
3. The information apparently lost in the many-to-one character of the codon-amino-acid corre-
spondence would code for the folding of the protein and similar amino-acid sequences could give
rise to different foldings. Also catalyst action would reduce to effective base pairing and one can
speak about catalyst code. The DNA sequences associated with alpha helices and beta sheets
are completely predictable unless one assumes a quantum counterpart of wobble base pairing
meaning that N−H flux tubes are before hydrogen bonding in quantum superpositions of braid
colors associated with the third nucleotides Z of codons XY Z coding for amino-acid. Only the
latter option works. The outcome is very simple quantitative model for folding and catalyst
action based on minimization of energy and predicting as its solutions alpha helices and beta
strands.
Second model represents a diametrical opposite of the first model in the sense in that it assumes
flux tube connections only between amino-acids and water molecules. These flux tubes mediate
an attractive (repulsive) interaction in the case of hydrophily (hydrophoby) due to the behavior of
magnetic (presumably) interaction energy as a function of Planck constant (or integers characterizing
the level of dark matter) assignable to the flux tube. For hydrophoby (hydrophily) the interaction
energy is minimized for long (short) flux tubes. The interaction between amino-acids is induced by this
interaction in a manner analogous to how the interaction between electrons and ions induces secondary
interaction between the members of a Cooper pair. The model explains the basic qualitative aspects
of protein folding and the quantitative model of folding based on amino-acid-amino-acid flux tubes
allows a generalization which is however discussed at numerical level.
Three new physics realizations of the genetic code and the role of dark matter in bio-
systems
TGD inspired quantum biology leads naturally to the idea that several realizations of genetic code
exist. Besides the realizations based on temporal patterns of electromagnetic fields I have considered
three different new physics realizations of the genetic code based the notions of many-sheeted space-
time, magnetic body, and the hierarchy of Planck constants explaining dark matter in TGD framework.
1. The first realization - proposed in the model for DNA as topological quantum computer (tqc) -
maps the nucleotides A,G and T,C to dark quarks u,d and their anti-quarks assignable to the
ends of magnetic flux tubes representing braid strands and connecting nucleotides to lipids of
cell membrane.
20 LIST OF FIGURES
2. Second realization was discovered in the model of dark nuclei as strings of dark baryons. Dark
baryons realize codons in terms of quantum entanglement and without decomposition to letters.
Dark baryons are strings of 3 quarks connected by two color flux tubes. The neutral states of
the dark baryon predicted by the model are in 1-1 correspondence with DNA, RNA, aminoacids.
Candidates for the counterparts of tRNA anticodons are also obtained if one accepts that ge-
netic code actually decomposes to 2 steps 64 → 40 → 20 such that there are 40 dark baryon
counterparts for tRNA anticodons. The amazing finding is that vertebrate genetic code comes
out correctly.
3. The third realization is a physical realization for the divisor code proposed by Khrennikov and
Nilsson. The realization relies on two integers labeling magnetic flux tubes containing dark
matter. The dark magnetic flux tubes assignable to DNA codons and amino-acids could be
labeled by these integers providing a representation of the genetic code consistent with the
divisor code. Also a physical mechanism implying the physical equivalence of the dark baryon
code and divisor code can be imagined.
The basic proposal is that dark baryon counterparts of basic bio-molecules and genetic code were
present from beginning and gave rise to pre-biotic life at the magnetic flux tubes so that the evolution
of biological life meant the development of translation and transcription mechanisms allowing to
transform dark baryon variants of the codons to their chemical variants. These mechanisms would be
still at work inside the living cell and allow the living matter to perform genetic engineering. This
proposal is consistent with recent findings about large variations of genomes inside organism.
There is a strange experimental finding giving support for this picture. A water solution containing
human cells infected by bacteria is sterilized by a filtering procedure and healthy cells are added to
the filtrate. Within few weeks the infected cells re-appear. A possible explanation is that dark baryon
variant of the bacterial genome realized as nano-sized particles remains in the solution despite the
filtering.
The codes are discussed from the point of view of DNA as tqc hypothesis and the model for protein
folding and bio-catalysis. The basic selection rules of bio-catalysis could be based on the two integers
assignable to the dark magnetic flux tubes. Only bio-molecules whose dark magnetic bodies contain a
layer characterized by same integers can be connected by dark magnetic flux tubes. The reconnection
of the dark magnetic flux tubes selecting the bio-molecules participating the catalytic reaction and
the contraction of these flux tubes induced by a phase transition reducing Planck constant and forcing
the bio-molecules near to each other would represent basic mechanisms of bio-catalysis.
0.5.3 Part III: Number theoretical models for genetic code and its evolu-
tion
The original hope was that genetic code could be understood in terms of number theoretic notion. This
led to several mathematical models for the genetic code and its evolution. These models reproduced
the code with a suitable choice of free parameters but failed to predict it whereas physics based
approach led to the completely unexpected realization that genetic code could be understood at the
level of elementary particle physics as something completely universal with chemical realization being
only one particular representations of the code (see the chapter ”The Notion of Wave-Genome and
DNA as Topological Quantum Computer”). Also the chemical evolution could be understood on basis
of physics based arguments. Hence this part might be argued to be somewhat obsolete but since the
physical picture does not explicitly exclude number theoretic explanations I have decided to keep it.
Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically?
The number of DNA triplets is 64. This inspires the idea that DNA sequence could be interpreted
as an expansion of an integer using 64 as the base. Hence given DNA triplet would represent some
integer in ¦0,1....,63¦ (sequences of I Ching symbols give a beautiful realization of these sequences).
The observation which puts bells ringing is that the number of primes smaller than 64 is 18.
Together with 0, and 1 this makes 20: the number of aminoacids!
1. Questions
The finding just described stimulates a whole series of questions.
0.5. The contents of the book 21
Do aminoacids correspond to integers in the set S = ¦primes < 64¦ ∪ ¦0, 1¦. Does aminoacid
sequence have an interpretation as a representation as a sequence of integers consisting of 0, 1 and
products of primes p = 2, ..., 61? Does the aminoacid representing 0 have an interpretation as kind
of period separating from each other structural units analogous to genes representing integers in the
sequence so that we would quite literally consists of sequences of integers? Do 0 and 1 have some
special biological properties, say the property of being biologically inert both at the level of DNA and
aminoacids?
Does genetic code mediate a map from integers 0,...,63 to set S such that 0 and 1 are mapped
to 0 and 1? If so then three integers 2 ≤ n ≤ 63 must correspond to stopping sign codons rather
than primes. What stopping sign codon property means at the level of integers? How the map from
integers 2,...,61 to the primes p = 2, ..., 61 is determined?
2. The chain of arguments leading to a number theoretical model for the genetic code
The following chain of arguments induced to large part by concrete numerical experimentation
leads to a model providing a partial answer to many of these questions.
1. The partitions of any positive integer n can be interpreted in terms of number theoretical many
boson states. The partitions for which a given integer appears at most once have interpretation
in terms of fermion states. These states could be identified as bosonic and fermionic states of
Super Virasoro representation with given conformal weight n.
2. The generalization of Shannon entropy by replacing logarithms of probabilities with the loga-
rithms of p-adic norms of probabilities allows to have systems with negative entropy and thus
positive negentropy. The natural requirement is that n corresponds to such prime p ≤ 61 that the
negentropy assigned to n is maximal in some number theoretic thermodynamics. The resulting
correspondence n →p(n) would naturally determine the genetic code.
3. One can assign to the bosonic and fermionic partitions a number theoretic thermodynamics
defined by a Hamiltonian. Purely bosonic and fermionic thermodynamics are defined by cor-
responding partition functions Z
B
and Z
F
whereas supersymmetric option is defined by the
product Z
B
Z
F
.
4. The simplest option is that Hamiltonian depends only on the number r of the integers in the
partition. The dynamics would be in a well defined sense local and would not depend on the
sizes of summands at all. The thermodynamical states would be degenerate with degeneracy
factors given by total numbers d
I
(n, r) of partitions of type I = B, F. The invariants known as
rank and crank define alternative candidates for basic building blocks of Hamiltonian.
5. Ordinary exponential thermodynamics based on, say e
−H/T
= q
r−1
0
, q
0
a rational number,
produces typically unrealistic genetic codes for which most integers are mapped to small primes
p ≤ 11 and many primes are not coded at all. The idea that realistic code could result at some
critical temperature fails also.
6. Quantum criticality and fractality of TGD Universe inspire the idea that the criticality is an
inherent property of Hamiltonian rather than only thermodynamical state. Hence Hamiltonian
can depend only weakly on the character of the partition so that all partitions contribute with
almost equal weights to the partition function.
Fractality is achieved if Boltzmann factors are given by e
−H/T
= (r + r
0
)
n
0
so that H(r) =
log(r+r
0
) serves as Hamiltonian and n
0
corresponds to the inverse temperature. The super-symmetric
variant of this Hamiltonian yields the most realistic candidates for the genetic code and one might
hope that a number theoretically small perturbation not changing the divisors p ≤ 61 of partition
function but affecting the probabilities could give correct degeneracies. Numerical experimentation
suggests however that this might not be the case and that simple analytic form of Hamiltonian is too
much to hope for.
Numerical experimentation suggests however that this might not be the case and that simple
analytic form of Hamiltonian is too much to hope for. A simple argument however shows that e
−H/T
=
f(r) could be in quantum critical case be deduced from the genetic code by fixing the 62 values of
f(r) so that the desired 62 correspondences n → p(n) result. The idea about almost universality of
22 LIST OF FIGURES
the genetic code would be replaced with the idea that quantum criticality allows to engineer a genetic
code maximizing the total negentropy associated with DNA triplet-aminoacid pair.
A natural guess is that the map of codons to integers is given as a small deformation of the map
induced by the map of DNA codons to integers induced by the identification of nucleotides with 4-digits
0,1,2, 3 (this identification depends on whether first, second, or third nucleotide is in question). This
map predicts approximate p(n) = p(n + 1) symmetry having also a number theoretical justification.
One can deduce codon-integer and aminoacid-prime correspondences and at (at least) two Boltzmann
weight distributions f(n) consistent with the genetic code and Negentropy Maximization Principle
constrained by the degeneracies of the genetic code.
Unification of Four Approaches to the Genetic Code
A proposal unifying four approaches to genetic code is discussed.
The first approach is introduced by Pitk¨anen and is geometric: genetic code is interpreted as
an imbedding of the aminoacid space to DNA space possessing a fiber bundle like structure with
DNAs coding for a given aminoacid forming a discrete fiber with a varying number of points. Also
Khrennikov has proposed an analogous approach based on the identification of DNAs coding for a
given aminoacid as an orbit a discrete flow defined by iteration of a map of DNA space to itself.
Second approach starts from the 5-adic approach of Dragovich and Dragovich. Codons are labelled
by 5-adic integers n which have no non-vanishing 5-digits so that the n is in the range [31, 124]. The
number of primes in the range [31, 124] is 20. This suggests the labelling of aminoacids by these
primes. This inspires an additional condition on the geometric code: if possible, one of the integers n
projected to p equals to p(n). This condition fails only for the primes 53,79,101,103 for which some
of 5-digits vanishing in 5-ary expansion.
The third approach is based on the generalization of the basic idea of the so called divisor code
proposed by Khrennikov and Nilsson. The requirement is that the number of factors for integer n
labelling one of DNAs, call it n
d
coding for a given aminoacid is the total number of codons coding for
the aminoacid, its degeneracy. Therefore a given aminoacid labelled by prime p with no non-vanishing
5-digits is coded by DNAs labelled by p itself and by n
d
. A group theoretic and physical interpretation
for the origin of the divisor code is proposed.
The fourth approach is a modification of the earlier 4-adic number theoretic thermodynamics
approach of Pitk¨anen.
1. 5-adic thermodynamics involving a maximization of number theoretic negentropy N
p
(n) =
−S
p
(n) > 0(!) as a function of p-adic prime p labelling aminoacids assigns a unique prime
to the codon. If no prime in the range divides S
p
, the codon is identified as a stopping codon.
2. The number theoretic thermodynamics is assigned with the partitions P of the integer n
2)
determined by the first two letters of the codon (16 integers belonging to the range [6, 24]). The
integer valued number theoretic Hamiltonian h(P) ∈ Z
25
appearing in the Boltzmann weight
5
h(P)/T
5
is assumed to depend on the number r of summands for the partition only. h(r) is
assumed to be tailored by evolution so that it reproduces the code.
3. The effect of the third nucleotide is described in terms of 5-adic temperature T
5
= 1/n,
n ∈ [0, 24]: the variation of T
5
explains the existence of variants of genetic code and its tempo-
ral variation the observed context sensitivity of the codon-aminoacid correspondence for some
variants of the code.
A numerical calculation scanning over N ∼ 10
30
candidates for h(r) allows only 11 Hamiltonians
and with single additional symmetry inspired condition there are 2 solutions which differ only for 5
largest values of r. Due to the limited computational resources available only 24 percent of the available
candidates have been scanned and the naive expectation is that the total number of Hamiltonians is
about about 45 unless one poses additional conditions.
Bibliography
Online books about TGD
[1] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Topological Geometrodynamics: Overview.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdview/tgdview.html.
[2] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Physics as Infinite-Dimensional Geometry.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdgeom/tgdgeom.html.
[3] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html.
[4] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum TGD.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html.
[5] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD as a Generalized Number Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html.
[6] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html.
[7] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and Fringe Physics.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//freenergy/freenergy.html.
Online books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness
and quantum biology
[8] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Self-Organizing Quantum Systems.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html.
[9] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Hardware of Living Matter.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html.
[10] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html.
[11] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html.
[12] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and EEG.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html.
[13] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.
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[14] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Magnetospheric Consciousness.
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http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/mathconsc.html.
23
24 BIBLIOGRAPHY
References to the chapters of books
[C6] The chapter Was von Neumann Right After All of [4].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html#vNeumann.
[D6] The chapter TGD and Astrophysics of [3].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html#astro.
[E1] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: p-Adicization Program of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visiona.
[E2] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: Quaternions, Octonions, and their Hyper
Counterparts of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visionb.
[E3] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: Infinite Primes of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visionc.
[E9] The chapter Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#tqc.
[H2] The chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle of [10].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html#nmpc.
[I1] The chapter Quantum Theory of Self-Organization of [8].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html#selforgac.
[J6] The chapter Coherent Dark Matter and Bio-Systems as Macroscopic Quantum Systems of [9].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#darkbio.
[L1] The chapter Genes and Memes of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genememec.
[L2] The chapter Many-Sheeted DNA of [11].
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[M3] The chapter Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs of [12].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html#eegdark.
Articles related to TGD
[16] Pitk¨anen, M. (1983) International Journal of Theor. Phys. ,22, 575.
Mathematics related references
[17] Eguchi, T., Gilkey, B., Hanson, J. (1980): Phys. Rep. 66, 6.
[18] Hawking, S.,W. and Pope, C., N. (1978): Generalized Spin Structures in Quantum Gravity.
Physics Letters Vol 73 B, no 1.
[19] Gibbons, G., W., Pope, C., N. (1977): CP
2
as gravitational instanton. Commun. Math. Phys.
55, 53.
[20] Pope, C., N. (1980): Eigenfunctions and Spin
c
Structures on CP
2
. D.A.M.T.P. preprint.
[21] Eisenhart (1964): Riemannian Geometry. Princeton University Press.
[22] Spivak, M. (1970): Differential Geometry I,II,III,IV. Publish or Perish. Boston.
[23] Milnor, J. (1965): Topology form Differential Point of View. The University Press of Virginia.
[24] E. C. Zeeman (ed.)(1977), Catastrophe Theory, Addison-Wessley Publishing Company.
[25] Wallace (1968): Differential Topology. W. A. Benjamin, New York.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 25
References related to physics anomalies
[26] D. Da Roacha and L. Nottale (2003), Gravitational Structure Formation in Scale Relativity,
astro-ph/0310036.
Part I
SOME PHYSICAL AND
MATHEMATICAL
BACKGROUND
27
Chapter 1
About the New Physics Behind
Qualia
1.1 Introduction
As the title expresses, this chapter was originally about the new physics behind qualia. The model of
qualia indeed involves a lot of new physics: many-sheeted space-time; massless extremals; exotic Super
Virasoro representations associated with discrete qualia; magnetic and cyclotron phase transitions
associated with quantum critical quantum spin glass phases of exotic super conductors at cellular
space-time sheets; classical color and electro-weak gauge fields in macroscopic length scales, to name
the most important ingredients. Gradually the chapter however expanded so that it touches practically
all new physics possibly relevant to TGD inspired quantum biology. Various physical mechanisms are
discussed in exploratory spirit rather than restricting the consideration to those ideas which seem to
be the final word about quantum biology or qualia just at this moment.
1.1.1 Living matter and dark matter
Dark matter is identified as a macroscopic quantum phase with large . Also living matter would
involve in in an essential manner matter with a large value of and hence dark, and form conformally
confined (in the sense that the net conformal weight of the state is real) blobs behaving like single units
with extremely quantal properties, including free will and intentional action in time scales familiar to
us. Dark matter would be responsible for the mysterious vital force.
Any system for which some interaction becomes so strong that perturbation theory does not work,
gives rise to this kind of system in a phase transition in which increases to not lose perturbativity
gives rise to this kind of ”super-quantal” matter. In this sense emergence corresponds to strong
coupling. One must however remember that emergence is actually much more and involves the notion
of quantum jump. Dark matter made possible by dynamical is necessary for macroscopic and
macro-temporal quantum coherence and is thus prerequisite for emergence.
Physically large means a larger unit for quantum numbers and this requires that single particle
states form larger particle like units. This kind of collective states with weak mutual interactions are
of course very natural in strongly interacting systems. At the level of quantum jumps quantum jumps
integrate effectively to single quantum jump and longer moments of consciousness result. Conformal
confinement guarantees all this. Entire hierarchy of size scales for conformally confined blobs is
predicted corresponding to values of related to Beraha numbers [E9, C2] but there would be only
single value corresponding to very large for given values of system parameters (gravitational masses,
charges,...). The larger the value of the longer the characteristic time scale of consciousness and of
a typical life cycle.
The notion of field body means that dark matter at the magnetic flux tubes would serve as
an intentional agent using biological body as a motor instrument and sensory receptor. Dark matter
would be the miraculous substance that living systems are fighting for, and perhaps the most important
substance in metabolic cycle.
29
30 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
1.1.2 Macroscopic quantum phases in many-sheeted space-time
The crucial empirical ingredient turned out to be the observations about the effects of oscillating ELF
electromagnetic fields on central nervous system, endocrine system and immune system made after
sixties [34, 42, 43, 34]. The largest effects are obtained at odd multiples of cyclotron frequencies of
various biologically important ions like Ca
++
in Earth’s magnetic field. Also amplitude modulation
of RF and MW fields by these frequencies has effects. This leads to a surprising conclusion in violent
conflict with standard physics view about world. Magnetically confined states of ions in Earth’s
magnetic field having minimal size of order cell size and energy scale of order 10
−14
eV would be
in question if ordinary quantum theory would be the final word. Dark matter hierarchy with the
spectrum of Planck constants given by (k) = λ
k

0
, λ · 2
11
, resolves the paradox [M3]. For k = 4
level of the dark matter hierarchy the energies E(k) = (k)ω of ELF photons are above thermal
threshold for f ≥ 1 Hz.
The notion of many-sheeted ionic equilibrium brings in in the mechanism with which supra-currents
at the magnetic flux tubes control the matter at atomic space-time sheets. The strange anomalies
challenging the notions of ionic channels and pumps [67] provide support for the resulting general
vision.
1.1.3 Mind like space-time sheets as massless extremals
Mind like space-time sheets are the geometric correlates of selves. So called massless extremals (MEs)
[26] provide ideal and unique candidates for mind like space-time sheets. MEs give rise to hologram like
cognitive representations. The assumption that they serve as Josephson junctions allows to understand
the amplitude windows associated with the interaction of ELF em fields with brain tissue. The
properties of MEs inspire the hypothesis that they give rise to an infinite hierarchy of electromagnetic
life forms living in symbiosis with each other and bio-matter. EEG can be interpreted as associated
with ELF MEs which is one important level in this hierarchy responsible for the cultural aspects of
consciousness.
Our mental images propagating in neural circuits should correspond to microwave (MW) MEs
with wavelengths below .3 meters. The communications between quantum antennae associated with
ELF and RF MEs provides an elegant model for the formation and recall of long term memories and
realize hologrammic cognitive representations. Self hierarchy has as a particular dynamical correlate
the hierarchy of Josephson currents modulated by Josephson currents modulated by... having magnetic
transition frequencies as their basic frequencies. Josephson currents flow along join along boundaries
bonds connecting space-time sheets belonging at various levels of the hierarchy (’biofeedback’).
1.1.4 Classical color and electro-weak fields in macroscopic length scales
One can say that the basic physics of standard model without symmetry breaking and color magnetic
confinement is realized at classical level on cellular space-time sheets. Classical Z
0
fields, W fields
and gluon fields unavoidably accompany non-orthogonal electric and magnetic fields. The proper
interpretation of this prediction is in terms of a p-adic and dark fractal hierarchies of standard model
physics with scaled down mass scales making possible long range weak and color interactions in
arbitrarily long length scales.
This prediction forces to modify even the model of nuclei [F8]. Nucleons carry exotic color and
form nuclear strings consisting of color bonds with exotic quark q and antiquark q at their ends. These
exotic quarks correspond to k = 127 level of dark matter hierarchy. Also dark variants of ordinary
quarks with size of about atom are possible. It is also possible to have ud and ud type color bonds
which carry em and weak charge and this means exotic nuclear ionization. Tetraneutron [69, 70] would
represent one particular example of this kind of exotically ionized nucleus [F8]. Exotic nuclear physics
would have also implications for the ordinary condensed matter physics and could be involved with
the very low compressibility of liquid phase and the anomalous behavior of water [F10].
Exotic ionization is the key element in the quantum model for the control action of the magnetic
body on biological body. Exotic ionization induces dark plasma oscillations which in turn generate via
classical em fields ordinary ohmic currents at the level of the ordinary matter. Nerve pulse patterns
[M2] and Ca
2+
waves [K6, K5] would represent examples of physiological correlates of this quantum
control.
Introduction 31
1.1.5 p-Adic-to-real transitions as transformation of intentions to actions
Hearing and cognition are very closely related: one could even argue that we think using language. The
view that p-adic physics is physics of intention and cognition leads to the vision that the transformation
of thoughts to actions and sensory inputs to thoughts correspond to real–p-adic phase transitions for
space-time sheets. For a long time the question how p-adic space-time sheets relate to the real ones
lacked a precise answer, and therefore also the question what the transformation of p-adic space-time
sheet to real ones really means. The advances in the understanding the precise relationship between
p-adic and real space-time sheets discussed in [E1] led however to a definite progress in this respect
[H8].
The transformation of p-adic space-time sheets to real ones must respect the conservation of
quantum numbers: this requires that the real system either receives or sends energy when the p-adic-
to-real transitions realizing the intention occurs. If p-adic ME is transformed to a negative energy ME
in the process, real system must make a transition to a higher energy state. This kind of transitions
cannot occur spontaneously so that the outcome is a precisely targeted realization of intention. The
additional bonus is that buy now-let others pay mechanism makes possible extreme flexibility. There
are reasons to expect that the energies involves cannot be too high however.
The model of intentional action as a quantum transition for which the probabilities for various
intention-action pairs should in principle be deducible from S-matrix is discussed in [E1] using the
vision about physics as a generalized number theory as a guide line. This model leads to fresh insights
about the construction of the ordinary S-matrix and essentially the same kind of general expressions
for S-matrix elements result as in the case of ordinary scattering.
This picture provides conceptual tools making it possible to discuss the questions what the no-
tion of p-adic cognitive neutrino pair could mean and whether it makes sense to speak about the
transformation of p-adic cognitive neutrino pairs to a real cognitive neutrino pairs.
1.1.6 Exotic super-Virasoro representations
A further piece of new physics of qualia are super-canonical and super-conformal algebras associated
with the light-like M
4
+
projections of the light-like boundaries MEs. p-Adic considerations suggest
that L
0
= 0 condition might be replaced by a weaker condition L
0
mod p
n
= 0 in the p-adic context.
The interpretation would be in terms of continuous scaling invariance broken to discrete scalings by
powers of p: the analogy with lattice systems of condensed matter is obvious. The general condition
a
L
0
mod p = 1, a positive integer, stating invariance under scalings is by Fermat’s little theorem
satisfied L
0
mod p = 0 and would state that these scalings act like translations by multiples of
lattice vector in lattice.
p · 2
k
would guarantee approximately the conditions for a = 2. For Mersenne primes, which are
in an exceptional role physically, these conditions are satisfied in excellent approximation. The so
called Gaussian Mersennes allow also to satisfy these conditions in somewhat more general sense and,
rather remarkably, there are four Gaussian Mersennes in the length scale range between cell membrane
thickness and cell size.
The model for how local p-adic physics codes for the p-adic fractality of the real physics and
for intentional action as a quantum jump transforming p-adic space-time sheet to a real one leads
to a rather detailed view about the p-adic fractals possibly giving rise to exotic Super Virasoro
representations [E1, H8].
The degeneracy of states for exotic representations (number of states with same L
0
) is enormous
for the physically interesting values of p-adic prime p. This means that these states provide huge
negentropy resources. Thus exotic super-canonical representations be interpreted as quantum level
articulation for the statement that TGD Universe is quantum critical quantum spin glass. Exotic
super-canonical representations clearly provide an excellent candidate for an infinite hierarchy of life
forms. These life forms would come in two classes.
1. The representatives of the first class labelled by three integers (k, m, n) if one assumes that
physically interesting primes correspond to p · 2
k
m
, k prime and m are integers: n is the power
appearing in L
0
∝ p
n
.
2. The representatives of the second class are labelled by the integers k L
0
∝ 2
k
, such that 2
k
−1
is Mersenne prime or (1 +i)
k
−1 is Gaussian Mersenne.
32 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
It is tempting to assume that it is these life forms emerge already in elementary particle length
scales and become increasingly complex when the p-adic length scale increases. Life could perhaps
be regarded as a symbiosis of these life forms with super-conducting magnetic flux tubes and ordi-
nary matter at atomic space-time sheets. These life forms (’mind’) interact with each other, super-
conducting magnetic flux tubes and ordinary matter via the classical gauge fields associated with
MEs. A natural hypothesis is that the quantum phase transitions of the macroscopic quantum phases
for the particles of the exotic super-canonical representations formed in classical fields of MEs (mind
like space-time sheets) give rise to some (but not all) qualia.
1.2 Dark matter and living matter
In the sequel general ideas about the role of dark matter in condensed matter physics are described.
1.2.1 Quantum criticality, hierarchy of dark matters, and dynamical
Quantum criticality is the basic characteristic of TGD Universe and quantum critical superconductors
provide an excellent test bed to develop the ideas related to quantum criticality into a more concrete
form.
Quantization of Planck constants and the generalization of the notion of imbedding space
The recent geometric interpretation for the quantization of Planck constants is based on Jones inclu-
sions of hyper-finite factors of type II
1
[C3].
1. Different values of Planck constant correspond to imbedding space metrics involving scalings of
M
4
resp. CP
2
parts of the metric deduced from the requirement that distances scale as (M
4
)
resp. (M
4
). Denoting the Planck constants by (M
4
) = n
a

0
and (CP
2
) = n
b

0
, one has that
covariant metric of M
4
is proportional to n
2
b
and covariant metric of CP
2
to n
2
a
. In K¨ahler action
only the effective Planck constant
eff
/
0
= (M
4
)/(CP
2
) appears and by quantum classical
correspondence same is true for Sch¨odinger equation. Elementary particle mass spectrum is also
invariant. Same applies to gravitational constant. The alternative assumption that M
4
Planck
constant is proportional to n
b
would imply invariance of Schr¨odinger equation but would not
allow to explain Bohr quantization of planetary orbits and would to certain degree trivialize the
theory.
2. M
4
and CP
2
Planck constants do not fully characterize a given sector M
4
±
CP
2
. Rather,
the scaling factors of Planck constant given by the integer n characterizing the quantum phase
q = exp(iπ/n) corresponds to the order of the maximal cyclic subgroup for the group G ⊂ SU(2)
characterizing the Jones inclusion ^ ⊂ ´ of hyper-finite factors realized as subalgebras of the
Clifford algebra of the ”world of the classical worlds”. This means that subfactor ^ gives rise
to G-invariant configuration space spinors having interpretation as G-invariant fermionic states.
3. G
b
⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SU(3) defines a covering of M
4
+
by CP
2
points and G
a
⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SL(2, C)
covering of CP
2
by M
4
+
points with fixed points defining orbifold singularities. Different sectors
are glued together along CP
2
if G
b
is same for them and along M
4
+
if G
a
is same for them. The
degrees of freedom lost by G-invariance in fermionic degrees of freedom are gained back since the
discrete degrees of freedom provided by covering allow many-particle states formed from single
particle states realized in G group algebra. Among other things these many-particle states make
possible the notion of N-atom.
4. Phases with different values of scalings of M
4
and CP
2
Planck constants behave like dark
matter with respect to each other in the sense that they do not have direct interactions except at
criticality corresponding to a leakage between different sectors of imbedding space glued together
along M
4
or CP
2
factors. In large (M
4
) phases various quantum time and length scales are
scaled up which means macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence. In particular,
quantum energies associated with classical frequencies are scaled up by a factor n
a
/n
b
which is
of special relevance for cyclotron energies and phonon energies (superconductivity). For large
(CP
2
) the value of
eff
is small: this leads to interesting physics: in particular the binding
energy scale of hydrogen atom increases by the factor n
b
/n
2
a
.
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 33
A further generalization of the notion of imbedding space?
The original idea was that the proposed modification of the imbedding space could explain naturally
phenomena like quantum Hall effect involving fractionization of quantum numbers like spin and charge.
This does not however seem to be the case. G
a
G
b
implies just the opposite if these quantum numbers
are assigned with the symmetries of the imbedding space. For instance, quantization unit for orbital
angular momentum becomes n
a
where Z
n
a
is the maximal cyclic subgroup of G
a
.
One can however imagine of obtaining fractionization at the level of imbedding space for space-
time sheets, which are analogous to multi-sheeted Riemann surfaces (say Riemann surfaces associated
with z
1/n
since the rotation by 2π understood as a homotopy of M
4
lifted to the space-time sheet
is a non-closed curve. Continuity requirement indeed allows fractionization of the orbital quantum
numbers and color in this kind of situation.
1. Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible
The observation above stimulates the question whether it might be possible in some sense to replace
H or its factors by their multiple coverings.
1. This is certainly not possible for M
4
, CP
2
, or H since their fundamental groups are trivial.
On the other hand, the fixing of quantization axes implies a selection of the sub-space H
4
=
M
2
S
2
⊂ M
4
CP
2
, where S
2
is a geodesic sphere of CP
2
.
ˆ
M
4
= M
4
`M
2
and
ˆ
CP
2
= CP
2
`S
2
have fundamental group Z since the codimension of the excluded sub-manifold is equal to two
and homotopically the situation is like that for a punctured plane. The exclusion of these sub-
manifolds defined by the choice of quantization axes could naturally give rise to the desired
situation.
2. Zero energy ontology forces to modify this picture somewhat. In zero energy ontology causal
diamonds (CDs) defined as the intersections of future and past directed light-cones are loci for
zero energy states containing positive and negative energy parts of state at the two light-cone
boundaries. The location of CD in M
4
is arbitrary but p-adic length scale hypothesis suggests
that the temporal distances between tips of CD come as powers of 2 using CP
2
size as unit.
Thus M
4
is replaces by CD and
ˆ
M
4
is replaced with
ˆ
CD defined in obvious manner.
3. H
4
represents a straight cosmic string inside CD. Quantum field theory phase corresponds to
Jones inclusions with Jones index ´ : ^ < 4. Stringy phase would by previous arguments
correspond to ´: ^ = 4. Also these Jones inclusions are labeled by finite subgroups of SO(3)
and thus by Z
n
identified as a maximal Abelian subgroup.
One can argue that cosmic strings are not allowed in QFT phase. This would encourage the
replacement
ˆ
CD
ˆ
CP
2
implying that surfaces in CD S
2
and (M
2
∩ CD) CP
2
are not
allowed. In particular, cosmic strings and CP
2
type extremals with M
4
projection in M
2
and
thus light-like geodesic without zitterwebegung essential for massivation are forbidden. This
brings in mind instability of Higgs=0 phase.
4. The covering spaces in question would correspond to the Cartesian products
ˆ
CD
n
a

ˆ
CP
2n
b
of the covering spaces of
ˆ
CD and
ˆ
CP
2
by Z
n
a
and Z
n
b
with fundamental group is Z
n
a
Z
n
b
.
One can also consider extension by replacing M
2
∩ CD and S
2
with its orbit under G
a
(say
tedrahedral, octahedral, or icosahedral group). The resulting space will be denoted by
ˆ
CD
ˆ
G
a
resp.
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
G
b
.
5. One expects the discrete subgroups of SU(2) emerge naturally in this framework if one allows
the action of these groups on the singular sub-manifolds M
2
∩CD or S
2
. This would replace the
singular manifold with a set of its rotated copies in the case that the subgroups have genuinely
3-dimensional action (the subgroups which corresponds to exceptional groups in the ADE corre-
spondence). For instance, in the case of M
2
∩CD the quantization axes for angular momentum
would be replaced by the set of quantization axes going through the vertices of tedrahedron, oc-
tahedron, or icosahedron. This would bring non-commutative homotopy groups into the picture
in a natural manner.
6. Also the orbifolds
ˆ
CD/G
a

ˆ
CP
2
/G
b
can be allowed as also the spaces
ˆ
CD/G
a
(
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
G
b
)
and (
ˆ
CD
ˆ
G
a
)
ˆ
CP
2
/G
b
. Hence the previous framework would generalize considerably by the
allowance of both coset spaces and covering spaces.
34 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
There are several non-trivial questions related to the details of the gluing procedure and phase
transition as motion of partonic 2-surface from one sector of the imbedding space to another one.
1. How the gluing of copies of imbedding space at (M
2
∩ CD) CP
2
takes place? It would seem
that the covariant metric of M
4
factor proportional to
2
must be discontinuous at the singular
manifold since only in this manner the idea about different scaling factor of M
4
metric can make
sense. This is consistent with the identical vanishing of Chern-Simons action in M
2
S
2
.
2. One might worry whether the phase transition changing Planck constant means an instantaneous
change of the size of partonic 2-surface in CD degrees of freedom. This is not the case. Light-
likeness in (M
2
∩CD) S
2
makes sense only for surfaces X
1
D
2
⊂ (M
2
∩CD) S
2
, where X
1
is light-like geodesic. The requirement that the partonic 2-surface X
2
moving from one sector
of H to another one is light-like at (M
2
∩CD) S
2
irrespective of the value of Planck constant
requires that X
2
has single point of (M
2
∩ CD) as M
2
projection. Hence no sudden change of
the size X
2
occurs.
3. A natural question is whether the phase transition changing the value of Planck constant can
occur purely classically or whether it is analogous to quantum tunneling. Classical non-vacuum
extremals of Chern-Simons action have two-dimensional CP
2
projection to homologically non-
trivial geodesic sphere S
2
I
. The deformation of the entire S
2
I
to homologically trivial geodesic
sphere S
2
II
is not possible so that only combinations of partonic 2-surfaces with vanishing total
homology charge (K¨ahler magnetic charge) can in principle move from sector to another one,
and this process involves fusion of these 2-surfaces such that CP
2
projection becomes single
homologically trivial 2-surface. A piece of a non-trivial geodesic sphere S
2
I
of CP
2
can be
deformed to that of S
2
II
using 2-dimensional homotopy flattening the piece of S
2
to curve. If this
homotopy cannot be chosen to be light-like, the phase transitions changing Planck constant take
place only via quantum tunnelling. Obviously the notions of light-like homotopies (cobordisms)
and classical light-like homotopies (cobordisms) are very relevant for the understanding of phase
transitions changing Planck constant.
2. Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones inclusions?
What could be the interpretation of these two kinds of spaces?
1. Jones inclusions appear in two varieties corresponding to ´ : ^ < 4 and ´ : ^ = 4 and one
can assign a hierarchy of subgroups of SU(2) with both of them. In particular, their maximal
Abelian subgroups Z
n
label these inclusions. The interpretation of Z
n
as invariance group is
natural for ´ : ^ < 4 and it naturally corresponds to the coset spaces. For ´ : ^ = 4 the
interpretation of Z
n
has remained open. Obviously the interpretation of Z
n
as the homology
group defining covering would be natural.
2. ´ : ^ = 4 should correspond to the allowance of cosmic strings and other analogous objects.
Does the introduction of the covering spaces bring in cosmic strings in some controlled manner?
Formally the subgroup of SU(2) defining the inclusion is SU(2) would mean that states are
SU(2) singlets which is something non-physical. For covering spaces one would however obtain
the degrees of freedom associated with the discrete fiber and the degrees of freedom in question
would not disappear completely and would be characterized by the discrete subgroup of SU(2).
For anyons the non-trivial homotopy of plane brings in non-trivial connection with a flat cur-
vature and the non-trivial dynamics of topological QFTs. Also now one might expect similar
non-trivial contribution to appear in the spinor connection of
ˆ
CD
ˆ
G
a
and
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
G
b
. In confor-
mal field theory models non-trivial monodromy would correspond to the presence of punctures
in plane.
3. For factor spaces the unit for quantum numbers like orbital angular momentum is multiplied
by n
a
resp. n
b
and for coverings it is divided by this number. These two kind of spaces are
in a well defined sense obtained by multiplying and dividing the factors of
ˆ
H by G
a
resp. G
b
and multiplication and division are expected to relate to Jones inclusions with ´: ^ < 4 and
´: ^ = 4, which both are labeled by a subset of discrete subgroups of SU(2).
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 35
4. The discrete subgroups of SU(2) with fixed quantization axes possess a well defined multipli-
cation with product defined as the group generated by forming all possible products of group
elements as elements of SU(2). This product is commutative and all elements are idempotent
and thus analogous to projectors. Trivial group G
1
, two-element group G
2
consisting of reflec-
tion and identity, the cyclic groups Z
p
, p prime, and tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral
groups are the generators of this algebra.
By commutativity one can regard this algebra as an 11-dimensional module having natural numbers
as coefficients (”rig”). The trivial group G
1
, two-element group G
2
¡ generated by reflection, and
tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral groups define 5 generating elements for this algebra. The
products of groups other than trivial group define 10 units for this algebra so that there are 11 units
altogether. The groups Z
p
generate a structure analogous to natural numbers acting as analog of
coefficients of this structure. Clearly, one has effectively 11-dimensional commutative algebra in 1-1
correspondence with the 11-dimensional ”half-lattice” N
11
(N denotes natural numbers). Leaving
away reflections, one obtains N
7
. The projector representation suggests a connection with Jones
inclusions. An interesting question concerns the possible Jones inclusions assignable to the subgroups
containing infinitely manner elements. Reader has of course already asked whether dimensions 11,
7 and their difference 4 might relate somehow to the mathematical structures of M-theory with 7
compactified dimensions. One could introduce generalized configuration space spinor fields in the
configuration space labelled by sectors of H with given quantization axes. By introducing Fourier
transform in N
11
one would formally obtain an infinite-component field in 11-D space.
The question how do the Planck constants associated with factors and coverings relate is far from
trivial and I have considered several options.
1. If one assumes that
2
(X), X = M
4
, CP
2
corresponds to the scaling of the covariant metric
tensor g
ij
and performs an over-all scaling of metric allowed by Weyl invariance of K¨ahler action
by dividing metric with
2
(CP
2
), one obtains r
2

2
/
2
0

2
(M
4
)/
2
(CP
2
). This puts M
4
and
CP
2
in a very symmetric role and allows much more flexibility in the identification of symmetries
associated with large Planck constant phases.
2. Algebraist would argue that Planck constant must define a homomorphism respecting multipli-
cation and division (when possible) by G
i
. This requires r(X) = (X)
0
= n for covering and
r(X) = 1/n for factor space or vice versa. This gives two options.
3. Option I: r(X) = n for covering and r(X) = 1/n for factor space gives r ≡ /
0
= r(M
4
)/r(CP
2
).
This gives r = n
a
/n
b
for
ˆ
H/G
a
G
b
option and r = n
b
/n
a
for
ˆ
H
ˆ
times(G
a
G
b
) option with
obvious formulas for hybrid cases.
4. Option II: r(X) = 1/n for covering and r(X) = n for factor space gives r = r(CP
2
)/r(M
4
).
This gives r = n
b
/n
a
for
ˆ
H/G
a
G
b
option and r = n
a
/n
b
for
ˆ
H
ˆ
times(G
a
G
b
) option with
obvious formulas for the hybrid cases.
5. At quantum level the fractionization would come from the modification of fermionic anti-
commutation (bosonic commutation) relations involving at the right hand side so that particle
number becomes a multiple of 1/n or n. If one postulates that the total number states is invari-
ant in the transition, the increase in the number of sheets is compensated by the increase of the
fundamental phase space volume proportional to . This would give r(X) →r(X)/n for factor
space and r(X) →nr(X) for the covering space to compensate the n-fold reduction/increase of
states. This would favor Option II.
6. The second manner to distinguish between these two options is to apply the theory to concrete
physical situations. Since G
a
and G
b
act as symmetries in CD and CP
2
degrees of freedom, one
might of being able to distinguish between the two options if it is possible to distinguish between
the action of G as symmetry of quantum states associated with covering and factor space. Also
the quantization of the orbital spin quantum number at single particle level as multiples of n
can be distinguished from that in multiples of 1/n.
3. A simple model of fractional quantum Hall effect
36 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
The generalization of the imbedding space suggests that it could possible to understand fractional
quantum Hall effect [34] at the level of basic quantum TGD. This section represents the first rough
model of QHE constructed for a couple of years ago is discussed. Needless to emphasize, the model
represents only the basic idea and involves ad hoc assumption about charge fractionization.
Recall that the formula for the quantized Hall conductance is given by
σ = ν
e
2
h
,
ν =
n
m
. (1.2.1)
Series of fractions in ν = 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, 4/9, 5/11, 6/13, 7/15..., 2/3, 3/5, 4/7, 5/9, 6/11, 7/13..., 5/3, 8/5, 11/7, 14/9...4/3, 7/5, 10/7, 13/9...,
1/5, 2/9, 3/13..., 2/7, 3/11..., 1/7.... with odd denominator have been observed as are also ν = 1/2 and
ν = 5/2 states with even denominator [34].
The model of Laughlin [34] cannot explain all aspects of FQHE. The best existing model proposed
originally by Jain is based on composite fermions resulting as bound states of electron and even number
of magnetic flux quanta [35]. Electrons remain integer charged but due to the effective magnetic field
electrons appear to have fractional charges. Composite fermion picture predicts all the observed
fractions and also their relative intensities and the order in which they appear as the quality of sample
improves.
The generalization of the notion of imbedding space suggests the possibility to interpret these
states in terms of fractionized charge, spin, and electron number. There are four combinations of
covering and factors spaces of CP
2
and three of them can lead to the increase of Planck constant.
Besides this there are two options for the formula of Planck constant so that which the very meager
theoretical background one can make only guesses. On the following just for fun consideration option
I is considered although the conservation of number of states in the phase transition changing favors
option II.
1. The easiest manner to understand the observed fractions is by assuming that both M
4
and CP
2
correspond to covering spaces so that both spin and electric charge and fermion number are
fractionized. This means that e in electronic charge density is replaced with fractional charge.
Quantized magnetic flux is proportional to e and the question is whether also here fractional
charge appears. Assume that this does not occur.
2. With this assumption the expression for the Planck constant becomes for Option II as r =
/
0
= n
a
/n
b
and charge and spin units are equal to 1/n
b
and 1/n
a
respectively. This gives
ν = nn
a
/n
b
. The values m = 2, 3, 5, 7, .. are observed. Planck constant can have arbitrarily
large values. There are general arguments stating that also spin is fractionized in FQHE.
3. The appearance of ν = 5/2 has been observed [36]. The fractionized charge is e/4 in this case.
Since n
i
> 3 holds true if coverings are correlates for Jones inclusions, this requires to n
b
= 4
and n
a
= 10. n
b
predicting a correct fractionization of charge. The alternative option would
be n
b
= 2 that also Z
2
would appear as the fundamental group of the covering space. Filling
fraction 1/2 corresponds in the composite fermion model and also experimentally to the limit
of zero magnetic field [35]. n
b
= 2 is however inconsistent with the observed fractionization of
electric charge and with the vision inspired by Jones inclusions.
4. A possible problematic aspect of the TGD based model is the experimental absence of even values
of n
b
except n
b
= 2 (Laughlin’s model predicts only odd values of n). A possible explanation is
that by some symmetry condition possibly related to fermionic statistics (as in Laughlin model)
n
a
/n
b
must reduce to a rational with an odd denominator for n
b
> 2. In other words, one has
n
a
∝ 2
r
, where 2
r
the largest power of 2 divisor of n
b
.
5. Large values of n
a
emerge as B increases. This can be understood from flux quantization. One
has e

BdS = n(M
4
) = nn
a

0
. By using actual fractional charge e
F
= e/n
b
in the flux factor
would give e
F

BdS = n(n
a
/n
b
)
0
= n. The interpretation is that each of the n
a
sheets
contributes one unit to the flux for e. Note that the value of magnetic field in given sheet is not
affected so that the build-up of multiple covering seems to keep magnetic field strength below
critical value.
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 37
6. The understanding of the thermal stability is not trivial. The original FQHE was observed in
80 mK temperature corresponding roughly to a thermal energy of T ∼ 10
−5
eV. For graphene
the effect is observed at room temperature. Cyclotron energy for electron is (from f
e
= 6
10
5
Hz at B = .2 Gauss) of order thermal energy at room temperature in a magnetic field
varying in the range 1-10 Tesla. This raises the question why the original FQHE requires
so low temperature. The magnetic energy of a flux tube of length L is by flux quantization
roughly e
2
B
2
S ∼ E
c
(e)m
e
L (
0
= c = 1) and exceeds cyclotron roughly by a factor L/L
e
, L
e
electron Compton length so that thermal stability of magnetic flux quanta is not the explanation.
A possible explanation is that since FQHE involves several values of Planck constant, it is
quantum critical phenomenon and is characterized by a critical temperature. The differences of
the energies associated with the phase with ordinary Planck constant and phases with different
Planck constant would characterize the transition temperature.
As already noticed, it is possible to imagine several other options and the identification of charge
unit is rather ad hoc. Therefore this model can be taken only as a warm-up exercise. In [C4] Quantum
Hall effect and charge fractionization are discussed in detail and one ends up with a rather detailed
view about the delicacies of the K¨ahler structure of generalized imbedding space.
Preferred values of Planck constants
Number theoretic considerations favor the hypothesis that the integers corresponding to Fermat
polygons constructible using only ruler and compass and given as products n
F
= 2
k
¸
s
F
s
, where
F
s
= 2
2
s
+ 1 are distinct Fermat primes, are favored. The reason would be that quantum phase
q = exp(iπ/n) is in this case expressible using only iterated square root operation by starting from
rationals. The known Fermat primes correspond to s = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 so that the hypothesis is very
strong and predicts that p-adic length scales have satellite length scales given as multiples of n
F
of
fundamental p-adic length scale. n
F
= 2
11
corresponds in TGD framework to a fundamental constant
expressible as a combination of K¨ahler coupling strength, CP
2
radius and Planck length appearing in
the expression for the tension of cosmic strings, and the powers of 2
11
seem to be especially favored
as values of n
a
in living matter [M3].
How Planck constants are visible in K¨ahler action?
(M
4
) and (CP
2
) appear in the commutation and anticommutation relations of various supercon-
formal algebras. Only the ratio of M
4
and CP
2
Planck constants appears in K¨ahler action and is due
to the fact that the M
4
and CP
2
metrics of the imbedding space sector with given values of Planck
constants are proportional to the corresponding Planck constants [C3]. This implies that K¨ahler
function codes for radiative corrections to the classical action, which makes possible to consider the
possibility that higher order radiative corrections to functional integral vanish as one might expect
at quantum criticality. For a given p-adic length scale space-time sheets with all allowed values of
Planck constants are possible. Hence the spectrum of quantum critical fluctuations could in the ideal
case correspond to the spectrum of coding for the scaled up values of Compton lengths and other
quantal lengths and times. If so, large phases could be crucial for understanding of quantum critical
superconductors, in particular high T
c
superconductors.
Phase transitions changing the level in dark matter hierarchy
The identification of the precise criterion characterizing dark matter phase is far from obvious. TGD
actually suggests an infinite number of phases which are dark relative to each other in some sense
and can transform to each other only via a phase transition which might be called de-coherence or its
reversal and which should be also characterized precisely.
A possible solution of the problem comes from the general construction recipe for S-matrix. Funda-
mental vertices correspond to partonic 2-surfaces representing intersections of incoming and outgoing
light-like partonic 3-surfaces.
1. If the characterization of the interaction vertices involves all points of partonic 2-surfaces, they
must correspond to definite value of Planck constant and more precisely, definite groups G
a
and G
b
characterizing dark matter hierarchy. Particles of different phases could not appear
38 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
in the same vertex and a phase transition changing the particles to each other analogous to a
de-coherence would be necessary.
2. If transition amplitudes involve only a discrete set of common orbifold points of 2-surface be-
longing to different sectors then the phase transition between relatively dark matters can be
described in terms of S-matrix. It seems that this option is the correct one. In fact, also propa-
gators are essential for the interactions of visible and dark matter and since virtual elementary
particles correspond at space-time level CP
2
type extremals with 4-dimensional CP
2
projection,
they cannot leak between different sectors of imbedding space and therefore cannot mediate
interactions between different levels of the dark matter hierarchy. This would suggest that the
direct interactions between dark and ordinary matter are very weak.
If the matrix elements for real-real partonic transitions involve all or at least a circle of the
partonic 2-surface as stringy considerations suggest [C3], then one would have clear distinction
between quantum phase transitions and ordinary quantum transitions. Of course, the fact
that the points which correspond to zero of Riemann Zeta form only a small subset of points
common to real partonic 2-surface and corresponding p-adic 2-surface, implies that the rate
for phase transition is in general small. On the other hand, for the non-diagonal S-matrix
elements for ordinary transitions would become very small by almost randomness caused by
strong fluctuations and the rate for phase transition could begin to dominate.
Transition to large phase and failure of perturbation theory
A further idea is that the transition to large phase occurs when perturbation theory based on
the expansion in terms of gauge coupling constant ceases to converge: Mother Nature would take
care of the problems of theoretician. The transition to large phase obviously reduces gauge coupling
strength α so that higher orders in perturbation theory are reduced whereas the lowest order ”classical”
predictions remain unchanged. A possible quantitative formulation of the criterion is that maximal
2-particle gauge interaction strength parameterized as Q
1
Q
2
α satisfies the condition Q
1
Q
2
α · 1.
A justification for this picture would be that in non-perturbative phase large quantum fluctuations
are present (as functional integral formalism suggests). At space-time level this would mean that
space-time sheet is near to a non-deterministic vacuum extremal. At parton level this would mean
that partonic surface contains large number of CP
2
orbifold points so that S-matrix elements for the
phase transition becomes large. At certain critical value of coupling constant strength one expects
that the transition amplitude for phase transition becomes very large.
1.2.2 From naive formulas to conceptualization
I have spent a considerable amount of time on various sidetracks in attempts to understand what
the quantization of Planck constant does really mean. As usual, the understanding has emerged by
unconscious processing rather than by a direct attack.
Naive approach based on formulas
The whole business started from the naive generalization of various formulas for quantized energies
by replacing Planck constant with is scaled value. It seems that this approach does not lead to wrong
predictions, and is indeed fully supported by the basic applications of the theory. Mention only the
quantization of cyclotron energies crucial for the biological applications, the quantization of hydrogen
atom, etc... The necessity for conceptualization emerges when one asks what else the theory predicts
besides the simple zoomed up versions of various systems.
The geometric view about the quantization of Planck constant
After the naive approach based on simple substitutions came the attempt to conceptualize by visualiz-
ing geometrically what dark atoms could look like, and the description in terms of N(G
a
)N(G
b
)-fold
covering H →H/G
a
G
b
emerged.
Especially confusing was the question whether one should assign Planck constant to particles or to
their interactions or both. It is now clear that one can assign Planck constant to both the ”personal”
field bodies assignable to particles and to their interactions (”relative” or interaction field bodies), and
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 39
that each interaction can correspond to both kinds of field bodies. Planck constant for the relative
field bodies depends on the quantum numbers of both particles as it does in the case of gravitation.
The Planck constant assignable to the particle’s ”personal” field body makes possible generalizations
like the notion of N-atom.
Each sheet of the ”personal” field body corresponds to one particular Compton length character-
izing one particular interaction and electromagnetic interaction would define the ordinary Compton
length. The original picture was that topological condensation of CP
2
type vacuum extremal occurs
at space-time sheet with size of Compton length identified usually with particle. In the new picture
this space-time sheet can be identified as electromagnetic field body.
Elementary particles have light-like partonic 3-surfaces as space-time correlates. If these 3-surfaces
are fully quantum critical, they belong to the intersection of all spaces H/G
a
G
b
with fixed quanti-
zation axes. This space is just the 4-D subspace M
2
S
2
⊂ M
4
CP
2
, where S
2
is geodesic sphere
of CP
2
. Partonic 2-surfaces are in general non-critical and one can assign to them a definite value of
Planck constant.
There are two geodesic spheres in CP
2
. Which one should choose or are both possible?
1. For the homologically non-trivial one corresponding to cosmic strings, the isometry group is
SU(2) ⊂ SU(3). The homologically trivial one S
2
corresponds to vacuum extremals and has
isometry group SO(3) ⊂ SU(3). The natural question is which one should choose. At quantum
criticality the value of Planck constant is undetermined. The vacuum extremal would be a
natural choice from the point of view of quantum criticality since in this case the value of
Planck constant does not matter at all and one would obtain a direct connection with the
vacuum degeneracy.
One can of course ask whether all surfaces M
2
Y
2
, Y
2
Lagrangian sub-manifold of CP
2
defining
vacuum sectors of the theory should be allowed. The answer seems to be ”No” since in the generic
case SO(3) does not act as H-isometries of Y
2
. If one allows these sub-manifolds or even sub-
manifolds of form M
4
Y
2
to appear as intersection of fractally scaled up variants, one must
replace Cartan algebra as algebra associated with SO(3) subgroup of canonical transformations
of CP
2
mapping Y
2
to itself (if this kind of algebra exists).
2. The choice of the homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere as a quantum critical sub-manifold
would conform with the previous guess that ´ : ^ = 4 corresponds to cosmic strings. It is
however questionable whether the ill-definedness of the Planck constant is consistent with the
non-vacuum extremal property of cosmic strings unless one assumes that for partonic 3-surfaces
X
3
⊂ M
2
S
2
the effective degrees of freedom reduce to mere topological ones.
Fractionization of quantum numbers and the hierarchy of Planck constants
The original generalization of the notion of imbedding space to a union of the factor spaces
ˆ
H/G
a
G
b
discussed in the section ”General ideas about dark matter” does not allow charge fractionization
whereas the covering spaces
ˆ
H
ˆ
(G
a
G
b
) allow a fractionization in a natural manner. Also hybrid
cases are obtained corresponding (
ˆ
M
4
ˆ
G
a
) (
ˆ
CP
2
/G
b
) and (
ˆ
M
4
/G
a
) (
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
G
b
).
The simplest assumption is that Planck constant is a homomorphism from the lattice like structure
of groups with product of groups defined to be the group generated by the groups. This does not fix
the formula for the Planck constants completely since one can consider replacing the right hand side
of the formula for by its inverse and only physical input can fix the formula completely.
1.
ˆ
H/G
a
G
b
option
The safest and indeed natural assumption motivated by Jones inclusions is that physical states in
sector H/G
a
G
b
are G
a
G
b
invariant meaning a discrete analog of color confinement. This alone
excludes fractionization and actually implies just the opposite of it.
1. For states with vanishing fermionic quantum numbers G
a
G
b
invariance means that wave
functions live in the base space H/G
a
G
b
. For instance, L
z
would be a multiple of n
a
defining
the order of maximal cyclic subgroup of G
a
. Analogous conclusion would hold true for color
quantum numbers.
40 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
2. Just as in the case of ordinary spin fermionic quantum numbers (spin, electro-weak spin) nec-
essarily correspond to the covering group of the isometry group since a state with a half-odd
integer spin does not remain invariant under the subgroups of the rotation group. In particular,
states with odd fermion number cannot be G
a
G
b
invariant. For even fermion numbers it is
possible to have many-particle states for which individual particles transform non-trivially under
orbital G
a
G
b
if total G
a
G
b
quantum numbers in spin like degrees of freedom compensate
for the orbital quantum numbers (for instance, total spin is multiple of n
a
). Hence the group
algebra of G
a
G
b
would characterize the states in orbital degrees of freedom as indeed assumed.
The earlier picture would be correct apart from the lacking assumption about overall G
a
G
b
invariance.
3. The construction of these states could be carried out just like the construction of ordinary G
a
G
b
invariant states in H so that the mathematical treatment of the situation involves no mystics
elements. Since G
a
G
b
is actually assigned with a sector M
4
±
CP
2
with fixed quantization
axes and preferred point of H, one has center of mass degrees of freedom for the position of tip
of M
4
±
and a preferred point of CP
2
. This gives new degrees of freedom and one would have
a rich spectrum of N-electrons, N-nucleons, N-atoms, etc.... behaving effectively as elementary
particles. For example, one interesting question is whether 2-electrons could be interpreted as
Cooper pairs of particular kind This would require either s
z
= 0, l
z
= 0 or s
z
= 1, l
z
= mn
a
−1,
m = 0, 1, 2... For instance, for n
a
= 3 (the minimal value of n
a
) one could have s
z
= l, l
z
= 2
with J
z
= 3. One can also ask whether some high spin nuclei could correspond to N-nuclei.
4. This picture is quite predictive. For instance, in the case of gravitational interactions it would
mean that the spin angular momentum of an astrophysical system is a multiple of ”personal”
gravitational Planck constant GM
2
/v
0
. The value of v
0
could be deduced from this condition
and is expected to be a negative power of 2. In the same manner the relative angular momentum
of planet-Sun system would be a multiple of GMm/v
0
using the gravitational Planck constant
as a unit. This is a strong prediction but reduces to the Bohr quantization rule for circular
orbits.
2.
ˆ
H
ˆ
(G
a
G
b
) option
For this option the units of orbital angular momentum and color hyper charge and isospin are
naturally scaled down by the factor n
i
. In the case of spin and electro-weak spin this kind of scaling
would require a covering group of Abelian Cartan group. Since the first homotopy group of SU(2)
vanishes there are no coverings of SU(2) in the ordinary sense of the word but quantum version of
SU(2) is an excellent candidate for the counterpart of the covering. Also quantum variants of other
Lie groups are highly suggestive on basis of ADE correspondence.
There does not seem to be any absolute need for assuming G
a
G
b
singletness. If so, there would
be asymmetry between coverings and factor spaces bringing in mind confined and de-confined phases.
Since coverings resp. factor spaces are labelled by N
11
-valued lattice momenta resp. their negatives,
this asymmetry would be analogous to time reversal asymmetry. Note however that all components
of lattice momenta are either positive or negative and that this fits nicely with the interpretation of
p-adic integers as naturals and ”super-naturals”. An intriguing question is whether there might be
some connection with M-theory and its 4-D compactifications (dropping reflection group one obtains
7-D lattice).
3. Implications of the new picture
This picture has several important implications.
1. There is a symmetry between CP
2
and M
4
so that for a given value of Planck constant one
obtains factor space with divisor group G
a
G
b
and covering space with homotopy group G
b
G
a
.
For large values of Planck constant the large Z
n
symmetry acts in M
4
factor resp. CP
2
factor
for these two options. Therefore the large Z
n
symmetry in M
4
degrees of freedom, which can
be challenged in some of the applications, could be replaced with large Z
n
symmetry in CP
2
degrees of freedom emerging rather naturally.
2. For a large value of Planck constant it is possible to obtain a relatively small dark matter
symmetry group in M
4
factor and also the small genuinely 3-dimensional symmetry groups
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 41
(tedrahedral, octahedral, icosahedral groups) can act in M
4
factor as symmetries of dark matter.
Hence the groups appearing as symmetries of molecular physics (aromatic rings, DNA,...) could
be identified as symmetries of dark electron pairs. These symmetries appear also in longer
length scales (snow flakes and even astrophysical structures). In earlier picture one had to
assume symmetry breaking at the level of visible matter.
3. The notion of N-atom generalizes. The original model predicted large electronic charges suggest-
ing instability plus large Z
n
symmetry in M
4
degrees of freedom (identified as a symmetry of
field body). For instance, in the case of DNA double helix this kind of large rotational symme-
try is questionable. Same applies to astrophysical systems with a gigantic value of gravitational
Planck constant. The change of the roles of M
4
and CP
2
and charge fractionization would
resolve these problems. This would provide a support for the idea that the electronic or pro-
tonic hot spots of catalyst and substrate correspond to fractional charges summing up to a unit
charge. This framework could provide a proper realization for the original vision that symbolic
level of dynamics and sex emerge already at the molecular level with sequences of catalyst sites
representing ”words” and their conjugates (opposite molecular sexes).
1.2.3 Dark atoms and dark cyclotron states
The development of the notion of dark atom involves many side tracks which make me blush. The
first naive guess was that dark atom would be obtained by simply replacing Planck constant with
its scaled counterpart in the basic formulas and interpreting the results geometrically. After some
obligatory twists and turns it became clear that this assumption is indeed the most plausible one.
The main source of confusion has been the lack of precise view about what the hierarchy of Planck
constants means at the level of imbedding space at space-time.
The assumptions of the model of dark atom
Let us briefly summarize the basic assumptions of the model.
1. The quantized values of effective Planck constant appearing in Schr¨odinger equation are in the set

eff
/
0
∈ ¦n
a
/n
b
, n
b
/n
a
, n
a
n
b
, 1/(n
a
n
b
) corresponding to the sectors
ˆ
H/G
a
G
b
,
ˆ
H
ˆ
(G
a
G
b
),
ˆ
M
4
/G
a
(
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
)G
b
, and (
ˆ
M
4
ˆ
G
a
)
ˆ
CP
2
/G
b
. Note that one can consider the replacement of
the right hand side of the formula for Planck constant by its inverse, and at this stage one must
just keep mind open for the options.
2. In the case of covering spaces the units of quantum numbers are replaced by 1/n
a
and 1/n
b
,
n
i
the order of maximal cyclic subgroup. Both fermion number, spin, color, and electro-weak
quantum numbers can fractionize. For factor spaces units are inverses of these and in this case
states are G
a
G
b
singlets: hence N-atoms with dark electrons in general involve many-electron
states with even number of electrons. Simplest situation corresponds to spin singlet electron
pair and one cannot exclude the possibility that valence electrons are dark electrons.
3. It is assumed that the quantum critical sub-manifolds M
2
S
2
correspond to homologically
trivial geodesic sphere. Note that although quantum critical parton orbits are vacuum extremals,
induced electric and Z
0
fields are non-vanishing in general. This is a very important point
since it makes possible electric and magnetic fluxes between different sectors of the generalized
imbedding space H. For instance, nucleus and electrons can belong to different sectors of H.
A helpful visualization is provided by a book with pages glued together along M
2
S
2
. Both
electric and magnetic flux are assumed to be conserved as it flows from a sector to another one:
therefore dark electron in the covering experiences the electric charge of nucleus as scaled down
by a factor 1/N(G
b
) giving the number of sectors.
4. In the case of factor spaces 3-surface is invariant under G
i
so that one has N(G
i
) strict copies
of the particle: G
i
invariance selects states with l
z
= nn
a
and forces many electron states in
order to satisfy quantization conditions in the case of spin. Here one can consider the possibility
that single particle states transform according to irreducible representations of G
i
although the
entire state is G
i
invariant.
42 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
5. In the case of covering spaces there is no need to assume that partonic 3-surface consists of
N(G
i
) identical copies. In this case the states are naturally classified by the representations
of G
a
G
b
identifiable as elements of the corresponding group algebra. Apparently one has a
modified statistics since N(G
a
) N(G
b
) states correspond to the same state in the ordinary
sense of the word. It can happen that the action of G
i
in H has some isotropy subgroup. In
fact, the action of D
2n
in M
2
and S
2
reduces to the action of the corresponding cyclic group Z
n
so that has N(G
i
) = n
i
.
6. One can consider quite a number of variants for the dark atom. Even nucleus could be dark
(either fractionally charged or N-nucleus with charge N(G
b
)). Second interesting possibility is
atom with ordinary nucleus and dark electrons. It is also possible that only valence electrons
are dark and correspond to one of the allowed varieties.
Thermal stability
The energy scale of hydrogen atom is proportional to 1/
2
. Depending on the sector of H and on
the values of n
a
and n
b
the scale of energy can increase or be reduced. Also charge fractionization
in case of covering spaces of
ˆ
CP
2
reduces the energy scale. By the conservation of electric flux this
takes place for both proton and electron so that the energy scale receives a factor 1/N(G
b
)
2
. For large
values of Planck constant the energy scale is reduced and thermal stability poses upper limit on the
value of Planck constant if dark matter is assumed to be in thermal equilibrium with ordinary matter.
The following table lists the four possible options.
I II III IV
ˆ
H
ˆ
G
a
G
b
ˆ
H/(G
a
G
b
) (
ˆ
H/G
a
)
ˆ
G
b
(
ˆ
H/G
b
)
ˆ
G
a
One can also consider two options for the formula of Planck constant.
1. For /
0
= n
a
/n
b
in case of option I and G
b
= Z
n
thermal stability condition boils down to the
condition
I : Z ≥
n
3
b
n
a
x ,
II : Z ≥
n
a
n
b
x ,
III : Z ≥ n
a
n
3
b
x ,
IV : Z ≥
1
n
a
n
b
x .
x ≡

E
th
E
1
. (1.2.2)
Here E
th
denotes thermal energy. Here E
th
denotes thermal energy. Note that option III
maximizes Planck constant for given G
a
G
b
and is therefore especially interesting. Option IV
minimizes in turn minimizes it.
By replacing the formula for Planck constant with its inverse (/
0
= n
b
/n
a
for option I) one
obtains the conditions
I : Z ≥ n
2
b
n
a
x ,
II : Z ≥
n
b
n
a
x ,
III : Z ≥
n
2
b
n
a
x ,
IV : Z ≥ n
a
n
b
x .
x ≡

E
th
E
1
. (1.2.3)
Recall that the preferred values of n
a
and n
b
correspond to the number theoretically simple
quantum phases exp(i2π/n
i
) expressible using only square root function and rational functions
applied on rationals. n
i
are given as products 2
k

¸
i
F
i
, where F
i
are distinct Fermat primes.
2. The original proposal for the hierarchy of Planck constants coming as /
0
= λ = 2
11k
does not
allow stable hydrogen atom at room temperature. This is not a problem since this hierarchy is
associated with cyclotron energies.
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 43
3. For option I with n
a
= 1 and n
b
∈ ¦3, 5, 6, 12¦ one would have Z ≥ z ∈ ¦1, 6, 10, 81¦. Carbon
atom would satisfy the condition fors (n
b
= 5, n
a
= 1) and (n
b
= 6, n
a
= 2).
4. For option II with n
b
= 1 one obtains Z ≥ n
a
for E
th
∼ E
1
. What is intriguing that aromatic
carbon 5- and 6-cycles, which are abundant in biology and correspond to factor space option,
would satisfy this condition for E
th
∼ E
1
. For n > 6-cycles the condition would not be satisfied.
Could this condition state something non-trivial about pre-biotic evolution at high temperatures?
5. For option III with n
b
= 3 meaning charge fractionization and n
a
-fold cyclic symmetry one
obtains Z ≥ n
a
1.3 at room temperature. For n
b
= 3 5-cycles with /
0
= 15 and 6-cycles
with /
0
= 18 would be stable below room temperature but not higher cycles. This estimate
is of course very rough since the energy scale E
1
for possibly dark delocalized free electron pairs
appearing in n-cycles need not be exactly equal to E
1
.
6. If one replaces the right hand side by its inverse in the expression of Planck constant the factor
space option would favor the thermal stability for large values of n
a
and n-cycles with large n
so that this option does not look reasonable.
Is the fractionization of principal quantum number possible?
One can also consider the fractionization n → n/n
b
of the principal quantum number of hydrogen
analogous to that occurring for angular momentum. If one assumes that fractionization occurs only
for isometry charges this option is excluded. This argument might quite well be enough to exclude
this kind of fractionization.
Since s-wave states correspond to orbits which represent radial motion between two extremes,
one could consider the possibility of periodic radial orbits which run to maximal radius, back to the
maximum radius at the opposite side and close after N
b
loops of this kind, where N
b
is the order of
maximal cyclic subgroup of G
b
. This would be direct a counterpart for a rotational orbit which closes
only after N
b
full 2π rotations.
One can consider the occurrence of this phenomenon also in the case of ordinary imbedding space.
At least inn this case the interpretation in terms of a transition to chaos might be appropriate. In case
of generalized imbedding space one could speak about transition to chaos by period N
b
-folding and
suggest fractionization of the radial quantum number to n/N
b
. Similar fractionization could makes
sense for all orbits which are not precisely circular. This fractionization would increase the energy
scale by a factor n
2
b
.
In empty space fractional diagonal quantum number would mean that ordinary hydrogen atom
wave functions diverge at spatial infinity. This kind of scaling is consistent with finiteness inside dark
sector if the copies of sheet fuse together at at 3-surface belonging to the quantum critical manifold
M
2
S
2
.
Possible experimental implications
An interesting possibility is the formation of stable hydrogen bonds as a fusion of N-hydrogen atoms
with N −k and k electrons to give rise to a full shell of electrons possessing an exceptional stability.
1. In the case of factor space the state would be analogous to full Fermi sea or full atomic or nuclear
shells. The large value of electric charge might make the state unstable. The resulting state
would be invariant under G
a
G
b
.
2. For covering space option the total quantum numbers for the resulting state would be those of
electron. The degeneracy of states is N(G
a
) N(G
b
)-fold corresponding to the group algebra of
G
a
G
b
. This would mean that the full shell for states with given energy E
n
would have total
energy n
a
n
b
E
n
.
Consider next the possible experimental implications of N-atom concept.
1. Valence electrons could transform to dark electrons in one of the four possible senses.
i) For covering space option fractal electrons could result. Fractal electron and its conjugate
would combine to form a particle with quantum numbers of electrons but with larger mass.
44 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
Catalytic sites are one possible candidate for fractal electrons and catalyst activity could be
understood as a strong tendency of fractal electron and its conjugate to fuse to form an ordinary
electron. The anomalously high mass would be the tell-tale signature of these exotic electrons.
The effective mass of electron in condensed matter is known to vary in wide limits and to exceed
electron mass even by a factor of order hundred: is this really a mere standard physics effect?
ii) For factor space option full electron shells would be the most stable states and would have
have rather high fermion number but vanishing spin. Spin singlet electron pairs would define
stable G
a
G
b
singlets. These states might behave like Cooper pairs.
iii) If the value of Planck constant is smaller than its standard value, the molecular bonds
containing dark electrons could be stable at anomalously high temperatures. Note that the
dependence of the bond energy on Planck constant need not be non-perturbative as it is for
atoms. For instance, a naive application of the formulas for vibrational and rotational energies
assuming that the parameters of Hamiltonian (such as vibrational energy scale) do not depend
on Planck constant would suggest that large Planck constant implies thermal stability in this
kind of situations.
iv) Both fermionic a (Na
+
, K
+
, Cl

) and bosonic (Ca
++
, Mg
++
) ions are very important in
biology. Optimist would interpret this as a support for the plasmoids as predecessors of biological
life. These ions are formed in some manner and the simplest manner would be transformation
of valence electrons to dark electrons and subsequence delocalization.
2. The recently discovered evidence [124] that Sun has a solid surface consisting mostly of calcium-
ferrite is inconsistent with the fact that photosphere has temperature 5800 K (iron melts at 1811
K and calcium-aluminium ferrite in the range 1670-1720 K at normal pressure). Metallic bonds
responsible for the solid state are due to the interaction of delocalized conduction electrons with
metal atoms. If the valence electrons giving rise to conduction bands have a reduced value
of Planck constant, the energy scale of the valence bands would become higher and raise the
melting temperature. The reduction of Planck constant seems necessary by the non-perturbative
dependence of atomic binding energies on .
3. The claims of Mills [46] about the scaling up of the binding energy of the hydrogen ground state
by a square k
2
(k = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10) of an integer in plasma state are a challenge for the theory.
The simplest explanation is that the Planck constant is reduced by factor 1/k.
Before I had realized that
eff
satisfies the formula
eff
/
0
= n
a
/n
b
, the presence of k = 2 state in
spectrum was a difficult problem and I ended up with the idea that the quantum variant of Laguerre
polynomials associated with quantized radial motion could explain n = 1/2 and also other fractional
states. Later it will be found that this approach indeed predicts these quantum numbers approxi-
mately! This raises the question whether these states might appear as metastable intermediate states
for hydrogen atom in the phase having
eff
/
0
= 1 and n
a
= n
b
> 1. These states would be unstable
against the phase transition leading to n
b
> kn
a
, k = 2, 3, .....
Living matter could perhaps be understood in terms of quantum deformations of the ordinary
matter, which would be characterized by the quantum phases q = exp(i2π/N). Hence quantum
groups, which have for long time suspected to have significance in elementary particle physics, might
explain the mystery of living matter and predict an entire hierarchy of new forms of matter.
As demonstrated in [L7], the notion of N-atom leads to an elegant model for the lock and key mech-
anism of bio-catalysis as well as the understanding of the DNA replication based on the spontaneous
decay and completion of fermionic N < N(G)-particles to N = N(G)-particles. Optimal candidates
for the N-particles are N-hydrogen atoms associated with bio-molecules appearing as letters in the
”pieces of text” labelling the molecules. Lock and key would correspond to conjugate names in the
sense that N
1
and N
2
for the letters in the name and its conjugate satisfy N
1
+N
2
= N = N(G): as
the molecules combine, a full fermion shell represented is formed.
What about cyclotron states?
Dark cyclotron states have scaled spectrum E
n
= (n
a
/n
b
)E
n
and for large values of n
a
one can have
energies above thermal threshold. The crucial observation is that the flux of ordinary magnetic field
cannot divide into N(G) dark fluxes since magnetic fluxes necessarily vanish at orbifold surfaces.
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 45
Hence dark magnetic field would carry total flux which is N(G) times higher than the flux of ordinary
magnetic field of same intensity. Fermionic analogs of Bose-Einstein condensates are possible so that
each cyclotron energy E
n
= n
0
ω would be replaced with spectrum extending from (n
a
/n
b
)E
n
to
(n
a
/n
b
)N(G
b
)E
n
in case of fractionization.
1.2.4 Dark matter and mind: general ideas
Dark matter is identified as a macroscopic quantum phase with large for which particles have
complex conformal weights.
The sum of the imaginary parts of conformal weights assumed for number theoretical reasons to
be expressible as sums of imaginary parts for the zeros of Riemann Zeta would define a new conserved
quantum number, ”scaling momentum” [C1]. The conjugation of the complex conformal weight would
distinguish between quantum states and their phase conjugates. This point is important since phase
conjugate photons represent negative energy signals propagating into geometric past, assumed to be
distinguishable from positive energy signals propagating into geometric future, play a key role in TGD
based biology: this distinction cannot be made in QFT context.
Living matter could be matter with a large value of and hence dark, and form conformally
confined blobs behaving like single units with extremely quantal properties, including free will and
intentional action in time scales familiar to us. Dark matter would be responsible for the mysterious
vital force.
Any system for which some interaction becomes so strong that perturbation theory does not work,
could give rise to this kind of system in a phase transition in which increases to not lose perturbativity
gives rise to this kind of ”super-quantal” matter. In this sense emergence would corresponds to strong
coupling. The interpretation would be that strong fluctuations at strong coupling give rise to a large
number of orbifold points so that the S-matrix elements to a phase with larger Planck constant become
large. Dark matter made possible by dynamical is necessary for macroscopic and macro-temporal
quantum coherence and is thus prerequisite for emergence.
Physically large means a larger unit for quantum numbers and this requires that single particle
states form larger particle like units. This kind of collective states with weak mutual interactions are
of course very natural in strongly interacting systems. The N sheets of M
4
±
, where N is the order
of group G
b
involved with the Jones inclusion in question. Each partonic 2-surface appears as N
geometrically identical copies which can however carry different fermionic quantum numbers. Hence
the N-fold space-time sheet carry up to N G
b
invariant partons with identical quantum numbers so
that an effective breaking of Fermi statistics becomes possible.
One implication would be the notion of N-atom, which at the level of quantum jumps quantum
jumps integrate effectively to single quantum jump and longer moments of consciousness result. Entire
hierarchy of size scales for matter blobs is predicted corresponding to values of . The larger the value
of the longer the characteristic time scale of consciousness and of a typical life cycle.
In RHIC color glass condensate resembles incompressible liquid. Liquids might be liquids because
they contain some dark matter at magnetic/Z
0
magnetic flux tubes (darkness follows from the large
value of ). Incompressibility of liquid could correspond to maximal density of flux tubes and to the
fact that magnetic fields have no sources. In accordance with the previous ideas already water could
be living and conscious system in some primitive sense.
The notion of field body in turn means that dark matter at the magnetic flux tubes would serve
as an intentional agent using biological body as a motor instrument and sensory receptor. Dark
matter would be the miraculous substance that living systems are fighting for, and perhaps the most
important substance in metabolic cycle.
Hierarchy of dark matters and hierarchy of minds
The notion of dark matter is only relative concept in the sense that dark matter is invisible from the
point of view of the ordinary matter. One can imagine an entire hierarchy of dark matter structures
corresponding to the hierarchy of space-time sheets for which p-adic length scales differ by a factor
1/v
0
∼ 2
11
. The BE condensates of N
cr
ordinary matter particles would serve as dynamical units for
”doubly dark matter” invisible to the dark matter. The above discussed criticality criterion can be
applied at all levels of the hierarchy to determine the value of the dynamical interaction strength for
which BE condensates of BE condensates are formed.
46 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
This hierarchy would give rise to a hierarchy of the values of
n
/ coming as powers of v
−n
0
as
well as a hierarchy of wavelengths with same energy coming as powers or v
n
0
. For zero point kinetic
energies proportional to
2
this hierarchy would come in powers of v
−2n
0
, for magnetic interaction
energies proportional to the hierarchy would come in powers v
−n
0
whereas for atomics energy levels
the hierarchy would come in powers of v
2n
0
(assuming that this hierarchy makes sense).
The most interesting new physics would emerge from the interaction between length scales dif-
fering by powers of v
0
made possible by the decay of BE condensates of dark photons to ordinary
photons having wavelength shorter by a factor ∼ v
0
. This interaction could provide the royal road to
the quantitative understanding how living matter manages to build up extremely complex coherent
interactions between different length and time scales.
In the time domain dark matter hierarchy could allow to understand how moments of consciousness
organize to a hierarchy with respect to the time scales of moment of consciousness coming as 2
11k
multiples of CP
2
time scale. Even human life span could be seen as single moment of consciousness
at k = 14
th
level of the dark matter hierarchy whereas single day in human life would correspond to
k = 12.
Realization of intentional action and hierarchy of dark matters
How long length scales are able to control the dynamics in short length scales so that the extremely
complex process extending down to atomic length scales realizing my intention to write this word is
possible. This question has remained without a convincing answer in the recent day biology and there
strong objections against the idea that this process is planned and initiated at neuronal level.
I have proposed a concrete mechanism for the realization of intentional action in terms of time
mirror mechanism involving the emission of negative energy photons and proceeding as a cascade in a
reversed direction of geometric time from long to short length scales [K1]. This cascade would induce
as a reaction analogous processes proceeding in the normal direction of geometric time as a response
and would correspond to the neural correlates of intentional action in very general sense of the word.
The counterparts for the negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past would be phase
conjugate (negative energy) laser beams identifiable as Bose-Einstein condensates of dark photons.
In the time reflection these beams would transform to positive energy dark matter photons eventu-
ally decaying to ordinary photons. The space-time correlate would be MEs decaying into MEs and
eventually to CP
2
type extremals representing ordinary photons.
The realization of intentional action as desires of boss expressed to lower level boss would naturally
represented the decay of the phase conjugate dark laser beam to lower level laser beams decaying to
lower level laser beams decaying to... . This would represent the desire for action whereas the time
reflection at some level would represent the realization desire as stepwise decay to lower level laser
beams and eventually to ordinary photons. The strong quantitative prediction would be that these
levels correspond to a length and time scale hierarchies coming in powers of 1/v
0
∼ 2
11
.
Wave-length hierarchy, coherent metabolism, and proton-electron mass ratio
The fact that a given wavelength length corresponds to energies related to each other by a scaling
with powers of v
0
provides a mechanism allowing to transfer energy from long to short long scales by a
de-coherence occurring either in the standard or reversed direction of geometric time. De-coherence in
the reversed direction of time would be associated with mysterious looking processes like self-assembly
allowing thus an interpretation as a normal decay process in reversed time direction.
It is perhaps not an accident that the value of v
0
· 4.6 10
−4
is not too far from the ratio of
m
e
/m
p
· 5.3 10
−4
giving the ratio of zero point kinetic energies of proton and electron for a given
space-time sheet. Proton mass ratio m
p
/m
e
= 1836.15267261 corresponds in good approximation to
n = 2
2
3
3
17 = 1836. This integer is of form n = 9n
F
. This co-incidence could in principle make
possible a metabolic mechanism in which dark protons and ordinary electrons co-operate in the sense
that dark protons generate dark photon BE condensates with wave length λ transforming to ordinary
photons with wavelength v
0
λ absorbed by ordinary electrons.
Some examples are in order to illustrate these ideas.
1. As already found, in the case of dark atoms the scaling of binding energies as 1/
2
allows the
coupling of ∼ 9 cm scale of brain hemisphere with the length scale ∼ 50 µm of large neuron.
N
cr
≤ 137 ordinary IR photons would be emitted in single burst and interacting with neuron.
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 47
2. For a non-relativistic particle in a box of size L the energy scale is given by E
1
=
2
π
2
/2mL
2
so
that the visible photons emitted would have energy scaled up by a factor (
s
/)
2
· 410
6
. The
collective dropping of N
cr
dark protons to larger space-time sheet would liberate a laser beam
of dark photons with energy equal to the liberated zero point kinetic energy. For instance, for
the p-adic length scale L(k = 159 = 3 53) · .63 µm this process would generate laser beam of
IR dark photons with energy ∼ .5 eV also generated by the dropping of ordinary protons from
k = 137 atomic space-time sheet. There would thus be an interaction between dark protons in
cell length scale and ordinary protons in atomic length scale. For instance, the dropping of dark
protons in cell length scale could induce driving of protons back to the atomic space-time sheet
essential for the metabolism [K6]. Similar argument applies to electrons with the scale of the
zero point kinetic energy about 1 keV.
3. If the energy spectrum associated with the conformational degrees of freedom of proteins, which
corresponds roughly to a frequency scale of 10 GHz remains also invariant in the phase transition
to dark protein state, coherent emissions of dark photons with microwave wave lengths would
generate ordinary infrared photons. For instance, metabolic energy quanta of ∼ .5 eV could
result from macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensates of 58 GHz dark photons resulting from the
oscillations in the conformational degrees of freedom of dark proteins. A second option is that
the conformal energies are scaled by
s
/ (ω would remain invariant). In this case these coherent
excitations would generate ordinary photons with energy of about 1 keV able to drive electrons
back to the atomic k = 137 space-time sheet.
4. Since magnetic flux tubes have a profound role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness, it is
interesting to look also for the behavior of effective magnetic transition energies in the phase
transition to the dark matter phase. This transition increases the scale of the magnetic interac-
tion energy so that anomalously large magnetic spin splitting
s
eB/m in the external magnetic
field could serve as a signature of dark atoms. The dark transition energies relate by a factor

s
/ to the ordinary magnetic transition energies.
For instance, in the magnetic field B
end
= 2B
E
/5 = .2 Gauss, where B
E
= .5 Gauss is the
nominal value of the Earth’s magnetic field, explaining the effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate
brain, dark electron cyclotron frequency is 6 10
5
Hz and corresponds to ordinary microwave photon
with frequency ∼ 1.2 GHz and wavelength λ · 25 cm. For proton the cyclotron frequency of 300
Hz would correspond to energy of ordinary photon with frequency of 6 10
5
Hz and could induce
electronic cyclotron transitions and spin flips in turn generating for instance magneto-static waves.
It is easy to imagine a few step dark matter hierarchy connecting EEG frequencies of dark matter
with frequencies of visible light for ordinary photons. This kind of hierarchy would give considerable
concreteness for the notion of magnetic body having size scale of Earth.
A connection with bio-photons
The biologically active radiation at UV energies was first discovered by Russian researcher Gurwitz
using a very elegant experimental arrangement [55]. Gurwitz christened this radiation mitogenetic
radiation since it was especially intense during the division of cell.
A direct proof for the biological activity of mitogenetic radiation consisted of a simple experiment
in which either quartz or glass plate was put between two samples. The first sample contained already
growing onion roots whereas the second sample contained roots which did not yet grow. In the case of
quartz plate no stimulation of growth occurred unlike for glass plate. Since quartz is not transparent
to UV light whereas the ordinary glass is, the conclusion was that the stimulation of growth is due to
UV light.
The phenomenon was condemned by skeptics as a pseudo science and only the modern detection
technologies demonstrated its existence [45], and mitogenetic radiation became also known as bio-
photons (the TGD based model for bio-photons is discussed in [K6]). Bio-photons form a relatively
featureless continuum at visible wavelengths continuing also to UV energies, and are believed to be
generated by DNA or at least to couple with DNA. The emission of bio-photons is most intense
from biologically active organisms and the irradiation by UV light induces an emission of mitogenetic
radiation by a some kind of amplification mechanism. It has been suggested that bio-photons represent
some kind of leakage of a coherent light emitted by living matter.
48 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
According to Russian researcher V. M. Injushin [56], mitochondrios emit red light at wavelengths
620 nm and 680 nm corresponding to energies 2 eV and 1.82 eV. According to the same source, the
nucleus of cell sends UV light at wavelengths 190, 280 and 330 nm corresponding to the energies
6.5, 4.4 and 3.8 eV. The interpretation as a kind of leakage of coherent light would conform with the
identification in terms of BE condensates of dark photons with
s
/ · 2
11
emitted at wavelengths
varying in the range .3 −1.25 mm and decaying to photons with energies visible and UV range. For
instance, 1.82 eV radiation corresponds to a dark photon wave length of 1.4 mm for v
0
(eff) = 2
−11
. A
bio-control of ordinary bio-matter at sub-cellular level performed by dark matter from the millimeter
length scale could be in question. This proposal conforms with the fact that 1 mm defines the scale
of the blobs of neurons serving as structural units in cortex.
The analysis of Kirlian photographs has shown that the pattern of visible light emitted by various
body parts, for instance ear, code information about other body parts [57]. These bio-holograms for
which a general model is discussed in [29] could be realized as dark photon laser beams.
In phantom DNA effect [52] a chamber containing DNA is irradiated with a visible laser light and
the DNA generates as a response coherent visible radiation at same wavelength. Strangely enough,
the chamber continues to emit weak laser light even after the removal of DNA. This effect could be
due to the decay of a dark photon BE condensate remaining in the chamber. Also the findings of Peter
Gariaev [39] about the effects of visible laser light on DNA, in particular the stimulated emission of
radio waves in kHz-MHz frequency range might also relate to dark photons somehow.
A connection with the scaling law of homeopathy
The value of the parameter 1/v
0
· 2083 is essentially the ratio of CP
2
radius and Planck length
scale (as also the ratio of Compton lengths of electron and proton) and rather near to 2
11
= 2048.
Interestingly, much larger number 2 10
11
· 3 2
36
appears in the simplest form for what I have
christened the scaling law of homeopathy [K5]. This rule has been proposed on basis of experimental
findings [47] but has no convincing theoretical justification. The scaling law of homeopathy states
that high frequency em radiation transforms to a low frequency radiation and vice versa preferably
with the frequency ratio f
high
/f
low
· 2 10
11
.
The proposed hierarchy of dark matter and ensuing hierarchy of dark laser beams decaying into
lower level beams might provide a deeper explanation for the scaling law of homeopathy. The factor
2 10
11
is with 3 per cent accuracy equal to the integer n
F
= 3 2
36
· 2.06 10
11
characterizing
ruler and compass quantum phase. Hence the interpretation in terms of a phase transition leading
from a phase with a large value of Planck constant = n
F

0
to ordinary phase is possible.
In [K5] I have discussed some mechanisms for the transformation of high energy photons to low
energy photons consistent with the rule and proposed a generalization of the rule based on p-adic length
scale hypothesis. For instance, high energy visible photons of frequency f could induce an excitation of
the receiving system having same frequency, propagating with velocity β = v/c · 10
−11
/2, and having
wave length equal λ
0
= f/v = λ/β. This excitation would in turn couple to photons of wavelength
λ
0
and frequency f
0
= βf.
1.2.5 Dark matter hierarchy, sensory representations, and motor action
Dark matter hierarchy allows to develop a detailed model for how magnetic bodies use biological bodies
as sensory receptors and motor instruments [M3] leading among other things to a generalization of
the notion of genome.
For ordinary quantum mechanics photons at EEG frequencies correspond to ridiculously small
energies. Dark matter hierarchy is accompanied by a hierarchy of EEGs and its generalizations with
the scalings of frequencies predicted to come in powers of λ · 2
11
[M3]. For k
em
= 4 the energies of
EEG photons are above thermal threshold at room temperature for f ≥ 1 Hz, and 5 Hz frequency
corresponds to 86 meV energy.
The fact that arbitrarily small frequencies can correspond to energies above thermal threshold at
higher levels of dark matter hierarchy implies that photons with arbitrarily low frequencies can have
sizable physical effects on matter. This conforms with the findings about the effects of ELF em fields
on living matter [M3], and these effects allow to develop a rather detailed model for EEG and identify
the parts of EEG correlating with communications of sensory data to the magnetic body and with
quantum control performed by the magnetic body [M3].
1.2. Dark matter and living matter 49
Bose-Einstein condensates at magnetic flux quanta in astrophysical length scales
The new model for the topological condensation at magnetic flux quanta of Earth’s magnetic field
is based on the dark matter hierarchy with levels characterized by the value of (k
em
) = λ
k
em

0
,
λ · 2
11
.
1. There are several levels of dynamics. In topological condensation the internal dynamics of ions
is unaffected and has the ordinary value. The formation of Cooper pairs involves dynamics
at k
em
= 1 level of dark matter hierarchy. Also the dynamics of ionic Cooper pairs remains
unaffected in the topological condensation to magnetic flux quanta obeying k
em
> 1 dynamics.
2. Cyclotron energies scale as as λ
k
em
so that for a sufficiently high value of k thermal stability of
cyclotron states at room temperature is achieved. Spin interaction energy µ B ∝ S B scales as
1/ since four-momentum and angular momentum are by Poincare symmetry invariant under
the scaling of (the highly non-trivial implications of the invariance of angular momentum
are discussed in [C2]). Hence spin interaction energy has the ordinary value. Unless thermal
isolation is assumed, spin degrees of freedom are thermalized, and only cyclotron degrees of
freedom can be quantum coherent. This is a testable prediction distinguishing between the new
and old model.
3. If the flux quanta of Earth’s magnetic field correspond to k
em
= 4 level of dark matter hierarchy,
cyclotron energies E = (/2π)ZeB/Am
p
are scaled up by a factor λ
4
· 2
44
from their ordinary
values and are above thermal energy at room temperature for A ≤ 233Z, where Z is the charge
of the ion. Even for Z = 1 this includes all stable nuclei. Bose-Einstein condensates of bosonic
ions are thus possible at room temperatures at Earth’s surface. Cooper pairs of fermionic ions
are possible only for A ≤ 4 leaving in practice only protons into consideration. Also bosonic
molecular ions can suffer BE condensation.
Fractal hierarchy of magnetic flux sheets
The notion of magnetic body is central in the TGD inspired theory of living matter. Every system
possesses magnetic body and there are strong reasons to believe that the magnetic body associated
with human body is of order Earth size and that there could be hierarchy of these bodies with even
much larger sizes. Therefore the question arises what distinguishes between the magnetic bodies of
Earth and human body. The quantization of magnetic flux suggests an answer to this question.
There are several manners to achieve quantization of magnetic flux with dynamical . From
the point of view of EEG and ZEG especially interesting are flux flux sheets which have thickness
L(169)/λ = L(151) = 2.5 nm carrying magnetic field having strength of Earth’s magnetic field. These
flux sheets have thickness of DNA double strand and total transversal length L(169 + 5 22) =
L(257) = 1.6 10
8
km from flux quantization at k
em
= 4 level of dark matter hierarchy necessary in
order that the energies associated with cyclotron frequencies are above thermal threshold. Strongly
folded flux sheets of this thickness might be associated with living matter and connect their DNAs to
single coherent structure.
Suppose that the magnetic flux flows in head to tail direction so that the magnetic flux arrives to
the human body through a layer of cortical neurons. Assume that the flux sheets traverse through
the uppermost layer of neurons and also lower layers and that DNA of each neuronal nuclei define a
transversal sections organized along flux sheet like text lines of a book page. The total length of DNA
in single human cell is about one meter. It seem that single brain cannot provide the needed total
length of DNA if DNA dominates the contribution: this if of course not at all necessarily. Even for
k
em
< 4 levels magnetic flux sheets could traverse nuclei belonging to different organisms.
This leads to the notion of super- and hyper genes. Super genes consist of genes in different cell
nuclei arranged to threads along magnetic flux sheets like text lines on the page of book whereas hyper
genes traverse through genomes of different organisms. Super and hyper genes provide an enormous
representative capacity and together with the dark matter hierarchy allows to resolve the paradox
created by the observation that human genome does not differ appreciably in size from that of wheat.
50 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
Charge entanglement as a tool of generalized motor action
The charge entanglement by W MEs is an essentially new element in the model for generalized
motor actions by magnetic body. Also the telepathic sharing of mental images could rely on charge
entanglement. The notion was originally applied in the model of nerve pulse generation [M2]. Neutral
MEs would in turn be related to communications and memory. The reduction of charge entanglement
can induce a quantum jump to a state in which local Bose-Einstein condensates become exotically
ionized with certain probability depending on the intensity of W field. Bose-Einstein condensates
define pixels of generalized motor maps.
Exotic ionization induces dark plasma oscillations in turn generating various physiological re-
sponses such as Ca
++
, Mg
++
waves, and nerve pulse patterns giving rise to the motor action as
an asymptotic self-organization pattern. Plasma oscillation patterns utilize typically dark microwave
photons as metabolic energy. Field code is the correspondence between the spatio-temporal pattern
of plasma oscillations and generalized motor action and the number theoretical model for genetic code
[L9] generalizes to this context.
Overview about quantum control and coordination
The following general overview about quantum communication and control emerges in this framework.
1. Cyclotron frequencies relate to the control of the biological body by the magnetic body and
could be assigned with the magnetic flux sheets going through DNA since it is genome where
protein synthesis is initiated and is thus the optimal intermediate step in the cellular control.
2. One of the basic functions of cell membranes is to perceive the chemical environment using
various kinds of receptors as sensors. Neurons have specialized to receive symbolic representa-
tions of the sensory data of primary sensory organs about the situation in the external world.
Receptor proteins would communicate cell level sensory input to the magnetic body via MEs
parallel to magnetic flux tubes connecting them to the magnetic body. We ourselves would be in
an abstract sense fractally scaled up counterparts of receptor proteins and associated with dark
matter iono-lito Josephson junction connecting the parts of magnetosphere below litosphere and
above magnetosphere.
3. This picture would explain why the temperature of brain must be in the narrow range 36-37 K to
guarantee optimal functionality of the organism. If interior superconductivity is lost, magnetic
body receives sensory data but is paralyzed since its desires cannot be realized. If boundary
superconductivity is lost, magnetic body can move but is blind.
4. In the length scales below the weak length scale L
w
also charged weak bosons behave as massless
particles and the exchange of virtual W bosons makes possible a nonlocal charge transfer. Dark
quark-antiquark pairs associated with the color bonds of the atomic nuclei can become charged
via the emission of dark W boson and thus produce and exotic ion. The same can happen at the
higher levels of dark matter hierarchy. This provides a nonlocal quantal mechanism inducing or
changing electromagnetic polarization in turn inducing ordinary charge flows and thus making
possible quantum control.
5. Massless extremals (MEs, topological light rays) serve as correlates for dark bosons. Besides
neutral massless extremals (em and Z
0
MEs) TGD predicts also charged massless extremals
obtained from their neutral counterparts by a mere color rotation (color and weak quantum
numbers are not totally independent in TGD framework). The interpretation of the charged
MEs has remained open hitherto. Charged W MEs (hierarchy of WEGs!) could induce long
length scale charge entanglement of Bose-Einstein condensates by inducing exotic ionization of
ionic nuclei. State function reduction could lead to a state containing a Bose-Einstein condensate
in exotically ionized state.
In this manner the dark charge inside neuron and thus by Faraday’s law also membrane potential
could be affected by magnetic body. The generation of nerve pulse could rely on the reduction of
the resting potential below the critical value by this kind of mechanism inducing charge transfer
between cell interior and exterior. The mechanism might apply even in the scale of magnetic
body and make possible the control of central nervous system. Also remote mental interactions,
in particular telekinesis, might rely on this mechanism.
1.3. MEs and mes 51
Summarizing, charged massless extremals could be seen as correlates for nonlocal quantum control
by affecting charge equilibria whereas neutral MEs would serve as correlates for coordination and
communication. Color charged MEs could also induce color charge polarization and flows of color
charges and thus generate visual color qualia by the capacitor mechanism discussed in [K3].
1.3 MEs and mes
The development of the model for the detailed identification of the sensory qualia and brain led to
a general vision about the evolution of consciousness and information processing in brain. In this
section various properties of MEs are summarized.
1.3.1 Massless extremals
Massless extremals (MEs) are an extremely general solution set of field equations associated with
K¨ahler action [B1] and representing various gauge – and gravitational fields [26]. Being scale invariant,
MEs come in all size scales. The geometry has axial symmetry in the sense that CP
2
coordinates
are arbitrary functions of two variables constructed from Minkowski coordinates: light-like coordinate
t − z and arbitrary function of the coordinates of the plane orthogonal to the z-axis defining the
direction of propagation. The polarization of the electromagnetic field depends on the point of the
plane but is temporally constant. MEs represent waves propagating with velocity of light in single
direction so that there is no dispersion: preservation of the pulse shape makes MEs ideal for classical
communications.
Electric and magnetic parts of various gauge fields are orthogonal to each other and to the direction
of propagation. Classical gauge field is sum of a free part plus part having as its source light-like
vacuum current. The time dependence of the vacuum current is arbitrary, this is only possible by its
light-likeness. This makes it possible to code all kinds of physical information to the time dependence
of the vacuum current. MEs can have finite spatial size and in this case they are classical counterparts
of virtual photons exchanged between charged particles and represent classical communication between
material space-time sheets. MEs carry gravitational waves and also classical Z
0
fields propagating
with light velocity.
MEs can also carry constant electric field. In this case either vacuum charges or actual charges
near the boundaries of ME contain define the sources of this field. This situation can be also achieved
if MEs form double-sheeted structures and wormhole contacts serve as effectively sources of the field.
TGD allows the possibility that the two sheets have opposite time orientations and therefore also
opposite classical energies. More generally, the exchange of two or more MEs between material space-
time sheets can be such that no net momentum exchange occurs so that the absolute minimum of
K¨ahler action only in a finite region of space-time and gives rise to new degenerate absolute minimum
of K¨ahler action since ME has vanishing action. This kind of structures are obvious candidates for
cognitive structures since classical nondeterminism is localized in a finite space-time volume. The
Universe should be full of MEs with all possible sizes since they have vanishing action: addition
of ME with finite time duration yields new absolute minimum of K¨ahler action since K¨ahler action
does not change in this operation. This suggests that MEs should be of crucial importance in TGD
Universe.
MEs serve as receiving and sending quantum antennae [26]. Light-like vacuum current generates
coherent light. Also coherent gravitons are generated. MEs serve also as templates for BE con-
densation of photons and gravitons with momenta parallel to the light-like vacuum current. Linear
structures, say DNA and micro-tubules, are natural but not the only candidates for structures ac-
companied by MEs. Since MEs are massless, they carry maximal possible momentum. This makes
exchange of ME ideal mechanism for locomotion. The possibility of negative energy MEs is especially
fascinating since it suggests ’buy now, pay later’ mechanism of energy production: perhaps living
matter uses MEs to generate coherent motions [I4, I5].
Massless extremals as general solutions of field equations
Let k = (k
0
, k
3
, 0, 0) be a light like vector of M
4
and u = u(m
1
, m
2
) arbitrary function of the
Minkowski coordinates m
1
and m
2
in the plane orthogonal to the direction of the 3-vector (k
3
, 0, 0)
associated with k. The surfaces defined by the map
52 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
s
k
= f
k
(k m, u) , (1.3.1)
where f
k
and u are arbitrary functions define massless extremals. They describe the propagation of
massless fields in the direction of k: the fields are periodic with a period λ = 2π/k so that only k and
its integer multiples are possible wave vectors. The polarization associated with various induced gauge
fields depends on the position in (m
1
, m
2
)-plane and is in the direction of the gradient of u. Field
equations involve tensor contractions of the energy momentum tensor and gauge current but these are
proportional to kk and k respectively and vanish by the light-likeness of k. Linear superposition holds
true only in a restricted sense since both the propagation direction and the polarization direction in
each (m
1
, m
2
) = const plane is fixed.
What is remarkable that these solutions are not solutions of the ordinary Maxwell equations in
vacuum: K¨ahler current density J
K
is in general non-vanishing(!) and proportional to the light like
four-momentum k. As a consequence, also a light-like electromagnetic current is in general (but not
necessarily) present. The interpretation of the em current J as charged elementary particle current is
impossible and the correct interpretation as a vacuum current associated with the induced gauge fields.
The finite length of the micro-tubule plus the requirement that the total vacuum charge vanishes,
implies that the Fourier decompositions of the massless fields contain only integer multiples of the
basic four-momentum k. The direct detection of the light-like vacuum current inside a micro-tubule
would provide strong support for TGD.
The physical importance of these extremals is suggested by the fact they are in certain sense
elementary particle like objects: in fact, the original interpretation was as a model for the exterior
space-time of a topologically condensed massless particle. The solution set is also very general involving
several arbitrary functions. Although the minimization of the K¨ahler action favors the formation of
K¨ahler electric fields, massless extremals might well appear as space-time sheets of the effective space-
time. These space-time sheets should not contain ordinary charges since their presence implies a
transition to the Maxwell phase described in an excellent approximation by the ordinary Maxwell
electrodynamics. The fact that vacuum em current and vacuum Einstein tensor do not in general
vanish, could mean that massless extremals serve as sources of coherent photons and gravitons.
Massless extremals can also reduce to vacuum extremals of the K¨ahler action in the case that
the CP
2
projection is, in general two-dimensional, Legendre manifold of CP
2
. These extremals are
however not gravitational vacua.
Generalization of the solution ansatz defining MEs
The solution ansatz for MEs has developed gradually to an increasingly general form and the following
formulation is the most general one achieved hitherto. Rather remarkably, it rather closely resembles
the solution ansatz for the CP
2
type extremals and has direct interpretation in terms of geometric
optics. Equally remarkable is that the latest generalization based on the introduction of the local
light-cone coordinates was inspired by quantum holography principle.
The solution ansatz for MEs has developed gradually to an increasingly general form and the
following formulation is the most general one achieved hitherto. Rather remarkably, it rather closely
resembles the solution ansatz for the CP
2
type extremals and has direct interpretation in terms of
geometric optics. Equally remarkable is that the latest generalization based on the introduction of
the local light-cone coordinates was inspired by quantum holography principle.
1. Local light-cone coordinates
The solution involves a decomposition of M
4
+
tangent space localizing the decomposition of Minkowski
space to an orthogonal direct sum M
2
⊕E
2
defined by light-like wave vector and polarization vector
orthogonal to it. This decomposition defines what might be called local light-cone coordinates.
1. Denote by m
i
the linear Minkowski coordinates of M
4
. Let (S
+
, S

, E
1
, E
2
) denote local coo-
ordinates of M
4
+
defining a local decomposition of the tangent space M
4
of M
4
+
into a direct
orthogonal sum M
4
= M
2
⊕ E
2
of spaces M
2
and E
2
. This decomposition has interpreta-
tion in terms of the longitudinal and transversal degrees of freedom defined by local light-like
four-velocities v
±
= ∇S
±
and polarization vectors
i
= ∇E
i
assignable to light ray.
1.3. MEs and mes 53
2. In accordance with this physical picture, S
+
and S

define light-like curves and thus satisfy the
equation:
(∇S
±
)
2
= 0 .
The gradients of S
±
are obviously analogous to local light like velocities v = (1, v) and ˜ v =
(1, −v). These equations are also obtained in geometric optics from Hamilton Jacobi equation by
replacing photon’s four-velocity with the gradient ∇S: this is consistent with the interpretation
of MEs as Bohr orbits of em field.
3. With these assumptions the coordinates (S
±
, E
i
) define local light-cone coordinates with the
metric element having the form
ds
2
= g
S
+
S

dS
+
dS

+g
11
dE
2
1
+g
22
dE
2
2
.
Conformal transformations of M
4
+
leave the general form of this decomposition invariant. The
task is to find all possible local light-cone coordinates defining one-parameter families 2-surfaces
defined by the condition S
i
= constant, i = + or = −, dual to each other and expanding with
light velocity.
2. A conformally invariant family of local light-cone coordinates
The simplest solutions to the equations defining local light-cone coordinates are of form S
±
= k m
giving as a special case S
±
= m
0
±m
3
. For more general solutions of from
S
±
= m
0
±f(m
1
, m
2
, m
3
) , (∇
3
f)
2
= 1 ,
where f is an otherwise arbitrary function, this relationship reads as
S
+
+S

= 2m
0
.
This condition defines a natural rest frame. One can integrate f from its initial data at some two-
dimensional f = constant surface and solution describes curvilinear light rays emanating from this
surface and orthogonal to it. The flow velocity field v = ∇f is irrotational so that closed flow lines
are not possible in a connected region of space and the condition v
2
= 1 excludes also closed flow line
configuration with singularity at origin such as v = 1/ρ rotational flow around axis.
One can identify E
2
as a local tangent space spanned by polarization vectors and orthogonal to
the flow lines of the velocity field v = ∇f(m
1
, m
2
, m
3
). Since the metric tensor of any 3-dimensional
space allows always diagonalization in suitable coordinates, one can always find coordinates (E
1
, E
2
)
such that (f, E
1
, E
2
) form orthogonal coordinates for m
0
= constant hyperplane. Obviously one can
select the coordinates E
1
and E
2
in infinitely many manners.
3. Closer inspection of the conditions defining local light-cone coordinates
Whether the conformal transforms of the local light-cone coordinates ¦S
±
= m
0
±f(m
1
, m
2
, m
3
), E
i
¦
define the only possible compositions M
2
⊕E
2
with the required properties, remains an open question.
The best that one might hope is that any function S
+
defining a family of light-like curves defines a
local decomposition M
4
= M
2
⊕E
2
with required properties.
1. Suppose that S
+
and S

define light-like vector fields which are not orthogonal (proportional to
each other). Suppose that the polarization vector fields
i
= ∇E
i
tangential to local E
2
satisfy
the conditions
i
∇S
+
= 0. One can formally integrate the functions E
i
from these condition
sonce the initial values of E
i
are given at m
0
= constant slice.
2. The solution to the condition ∇S
+

i
= 0 is determined only modulo the replacement

i
→ˆ
i
=
i
+k∇S
+
,
where k is any function. With the choice
54 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
k = −
∇E
i
∇S

∇S
+
∇S

one can satisfy also the condition ˆ
i
∇S

= 0.
3. The requirement that also ˆ
i
is gradient is satisfied if the integrability condition
k = k(S
+
)
is satisfied: in this case ˆ
i
is obtained by a gauge transformation from
i
. The integrability
condition can be regarded as an additional, and obviously very strong, condition for S

once
S
+
and E
i
are known.
4. The problem boils down to that of finding local momentum and polarization directions defined
by the functions S
+
, S

and E
1
and E
2
satisfying the orthogonality and integrability conditions
(∇S
+
)
2
= (∇S

)
2
= 0 , ∇S
+
∇S

= 0 ,
∇S
+
∇E
i
= 0 ,
∇E
i
·∇S

∇S
+
·∇S

= k
i
(S
+
) .
The number of intebrability conditions is 3+3 (all derivatives of k
i
except the one with respect
to S
+
vanish): thus it seems that there are not much hopes of finding a solution unless some
discrete symmetry relating S
+
and S

eliminates the integrability conditions altogether.
A generalization of the spatial reflection f →−f working for the separable Hamilton Jacobi function
S
±
= m
0
±f ansatz could relate S
+
and S

to each other and trivialize the integrability conditions.
The symmetry transformation of M
4
+
must perform the permutation S
+
↔ S

, preserve the light-
likeness property, map E
2
to E
2
, and multiply the inner products between M
2
and E
2
vectors by a
mere conformal factor. This encourages the conjecture that all solutions are obtained by conformal
transformations from the solutions S
±
= m
0
±f.
4. General solution ansatz for MEs for given choice of local light-cone coordinates
Consider now the general solution ansatz assuming that a local wave-vector-polarization decom-
position of M
4
+
tangent space has been found.
1. Let E(S
+
, E
1
, E
2
) be an arbitrary function of its arguments: the gradient ∇E defines at each
point of E
2
an S
+
-dependent (and thus time dependent) polarization direction orthogonal to
the direction of local wave vector defined by ∇S
+
. Polarization vector depends on E
2
position
only.
2. The most general MEs correspond to the solution family of the field equations having the general
form
s
k
= f
k
(S
+
, E) ,
where s
k
denotes CP
2
coordinates and f
k
is an arbitrary function of S
+
and E. The solution
represents a wave propagating with light velocity and having definite S
+
dependent polarization
in the direction of ∇E. By replacing S
+
with S

one obtains a dual solution. Field equations
are satisfied because energy momentum tensor and K¨ahler current are light-like so that all tensor
contractions involved with the field equations vanish: the orthogonality of M
2
and E
2
is essential
for the light-likeness of energy momentum tensor and K¨ahler current.
3. The simplest solutions of the form S
±
= m
0
± m
3
, (E
1
, E
2
) = (m
1
, m
2
) and correspond to a
cylindrical MEs representing waves propagating in the direction of the cylinder axis with light
velocity and having polarization which depends on point (E
1
, E
2
) and S
+
(and thus time). For
these solutions four-momentum is light-like: for more general solutions this cannot be the case.
Polarization is in general case time dependent so that both linearly and circularly polarized
waves are possible. If m
3
varies in a finite range of length L, then ’free’ solution represents
geometrically a cylinder of length L moving with a light velocity. Of course, ends could be also
anchored to the emitting or absorbing space-time surfaces.
1.3. MEs and mes 55
4. For the general solution the cylinder is replaced by a three-dimensional family of light like
curves and in this case the rectilinear motion of the ends of the cylinder is replaced with a
curvilinear motion with light velocity unless the ends are anchored to emitting/absorbing space-
time surfaces. The non-rotational character of the velocity flow suggests that the freely moving
particle like 3-surface defined by ME cannot remain in a infinite spatial volume. The most
general ansatz for MEs should be useful in the intermediate and nearby regions of a radiating
object whereas in the far away region radiation solution is excepted to decompose to cylindrical
ray like MEs for which the function f(m
1
, m
2
, m
2
) is a linear linear function of m
i
.
1.3.2 About the electro-weak and color fields associated with massless ex-
tremals
Space-time sheets carrying em fields carry usually also Z
0
and W fields and it is not possible to speak
about em or Z
0
type MEs. It is however possible to speak about neutral and W MEs. The CP
2
projection of ME is 2-dimensional and in a special case it reduces to a geodesic sphere. There are two
kinds of geodesic spheres in CP
2
.
1. For space-time sheets for which CP
2
projection is r = ∞ homologically non-trivial geodesic
sphere of CP
2
one has
γ = (
3
4

sin
2

W
)
2
)Z
0
·
5Z
0
8
.
The induced W fields vanish in this case and they vanish also for all geodesic sphere obtained
by SU(3) rotation.
2. For homologically trivial geodesic sphere a standard representative is obtained by using for the
phase angles of standard complex CP
2
coordinates constant values. In this case induced em, Z
0
,
and K¨ahler fields vanish but induced W fields are non-vanishing. This holds also for surfaces
obtained by color rotation. Hence one can say that for non-vacuum extremals with 2-D CP
2
projection color rotations and weak symmetries commute.
The MEs corresponding to these two geodesic spheres could be called neutral and W MEs and
they carry color fields for which the color group SU(3) reduces to some of its U(1) subgroups. Quite
generally, the holonomy algebra of color group is Abelian since the induced color field is of the form
g
A
αβ
∝ H
A
J
αβ
, where H
A
denotes color Hamiltonian. Neutral MEs are excellent candidates for
mediating EEG type communications from the biological body to the magnetic body whereas charge
entanglement induced by W MEs would be ideal for the realization of motor actions of the magnetic
body.
MEs are excellent candidates for the space-time correlates of laser beams. Dark matter hierarchy
implies that also MEs can be classified by the level of the dark matter hierarchy involved. A very
general argument leads to the conclusion that dark space-time sheets, in particular MEs, at the k
th
level of the dark matter hierarchy correspond to space-time sheets defining λ
k
-fold coverings of M
4
(recall that one has (k) = λ
k

0
and λ · 2
11
) [C2, M3]. k = 0 MEs would correspond to the ordinary
laser light.
1.3.3 MEs as absorbing and emitting quantum antennae
How massless extremals generate coherent states of photons?
ME:s can be in ’dormant’ or active state according to whether the em current associated with the ME
is vanishing or not. In active state ME:s generate Bose Einstein condensate type state for ordinary
photons. This means in TGD context the emission of (topological) vapour phase photons (CP
2
type
extremals), which can condense on other condensate levels. ME:s generate gravitonic BE condensate
and the possible biological role of this condensate will be discussed later.
Assuming that the coupling of quantized photon field to the massless extremal is given by regarding
the massless extremal as a classical background field one obtains QED with a light like source J
α
:
56 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
D
β
F
αβ
= eJ
α
,
J
α
= Jk
α
. (1.3.2)
The system is equivalent with an infinite number of harmonic oscillators each driven by a harmonic
external force and a basic exercise in the quantum mechanics shows that the solutions of the field
equations give the new oscillator operators as sums of free oscillator operators plus c-number term,
which is essentially the Fourier component of the light like current in the direction of the polarization.
In the limit that ME has infinite duration and is a cylindrical structure of finite length L (that is
micro-tubule) one has for J ∝ sin(k
z
(t −z))
a

(p) → a

(p) +g(p) ,
g(p) =
¸
n
δ(p
0
, k
0
n
)K(p, k
n
)J(k
z
n
, p
T
) ,
K(p, k) = (p) k
1
i(p
z
−k
z
)
(exp(ip
z
L) −1) ,
k
n
= nk
0
=
n2π
L
(1, 1, 0, 0) . (1.3.3)
Here p denotes the momentum of the photon and k the 4-momentum associated with the Fourier
component of a light-like current. (p) denotes the polarization of the photon. J(k
z
n
, p
T
) is essentially
the 3-dimensional Fourier transform of the scalar function J. The infrared behavior of J(k
z
, p
T
) as a
function of the transversal momentum p
T
can be deduced from the fact that the transverse dimension
of the micro-tubule is small (about 25 nm) as compared to 1/p
T
so that the Fourier component is in
good approximation independent of p
T
.
For the frequencies present in the Fourier decomposition of the massless extremal, the ordinary
oscillator vacuum is transformed to a coherent state in the corresponding Fourier mode of the quantized
photon field. The essential point is that the wave vectors of the radiation field and massless extremal
are nonorthogonal. The radiation pattern resembles the ordinary antenna pattern associated with
an oscillating current J(t) = exp(iωt) in that the intensity of radiation vanishes at angles θ = π/2
and θ = 0. For J ∝ sin(k
z
(z − t)) [K[
2
has maxima for θ = 48.6 degrees and 131.4 degrees. For an
ordinary dipole with J = sin(ωt), ω = 2π/L the radiation pattern is concentrated at angles θ ≥ 40
degrees with maximum and 69.3 degrees and 110.7 degrees.
A more complicated situation corresponds to a group of several massless extremals (say micro-
tubules). If massless extremals are parallel and have same length the previous expression generalizes
with superposition of terms
g(p) →
¸
n
exp(iφ
n
)exp(ip
z
z
n
)exp(ip
T
x
T
)g
n
(p) . (1.3.4)
The phase φ
n
is the phase difference between n:th light like current with respect to some reference
current. If the positions of micro-tubules and/or phases of the individual light like currents are suitably
chosen then various terms interfere constructively and macroscopic quantum coherence is obtained
at resonant frequencies. Suffice it so say that the needed timing is extremely accurate: less than
10
−12
seconds! Since p
z
is small rather larger transversal distances are allowed by the requirement of
constructive interference. In a more general situation also the orientations of micro-tubules can vary
in certain limits. Note that light-like energy momentum generates also gravitonic BE condensates at
preferred frequencies.
Massless extremal is accompanied by a Bose-Einstein condensate of parallel photons
The interaction Lagrangian describing the interaction of photon field with the light-like vacuum cur-
rent does not couple to the photons collinear with the vacuum current (light-like wave vector has
vanishing length squared). Therefore the ground states of the system are degenerate since one can
1.3. MEs and mes 57
add to any coherent state generated by the vacuum current any number of photons collinear with the
vacuum current and topologically condensed inside the massless extremal. This means Bose-Einstein
condensation in collinear degrees of freedom.
Collinear Bose-Einstein condensates of photons are crucial for the model of the quantum correlates
of the sensory qualia. Sensory quale is characterized partially by the BE condensate of photons
associated with the massless extremal parallel to the axon. The existence of the BE condensate makes
possible induced emission. For instance, Josephson currents generate photons with frequencies which
are multiples of the Josephson frequency. If the potential difference in Josephson junction equals to
a multiple of the cyclotron frequency of some super conducting ion, the current flows resonantly in
the sense that Josephson current serves as a harmonic perturbation generating quantum jumps and
gives rise to a large dissipative current and also quantum jumps in either super conductor. Since the
emission rate for photons by the current is proportional to N
2
, where N is the number of photons
already in the state, the presence of the BE condensate of photons with this frequency amplifies the
emission rate. This kind of resonance mechanism is assumed in the model of sensory experience since
it elegantly explains why given neuron corresponds to single quale. Since the potential difference over
the Josephson junction can correspond to only single cyclotron frequency, the dominance of single
quale is unavoidable even when all macroscopic quantum phases are present.
The existing BE condensate increases the probability of topological condensation of coherent pho-
tons generated by other massless extremals to the massless extremal. This mechanism could provide
inter-neuronal communication mechanism and realize the metaphor about brain as a society of neu-
trons, the notion of neuronal window idea and also give a more precise content to the music metaphor.
In particular, neurons far away from each other could communicate using wavelengths in a narrow
wave length range by this mechanism.
The wave vectors of the photons are multiples of k = π/L. This means that the length of the
massless extremal correlates with the maximal allowed wavelength. For ELF photons associated with
EEG frequencies of order 10 Hz the length of massless extremal is of order Earth’s circumference.
This suggests that more general massless extremals with a topology of torus instead of linear topology
could characterize the topological field quanta of ELF fields. It is however impossible to say, whether
the field equations allow more general solutions resembling massless extremals.
1.3.4 Quantum holography and quantum information theory
Sokolov and collaborators [17] have proposed a model of quantum holographic teleportation in which
the classical photocurrents from the sender to receiver take the role of a dynamical hologram. The
connection with MEs is obvious.
1. MEs are carriers of classical light-like vacuum currents (one of the basic differences between
TGD and Maxwell theory). This suggests that MEs could be interpreted also as classical holo-
grams, which are dynamical as in quantum information theory. Light-like current would be like
a dynamical (four-dimensional) diffraction grating. Light-like vacuum currents and vacuum Ein-
stein tensor generate also coherent states of photons and gravitons and MEs serve as templates
for the topological condensation of photons and gravitons to the Bose-Einstein condensate of
photons collinear with ME. The Bose-Einstein condensation of collinear photons and their gen-
eralizations to colored configuration space photons should affect the vacuum current by adding
to the reference current what might be called evoked response. This condensation process could
generate conscious experience and higher level qualia. Thus it would seem that MEs have a
triple role as receiving and sending quantum antennae as well as classical holograms.
2. The proposal of [17] generalizes to the case of MEs provided one can device a method of coding
quantum states of photon field to the vacuum currents. The high efficiency photodetector matrix
is in which each pixel gives rise to a photocurrent [17], is replaced with ME or set of parallel MEs.
The neural window hypothesis [H4] states that neuronal axons are accompanied by parallel MEs
carrying information between sensory organs and brain and various parts of brain. This is only
a less standard manner to say that ME represents classical dynamical hologram. The possibility
of local light-cone coordinates allows also MEs which define curved deformations of the simplest
cylindrical MEs.
58 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
The concrete realization of holographic teleportation proposed in [17] brings strongly in mind
the architecture of the visual pathways. Thus one can wonder whether brain is perfoming in-
ternal teleportation of photonic quantum states with spike patterns being directly coded to the
pattern of the vacuum currents flowing along MEs. If spike patterns code the dynamical holo-
gram, a surprisingly close relationship with Pribram’s views about hologrammic brain results.
Nerve pulse patterns could be seen as specifying the necessary classical aspects of the quantum
teleportation (in TGD classical physics is essential part of quantum physics, rather than some
effective theory).
3. Vacuum current at a 3-dimensional time-like section of ME as a function function of time defines
a dynamical 3-dimensional hologram. This is consistent with the fact that our visual experience
is two-dimensional: the information is always about outer boundaries of the objects of the
perceptive field. The values of the vacuum current at a given point are non-deterministic which
means that vacuum current is ideal for coding information. Classical data also propagate without
dispersion with light velocity obeying the laws of geometric optics and MEs imply channelling
so that MEs are taylor-made for classical information transfer.
4. Space-time sheets can have both positive and negative time orientations and the sign of energy
depends on time orientation in TGD framework. This means that classical communication can
occur both in the direction of the geometric future and past: this is essential for the classical
model of the long term memories as a question communicated to the geometric past followed by
answer. The dynamical nature of the holograms means that there is no need to combine 2- or
3-dimensional holograms associated with several moments of geometric time to single hologram.
To remember is to perceive an object located in the geometric past. Of course, fractality might
make possible temporally scaled down versions of the geometric past but the principle would
remain the same.
5. Quantum hologram view suggests that the super-canonical representations at the light-like
boundaries of MEs characterized by gigantic almost-degeneracies are the real carriers of bi-
ological information. According to the general theory of qualia [K3] this information would
become conscious since elementary qualia would correspond to quantum jumps for which incre-
ments of the quantum numbers correspond to the quantum numbers labelling super-canonical
generators in the complement of Cartan algebra. In this view super-conducting magnetic flux
tubes could perhaps be seen as intermediate level in the control circuitry controlled by MEs and
controlling atomic level.
6. This picture leaves open whether there is a level controlling the thicknesses of the magnetic
flux tubes and thus also magnetic transition frequency scales, and what this level might be.
The entrainment of the endogenous frequencies to exogenous frequencies [K5] explains water
memory and the effects of homeopathic remedies [47] and could make possible also endogenous
NMR spectroscopy and chemical senses. The key to the puzzle might be a purely mathematical
problem: how the boundary conditions at the boundaries of the magnetic flux tubes can be
satisfied? It might be that the induced metric must become degenerate at the boundaries (

g =
0) implying a degeneracy of the induced metric at the boundary of the magnetic space-time sheet.
This need not however mean that the M
4
+
projection of the boundary is a light-like surface:
the projection could well be completely static. This supports the view that the boundaries
do not carry super-canonical representations, which are associated with the imbedding space
projection of the boundary rather than the boundary itself. One can imagine that ME with
the same transversal section as magnetic flux tube is glued to the magnetic flux tube along
this section: this kind of gluing results in a singular 4-surface analogous to the vertex region
of Feynmann diagram and somekind of smoothing-out procedure is needed. The smoothed-out
vertex region would make possible for ME to control magnetic flux tube thickness by varying
its own transversal thickness.
MEs as quantum holograms in the sense of quantum gravitation
Quantum holography principle naturally generalizes to an approximate principle expected to hold true
also in non-cosmological length and time scales.
1.3. MEs and mes 59
1. The most general ansatz for MEs (inspired by the quantum holographic thinking) relies on
the introduction of the notion of local light-cone coordinates S
+
, S

, E
1
, E
2
. The gradients
∇S
+
and ∇S

define two light-like directions just like Hamilton Jacobi functions define the
direction of propagation of wave in geometric optics. The two polarization vectori fields ∇E
1
and ∇E
2
are orthogonal to the direction of propagation defined by either S
+
or S

. Since
also E
1
and E
2
can be chosen to be orthogonal, the metric of M
4
+
can be written locally as
ds
2
= g
+−
dS
+
dS

+g
11
dE
2
1
+g
22
dE
2
2
. In the earlier ansatz S
+
and S

where restricted to the
variables k m and
˜
k m, where k and
˜
k correspond to light-like momentum and its mirror image
and m denotes linear M
4
coordinates: these MEs describe cylindrical structures with constant
direction of wave propagation expected to be most important in regions faraway from the source
of radiation.
2. Boundary conditions are satisfied if the 3-dimensional boundaries of MEs have one light-like di-
rection (S
+
or S

is constant). This means that the boundary of ME has metric dimension d = 2
and is characterized by an infinite-dimensional super-canonical and super-conformal symmetries
just like the boundary of the imbedding space M
4
+
CP
2
: The boundaries are like moments for
mini big bangs (in TGD based fractal cosmology big bang is actually replaced with what might
be called a silent whisper amplified to not necessarily so big bang). Quantum holography would
mean that effectively 2-dimensional conformal field theory at the boundary of M
4
+
region deter-
mined by ME determines what happens in the interior at QFT limit when space-time surface is
not regarded as a dynamical object.
3. These observations inspire the conjecture that boundary conditions for M
4
like space-time sheets
fixed by the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action quite generally require that space-time
boundaries correspond to light-like 3-surfaces with metric dimension equal to d = 2. Quantum
holography principle would state that the dynamics related to the metric of the configuration
space, that is genuine quantum gravitation, would reduce to the boundaries of space-time sheets.
The dynamics in zero modes and quaternion conformal degrees of freedom crucial for elementary
particle physics would not however allow this kind of reduction. This would be consistent with
the fractality which is expected to be a basic characteristic of the quantum critical Universe
predicted by TGD. The approximate super-canonical and conformal symmetries would be asso-
ciated with the light-like boundaries of the space-time sheets. Super-canonical invariance would
be broken only by quantum gravitational effects at the level of the configuration space by the
fact that the boundaries of space-time surfaces are actually dynamical rather than fixed. The
cosmological light-cone boundary would be however non-dynamical and this would guarantee
the exactness of the cosmological super-canonical invariance.
More concrete view about MEs as holograms
Sokolov and collaborators [17] have proposed a model of quantum holographic teleportation in which
the classical photocurrents from the sender to receiver take the role of a dynamical hologram. The
connection with MEs is obvious.
1. MEs are carriers of classical light-like vacuum currents (one of the basic differences between
TGD and Maxwell theory). This suggests that MEs could be interpreted also as classical holo-
grams, which are dynamical as in quantum information theory. Light-like current would be like
a dynamical (four-dimensional) diffraction grating. Light-like vacuum currents and vacuum Ein-
stein tensor generate also coherent states of photons and gravitons and MEs serve as templates
for the topological condensation of photons and gravitons to the Bose-Einstein condensate of
photons collinear with ME. The Bose-Einstein condensation of collinear photons and their gen-
eralizations to colored configuration space photons should affect the vacuum current by adding
to the reference current what might be called evoked response. This condensation process could
generate conscious experience and higher level qualia. Thus it would seem that MEs have a
triple role as receiving and sending quantum antennae as well as classical holograms.
2. The proposal of [17] generalizes to the case of MEs provided one can device a method of coding
quantum states of photon field to the vacuum currents. The high efficiency photodetector matrix
is in which each pixel gives rise to a photocurrent [17], is replaced with ME or set of parallel MEs.
60 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
The neural window hypothesis [H4] states that neuronal axons are accompanied by parallel MEs
carrying information between sensory organs and brain and various parts of brain. This is only
a less standard manner to say that ME represents classical dynamical hologram. The possibility
of local light-cone coordinates allows also MEs which define curved deformations of the simplest
cylindrical MEs.
The concrete realization of holographic teleportation proposed in [17] brings strongly in mind
the architecture of the visual pathways. Thus one can wonder whether brain is perfoming in-
ternal teleportation of photonic quantum states with spike patterns being directly coded to the
pattern of the vacuum currents flowing along MEs. If spike patterns code the dynamical holo-
gram, a surprisingly close relationship with Pribram’s views about hologrammic brain results.
Nerve pulse patterns could be seen as specifying the necessary classical aspects of the quantum
teleportation (in TGD classical physics is essential part of quantum physics, rather than some
effective theory).
3. Vacuum current at a 3-dimensional time-like section of ME as a function function of time defines
a dynamical 3-dimensional hologram. This is consistent with the fact that our visual experience
is two-dimensional: the information is always about outer boundaries of the objects of the
perceptive field. The values of the vacuum current at a given point are non-deterministic which
means that vacuum current is ideal for coding information. Classical data also propagate without
dispersion with light velocity obeying the laws of geometric optics and MEs imply channelling
so that MEs are taylor-made for classical information transfer.
4. Space-time sheets can have both positive and negative time orientations and the sign of energy
depends on time orientation in TGD framework. This means that classical communication can
occur both in the direction of the geometric future and past: this is essential for the classical
model of the long term memories as a question commmunicated to the geometric past followed
by answe. The dynamical nature of the holograms means that there is no need to combine 2- or
3-dimensional holograms associated with several moments of geometric time to single hologram.
To remember is to perceive an object located in the geometric past. Of course, fractality might
make possible temporally scaled down versions of the geometric past but the principle would
remain the same.
5. Quantum hologram view suggests that the super-canonical representations at the light-like
boundaries of MEs characterized by gigantic almost-degeneracies are the real carriers of bi-
ological information. According to the general theory of qualia [K3] this information would
become conscious since elementary qualia would correspond to quantum jumps for which incre-
ments of the quantum numbers correspond to the quantum numbers labelling super-canonical
generators in the complement of Cartan algebra. In this view super-conducting magnetic flux
tubes could perhaps be seen as intermediate level in the control circuitry controlled by MEs and
controlling atomic level.
6. This picture leaves open whether there is a level controlling the thicknesses of the magnetic flux
tubes and thus also magnetic transition frequency scales, and what this level might be. The
entrainment of the endogenous frequencies to exogenous frequencies explains water memory
and the effects of homeopathic remedies [47], and could make possible also endogenous NMR
spectroscopy and chemical senses. The key to the puzzle might be a purely mathematical
problem: how the boundary conditions at the boundaries of the magnetic flux tubes can be
satisfied? It might be that the induced metric must become degenerate at the boundaries (

g =
0) implying a degeneracy of the induced metric at the boundary of the magnetic space-time sheet.
This need not however mean that the M
4
+
projection of the boundary is a light-like surface:
the projection could well be completely static. This supports the view that the boundaries
do not carry super-canonical representations, which are associated with the imbedding space
projection of the boundary rather than the boundary itself. One can imagine that ME with
the same transversal section as magnetic flux tube is glued to the magnetic flux tube along
this section: this kind of gluing results in a singular 4-surface analogous to the vertex region
of Feynmann diagram and somekind of smoothing-out procedure is needed. The smoothed-out
vertex region would make possible for ME to control magnetic flux tube thickness by varying
its own transversal thickness.
1.3. MEs and mes 61
MEs and super-canonical and super-conformal symmetries
TGD predicts two kinds of super-conformal symmetries [E2]. Quaternion conformal symmetries corre-
spond to the gauge symmetries of fundamental interactions. Cosmological super-canonical symmetries
act on the boundary of light-cone and are cosmological symmetries.
The non-determinism of K¨ahler action however implies that the light-like M
4
+
projections of light-
like boundaries of MEs take the role of the boundary of future light-cone as quantum holograms and
super-canonical symmetry becomes ordinary macroscopic symmetry. Thus there is a fractal hierarchy
of quantum holograms inside quantum holograms. One can identify the light-like boundaries of MEs
as geometric correlates for selves. Also space-like selves are very probably needed and magnetic flux
tube structures could represent them. Indeed, the non-determinism of CP
2
type extremals represent-
ing elementary particles (their M
4
+
projections are random light-like curves) makes it impossible to
characterize the quantum state completely by the data on the light-like boundaries of MEs.
MEs are natural carriers of super-canonical representations obtained by multiplying ordinary phys-
ical states by configuration space Hamiltonians (functions of CP
2
coordinates and coordinates E
1
, E
2
and S
+
or S

which can obviously be arranged into irreducible representations of the color group
SU(3)) and define an excellent candidate for a hierarchy of higher level life forms. The intuitive
belief that quantum gravitation is crucial for higher level consciousness can be indeed justified in this
framework: the ’worlds about worlds’ aspect of higher level consciousness is what requires genuine
quantum gravitational states.
The boundary of ME having one light-like direction gives rise to conformal quantum hologram
representing quantum correlation functions for quantum field theory defined in the interior of ME.
This 3-dimensional dynamical quantum hologram should code for conscious information about external
world. This information could be determined by coherent light and gravitons scattered from the outer
boundaries of other space-time sheets and could provide a quantum representation for the geometry
of the boundaries of the other space-time sheets.
Super-canonical degrees of freedom makes MEs ideal candidates for the correlates of higher level
consciousness.
1. The states of super-canonical representations have gigantic almost-degeneracies broken only by
non-commutativity of super-canonical and Poincare symmetries which means huge information
storage capacities. Super-canonical representations can be realized in real context using Bose
Einstein condensates of massless elementary particles on MEs. Super-canonical representations
correspond to genuine quantum gravitational effects since wave functionals in the space of three-
surfaces are involved: space-time ceases to be a passive arena of quantum dynamics. In fact,
canonical transformations of CP
2
are approximate symmetries of the theory broken only by
classical gravitation. The notion of ’configuration space photon’ having nontrivial dependence
on configuration space degrees of freedom characterized by Hamiltonian suggests strongly itself
and seems to be crucial for understanding of the visual colors.
2. Super-canonical representations have universal transition frequency spectrum given as multiples
of the fundamental frequency determined by the length of ME. If one assumes that MEs have
lengths given by p-adic length scale hypothesis, fundamental frequencies turn out to correspond
to important resonance frequencies in EEG.
For these reasons super-canonical representations are ideal candidates for an infinite hierarchy of life
forms associated with MEs. The great vision is that MEs and magnetic super-conductors associated
with the magnetic flux tube structures form a fractal hierarchy interacting with the ordinary bio-
matter via the classical gauge fields associated with MEs [K3, M3, M4, M5].
The standard manner to see the evolution of organism is as an initial value problem with data
given at time=constant space-like section of Minkowski space. This view is definitely wrong in TGD
framework, where the classical non-determinism of K¨ahler action is absolutely essential for the un-
derstanding of bio-systems and consciousness. Rather, one should see the problem as a boundary
value problem with data given at light-like surfaces bounding MEs analogous to light-cone boundary
identifiable as the moment of big bang. This view conforms nicely with the active intentional aspects
of the biological evolution: system can decide what it will be and life is more like a narrative with
definite goals than random Brownian zigzag curve. The life cycle of the organism is specified by posing
some requirements which it must satisfy in the form of boundary conditions and organism does it best
to satisfy them.
62 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
Mechanism for generation of configuration space photons
The super-canonical representations should have some interaction mechanism with ordinary matter,
if they are to be important for life. In particular, a mechanism making MEs to emit and absorb
configuration space photons coupling to em charge, should exist. There are good reasons to expect
that direct couplings between exotic super-canonical states and ordinary elementary particles are
very weak. The quantum number L
0
= n defined by the Virasoro generator L
0
= zd/dz (complex
scaling) acting effectively as Hamiltonian in string diagrams is conserved in vertices. For matter
representations massless ground states correspond have scaling quantum number n = n
0
, where n
0
defines the negative value of the vacuum weight. It must be emphasized that for super-canonical
representations L
0
does not seem to allow the interpretation as mass squared operator as in the case
of quaternion conformal representations. The vertices in which L
0
= O(p
k
) state emits ordinary
particle correspond to np
k
↔(np
k
−m
0
) +(m
0
). The intermediate state is with L
0
= np
k
−m
0
is has
ultralarge scaling quantum number so that the amplitude is suppressed by a huge propagator factor.
The processes involving only L
0
= O(p
k
) states are however not suppressed.
The interaction of the exotic super-canonical states with the classical gauge fields associated with
MEs provides a unique mechanism of ’matter-mind interaction’. The vanishing of the vacuum weight
of Super Virasoro is very much analogous to the vanishing of the Higgs vacuum expectation value
in ordinary gauge theories. Indeed, the exotic super-canonical representations have unbroken gauge
symmetries, which means that electro-weak and color interactions occur like in symmetry-nonbroken
unconfined gauge theory. The presence of long range classical color and electro-weak gauge fields
implying unbroken symmetries at classical level is important part of the story.
MEs have already at the space-time level symmetries supporting the view that super-canonical
algebra acts as isometry algebra of the configuration space.
First, canonical transformations of E
2
CP
2
, where E
2
is plane orthogonal to the light-like wave
vector k associated with ME, are symmetries of MEs. Also canonical transformations made local with
respect to the light-like coordinate u and coordinate variable v orthogonal to u are also symmetries.
Secondly, arbitrary dependence on the variable u is equivalent with the invariance with respect to
hypercomplex analytic transformations
x +ey →f(x +ey) ,
e
2
= 1 .
where f is arbitrary function. These transformations obey Lie-algebra which is essentially identical
with the Virasoro algebra spanned by the infinitesimal holomorphic transformations.
The general interaction Hamiltonian for this interaction can be guessed by recognizing the following
facts.
1. Interaction Hamiltonian should have the general current-vector potential form
H
int
=
¸
D

G
A
µ
(D)J

(x[D)

g
4
d
4
x ,
where sum is over the representations D of color group defined by color Hamiltonians and
where G
A
(D) represents analog of the classical gluon field associated with a particular color
representation. In the case of color octet representation G
A
µ
(”8”) represents classical gluon field
and is simply the projection of the Killing vector field of the color isometry to the space-time
surface. The obvious generalization is that also in general case the vector field defined by the
color transformation defines the classical gluon field. J

(x[D) is the local current defined as
the superposition of canonical generators continued to a function of space-time coordinates.
2. The construction of a local current defined on entire space-time surface having super canonical
generator as conserved charge is highly nontrivial task. It should be based on the observation
that for ME there is a unique decomposition of M
4
tangent space to M
4
= M
2
E
2
such
that E
2
is space-like plane orthogonal to the light-like wave vector k associated with ME. Let u
denote the coordinate
u = k m .
1.3. MEs and mes 63
The task is to continue the canonical generator localized with respect to the radial coordinate of
the light-cone boundary to a function in entire M
4
+
. A possible manner to do this is to multiply
the generator by a plane wave
exp(i2πf(u −u
0
)) ,
where u denotes the restriction of the coordinate u to the light-cone boundary
u
0
= u
|δM
4
+
.
The task is to fix the physical identification of the ME frequency. It turns out that interpretation
as energy is the most plausible identification.
It might well be that only classical color fields define interaction vertices leading to the generation
of configuration space photons. If this is the case the octet representation for configuration space
photons would have a unique role. This would explain why visual colors, which can be identified
as counterparts of the charged Hamiltonians associated with configuration space photons, are in a
special role. Furthermore, MEs have always 2-dimensional CP
2
projection and carry classical color
fields and currents restricted to U(1) sub-algebra of color algebra, which need not be however color
neutral. This implies that only particular configuration space photon and its conjugate are emitted
and that only single color is created by the BE condensation of configuration space photons generated
by a particular ME on other MEs.
1.3.5 MEs and quantum control
MEs and classical de-coherence
TGD approach inspires the idea that classical de-coherence corresponds to the decomposition of a
space-time sheet carrying superposition of em fields to separate space-time sheets carrying the em
fields appearing in the superposition. Since em fields live at different space-time sheets, interference
effects are indeed absent which means de-coherence. A more precise and rather far reaching form of
this hypothesis is that classical em field is unstable against decomposition to MEs. This mechanism
allows to understand what might happen when amplitude modulated em field acts with living matter
in the experiments of Blackman [34].
The extreme nonlinearity of the dynamics of absolute miminization of K¨ahler action implies that
ELF modulated radio frequency field induces also em field component with modulating ELF frequency.
If classical de-coherence generates MEs then classical amplitude modulated em fields leads to the
generation of a large number of MEs at various frequencies and directions of wave vector. For instance,
modulation frequency and carrier frequency could correspond to different MEs glued to each other
by ’wormhole contacts’. Classical de-coherence and geometrically realized Fourier analysis would
be the geometric and classical counterparts for field quantization reflecting the fact that absolute
minimization of K¨ahler action implies that space-time surfaces are analogous to Bohr orbits.
MEs and conscious holograms
The notion of conscious hologram is much more practical than the concept of quantum gravitational
hologram and generalizes the notion of ordinary hologram by fusing it with the notion of self [29].
Universe is an extremely complex fractal Feynmann diagram with lines replaced by 4-dimensional
space-time sheets and MEs are particular kinds of lines analogous to photon lines. These lines are
like laser beams, which interfere in the vertices of the Feynmann diagram: vertices correspond to
material space-time sheets, atoms, molecules, ..., cells, ... The 3-D hologram vision corresponds at
the level of conscious hologram stereo consciousness resulting when the mental images associated with
different points of the hologram fuse to single mental image by quantum entanglement involving also
the sharing of mental images.
An important piece of the picture is fact that MEs appear as pairs of high frequency and low
frequency MEs. The low frequency MEs serve as correlates for remote quantum entanglement, now
between different parts of brain. High frequency MEs travel like massless particles along the bridges
defined by the low frequency MEs and serve as bridges between different space-time sheets at the
64 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
receiving end. This induces a leakage of ions between different space-time sheets, breaking of super-
conductivity and dissipative self-organization: this process which is analogous to the formation of
hologram, is responsible for homeostasis and metabolism and gives rise to many-sheeted ionic flow
equilibrium. Also many-sheeted lasers acting in a very wide range of frequencies become possible.
The frequencies correspond to differences for the energies of ions at the space-time sheets involved.
MEs parallel to axons can also act as Josephson junctions connecting space-time sheets which can
correspond to different p-adic primes.
Phase conjugate laser beams have as their counterpart negative energy MEs and negative energy
photons resulting in time reversal. The time reversal for the dissipation induced by super current
leakage seems also to be a key mechanism of bio-control. This leads to the working hypothesis that
negative energy MEs are responsible for motor control whereas positive energy MEs are involved with
perception and cognition: motor action is time reversed sensory perception in appropriate p-adic
time scale. Among other things negative energy MEs make possible emission of negative energies
making possible buy now-pay later (or let others pay) mechanism and thus extreme flexibility of
energy economy.
Many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium controlled by MEs
A crucial empirical ingredient supporting the view about a hierarchy of magnetic super-conductors
are the puzzling observations of cell biology (for a summary see the first chapter of [67]) challenging
the association of ionic channels and pumps to cell membrane. The paradoxes disappear if cell and
its exterior are assumed to be in a many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium with ionic currents flowing
from super-conducting space-time sheets to atomic space-time sheets and back, so that the densities of
ions at atomic space-time sheets are controlled by the the very small densities and quantized currents
of dark ions at super-conducting magnetic flux tube space-time sheets and coding the information
about homeostasis of bio-matter [J3]. Also a reason why for liquid crystal and electret properties of
bio-matter emerges and one can understand the function of electric circuitry associated with body
[47].
In this picture ionic channels and pumps would play the role of sensors detecting the concentrations
of various ions and membrane voltages. The dominant part of the ionic currents would flow between cell
interior and exterior as (possibly dark) supra currents and would dissipate very little. The dominant
part of the metabolic energy would be used to build-up of dark EEG with photon energies above
thermal threshold. Also negative dark W MEs responsible for motor actions would suck metabolic
energy.
W MEs connecting magnetic body and biological body can induce charge entanglement by super-
position of pairs of exotically ionized states with opposite exotic charges. State function reduction
then selects either of the resulting states. Exotic ionization generates dark plasma oscillations which
induce by Faraday law electric fields at the space-time sheets of the ordinary matter. The resulting
ohmic currents in turn realize the control action on the ordinary matter (nerve pulse patterns, Ca
2+
waves, etc...).
Neutral MEs can induce supra currents in super-conducting magnetic circuits by magnetic in-
duction mechanism, serve as Josephson junctions between magnetic flux tubes, and induce magnetic
quantum phase transitions. MEs can generate reference waves or their phase conjugates (time rever-
sals) acting on lower level MEs serving as dynamical holograms. The induced coherent light pattern
and its phase conjugate could act as a control command and its time reversed version. Conjugate
reference waves provide an extremely simple mechanism of healing by time reversal allowing the living
matter to fight against second law.
MEs could ”read” DNA strand to the light-like vacuum current by moving along it and thus
code DNA strand/conjugate strand to a hologram or its phase conjugate in turn acting as a control
command or its time reversal. ELF MEs could do the same at the level of axons: instead of DNA
sequences nerve pulse patterns would be read now. Thus living matter could be regarded as a symbiosis
in which MEs control super-conducting magnetic flux tubes controlling ordinary matter at atomic
space-time sheets via many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium. DNA would represent the ROM of this
system.
What makes this so interesting is that MEs are at the highest level of quantum control in the TGD
based view about bio-system as a symbiosis in which MEs control super-conducting magnetic flux tubes
controlling ordinary matter at atomic space-time sheets via many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium. The
1.3. MEs and mes 65
coherent light pattern emitted by ME resulting from the interaction of ME with the reference wave
(its phase conjugate) could act as a control command (time reversed control command) inducing
process (time reversed process). Conjugate reference waves would thus provide an incredibly simple
and general mechanism of healing by time reversal allowing the living matter to fight against second
law. This would be like a general initiating a war by just nodding or shaking his head.
The formation of the phase conjugates could occur completely routinely and explain also why DNA
appears in double strands. ME could read DNA strand to the pulse pattern of the light-like vacuum
current by moving along the strand and thus code DNA strand (conjugate strand) to a hologram (its
phase conjugate) in turn acting as a control command (its time reversal). ELF MEs could do the same
at the level of axons: instead of DNA sequences nerve pulse patterns would be read now. DNA would
clearly represent the ROM of this system. The coding of proteins would thus not be the only function
related to DNA: DNA would be for the cell society what the first written laws were for human society,
and the presence of the conjugate strand would make possible a systematic self repair at the cellular
level by time reversal. More detailed considerations along these lines, in particular some empirical
evidence for the hologrammic realization of the genetic code in terms of light-like vacuum currents,
are represented in [H8].
MEs as Josephson junctions?
MEs can induce Josephson junctions between bio-structures. Since the electric field of ME is orthog-
onal to the direction of the propagation of vacuum current, the Josephson junction with potential
difference is formed most naturally when super conductors are joined by join along boundaries bonds
to ME in the direction of the electric field associated with ME. MEs can in principle be arbitrary thin
so that the thickness of Josephson junction can be much smaller than the dominating wavelength of
ME.
ME electric field can contain also constant component. In this case is however ME is necessary
double sheeted since constant electric field is created by wormhole throats on boundaries of ME serving
as effective charges. These MEs could give rise to the Josephson junctions with constant potential
difference. An attractive hypothesis is that these ME pairs have opposite time orientations so that
total energy of ME pair can vanish and can be created from vacuum without any energy cost. Clearly,
these structures are cognitive in the strong sense of the word.
This coding of the transversal potential difference associated with ME pair to Josephson frequency
is expected to be fundamental information coding mechanism in living matter. ME pair can contain
also oscillating electric field over Josephson junction at magnetic or some other transition frequency
so that MEs are ideal for control purposes.
MEs and the interaction of the classical em fields with bio-matter
MEs acting as Josephson junctions and containing oscillating em field at ELF frequency give rise to a
harmonic perturbation inducing quantum jumps of the magnetic states of ions and explains the effect
of ELF em fields on bio-matter. Also the presence of the mysterious intensity windows [43, 34, 44]
can be understood. Josephson current paradigm allows to understand this effect if RF or MW MEs
associated with the external field act as Josephson junctions.
1. The external electric field oscillating with frequency ω (now radio frequency) defines slowly
varying potential difference over Josephson junction of length d acting as Josephson junction
provided that the condition
ω <ω
J
(max) = ZeV = ZeEd
holds true. This gives
d
ω
ZeE
.
For E ∼ .1 V/m and ω ∼ GHz which are typical values used in experiments [34], this condition
gives d 10
−6
meters which is satisfied if Josephson junctions have size not smaller than cell
length scale.
66 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
2. For fixed length of Josephson junction amplitude window results if the maximal Josephson
frequency ω
J
(max) is slightly above some transition frequency since in this case the stationary
maxima and minima of amplitude lead to long lasting resonant excitation of quantum transitions.
Denoting the relative width of the resonance by ∆ω/ω = P, the ratio of the time spent in
resonance at Ω
J
(max) to the time spent off resonance at Ω
J
is of order
t(max)
t

1 −

2
J

2
J
(max)

1

P
.
For a narrow resonance width this ratio can be very large so that amplitude window results for
fixed value of d.
3. Amplitude window results if there is a correlation between the thickness of ME and transversal
electric field so that ω
J
(max) = ZeEd(E) satisfies resonance condition for some values of E
only, if any. In absence of this correlation Josephson junctions must have discrete spectrum of
effective lengths for amplitude window to result.
4. For electric fields in the range .1 V/m the frequencies ω
J
are above GHz for d larger than
3 10
−5
meters and correspond to the frequencies for the conformational dynamics of proteins.
There are obviously a large number of frequencies of this kind and several intensity windows.
EM fields with these strengths should have special effects on living matter: it could be even
that some kind of feature recognition process involving self-organization occurs at these field
strengths. Note that the minimal size of Josephson junctions corresponds to the p-adic length
scale L(173) · 1.6 10
−5
meters characterizing structures next to cells in the p-adic length
scale hierarchy.
The interaction of MEs with super-conducting magnetic flux tubes
The interaction of brain with MEs could mean that the super-conducting magnetic fluxtube circuitry
associated with brain effectively acts as magnetometer somewhat in the same way as SQUID magne-
tometer measures the magnetic fields generated by brain. The resulting conceptual framework makes
it easier to develop a quantum level model for the generation of nerve pulse and for the interaction of
MEs and bio-super-conductors in terms of Josephson currents and super currents and relying on the
notion of stochastic resonance.
Brain could measure the magnetic fields of MEs by using a mechanism which is very much like
the mechanism of SQUID based magnetometers [18] used to measure the magnetic fields induced by
brain.
1. A large collecting circuit in which the magnetic field of ME generates a compensating current
by the quantization of the magnetic flux might be involved.
2. The amplification of this field could be achieved if the circuit contains a part which is spiral like
and contains large number of loops in a small area.
3. In the core region the current flowing in the loop gives rise to an amplified magnetic field which in
turn can penetrate into a super-conductor in form of flux tubes and in multiples of flux quantum.
By counting the number of flux quanta one obtains rough measure for the magnetic field. In
the case of brain the quantized magnetic flux would directly affect the state of neurons and the
model for the generation of nerve pulse specifies this interaction. This effect on neurons would
be long lasting as compared with the short-lasting action induced by the nerve pulse patterns.
4. The deviation of the flux of the amplified magnetic field from an integer number of flux quanta
could be measured by a neuronal counterpart of SQUID, which basically consists of a closed loop
decomposing to two parts which are joined together by insulator so that current rapidly dissipates
to a minimum value forced by the flux quantization. The current in SQUID serves as a measure
for very weak magnetic fields of MEs. The non-linear dynamics of SQUID allows also stochastic
resonance allowing to amplify very weak periodic signals. This measurement mechanism might
be interpreted as a mechanism of interaction between super-conducting magnetic flux tubes and
neuronal circuits inducing also an interaction between MEs and neuronal circuits. One might
1.3. MEs and mes 67
guess that nerve pulse generation might involve this kind of mechanism: stochastic resonance
seems to be indeed involved but not in this manner.
The collecting circuits for the neuronal SQUIDs could be of order body size or even larger. In
[K3] I have proposed the notion of magnetic circulation analogous to blood circulation to be a basic
control system in bio-systems. This circulation could be seen also as a collecting circuitry for magnetic
flux amplified in brain, where amplifying and SQUID type components of the circuitry are located.
Amplifying and SQUID type parts of the circuitry might be also located in other organs like heart:
perhaps even muscles contain amplifying circuits and neuronal SQUIDs. One cannot exclude the
possibility of much larger collecting circuits making possible the control of the organism by the higher
levels of self hierarchy.
The spiral loops used in SQUIDs to amplify the magnetic field bring in mind the spiral structures
associated with the self-organizing excitable media [49]. I have proposed in [I4, I5] that spiral structures
might in TGD framework correspond to magnetic or Z
0
magnetic flux tubes which enter along the
first space-time sheet to the vertex of the spiral structure, flow to the second space-time sheet, and
return along the spiral loop. These spiral loops could be also ionic em or Z
0
super-conductors. This
kind of spiral loop might perhaps serve as an amplifier of the magnetic flux generated by the super
current flowing along the loop.
Very general empirical inputs [67] in dramatic conflict with the standard vision about what home-
ostasis between cell interior and exterior means, lead naturally to a model in which the interaction of
MEs with neuron occurs via magnetic induction mechanism leading also to the generation of nerve
pulses. The notion of flow equilibrium in the many-sheeted space-time is essentially involved. The
mechanism can also involve stochastic resonance as a means of transforming the oscillatory motion of
the gravitational pendulum serving as an analog system to a rotational motion. The necessary noise
could correspond to the noisy part of the super current perhaps induced by the incoming nerve pulses.
Genetic code and color?
It is gradually becoming clear that the possibility of classical color gauge fields, the center of mass color
degrees of freedom of space-time sheets analogous to rigid body degrees of freedom, and configuration
space color might have deep implications for the understanding of living matter and consciousness.
Colored MEs, or what what might be called configuration space photons, are one possible candidate
for colored particles involved with the realization of color vision. They might be also an essential
element of bio-control using the analogs of laser beams and there phase conjugates to represent control
commands and their time reversals. This raises the question whether color might relate somehow with
the realization of genetic code. The following speculations are just first speculations but might help
to open gates of imagination.
1. Minimal translation of the genetic code to holograms
Configuration space photons represent genuinely quantum gravitational states, state functionals in
the ’world of worlds’, and thus they should correspond to highest level of self hierarchy and perform
quantum control. Since color and polarization represented as angular momentum component in di-
rection of ME characterize configuration space dependence, they could play a fundamental role in the
control mechanism and control commands represented by quantum holograms should be characterized
by a collection of these quantum numbers. In particular, genetic code might be expressible in terms
of these basic quantum numbers.
There is a thought provoking connection with the TGD based model of genetic code predicting
entire hierarchy of genetic codes.
1. At the first interesting level one has 4 nucleotides corresponding to 2
2
= 4 mutually consistent
statements in the set of 7 = 2
3
−1 statements coded by 3 bits and one statement thrown away.
2. DNA triplets correspond to the subset of 2
6
= 64 mutually consistent statements of 2
7
−1 = 127
statements coded by 7 bits with one statement thrown away. At the next level one has 2
127
−1
statements and the number of the mutually consistent statements is 2
126
= 2
6×21
. It is not an
accident that 126 decomposes into the product of numbers 6 and 21, where 21 is the number of
different aminoacids with stopping sign counted formally as an aminoacid.
68 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
What makes the bell ringing is the appearance of the number 6 = 3 + 3 primary colors and their
conjugates. Could the number of nucleotides in the DNA triplet and its conjugate somehow correspond
to the 3 primary colors and their complementary colors somehow? Note that also the 2-dimensional
configuration spin is involved, and has two symmetry-related values J and −J (configuration space
spin should be responsible for polarization sense). How could this correspondence be consistent with
the idea about MEs generating coherent states of configuration space photons having configuration
space color and spin and acting as control commands?
Consider first a minimal model in which, somewhat disappointingly, color is not necessarily needed.
1. The proposal of Gariaev and collaborators that DNA can be effectively regarded as a static
sequence of laser mirrors [52] suggests a concrete guess for the coding of genes to sequences of
MEs. In TGD framework laser mirrors could correspond to transversal MEs associated with
DNA nucleotides. The requirement that two orthogonal polarizations are possible, implies that
there must be a pair of mutually orthogonal MEs associated with each nucleotide and orthogonal
to the DNA strand.
2. Configuration space spin of ME, which is 2-dimensional spin, is either J or −J so that 22 = 4
spin combinations (±J, ±J) are possible for the pair of MEs. The four nucleotides A,C,T,G
naturally code for these spin configurations and the reversal of spin orientations corresponds
naturally to the conjugations A ↔T, C ↔G conjugations. Clearly, this model does not require
color.
2. How color could emerge in the translation of the genetic code to holograms?
Color does not code for anything in the minimal model of the genetic code, and one could realize
the genetic code using non-colored configuration space photons having only polarization degree of
freedom or even ordinary polarized coherent light. There are some motivations for color however.
Each hologrammic command should have time reversed version giving rise to the phase conjugate
command. Color and spin conjugation is a very natural manner to represent this operation. The
conjugate hologram is naturally associated with the conjugate DNA strand. This observation allows
to considerably generalize the model by only requiring that MEs correspond to any of the six basic
colors and that complementary nucleotides correspond to conjugate colors. This option raises the
possibility that DNA code words, genes or some other sub-units of DNA strands could define color
singlets. This would obviously provide a very elegant manner to decompose genetic text to subunits.
A more general, and perhaps more plausible, manner to decompose genetic text to subunits is as
tensor products of unentangled and irreducible color representations.
This option however allows the possibility that genetic codewords are self conjugate. What if one
excludes this possibility? It is possible to exclude the possibility of self conjugate commands by using
3+3 decomposition of color algebra corresponding to colors and complementary colors. The pairs of
MEs associated with the subsequent nucleotides could be assumed to correspond to, say, (red, blue,
white) in this order so that the conjugate strand corresponds to (green, yellow, black). In fact, the
ordering of the colors is not essential since spin states of MEs code for the information. At quantum
level the requirement that three colors are different would boil down to the requirement that there is
complete asymmetry with respect to the permutations of the colors of three parallel MEs. Note that
in this case the color quantum numbers of the DNA strand or its complementary strand cannot sum
up to zero.
Note that the three different colors for the subsequent nucleotides might make possible that the
corresponding control commands act on different MEs, which could be MEs associated with DNA
itself.
3. Color confinement and bio-control
If color is really there, it must have some crucially important function besides making it possible
to define time reversals of the control commands and decomposition of DNA to unentangle linguistic
subunits. A good guess is that color confinement is involved with this function very intimately. Color
confinement in the length scale of DNA MEs requires color neutrality in this length scale. DNA strand
and its conjugate, even triplet and its conjugate, can give rise to a color singlet state but this is not
possible if only the MEs associated with DNA strand are activated. In this case color confinement
requires that somewhere else another colored state is activated so that the resulting overall state is
1.3. MEs and mes 69
color singlet. Thus long range correlations in the length scale of MEs perhaps crucial for biological
self organization are unavoidable.
The work of Gariaev and collaborators is based on effects associated with visible laser light interact-
ing with DNA. This encourages to think that the lengths of DNA MEs should be of order E−7−E−6
meters. This conforms with the idea that genes should directly control the functioning of the cell or
at least the cell nucleus. Note that genes might be regarded as longitudinally color entangled portions
of DNA acting. Configuration space color entanglement in length scale of chromosome and nucleus
could obviously be possible. If this picture is correct, color confinement would be much more, that an
eternal nuisance of elementary particle theorist.
4. Also memetic codewords could be coded to holograms
One can imagine also the translation of the memetic code to a sequence of orthogonal ME pairs.
The 621 = 126 bits for the maximal number of mutually consistent statements of the memetic code
decompose into a sequence of 21 6-bit sequences interpreted as statements consisting of 21 words.
Each 6-bit sequence consisting of three 2-bit units in turn is in one-one correspondence with a DNA
triplet. Each 2-bit unit would code for the configuration space spins ±J for a a pair of orthogonal
MEs possibly forming an antisymmetrized triplet of the basic colors. The duration of the memetic
codeword corresponds to the secondary p-adic time scale T
2
(M
127
) = .1 seconds so that by Uncertainty
Principle memetic code could imply long range color correlations in the length scale of Earth. ELF
MEs propagating in phase with the nerve pulse sequence (this is essential and explains why ELF MEs
must scan the cortex!) could translate the memetic codewords represented by the sequences of the
cognitive neutrino pairs to quantum holograms.
1.3.6 Experimental evidence for MEs
There is indeed evidence for the presence of MEs in bio-system. In CASYS’2000 conference Peter
Marcer reviewed the work done by him in collaboration with Russian group [52] led by Peter Gariaev
providing experimental evidence for the hypothesis that DNA acts as a receiving and sending quantum
antenna. What was observed that irradiation of DNA with visible laser light induced emission of co-
herent light with both visible and radio frequencies. The emitted radiation was also modulated in time
scale of about .01 seconds. The modulation could be due to propagation of soliton sequences prop-
agating along Josephson junction formed by the strands of DNA or due to nonpropagating spatially
constant Josephson current: both cases are mathematically equivalent with gravitational pendulum.
Phantom DNA effect [53] has explanation in terms of mind like space-time sheets identifiable as MEs.
The experiments of Russian group replicated the observations of Poponin.
With inspiration coming from the experimental results, Gariaev has also suggested that DNA
is accompanied by a sequence of some kind of laser mirrors. TGD suggests their interpretation as
MEs [52]. The assumption that each nucleotide is accompanied by an orthogonal pair of MEs (two
orthogonal polarizations) allows a holographic realization of the genetic code. Four nucleotides are
mapped to four pairs of values of the configuration spin ±J in the simplest realization [K3]. Color
degrees of freedom would bring in the long term correlations forced by color confinement in the length
scale of DNA ME, which should be of order of wavelength of visible light, and thus forcing structures
of this size to behave like coherent units.
The bio-photons of Popp [45] could correspond to coherent photons generated by MEs. Home-
opathy could also have explanation in terms of MEs coding relevant frequency information to MEs
about medicine, whose effect is also based on MEs [J5]. MEs would simply mimic the medicine. There
are well documented effects related to the ability of water to absorb and transmit frequencies [59].
The ability of water to absorb and transmit frequencies could rely on the generation of mind like
space-time sheets, most naturally MEs, oscillating with the same frequency as stimulus. Water would
form cognitive representation for the stimulus, mimic it, in terms of light-like vacuum current giving
rise to classical em or Z
0
field providing nonlike hologram like representation for the stimulus.
MEs are predicted to form a scale invariant family and quite recent cosmological data provides
support for MEs in cosmological(!) length scales [19]. An intense beam of photons with energies of
roughly 100 proton masses from a blazar at distance of about 10
8
light years have been observed.
Blazar is so called gamma ray burster producing extremely intense energy fluxes in form of two jets.
How these jets are produced is mystery of its own in standard physics. In TGD these jets correspond to
the ends of cosmic string decaying like a cosmic firecracker into ordinary matter giving rise to galaxies.
70 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
What makes observation ’impossible’ is that photons with these energies should never reach Earth
but lose their energy via scattering with cosmic microwaves background. Somehow these photons are
however able to defy laws of standard physics. One TGD based model for phenomenon is very simple:
photons are Bose-Einstein condensed on and travel, not along material space-time sheet were energy
would be rapidly lost, but along ’massless extremal’ (ME) of cosmic size scale. Cosmic laser beam is
in question. One can also consider the possibility that the light-like vacuum current associated with
cosmic ME generates the observed photons.
The general model for quantum control and coordination relies crucially on the existence of a
hierarchy of superconductors associated with the self hierarchy (self defined as a quantum system
able to avoid bound state entanglement with environment) controlling the ionic densities at atomic
space-time sheets via many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium and being quantum controlled with the
mediation of the fractal hierarchy of MEs.
1.4 Bio-systems as superconductors
TGD Universe provides also the hardware for the realization of bio-system, in particular brain, as a
macroscopic quantum system involving various kinds of super conductors. The essential elements are
quantum criticality, spin glass analogy and generalization of the space-time concept and TGD based
gauge field concept.
1.4.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity
The many-sheeted space-time concept provides a very general mechanism of superconductivity based
on the ’dropping’ of charged particles from atomic space-time sheets to larger space-time sheets.
The first guess was that larger space-time sheets are very dry, cool and silent so that the necessary
conditions for the formation of high T
c
macroscopic quantum phases are met.
The possibility of large quantum coherent phases makes however the assumption about thermal
isolation between space-time sheets un-necessary. At larger space-time sheet the interactions of the
charged particles with classical em fields generated by various wormhole contacts feeding gauge fluxes
to and from the space-time sheet in question give rise to the necessary gap energy. The simplest
model for Cooper pair is space-time sheet containing charged particles having attractive Coulombic
interaction with the quarks and antiquarks associated with the throats of the wormhole contacts.
A crucial element is quantum criticality predicting that superconductivity appears at the fluctuat-
ing boundaries of competing ordinary and large phases for nuclei. This assumption predicts several
anomalous phenomena such as cold fusion and nuclear transmutations. Also high T
c
superfluidity of
bosonic atoms dropped to space-time sheets of electronic Cooper pairs becomes possible besides ionic
super conductivity. Even dark neutrino superconductivity can be considered below the weak length
scale of scaled down weak bosons.
Magnetic and Z
0
magnetic flux tubes and walls are especially interesting candidates for supra
current carries. In this case the Cooper pairs must have spin one and this is indeed possible for
wormholy Cooper pairs. The fact that the critical magnetic (Z
0
magnetic) fields can be very weak
or large values of is in accordance with the idea that various almost topological quantum numbers
characterizing induced magnetic fields provide a storage mechanism of bio-information.
This mechanism is extremely general and works for electrons, protons, ions and even charged
molecules so that an entire zoo of high T
c
bio-superconductors and super-fluids is predicted. All
atoms and ions can be regarded as completely ionized Z
0
ions and also Z
0
superconductors (or super
fluids) are predicted.
1. The experimental data about the effects of ELF em fields at cyclotron frequencies of various ions
in Earth’s magnetic field on bio-systems [33] provide support for this scenario. Most remarkably,
the cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions correspond to the important frequencies
of EEG and the time scale of nerve pulse corresponds to n = 3 multiple of proton cyclotron
frequency so that a direct quantitative contact with brain consciousness results.
2. Electronic super conductors are of type II with defect regions being typically cylindrical: DNA
sequences, proteins, microtubules,... could provide examples of the defect regions. One ends up
also with a model of high T
c
super conductors in which the interaction of the electrons with
1.4. Bio-systems as superconductors 71
wormhole BE condensate gives rise to Cooper pairs. The model explains elegantly the basic
peculiar features of the high T
c
superconductors.
3. Long ranged Z
0
force due to anomalous weak isospin of nuclei [F8, F10] and Z
0
charged worm-
holes make possible also Z
0
ionic superconductivity and even dark neutrino super conductivity.
For instance, Z
0
ionic superconductivity is crucial in the model for the quantum correlate of
hearing: audible frequencies are mapped to Z
0
cyclotron frequencies. Dark neutrino super con-
ductors are of type I in the interesting length scale range and defect regions are stripe like.
Besides cell and endoplasma membranes, epithelial sheets consisting of two cell layers and some
larger structures in cortex could correspond to regions of this kind and the interpretation as a
physical realization of cognitive hierarchy suggests itself.
1.4.2 Superconductivity at magnetic flux quanta in astrophysical length
scales
Magnetic flux tubes of endogenous magnetic field B
end
= 2B
E
/5 = .2 Gauss, where B
E
= .5 Gauss is
the nominal value of the Earth’s magnetic field, are crucial for the TGD based model of superconduc-
tivity. Since the models of auroras assume that the magnetic flux lines act effectively as conducting
wires, the natural hypothesis is that superconductivity is an astrophysical phenomenon. This leads to
a model of auroras explaining the latest findings and providing further insights to the superconduc-
tivity and the manner how it breaks down. Critical temperature can be identified as the temperature
at which the join along boundaries bonds making possible the leakage of the supra currents to the
non-superconducting space-time sheets become possible and can be gigantic as compared to the tem-
perature at the superconducting space-time sheets if space-time sheets are thermally isolated. On
the other hand, the possibility of large phases in principle makes possible arbitrarily high critical
temperatures in a given length scale.
p-Adic length scale hierarchy and the hierarchy of dark matters labelled by values of suggest
the existence of an entire hierarchy of super conducting space-time sheets giving rise to a hierarchy
of cognitive representations (abstractions about abstractions about...). The possibility of complex
conformal weights expressible in terms of zeros of Riemann Zeta such that the net conformal weight
is real, and the hierarchy of algebraic extensions of p-adic number fields suggest the existence of
additional hierarchies.
1.4.3 Fractal hierarchy of EEGs and ZEGs
There are three contributions to EEG besides neural noise: Schumann frequencies, cyclotron frequen-
cies, and the frequencies associated with Josephson junctions determined by the sum of the constant
voltage and voltage perturbation determined by the superposition of cyclotron frequencies. Cyclotron
contribution can be interpreted as a control signal from a magnetic body in question labelled by k
d
and affects both the ions at the flux sheets traversing DNA and the Josephson junction. The coherent
state of photons generated by Josephson current corresponds to a reaction to this signal received by
the magnetic body as a feedback. Schumann frequencies can be assigned to the control by magnetic
body of Earth and correlate with the collective aspects of consciousness.
The analysis of the Josephson current [M3] leads to the conclusion that the frequencies in the
coherent state of photons are in general sums and differences of Josephson frequency and harmonics
of cyclotron frequencies. For small amplitudes this implies that alpha band to which the cyclotron
frequencies most biologically important bosonic ions corresponds has as satellites theta and beta bands.
Higher harmonics correspond to gamma and higher bands having also satellites. For large amplitudes
EEG becomes chaotic which is indeed the property of beta band during say intense concentration or
anxiety. The findings of Nunez [38] about narrow 1-2 Hz wide bands at 3,5,7 Hz and 13,15,17 Hz
confirm with the prediction of satellite bands and fix the Josephson frequency to 5 Hz. This picture
explains the general characteristics of EEG in wake-up state qualitatively and quantitatively.
In order to understand the characteristics during various stages of deep sleep one must assume that
the cyclotron frequency scale of ions is scaled down by a factor of 1/2. One explanation is that right
resp. left brain hemisphere corresponds to Z = 2 resp. Z = 1 quantization condition Z

BdS = n
for the magnetic flux. Z = 2 case allows only doubly charged bosonic ions at magnetic flux sheets.
Z = 1 case also also singly charged ions be their bosons or fermions and for this option magnetic field
72 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
is scaled down by a factor of 1/2. The alternative explanation is that during sleep only Bose-Einstein
condensates of singly charged exotic ions resulting when color bond inside nucleus becomes charged
are present. This reduces the scale of cyclotron frequencies by a factor 1/2 and leaves only theta and
delta bands. During stage 4 sleep only only DNA cyclotron frequencies in delta band are around 1
Hz and just above the thermal threshold are predicted to be present. For k
d
= 3 and magnetic field
scaled up by λ and flux tube area scaled down by λ
−2
DNA frequencies are scaled up to kHz for Z = 2
flux quantization and might define neuronal synchronization frequencies.
The generalization of the model for EEG hierarchy to the case of ZEG is straightforward and
cyclotron frequency spectrum is essentially the same [M3]. Z
0
ions are obtained when nuclear color
bonds become charged and the combination of ordinary and exotic ionization can produce also em
neutral Z
0
ions. Any atom, almost always boson, has an exotically charged counterpart with same
statistics so that very rich spectrum of Bose-Einstein condensates results.
1.4.4 TGD assigns 10 Hz biorhythm to electron as an intrinsic frequency
scale
p-Adic coupling constant evolution and origins of p-adic length scale hypothesis have remained for a
long time poorly understood. The progress made in the understanding of the S-matrix of the theory
(or rather, its generalization M-matrix) [C3] has however changed the situation. The unexpected
prediction is that zero energy ontology assigns to elementary particles macroscopic times scales. In
particular, the time scale assignable to electron correspond to the fundamental biorhythm of 10 Hz.
M-matrix and coupling constant evolution
The final breakthrough in the understanding of p-adic coupling constant evolution came through the
understanding of S-matrix, or actually M-matrix defining entanglement coefficients between positive
and negative energy parts of zero energy states in zero energy ontology [C3]. M-matrix has interpreta-
tion as a ”complex square root” of density matrix and thus provides a unification of thermodynamics
and quantum theory. S-matrix is analogous to the phase of Schr¨odinger amplitude multiplying positive
and real square root of density matrix analogous to modulus of Schr¨odinger amplitude.
The notion of finite measurement resolution realized in terms of inclusions of von Neumann al-
gebras allows to demonstrate that the irreducible components of M-matrix are unique and possesses
huge symmetries in the sense that the hermitian elements of included factor ^ ⊂ ´ defining the
measurement resolution act as symmetries of M-matrix, which suggests a connection with integrable
quantum field theories.
It is also possible to understand coupling constant evolution as a discretized evolution associated
with time scales T
n
, which come as octaves of a fundamental time scale: T
n
= 2
n
T
0
. Number theoretic
universality requires that renormalized coupling constants are rational or at most algebraic numbers
and this is achieved by this discretization since the logarithms of discretized mass scale appearing in
the expressions of renormalized coupling constants reduce to the form log(2
n
) = nlog(2) and with
a proper choice of the coefficient of logarithm log(2) dependence disappears so that rational number
results.
p-Adic coupling constant evolution
Could the time scale hierarchy T
n
= 2
n
T
0
defining hierarchy of measurement resolutions in time
variable induce p-adic coupling constant evolution and explain why p-adic length scales correspond to
L
p


pR, p · 2
k
, R CP
2
length scale? This looks attractive but there is a problem. p-Adic length
scales come as powers of

2 rather than 2 and the strongly favored values of k are primes and thus
odd so that n = k/2 would be half odd integer. This problem can be solved.
1. The observation that the distance traveled by a Brownian particle during time t satisfies r
2
= Dt
suggests a solution to the problem. p-Adic thermodynamics applies because the partonic 3-
surfaces X
2
are as 2-D dynamical systems random apart from light-likeness of their orbit. For
CP
2
type vacuum extremals the situation reduces to that for a one-dimensional random light-like
curve in M
4
. The orbits of Brownian particle would now correspond to light-like geodesics γ
3
at
X
3
. The projection of γ
3
to a time=constant section X
2
⊂ X
3
would define the 2-D path γ
2
of
1.4. Bio-systems as superconductors 73
the Brownian particle. The M
4
distance r between the end points of γ
2
would be given r
2
= Dt.
The favored values of t would correspond to T
n
= 2
n
T
0
(the full light-like geodesic). p-Adic
length scales would result as L
2
(k) = DT(k) = D2
k
T
0
for D = R
2
/T
0
. Since only CP
2
scale is
available as a fundamental scale, one would have T
0
= R and D = R and L
2
(k) = T(k)R.
2. p-Adic primes near powers of 2 would be in preferred position. p-Adic time scale would not relate
to the p-adic length scale via T
p
= L
p
/c as assumed implicitly earlier but via T
p
= L
2
p
/R
0
=

pL
p
, which corresponds to secondary p-adic length scale. For instance, in the case of electron
with p = M
127
one would have T
127
= .1 second which defines a fundamental biological rhythm.
Neutrinos with mass around .1 eV would correspond to L(169) · 5 µm (size of a small cell) and
T(169) · 1. 10
4
years. A deep connection between elementary particle physics and biology
becomes highly suggestive.
3. In the proposed picture the p-adic prime p · 2
k
would characterize the thermodynamics of the
random motion of light-like geodesics of X
3
so that p-adic prime p would indeed be an inherent
property of X
3
.
4. The fundamental role of 2-adicity suggests that the fundamental coupling constant evolution
and p-adic mass calculations could be formulated also in terms of 2-adic thermodynamics. With
a suitable definition of the canonical identification used to map 2-adic mass squared values to
real numbers this is possible, and the differences between 2-adic and p-adic thermodynamics
are extremely small for large values of for p · 2
k
. 2-adic temperature must be chosen to be
T
2
= 1/k whereas p-adic temperature is T
p
= 1 for fermions. If the canonical identification is
defined as
¸
n≥0
b
n
2
n

¸
m≥1
2
−m+1
¸
(k−1)m≤n<km
b
n
2
n
.
It maps all 2-adic integers n < 2
k
to themselves and the predictions are essentially same as for
p-adic thermodynamics. For large values of p · 2
k
2-adic real thermodynamics with T
R
= 1/k
gives essentially the same results as the 2-adic one in the lowest order so that the interpretation
in terms of effective 2-adic/p-adic topology is possible.
p-Adic length scale hypothesis and biology
The basic implication of zero energy ontology is the formula T(k) · 2
k/2
L(k)/c = L(2, k)/c. This
would be the analog of E = hf in quantum mechanics and together hierarchy of Planck constants
would imply direct connection between elementary particle physics and macroscopic physics. Espe-
cially important this connection would be in macroscopic quantum systems, say for Bose Einstein
condensates of Cooper pairs, whose signature the rhythms with T(k) as period would be. The pres-
ence of this kind of rhythms might even allow to deduce the existence of Bose-Einstein condensates
of hitherto unknown particles.
1. For electron one has T(k) = .1 seconds which defines the fundamental f
e
= 10 Hz bio-rhythm
appearing as a peak frequency in alpha band. This could be seen as a direct evidence for a Bose-
Einstein condensate of Cooper pairs of high T
c
super-conductivity. That transition to ”creative”
states of mind involving transition to resonance in alpha band might be seen as evidence for
formation of large BE condensates of electron Cooper pairs.
2. TGD based model for atomic nucleus [F9] predicts that nucleons are connected by flux tubes
having at their ends light quarks and anti-quarks with masses not too far from electron mass.
The corresponding p-adic frequencies f
q
= 2
k
f
e
could serve as a biological signature of exotic
quarks connecting nucleons to nuclear strings . k
q
= 118 suggested by nuclear string model
would give f
q
= 2
18
f
e
= 26.2 Hz. Schumann resonances are around 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and
33.8 Hz and f
q
is not too far from 27.3 Hz Schumann resonance and the cyclotron frequency
f
c
(
11
B
+
) = 27.3 Hz for B = .2 Gauss explaining the effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate
brain.
74 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
3. For a given T(k) the harmonics of the fundamental frequency f = 1/T(k) are predicted as special
time scales. Also resonance like phenomena might present. In the case of cyclotron frequencies
they would favor values of magnetic field for which the resonance condition is achieved. The
magnetic field which in case of electron gives cyclotron frequency equal to 10 Hz is B
e
· 3.03 nT.
For ion with charge Z and mass number A the magnetic field would be B
I
=
A
Z
(m
p
/m
e
)B
e
. The
B = .2 Gauss magnetic field explaining the findings about effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate
brain is near to B
I
for ions with f
c
alpha band. Hence the value of B could be understood in
terms of resonance with electronic B-E condensate.
4. The hierarchy of Planck constants predicts additional time scales T(k). The prediction depends
on the strength of the additional assumptions made. One could have scales of form nT(k)/m
with m labeling the levels of hierarchy. m = 1 would give integers multiples of T(k). Integers n
could correspond to ruler and compass integers expressible as products of first powers of Fermat
primes and power of 2. There are only four known Fermat primes so that one has n = 2
n
¸
i
F
i
,
F
i
∈ ¦3, 5, 17, 257, 2
16
+1¦. In the first approximation only 3- and 5- and 17-multiples of 2-adic
length scales would result besides 2-adic length scales. In more general case products m
1
m
2
and
ratios m
1
/m
2
of ruler and compass integers and their inverses 1/m
1
m
2
and m
2
m
1
are possible.
5. Mersenne primes are expected to define the most important fundamental p-adic time scales.
The list of real and Gaussian (complex) Mersennes M
n
possibly relevant for biology is given by
n=89, 107, 113

, 127, 151

,157

, 163

, 167

(’

’ tells that Gaussian Mersenne is in question).
n 89 107 113 127
f/Hz 2.7 10
12
1.0 10
7
1.6 10
5
10
n 151 157 163 167
T 19.4 d 3.40 y 218.0 y 3.49 10
3
y
(1.4.1)
1.5 Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and
plasmoids as primitive life forms
In the following the evidence for many-sheeted space-time will be discussed.
1.5.1 Evidence for many-sheeted space-time
The dropping of particle to a larger space-time sheet liberates energy which is the difference of the
energies of the particle at two space-time sheets. If the interaction energy of the particle with the
matter at space-time sheet can be neglected the energy is just the difference of zero point kinetic
energies. This energy depends on the details of the geometry of the space-time sheet. Assuming
p-adic length scale hypothesis the general formula for the zero point kinetic energy can be written as
E(k) = x E
0
(k) , E
0
(k) =
3
2
π
2
mL
2
(k)
.
Here x is a numerical factor taking into account the geometry of the space-time sheet and equals to
x = 1 for cubic geometry.
The liberated zero point kinetic energy in the case that the particle drops to a space-time sheet
labelled by k
f
= k + ∆k with same value of x is
∆E(k, ∆k) = x E
0
(k) (1 −2
−∆k
) .
The transitions are seen as discrete lines for some resolution ∆k ≤ ∆k
max
. At the limit k → ∞
transitions give rise to a quasicontinuous band. The photon energy for k → ∞ transition is same as
the energy from k −1 →k transition, which brings in additional option to the model building.
For a proton dropping from the atomic space-time sheet k = 137 to very large space-time sheet
(∆k → ∞) one has ∆E(k) = E(k) ∼ x .5 eV. Since the ratio of electron and proton masses is
m
p
/m
e
· .94 2
11
, the dropping of electron from space-time sheet k
e
= k
p
+ 11 liberates zero point
kinetic energy which is by is by a factor .9196 smaller. For k
p
= 137 one would have k
e
= 148.
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 75
This energy corresponds to the metabolic energy currency of living systems and the idea is that the
differences of zero point kinetic energies define universal metabolic energy currencies present already
in the metabolism of pre-biotic systems. In the following fit electron’s zero point kinetic energy will be
taken to be E
0
(148) = .5 eV so that for proton the zero point kinetic energy would be E
0
(137) = .544
eV.
The hypothesis predicts the existence of anomalous lines in the spectrum of infrared photons.
Also fractally scaled up and scaled down variants of these lines obtained by scaling by powers of 2 are
predicted. The wavelength corresponding to .5 eV photon would be λ = 2.48 µm. These lines should
be detectable both in laboratory and astrophysical systems and might even serve as a signature for
a primitive metabolism. One can also consider dropping of Cooper pairs in which case zero point
kinetic energy is scaled down by a factor of 1/2.
Interestingly, the spectrum of diffuse interstellar medium exhibits three poorly understood struc-
tures [28]: Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs), Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) [29], and Extended
Red Emission (ERE) [30] allowing an interpretation in terms of dropping of protons or electrons
(or their Cooper pairs) to larger space-time sheets. The model also suggests the interpretation of
bio-photons in terms of generalizes EREs.
Unidentified Infrared Bands
Unidentified infrared bands (UIBs) contain strong bands at λ = 3.3, 6.2, 11.3 microns [28]. The best
fit for the values of k and ∆k assuming dropping of either electron or proton are given by the following
table. The last row of the table gives the ratio of predicted photon energy to the energy characterizing
the band and assuming x = 1 and E
0
(148, e) = .5 eV. Discrepancies are below 8 per cent. Also the
dropping of protonic Cooper pair from k = 137 space-time sheet could reproduce the line ∆E = .2
eV. The fit is quite satisfactory although there is of course the uncertainty related to the geometric
parameter x.
λ/nm E/.5eV k ∆k ∆E(k, ∆k)/E p/e
3300 .7515 137 ∼ ∞ 1.002 e
6200 .4000 138 3 1.067 e
11300 .2195 139 3 0.878 p
11300 .2195 139+11=150 3 1.076 e
Table 1. Table gives the best fit for UIBs assuming that they result from dropping of proton or
electron to a larger space-time sheet and one has E
0
(148, e) = .5 eV. The fourth column the table
gives the ratio of predicted photon energy to the energy characterizing the band and assuming x = 1.
e/p tells whether electron or proton is in question.
According to [28], UIBs are detected along a large number of interstellar sight-lines covering a
wide range of excitation conditions. Recent laboratory IR spectra of neutral and positively charged
poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been successfully used by Allamandola [23] to model
the observed UIBs. It is believed that PAHs are produced in reactions involving photosynthesis and
are regarded as predecessors of biotic life [22]. This would conform with the presence of metabolic
energy quanta.
DNA sugar backbone, some aminoacids, and various hallucinogens involve 5- and 6-cycles and
the proposal is that these cycles involve free electron pairs, which possess Planck constant = n
0
,
n = 5, 6. These free electron pairs would explain the anomalous conductivity of DNA and would be
an essential characteristic of living matter. The emergence of n = 5, 6 levels could be seen as the first
step in the pre-biotic evolution.
Diffuse Interstellar Bands
There are diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at wavelengths 578.0 and 579.7 nanometers and also at
628.4, 661.4 and 443.0 nm. The 443.0 nm DIB is particularly broad at about 1.2 nm across - typical
intrinsic stellar absorption features are 0.1 nm [28]. The following table proposes a possible identifi-
cation of these lines in terms of differences of zero point kinetic energies. Also now the best fit has
errors below 7 per cent.
76 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
λ/nm E/.5eV k ∆k ∆E(k, ∆k)/E p/e
628.4 3.947 135 = 3
3
5 ∼ ∞ 0.987 p
661.4 3.750 135 + 11 = 2 73 3 0.985 e
443.0 5.598 134 = 2 67 2 0.933 p
578.0 4.291 135 + 11 = 2 73 ∼ ∞ 0.986 e
579.7 4.278 135 + 11 = 2 73 ∼ ∞ 0.984 e
Table 2. Table gives the best fit for DIBs assuming that they result from dropping of proton or
electron to a larger space-time sheet. Notations are same as in the previous table.
The peak wavelengths in chlorophyll and photosynthesis are around 650 nm and 450 nm and would
correspond to second and third row of the table.
The Extended Red Emission
The Extended Red Emission (ERE) [28, 30] is a broad unstructured emission band with width about
80 nm and located between 540 and 900 nm. The large variety of peak wavelength of the band is
its characteristic feature. In majority of cases the peak is observed in the range 650-750 nm but
also the range 610-750 nm appears. ERE has been observed in a wide variety of dusty astronomical
environments. The necessary conditions for its appearance is illumination by UV photons with energies
E ≥ 7.25 eV from source with T ≥ 10
4
K. The position of the peak depends on the distance from the
source [30].
According to [28] the current interpretation attributes ERE to a luminescence originating from
some dust component of the ISM, powered by UV/visible photons. Various carbonaceous compounds
seem to provide a good fit to the observational constraints. However, the real nature of ERE is still
unknown since most candidates seem to be unable to simultaneously match the spectral distribution
of ERE and the required photon conversion efficiency.
1. Consider first the band 650-750 nm appearing in the majority of cases. The most natural
interpretation is that the lower end of the band corresponds to the zero point kinetic energy of
electron at k = 135+11 = 146 = 273 space-time sheet. This would mean that the lines would
accumulate near 650 nm and obey the period doubling formula
λ(k) −λ(∞)
λ(∞)
=
2
−k
1 −2
−k
.
By the estimate of Table 2 the lower end should correspond to λ = 628.4 nm with a correction
factor x < 1 reducing the zero point kinetic energy. The reduction would be smaller than 4 per
cent. ∆k = 3 transition would correspond to 744 nm quite near to the upper end of the band.
For ∆k = 2 transition one has λ = 867 nm not to far from the upper end 900 nm. ∆k = 1
corresponds to 1.3 µm.
2. For proton with k = 135 = 146 the energy band would shift by the factor 2
11
m
e
/m
p
· 1.0874
giving the range (598,690) nm.
3. The variation for the position of the peak can be understood if the charged particles at the
smaller space-time sheet can have excess energy liberated in the dropping to the larger space-
time sheet. This excess energy would determine the position of the lower end of the band in the
range (540, 650) nm.
4. One should also understand the role of UV photons with energy larger than 7.25 eV. For proton
the energy would be 8.76 eV. For proton the energy would be 8.76 eV. UV photon with energy
E ≥ 8 eV could kick electrons from large space-time sheets to k = 144 = 146−4 space-time sheet
where they have zero point kinetic energy of 8 eV plus possible additional energy (for proton
the energy would be 8.76 eV). One possibility is that these electrons drop first to k = 145
by the emission of ∼ 4 eV UV photon and then to k = 144 by the emission ∼ 2 eV photon
corresponding to 650 nm line. The further dropping to larger space-time sheets would produce
besides this line also the lines with longer wavelengths in the band.
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 77
The energy of UV photons brings in mind the bond energy 7.36 eV of N
2
molecule and the
possibility of metabolic mechanism using UV light as metabolic energy and based on the disso-
ciation of N
2
followed by re-association liberating metabolic energy kicking protons or electrons
to a smaller space-time sheet. For the k → k + 3 transition of electron the energy would be 7
eV which suggests that this transition defines important metabolic energy quantum for living
interstellar dust using dissociation and its reversal as basic metabolic mechanism.
1.5.2 Laboratory evidence for plasmoids as life forms
From dust to dust
The article From Plasma crystals and helical structures towards inorganic living matter of Tsytovich
et al in August issue of New Journal of Physics provides new empirical support for plasmoids as living
life forms. The results of article suggest that interstellar dust could behave like living matter in some
respects: it could even have variant of genetic code. This is a really shattering finding and with single
blow destroys the standard dogma about life as something purely chemical. It should also give also
some headaches for those influental colleagues who have decided that it is necessary to accept the
anthropic principle. Here is little popularization of the result.
SCIENTISTS have discovered that inorganic material can take on the characteristics of living
organisms in space, a development that could transform views of alien life.
An international panel from the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Max Planck institute in Ger-
many and the University of Sydney found that galactic dust could form spontaneously into helixes and
double helixes and that the inorganic creations had memory and the power to reproduce themselves.
A similar rethinking of prospective alien life is being undertaken by the National Research Council,
an advisory body to the US government. It says Nasa should start a search for what it describes as
weird life - organisms that lack DNA or other molecules found in life on Earth.
The new research, to be published this week in the New Journal of Physics, found nonorganic
dust, when held in the form of plasma in zero gravity, formed the helical structures found in DNA.
The particles are held together by electromagnetic forces that the scientists say could contain a code
comparable to the genetic information held in organic matter. It appeared that this code could be
transferred to the next generation.
Professor Greg Morfill, of the Max Planck institute of extra-terrestrial physics, said: Going by our
current narrow definitions of what life is, it qualifies.
The question now is to see if it can evolve to become intelligent. Its a little bit like science fiction
at the moment. The potential level of complexity we are looking at is of an amoeba or a plant.
I do not believe that the systems we are talking about are life as we know it. We need to define the
criteria for what we think of as life much more clearly.
It may be that science is starting to study territory already explored by science fiction. The televi-
sion series The X-Files, for example, has featured life in the form of a silicon-based parasitic spore.
The Max Planck experiments were conducted in zero gravity conditions in Germany and on the
International Space Station 200 miles above earth.
The findings have provoked speculation that the helix could be a common structure that underpins
all life, organic and nonorganic.
To sum up the essentials, plasma phase is involved and the dust life is able to construct analogs
of DNA double helices and this has been achieved also in laboratory. ”From dust to dust” seems to
have a very deep side meaning!
Here is a more quantitative summary of the results reported in [111].
1. The scale of the dust balls seems to be few micrometers. It is essential that the system is open
in the sense that there is both metabolic energy feed and continual feed of plasma to negatively
charged dust particles to preserve their charges. Authors speak about effective ”gravitational”
instability as a mechanism leading to the formation of the helices and identify effective gravi-
tational coupling (the formula contains a trivial typo) as a function of charge and mass of the
particle plus dimensionless parameter characterizing the modification of Debye model implied
by the fact that dust particles are not electrically closed systems. Authors give a long list of
life-like properties possessed by the helical structures.
78 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
2. Helical structures are generated spontaneously and possess negative charges. The repulsion
of the helical structures transforms to attraction at some critical distance interval due to the
fact that the large electrostatic self energy depends on the distance between helices and this
makes possible double helices (authors speak about over-screening in the formal model). Similar
mechanism might work also in the case of ordinary DNA double helices whose stability is poorly
understood since also in this case the large negative charge could be preserved by continual feed
of charge.
3. The twist angle of the helix makes bifurcations as a function of radius of helix and the values of
twist angle could define the letters of genetic code. Also a mechanism for how the twist angle is
communicated to neighboring helix is proposed. Also dust vortices are observed and might be
those which one can occasionally observe during hot summer days.
4. Authors do not mention magnetic fields but my guess is that the helical structures reflect directly
the geometry of the helical magnetic flux tubes, and that dark electron pairs with large Planck
constant at these tubes might be the quantal aspect of the system. These currents might relate
closely to the plasma current, which charges the dust particles. Also DNA, which is insulator, is
known to be able to act as conductor, and here the free electron pairs associated with aromatic
rings having = n hbar
0
, n = 5 or 6, could make conduction possible since their Compton
size would be n-fold.
Elephant trunks in astrophysics
TGD Universe is fractal and this means that the visible structures are formed around magnetic flux
quanta containing dark matter with large hbar appear in all length scales and have geometric patterns
reflecting the exact discrete symmetries of dark matter acting as rotational symmetries of the field
body and at the level of visible matter giving rise to broken symmetries typical for molecular structures.
The helical structures found from the rings of some planets could be one example of fractal life.
For some time ago I learned about ”elephant trunks” found by Hubble (I am grateful for Miika
V¨ais¨al¨a telling about the trunks and for giving references to the papers about the finding). They
appear in very wide range of length scales: at least from 1000 au to 1 pc. They are found in close
connection with molecular clouds and HII regions excite by one or more young hot stars (a ”metabolic
connection” with the above mentioned unidentified bands and lines and PAHs present only if there is
also UV source present does not look like a bad guess). In general the trunks are
Another important finding supporting TGD view about Universe which might be seen as a fractally
scaled variant of above helices. pointing like fingers to the hot stars. Here is abstract of the paper by
P. Carlquist, G. F. Gahm, and H. Kristen [32].
Using the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope we have observed a large number of elephant trunks in
several regions. Here, we present a small selection of this material consisting of a few large, well-
developed trunks, and some smaller ones. We find that: (i) the well-developed trunks are made up of
dark filaments and knots which show evidence of twisted structures, (ii) the trunks are connected with
essentially two filamentary legs running in V-shape, and (iii) all trunks have the maximum extinction
in their heads. We advance a theory of twisted elephant trunks which is based on the presence of
magnetic flux ropes in molecular clouds where hot OB stars are formed. If the rope contains a local
condensation it may adopt a V-shape as the region around the hot stars expands. If, in addition, the
magnetic field in the rope is sufficiently twisted, the rope may form a double helix at the apex of the V.
The double helix is identified with the twisted elephant trunks. In order to illustrate the mechanisms
behind the double helix we have constructed a mechanical analogy model of the magnetic flux rope in
which the rope has been replaced by a bundle of elastic strings loaded by a weight. Experiments with
the model clearly show that part of the bundle will transform into a double helix when the twist of
the bundle is sufficiently large. We have also worked out a simple theoretical model of a mass-loaded
magnetic flux rope. Numerical calculations show that a double helix will indeed form when the twist of
the rope exceeds a certain critical limit. Numerical model calculations are applied to both the analogy
model experiments and one of the well-developed elephant trunks. On the basis of our model we also
suggest a new interpretation of the so called EGGs.
The double helix mechanism is quite general, and should be active also in other suitable envi-
ronments. One such environment may be the shell of supernova remnants. Another example is the
expanding bubble outlined by the North Celestial Pole Loop.
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 79
For fractally thinking physicist consisting mostly of dark matter with large Planck constant this
does not leave many options: life and even intelligent life is everywhere and in all length scales.
This provides also a new view about Fermi paradox: see the article [16], which summarizes also the
essentials of TGD, TGD based ontology, and TGD based quantum biology.
1.5.3 Universal metabolic quanta
Universal energy quanta might have rather interesting implications. For instance, irradiation of cells
could provide a direct metabolic mechanism when the normal metabolic machinery fails. The universal
metabolic quanta should have also played a key role during pre-biotic evolution when chemical storage
mechanism were absent or primitive so that energy metabolism relied on direct absorption of photons.
Direct support for universal metabolic energy quanta
There is direct support for the notion of universal energy quanta. The first support comes from the
effect of low-power laser light on living matter. More than 30 years ago a method known with various
names such as low-power laser therapy, biostimulation, or photobiomodulation emerged [61] and has
now a wide range of applications. The treatment can apply both non-coherent (light emitting diodes)
or coherent (laser light). In the case of of non-coherent light the method applies thin structures with
thickness smaller than coherence length of light so that there is no difference between non-coherent and
laser light. Laser light applies to situation when both the thickness of the surface layer and structure
itself in range 1 mm- 1 cm and shorter than coherence length. Often the irradiation is applied to
wounds and sites of injuries, acupuncture points, and muscle trigger points. The method involves
several parameters such as wavelength in the range 400-900 nm (IR and near IR light), output power
(10 100 mW), continuous wave and pulsed operation modes, and pulse parameters.
1. What is known?
The article of Karu [61] gives a good summary about what is known.
1. The action spectrum characterizes the maxima of the biological response as a function of wave-
length. Action spectrum is essentially universal. For near IR and IR light the maxima of spectra
are at 620, 680, 760, 820-830 nm. The spectrum continues also to visible light [61] but I do not
have access these data.
2. The action can induce both physiological and morphological changes in non-pigmental cells via
absorption in mitochondria. HeNe laser (λ = 632.8 nm) can alter the firing pattern of nerves
and can mimic the effect of peripheral stimulation of a behavioral reflex.
2. Biochemical approach
In [61] the biochemical approach to the situation is discussed.
1. In standard biochemistry based approach the natural hypothesis is that the maxima corre-
spond to some molecular absorption lines and the task is to identify the photo acceptor. The
primary acceptor in IR-to red spectral region is believed to be the terminal enzyme of the res-
piratory chain cytochrome c oxidase located in mitochondrion but this is just an assumption.In
the violet-to-blue spectral region flavoproteins (e.g. NADHdehydrogenace in the beginning of
respiratory chain) are among the photo acceptors as terminal oxidases. It is known that also
non-mitochondrial enhancement of cellular metabolism exist, which does not fit well with the
vision about mitochondria as power plants of cell. It is believed that electronic excitation occurs
and somehow leads to the biological effect.
2. The natural assumption in biochemistry framework is that the stimulation increases the effec-
tiveness of cellular metabolism by making the utilization of oxygen more effective. The effect
of the light would occur at the control level and induce secondary reactions (cellular signaling
cascades or photo signal transduction and amplification) affecting eventually the gene expression.
3. Three different regulation pathways have been suggested [61]. Since small changes in ATP level
can alter cellular metabolism significantly, the obvious idea is that photoacceptor controls the
80 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
level of intracellular ATP. In starving cells this looks especially attractive hypothesis. In many
cases however the role of redox homeostasis is however believed to be more important than that
of ATP. The second and third pathways would indeed affect cellular redox potential shifting it
to more oxidized direction. The mechanism of regulation is however not understood. Hence one
can say that there is no experimental proof or disproof for the standard approach.
3. TGD inspired approach
In TGD framework the first guess is that irradiation pumps directly metabolic energy to the system
by kicking particles to smaller space-time sheets. This kind of direct energy feed would be natural
when the cell is starving or injured so that its control mechanisms responsible for the utilization
of oxygen are not working properly. For Bose-Einstein condensate of photons this effect would be
especially strong being proportional to N
2
rather than N, where N is photon number. The effect
would also appear coherently in a region whose size is dictated by coherence length when the target
is thick enough.
There is a simple killer test for the proposal. The predicted energies are universal in the approx-
imation that the interactions of protons (or electrons) kicked to the smaller space-time sheets with
other particles can be neglected. The precise scale of metabolic energy quanta can be fixed by using
the nominal value of metabolic energy quantum .5 eV in case of proton. This predicts the following
spectrum of universal energy quanta for proton and electron
∆E
k,n
(p) = E
0
(k, p) (1 −2
−n
) ,
E
0
(k, p) = E
0
(137, p)2
137−k
· 2
137−k
.5 eV .
∆E
k,n
(e) = E
0
(k, e) (1 −2
−n
) ,
E
0
(k, e) =
m
p
2
11
m
e
E
0
(137, p)2
148−k
· 2
148−k
.4 eV .
k characterizes the p-adic length scale and the transition corresponds to the kicking of charged particle
from space-time sheet having k
1
= k +n to k = n.
The shortest wavelength 630 nm is rather close to the wavelength of HeNe laser and corresponds
to red light with E
0
= 2.00 eV. Thus one would have k = 135 in the case of proton which corresponds
to roughly one of atomic radius for ordinary value of . For electron one would have k = 150 which
corresponds to L(151)/

2: L(151) = 10 nm corresponds to cell membrane thickness. The following
table gives the energies of photons for action spectrum and predicted values in the case of proton,
which provides a better fit to the data.
n 2 3 4 5
λ/nm 825 760 680 620
E
exp
/eV 1.50 1.63 1.82 2.00
E
pred
/eV 1.50 1.75 1.88 1.94
E
pred
/E
exp
1.00 1.07 1.02 0.97
(1.5.1)
The largest error is 7 per cent and occurs for n = 3 transition. Other errors are below 3 per cent.
Note that also in experiments of Gariaev [39, 52] laser light consisting of 2 eV photons was used: in
this case the induced radio wave photons - possibly dark photons with energy 2 eV - had positive
effect on growth of potatoes.
Possible explanation for the effect of IR light on brain
The exposure of brain to IR light at wavelength of 1072 nm is known to improve learning performance
and give kick start to cognitive function [60]. The simplest explanation is that this light reloads the
metabolic energy batteries of neurons by kicking electrons or protons or their Cooper pairs to larger
space-time sheets. The wavelength in question is roughly one half of the wavelength associated with
metabolic energy quantum with average energy .5 eV (2480 µm) assignable to the dropping of proton
to a very large space-time sheet from k=137 space-time sheet or of electron from k=137+11= 148
space-time sheet. This if the electron and proton are approximated to be free particles. Energy band
is in question since both the particles can have additional interaction energy.
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 81
For the kicking of electron from very large space-time sheet to k = 147 space-time sheet the wave
length would be below 1240 nm which is more than 10 per cent longer than 1072 nm. This would
suggest that the final state electron is in excited state. The surplus energy is consistent with the
width about 100 nm for the UIBs. This identification - if correct - would support the view that
metabolic energy quanta are universal and have preceded the evolution of the biochemical machinery
associated with metabolism and that the loading of metabolic energy batteries at the fundamental
level correspond to the kicking of charged particles to smaller space-time sheets.
Connection between laser induced healing, acupuncture, and association of DC currents
with the healing of wounds
The findings of Robert Becker (the book ”Electromagnetism and Life” by Becker and Marino can be
found from web [47]) meant a breakthrough in the development of bioelectromagnetics. One aspect
of bioelectromagnetic phenomena was the discovery of Becker that DC currents and voltages play a
pivotal role in various regeneration processes. Why this is the case is still poorly understood and
Becker’s book is a treasure trove for anyone ready to challenge existing dogmas. The general vision
guiding Becker can be summarized by a citation from the introduction of the book.
Growth effects include the alteration of bone growth by electromagnetic energy, the restoration of
partial limb regeneration in mammals by small direct currents, the inhibition of growth of implanted
tumors by currents and fields, the effect upon cephalocaudal axis development in the regenerating
flatworm in a polarity-dependent fashion by applied direct currents, and the production of morphological
alterations in embryonic development by manipulation of the electrochemical species present in the
environment. This partial list illustrates the great variety of known bioelectromagnetic phenomena.
The reported biological effects involve basic functions of living material that are under remarkably
precise control by mechanisms which have, to date, escaped description in terms of solution biochem-
istry. This suggests that bioelectromagnetic phenomena are fundamental attributes of living things
ones that must have been present in the first living things. The traditional approach to biogenesis pos-
tulates that life began in an aqueous environment, with the development of complex molecules and their
subsequent sequestration from the environment by membranous structures. The solid-state approach
proposes an origin in complex crystalline structures that possess such properties as semiconductivity,
photoconductivity, and piezoelectricity. All of the reported effects of electromagnetic forces seem to
lend support to the latter hypothesis.
1. Observations relating to CNS
The following more quantitative findings, many of them due to Becker, are of special interest as
one tries to understand the role of DC currents in TGD framework.
1. CNS and the rest of perineural tissue (tissue surrounding neurons including also glial cells) form
a dipole like structure with neural system in positive potential and perineural tissue in negative
potential. There is also an electric field along neuron in the direction of nerve pulse propagation
(dendrites correspond to - and axon to +) (note that motor nerves and sensory nerves form a
closed loop). Also microtubules within axon carry electric field and these fields are probably
closely related by the many-sheeted variants of Gauss’s and Faraday’s laws implying that voltages
along two different space-time sheets in contact at two points are same in a static situation.
2. A longitudinal potential along front to back in brain with frontal lobes in negative potential
with respect to occipital lobes and with magnitude of few mV was discovered. The strength
of the electric field correlates with the level of consciousness. As the potential becomes weaker
and changes sign, consciousness is lost. Libet and Gerard observed traveling waves of potentials
across the cortical layers (with speeds of about 6 m/s: TGD inspired model of nerve pulse
predicts this kind of waves [M2]). Propagating potentials were discovered also in glial cells. The
interpretation was in terms of electrical currents.
3. It was found that brain injury generated positive polarization so that the neurons ceased to
function in an area much larger than the area of injury. Negative shifts of neuronal potentials
were associated with incoming sensory stimuli and motor activity whereas sleep was associated
with a positive shift. Very small voltages and currents could modulate the firing of neurons
without affecting the resting potential. The ”generating” potentials in sensory receptors inducing
82 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
nerve pulse were found to be graded and non-propagating and the sign of the generating potential
correlated with sensory input (say increase/reduction of pressure). Standard wisdom about cell
membrane has difficulties in explaining these findings.
4. The natural hypothesis was that these electric fields are accompanied by DC currents. There
are several experimental demonstrations for this. For instance, the deflection of assumed DC
currents by external magnetic field (Hall effect) was shown to lead to a loss of consciousness.
2. Observations relating to regeneration
The second class of experiments used artificial electrical currents to enhance regeneration of body
parts. These currents are nowadays used in clinical practice to induce healing or retard tumor growth.
Note that tissue regeneration is a genuine regeneration of an entire part of organism rather than mere
simple cell replication. Salamander limb generation is one of the most studied examples. Spontaneous
regeneration becomes rare at higher evolutionary levels and for humans it occurs spontaneously only
in the fractures of long bones.
1. An interesting series of experiments on Planaria, a species of simple flatworm with a primitive
nervous system and simple head-to-tail axis of organization, was carried out. Electrical mea-
surements indicated a simple head-tail dipole field. The animal had remarkable regenerative
powers; it could be cut transversely into a number of segments, all of which would regenerate
a new total organism. The original head-tail axis was preserved in each regenerate, with that
portion nearest the original head end becoming the head of the new organism. The hypothesis
was that the original head-tail electrical vector persisted in the cut segments and provided the
morphological information for the regenerate. The prediction was that the reversal of the elec-
trical gradient by exposing the cut surface to an external current source of proper orientation
should produce some reversal of the head-tail gradient in the regenerate. While performing the
experiment it was found found that as the current levels were increased the first response was to
form a head at each end of the regenerating segment. With still further increases in the current
the expected reversal of the head-tail gradient did occur, indicating that the electrical gradient
which naturally existed in these animals was capable of transmitting morphological information.
2. Tissue regeneration occurs only if some minimum amount of neural tissue is present suggesting
that CNS plays a role in the process although the usual neural activity is absent. The repeated
needling of the stump had positive effect on regeneration and the DC current was found to be
proportional to innervation. Hence needling seems to stimulate innervation or at least inducing
formation of DC currents. Something like this might occur also in the case of acupuncture.
3. Regeneration involves de-differentiation of cells to form a blastema from which the regenerated
tissue is formed. Quite early it was learned that carcinogens induce de-differentiation of cells
because of their steric properties and by making electron transfer possible and that denervation
induces tumor formation. From these findings Becker concluded that the formation of blastema
could be a relatively simple process analogous to tumor growth whereas the regeneration proper
is a complex self-organization process during which the control by signals from CNS are necessary
and possibly realized in terms of potential waves.
4. Regeneration is possible in salamander but not in frog. This motivated Becker and collaborators
to compare these situations. In an amputated leg of both salamander and frog the original
negative potential of or order -1 mV went first positive value of order +10 mV. In frog it
returned smoothly to its original value without regeneration. In salamander it returned during
three days to the original base line and then went to a much higher negative value around -20 mV
(resting potential is around -70 mV) followed by a return to the original value as regeneration
had occurred. Thus the large negative potential is necessary for the regeneration and responsible
for the formation of blastema. Furthermore, artificial electron current induced regeneration also
in the case of frog and in even in the denervated situation. Thus the flow of electrons to the
stump is necessary for the formation of blastema and the difference between salamander and
frog is that frog is not able to provide the needed electronic current although positive potential
is present.
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 83
5. It was also learned that a so called neural epidermic junction (NEJ) formed in the healing process
of salamander stump was responsible for the regeneration in the presence of nervation. The con-
clusion was that the DC voltage and electronic current relevant for regeneration can be assigned
the interface between CNS and tissue rather than with the entire nerve and regeneration seems
to be a local process, perhaps a feed of metabolic energy driving self-organization. Furthermore,
NEJ seems to make possible the flow of electrons from CNS to the stump.
6. The red blood cells of animals other than mammals are complete and possess thus nuclei.
Becker and collaborators observed that also red blood cells dedifferentiated to form blastema.
Being normally in a quiescent state, they are ideal for studying de-differentiation. It was found
that electric current acted as a trigger at the level of cell membrane inducing de-differentiation
reflected as an increased amount of mRNA serving as signal for gene expression. Also pulsed
magnetic field was found to trigger the de-differentiation, perhaps via induced electric field. By
the way, the role of the cell membrane fits nicely with the view about DNA-cell membrane
system as topological quantum computer with magnetic flux tubes connecting DNA and cell
membrane serving as braids.
7. The experiments of Becker and collaborators support the identification of the charge carriers of
DC currents responsible for the formation of large negative potential of stump as electrons. The
test was based on the different temperature dependence of electronic and protonic conductivities.
Electronic conductivity increases with temperature and protonic conductivity decreases and an
increase was observed. In TGD based model also super-conducting charge carriers are possible
and this finding does not tell anything about them.
3. A TGD based model for the situation
On basis of these observations one can try to develop a unified view about the effects of laser
light, acupuncture, and DC currents. It is perhaps appropriate to start with the following - somewhat
leading - questions inspired by a strong background prejudice that the healing process - with control
signals from CNS included - utilizes the loading of many-sheeted metabolic batteries by supra currents
as a basic mechanism. In the case of control signals the energy would go to the ”moving of the control
knob”.
1. Becker assigns to the system involved with DC currents an effective semiconductor property.
Could the effective semiconductor property be due the fact that the transfer of charge carriers
to a smaller space-time sheet by first accelerating them in electric field is analogous to the
transfer of electrons between conduction bands in semiconductor junction? If so, semiconductor
property would be a direct signature of the realization of the metabolic energy quanta as zero
point kinetic energies.
2. Supra currents flowing along magnetic flux tubes would make possible dissipation free loading of
metabolic energy batteries. This even when oscillating Josephson currents are in question since
the transformation to ohmic currents in semiconductor junction makes possible energy transfer
only during second half of oscillation period. Could this be a completely general mechanism
applying in various states of regeneration process. This might be the case. In quantal situation
the metabolic energy quanta have very precise values as indeed required. For ohmic currents
at room temperature the thermal energies are considerably higher than those corresponding to
the voltage involved so that they seem to be excluded. The temperature at magnetic flux tubes
should be however lower than the physiological temperature by a factor of order 10
−2
at least
for the voltage of -1 mV. This would suggest high T
c
super-conductivity is only effective at the
magnetic flux tubes involved. The finding that nerve pulse involves a slight cooling of the axonal
membrane proposed in the TGD based model of nerve pulse [M2] to be caused by a convective
cooling due the return flow of ionic Josephson currents would conform with this picture.
3. What meridians are and what kind of currents flow along them? Could these currents be supra
currents making possible dissipation-free energy transfer in the healthy situation? Does the
negative potential of order -1 mV make possible flow of protonic supra currents and loading
of metabolic batteries by kicking protons to smaller space-time sheets? Could electronic supra
currents in opposite direct induce similar loading of metabolic batteries? Could these tow
miniature metabolisms realize control signals (protons) and feedback (electrons)?
84 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
The model answering these questions relies on following picture. Consider first meridians.
1. The direct feed of metabolic energy as universal metabolic currencies realized as a transfer of
charge carriers to smaller space-time sheets is assumed to underly all the phenomena involving
healing aspect. Meridian system would make possible a lossless metabolic energy feed - transfer
of ”Chi” - besides the transfer of chemically stored energy via blood flow. The metabolic energy
currencies involved are very small as compared to .5 eV and might be responsible only for
”turning control knobs”. The correlation of the level of consciousness with the overall strength
of DC electric fields would reduce to the level of remote metabolic energy transfer.
2. The model should explain why meridians have not been observed. Dark currents along magnetic
flux tubes are ideal for the energy transfer. If the length of the superconducting ”wire” is long
in the scale defined by the appropriate quantum scale proportional to , classical picture makes
sense and charge carriers can be said to accelerate and gain energy ZeV . For large values
of an oscillating Josephson current would be in question. The semiconductor like structure
at the end of meridian -possibly realized in terms of pair of space-time sheets with different
sizes- makes possible a net transfer of metabolic energy even in this case as pulses at each
half period of oscillation. The transfer of energy with minimal dissipation would thus explain
why semiconductor like property is needed and why acupuncture points have high value of
conductivity. The identification of meridians as invisible magnetic flux tubes carrying dark
matter would explain the failure to observe them: one further direct demonstration for the
presence of dark matter in biological systems.
3. In the case of regeneration process NEJs would be accompanied by a scaled down version of
meridian with magnetic flux tubes mediating the electronic Josephson current during blastema
generation and protonic supra current during the regeneration proper. Space-time sheets of
proton resp. electron correspond to k
p
and k
e
= k
p
+ 11. In a static situation many-sheeted
Gauss law in static situation would guarantee that voltages over NJE are same.
4. One can of course worry about the smallness of electrostatic energies ZeV as compared to the
thermal energy. Zero point kinetic energy could correspond also to the magnetic energy of the
charged particle. For sufficiently large values of Planck constant magnetic energy scale is higher
than the thermal energy and the function of voltage could be only to drive the charged particles
along the flux tubes to the target: and perhaps act as a control knob with electrostatic energy
compensating for the small lacking energy. Suppose for definiteness magnetic field strength of
B = .2 Gauss explaining the effects of ELF em fields on brain and appearing in the model of
EEG. Assume that charged particle is in minimum energy state with cyclotron quantum number
n = 1 and spin direction giving negative interaction energy between spin and magnetic field so
that the energy is (g−2)eB/2m
p
. Assume that the favored values of hbar correspond to number
theoretically simple ones expressible as a product of distinct Fermat primes and power of 2. In
the case of proton with g · 2.7927 the standard metabolic energy quantum E
0
= .5 eV would
require roughly /
0
= 17 2
34
. For electron g −2 · α/π · .002328 gives /
0
= 5 17 2
30
.
Consider next NEJs and semiconductor like behavior and charging of metabolic batteries.
1. Since NEJ seems resembles cell membrane in some respects, the wisdom gained from the model
of cell membrane and DNA as tqc can be used. The model for nerve pulse and the model for
DNA as topological quantum computer suggest that dark ionic currents flowing along magnetic
flux tubes characterized by a large value of Planck constant are involved with both meridians
and NJEs and might even dominate. Magnetic flux tubes act as Josephson junctions generating
oscillatory supra currents of ions and electrons. For large values of also meridians are short
in the relevant dark length scale and act as Josephson junctions carrying oscillatory Josephson
currents.
2. The findings of Becker suggest that acu points correspond to sensory receptors which are nor-
mally in a negative potential. The model for the effects of laser light favors (but only slightly)
the assumption that in a healthy situation it is protons arriving along magnetic flux tubes which
are kicked to the smaller space-time sheets and that negative charge density at acu point attracts
protons to the acu point. Electrons could of course flow in reverse direction along their own
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 85
magnetic flux tubes and be kicked to the smaller space-time sheets at the positive end of the
circuit. In the case of brain, protonic end would correspond to the frontal lobes and electronic
end to the occipital lobes. This kind of structure could appear as fractally scaled variants. For
instance, glial cells and neurons could form this kind of pair with neurons in negative potential
and glial cells in positive potential as suggested by the fact that neuronal damage generates
positive local potential.
3. Classically the charge carriers would gain energy E = ZeV as they travel along the magnetic
flux tube to NJE. If this energy is higher than the metabolic energy quantum involved, it allows
the transfer of charge carrier to a smaller space-time sheet so that metabolic resources are
regenerated. Several metabolic quanta could be involved and the value of V (t) would determine,
which quantum is activated. The reduction of the V below critical value would lead to a
starvation of the cell or at least to the failure of control signals to ”turn the control knob”.
This should relate to various symptoms like pain at acupuncture points. In a situation requiring
acupuncture the voltage along flux tubes would be so small that the transfer of protons to the
smaller space-time sheets becomes impossible. As a consequence, the positive charge carriers
would accumulate to the acu point and cause a further reduction of the voltage. Acupuncture
needle would create a ”wound” stimulating large positive potential and the situation would be
very much like in regeneration process and de-differentiation induced by acupuncture could be
understood.
Many questions remain to be answered.
1. What causes the de-differentiation of the cells? The mere charging of metabolic energy batteries
perhaps? If so then the amount of metabolic energy- ”chi”- possessed by cell would serve as
a measure for the biological age of cell and meridian system feeding ”chi” identified as dark
metabolic energy would serve as a rejuvenating agent also with respect to gene expression. Or
does the electric field define an external energy feed to a self-organizing system and create
an electromagnetic environment similar to that prevailing during morphogenesis inducing a
transition of cells to a dedifferentiated state? Or could DNA as tqc allow to understand the
modification of gene expression as being due to the necessity to use tqc programs appropriate
for regeneration? Or should cells and wounded body part be seen as intentional agents doing
their best to survive rather than as passive parts of biochemical system?
2. Acupuncture and DC current generation are known to induce generation of endorphins. Do
endorphins contribute to welfare by reducing the pain or do they give a conscious expression for
the fact that situation has improved as a result of recharging of the metabolic energy batteries?
3. Could the continual charging of metabolic energy batteries by DC currents occur also in the
case of cell membrane? The metabolic energy quantum would be around .07 eV in this case and
correspond to p-adic length scale k = 140 for proton (the quantum is roughly a fraction 1/8 of
the fundamental metabolic energy quantum .5 eV corresponding to k = 137).
Gene activation by electrostatic fields?
The basic question concerns the method of activation. The discovery of chemists Guido Ebner and
Guido Schuerch [45, 46, 64] raises the hope that these ideas might be more than over-active imagination
and their work also provides a concrete proposal for the activation mechanism. These findings are
briefly described in the article of Hardmuth Mueller [64] who proposes quite different explanation for
the strange findings. Ebner and Schuerch studied the effect of electrostatic fields on the growth and
morphogenesis of various organisms. Germ, seeds, or eggs were placed between conducting plates
creating an electric field in the range .5-2 kV/m: note that the Earth’s electric field is in the range
.1 −4 kV/m and of the same order of magnitude.
The outcome was rather surprising and in the year 1989 their employer Ciba Geigy (now Novaris)
applied for a patent ”Method of enhanced fish breeding” [45] for what is called Ciba Geigy effect.
The researchers describe how fishes (trouts) develop and grow much better, if their eggs have been
conditioned in an electrostatic field. The researchers report [45, 46] that also the morphology of the
fishes was altered to what seems to represent an ancient evolutionary form: this was not mentioned
in the patent.
86 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
The chemists founded their own Institute of Pharmaceutical Research near Basel, where Guido
Ebner applied for another very detailed patent, which was never granted (it is not difficult to guess the
reasons why!). In the patent he describes the effect of electrostatic fields on several life forms (cress,
wheat, corn, fern, micro-organisms, bacteria) in their early stage of development. A clear change in
the morphogenesis was observed. For instance, in one example fern had all sort of leaves in single
plant apparently providing a series of snapshots about the evolution of the plant. The evolutionary
age of the first leaf appeared to be about 300 million years whereas the last grown-up leaf looked close
to its recent form.
If one takes these finding seriously, one must consider the possibility that the exposure to an
electrostatic field can activate passive genes and change the gene expression so that older morpholo-
gies are expressed. The activation of not yet existing morphologies is probably more difficult since
strong consistency conditions must be satisfied (activation of program requires activation of a proper
hardware). This would suggest that genome is a kind of archive containing also older genomes even
potential genomes or that topological quantum computer programs [L5] determine the morphology
to certain extent and that external conditions such as electric field determine the self-organization
patters characterizing these programs.
It is known that the developing embryo has an electric field along the head-tail axis and that
this field plays an important role in the control of growth. These fields are much weaker than the
fields used in the experiment. p-Adic length scale hierarchy however predicts an entire hierarchy of
electric fields and living matter is indeed known to be full of electret structures. The strength of the
electric field in some p-adic length scale related to DNA might somehow serve as the selector of the
evolutionary age. The recapitulation of phylogeny during the ontogeny could mean a gradual shift
of the activated part of the memone, perhaps assignable to tqc programs, and be controlled by the
gradually evolving electric field strength.
The finding that led Ebner to his discovery was that it was possible to ”wake up” ancient bacteria
by an exposure to an electrostatic field. The interpretation would be in terms of loading of metabolic
batteries. This would also suggest that in the case of primitive life forms like bacteria the electric field
of Earth has served as metabolic energy source whereas in higher life forms endogenous electric fields
have taken the role of Earth’s electric field.
Could UV photons have some metabolic role?
The correlation between UV photons and ERE brings in mind the vision that high temperature
plasmoids are primitive life-forms possibly having universal metabolic energy quanta in UV range.
One can imagine that the development of chemical energy storage mechanisms has made it possible to
use visible light from Sun as a source of metabolic energy and get rid of UV quanta having disastrous
biological effects. Ozone layer shields out most of UV light and also air absorbs the UV light below
wavelength 200 nm, which justifies the term vacuum UV (VUV) for this range.
∆k 1 2 ≥ 3 ∞
∆E(144, ∆k)/eV 4 6 ≥ 7 8
λ/nm 310(UVB) 207(UVB) ≤ 177 (VUV) 155 (VUV)
Table 3. The lines corresponding to the dropping of electron from k = 144 space time sheet
defining a candidate for UV light inducing generation of ERE in the interstellar dust.
From Table 3 one finds that ∆k > 2 electronic transitions cascading to 8 eV (155 nm) by period
doubling) belong to vacuum UV (VUV) absorbed by air. The lines 310 nm and 207 nm corresponding
to ∆k = 1 and ∆k = 2 could however define frequency windows since these lines need not correspond
to any atomic or molecular electronic transitions.
In the solar photosphere the temperature is about 5800 K, roughly half of the minimum temper-
ature 10
4
K needed to generate the UV radiation inducing ERE in interstellar dust. Solar corona
however has temperature of about 10
6
K, which corresponds to a thermal energy of order 100 eV
and the UV radiation from corona at above mentioned discrete frequencies resulting in dropping of
electrons could serve as a metabolic energy source for pre-biotics in the interstellar space. This raises
obvious questions. Should the stellar sources inducing ERE possess also corona? Could 4 eV and 6 eV
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 87
UV photons from the solar corona serve as a source of metabolic energy for some primitive organisms
like blue algae?
A simple model for the metabolism of plasmoids
Extended Red Emissions (EREs) are associated with the interstellar dust in presence of UV light
with energies above 7.25 eV and source with temperature not below 10
4
K (maximum of wave length
distribution of black body radiation corresponds to the energy 4.97 eV at this temperature). This
suggests that plasmoids using UV photons as metabolic energy are involved.
1. Since the bond energies of molecules vary in few eV range and their formation typically liberates
photons in UV range, the natural hypothesis is that the metabolic cycle is based on the formation
of some molecule liberating UV photon kicking electron/proton to a smaller space-time sheet.
UV photons from energy source would in turn induce dissociation of the molecule and thus
drive the process. The process as a whole would involve several p-adic length scales and several
metabolic currencies.
2. This situation is of course encountered also in the ordinary biology but with highly developed
sharing of labor. Biosphere would burn hydrocarbons in animal cells with carbon dioxide as the
eventual outcome. Carbon dioxide would in turn be used by plants to regenerate the hydrocar-
bons. Note that in the recent day technology the loop is open: hydrocarbons are burned but
there is no process regenerating them: perhaps photons with large Planck constant might some
day used to regenerate the fuel and give rise to ”living” and perhaps tidier technology.
3. It is believed that complex organic molecules like amino-acids can form in the interstellar dust
and the spontaneous formation of aminoacids is known to be possible in the interstellar ice under
UV radiation. Hence at least N
2
and perhaps also CO can be expected to be present. The table
below gives dissociation energies of some simple molecules.
Molecule H
2
O
2
N
2
CO NO
E
D
/eV 4.48 5.08 7.37 11.11 5.2
i) N
2
has bond energy 7.37 eV is slightly above the UV threshold 7.26 eV for ERE, which
strongly suggests that N
2
is one of the molecules involved with the metabolism of interstellar
plasmoids.
ii) If ice is present then carbon monoxide CO would be an excellent candidate for a metabolic
molecule since its bond energy is as high as 11.11 eV. The exceptionally large bond energy would
naturally relate to the fact that carbon and oxygen are the key molecules of life.
Anomalous light phenomena as plasmoids
TGD suggests that anomalous light phenomena (ALPs, or light balls, or UFOs depending on one’s
tastes and assumptions) are identifiable as plasmoids behaving as primitive life forms. In the conference
held in R¨oros Bj¨orn Gitle-Hauge told about the determination of the spectrum of visible light emitted
by some light balls observed in Hessdalen [25] (”Hessdalen phenomenon” is the term used).
1. The spectrum is a band in the interval 500-600 nm whereas the typical ERE [30] is concentrated
in the interval 650-750 nm. The peak is in the interval 540-900 nm, the width of the band is
also now 100 nm, and there are no sharp peaks. Therefore the interpretation as ERE can be
considered.
2. Because Hessdalen is an old mining district, authors propose that the light ball could consist
of burning dust containing some metals. Author proposes that the burning of Titanium and
Scandium (encountered only in Scandinavia) might provide the energy for the light ball. Sc
reacts vigorously with acids and air (burning in oxygen gives Sc
2
O
3
as end product). Ti burns
in oxygen and is the only element that burns in nitrogen. Ti is used in fireworks since it produces
spectacular fires.
88 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
Author notices that the emission lines of N
+
, Al
++
, resp. Sc
+
at 528.02 nm, 528.2 nm, resp.
528.576 nm might contribute to the band. This might be the case but the explanation of the
band solely in terms of molecular transitions is not favored by its smoothness.
3. The bond energies of TiO and TiN are 6.9 eV and 5.23 eV so that the radiation resulting in
their formation is in UV range and could provide part of the metabolic energy. I do not know
about bond energy of Scandium oxide.
4. TiO
2
is known to catalyze photolysis in the presence of UV light [28, 27], which in turn is
basic step in photosynthesis [74], the basic step of which in TGD Universe would be the kicking
of electrons/protons to smaller space-time sheets. Therefore the UV photons liberated in the
formation of molecules containing Ti could catalyze photosynthesis like process.
1.5.4 Life as a symbiosis of plasmoids and biological life
If evolution has discovered something it usually keeps it so that plasmoids and UV metabolism should
be still there. This suggests that plasmoids are still in ionosphere. What could this mean? There also
also other questions and I am grateful for Sampo Vesterinen for some of them. The key questions are
perhaps the following ones. Do plasmoids and biological life forms live in symbiosis in some sense? If
this is the case, what plasmoids can give to us and what we can give to plasmoids?
1. Magnetic bodies as quantum plasmoids and plasmoids in magnetosphere
One must make clear what one means with plasmoid. One can consider a plasma made of ordi-
nary visible matter and also large quantum plasma at magnetic bodies in a form of Bose-Einstein
condensates of charged particles. The symbiosis of plasmoids and biomatter could correspond to the
symbiosis of magnetic body and biological body.
One can imagine also the possibility that visible matter plasmoids and bio-matter are in symbiosis
via the mediation of magnetic bodies. Note that DNA strands are negatively charged so that there is
a resemblance with a plasma like state. One aspect of symbiosis would be that magnetic body would
feed charged particles to DNA.
2. Some basic facts about magnetosphere
Magnetosphere would be a natural environment for plasmoid population. If one restricts plasmoids
to to visible matter, then ionosphere, plasma sphere and plasma sheet are the most interesting objects
of interest.
1. The temperature in the highest F layer of the ionosphere (extending from 150 km to 1500
km depending on source) is about 1200-1300 K: the photon energy is about .6-.65 eV at the
maximum wavelength of thermal distribution. Hence F layer plasmoids might receive metabolic
energy in the form of .5 eV metabolic energy quanta via thermal photons. Self-organization
occurs in transition layers and especially interesting is the transition region 85-300 km from
mesosphere to ionosphere at which temperature increases 300 K to about 1200 K.
2. Inner magnetosphere is a toruslike structure whose extension varies between 4R
E
(day side) and
8R
E
(night side) and shielded from solar wind. In the inner magnetosphere the typical density
is about 1 ion per cubic centimeter. Inner magnetosphere is bounded by a transition layer of
thickness of ∼ R (magneto-pause). In this region the density of the ions drops rapidly.
Inner magnetosphere contains plasma sphere whose radius varies in the range 2R
E
− 4R
E
at
day side and 2R
E
− 6R
E
at night side. Plasma has a ionospheric origin. The density of the
cold plasma consisting mainly of protons sphere varies in the range 10 −10
3
ions/cm
3
, whereas
the temperature is ∼ 5 10
3
K, which corresponds to metabolic energy quantum of .5 eV. Note
however that the energy of photon at maximum of thermal distribution is about 2.5 eV which
suggests 2 eV metabolic quantum.
The cold, dense plasma of plasma sphere is frozen around magnetic flux lines which co-rotate
with Earth. In TGD framework this means that flux tubes co-rotate and thus change shape.
In the equitorial plane the density of the plasma sphere drops sharply down to ∼ 1 ion/cm
3
at r = 4R. This transition region is known as a plasma pause. During magnetic storms the
outer radius decreases since the pressure of the solar wind compresses the plasma sphere. The
1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive
life forms 89
day-night variation of the shape of the plasma sphere is rather small. Within this region the
magnetic field has in a reasonable approximation dipole shape with radiation belts forming an
exception.
The surface temperature of Sun is 6 10
3
K. This temperature is roughly half of the minimum
temperature 10
4
K needed for EREs from interstellar dust [30]. This corresponds to photon
energy of 3 eV at the maximum of thermal distribution and cannot induce dissociation of N
2
and other simple diatomic molecules. There is also solar corona but its temperature is about
10
6
K (10
2
eV) so that the flux of thermal photons at UV energies is very low.
Taking seriously the finding that T ≥ 10
4
K for source is necessary for EREs, one might ask
whether the plasmoids at the day side are able to receive enough metabolic energy from UV
radiation of Sun. If course, there is is no need to assume that dissociation of N
2
molecules is key
element in metabolic mechanism. The temperatures in both F layer and plasma sphere allow
kicking of protons and electrons to smaller space-time sheets and this might save the situation.
Hence metabolism is not a problem for the plasmoids except perhaps during night-time when
the plasma cools down somewhat.
3. The plasma sheet [29, N1] at the night side of Earth dark is the most prominent feature of the
outer magnetosphere. It has a thickness about Earth radius R
E
and extends beyond Moon’s
orbit (with radius 10
3
R
E
). The average densities of charged particles are very low and same
order of magnitude as in plasma sphere: about .4-2 per cm
3
for both protons and electrons and
correlates with solar wind density.
The temperature is very high: the thermal energy of electrons is in keV range and ionic temper-
atures are even higher. The high temperature is due to the leakage of matter from solar wind.
Note that up to the distance d ∼ 10
2
R
E
equator region of outer magnetosphere at the night
side of Earth experiences a continual solar eclipse so that this region does not receive radiation
energy from Sun: the high temperature of plasma sheet solves this metabolic problem.
The presence of keV photons would destroy molecules at plasma sheet and induce a high degree
of ionization so that plasmoid life must be based on ions and electrons. The energy needed to
kick an electron to an atomic space-time sheet is about keV from m
e
/m
p
∼ 2
−11
: hence the
dropping of electrons from atomic space-time sheets would be the natural metabolic mechanism
for plasmoid life at plasma sheet.
One of the original motivations for the plasmoid hypothesis was the strange finding that plasma
sheet at the equator at the dark side of Earth is highly self-organized structure and the velocity
distributions of electrons present patterns like ”flowers”, ”eyes”, ”butterflies” [N1].
3. What plasmoids could give to us and what we could give to plasmoids?
An attractive general motivation for the symbiosis would be that magnetic bodies would give us
ability to think and we would give them ability to sense.
1. The model of cognitive representations relies on the intersections of magnetic bodies with corre-
sponding p-adic space-time sheets possessing literally infinite size in the real sense. The larger
the magnetic body, the better the representations. Magnetic bodies could thus provide us with
cognitive representations and an interesting question is whether and how this relates to the
strange self-organization patterns at plasma sheet.
2. We could provide for magnetic bodies sensory input and serve as their motor instruments. These
magnetic bodies might be also associated with plasma sheet and the plasmoids of ionosphere and
plasma sphere and could also use plasmoids of visible matter as sensory receptors and perhaps
even primitive motor instruments.
One can imagine also more concrete motivations for the symbiosis.
1. Plasmoids in the day-side ionosphere could shield biosphere from UV light by ”eating” the in-
coming UV light. Magnetic bodies could also feed negative electronic charge from the plasmoids
of magnetosphere to DNA double strands.
90 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
2. Plasmoids are not in a need of metabolic energy unless it happens that the temperature in F
layer cools too much during night time from T ∼ 0.12 eV. One might imagine that plasmoids
suck metabolic energy from the biosphere during sleep (say brains which remain active): this
would be a possible explanation for why we sleep. One can even imagine that during sleep
magnetospheric collective levels of consciousness take command and life forms in the biosphere
entangle to form kind of stereo consciousness providing a collective view what is to be human,
member of species, or a part of biosphere.
4. About the interpretation of bio-photons?
Also the wave lengths of bio-photons are in the range of visible photons. Their spectrum is
claimed to be featureless, which would suggest that identification in terms of photons resulting in
dropping of electrons and protons to larger space-time sheets might not make sense. The variation of
the geometric shape of space-time sheets, the possibility of surplus energy, and the clustering of the
transition lines around the lower end of wave length spectrum might however give rise to effectively
featureless spectrum.
Suppose that bio-photons correspond to superposition of ERE bands and thus reflect the presence
of UV energy feed. Unless biological body is not able to generate the needed UV photons, they must
arrive from Sun. Bio-photons or their dark counterparts with much longer wavelengths could indeed
live at the flux quanta of the magnetic bodies and observed visible bio-photons could represent some
kind of leakage.
5. Gariaev’s experiments
Gariaev’s experiments [39] involved the irradiation of DNA using visible laser light with photon
energy 1.9595 eV. The irradiation induced emission of radio waves with same polarization with fre-
quencies above kHz. Radio waves induced growth of potatoes. A possible interpretation is that 2 eV
photons kicked electrons to a smaller space-time sheet and thus gave metabolic energy to DNA. The
radio waves possibly resulting in the dropping of electrons back to the larger space-time sheets could
have consisted of dark photons with same or smaller energy and could have been used as a metabolic
energy by the potatoes. That the dropping can occur to several space-time sheets would explain why
several radio wave frequencies were observed. The prediction would be sum of period doubling spectra
discussed earlier since sequences of droppings are possible. The radio-wave signal would result from
the de-coherence of dark radio-wave photons to a bundle of ordinary radio-wave photons.
6. Earth’s interior as a living system?
For years ago I developed in detail the working hypothesis that entire magnetosphere is a living
system. Even Earth’s interior (and also solar surface) could contain plasmoid life [L7, N1]. The
temperature below the mantle of Earth does not differ too much from the surface temperature of
Sun and metabolic energy could come from the radioactive decays from the interior of Earth. There
would be UV shielding by Earth: UV light has energies above 3.1 eV whereas the temperature at
the mantle-core boundary is 4300 K which corresponds to energy 2.2 eV energy at the maximum of
thermal distribution. Metabolic energy quantum of 2 eV would be highly suggestive and might be
directly used to kick protons and electrons to smaller space-time sheet.
The metabolism would not probably involve energy quantum of .5 eV. Magnetic flux tubes could
also mediate metabolic energy from the biosphere and possibly also ionosphere and the plasmoid life
in question could be at an evolutionary level not tolerating UV light and involve molecules in essential
manner.
1.6 Exotic color and electro-weak interactions
The finding of a correct interpretation of long ranged electro-weak and color gauge fields predicted by
classical TGD has been the basic stumbling block for the development of the understanding of TGD
Universe and it took about 27 years before the time was ripe to see that TGD predicts entire fractal
hierarchy of scaled down copies of standard model physics so that TGD Universe can be seen as a
kind of inversion of Mandelbrot fractal for which each new bird eye of view reveals new structures
assignable to higher levels in the hierarchy of consciousness.
1.6. Exotic color and electro-weak interactions 91
1.6.1 Long range classical weak and color gauge fields as correlates for
dark massless weak bosons
Long ranged electro-weak gauge fields are unavoidably present when the dimension D of the CP
2
projection of the space-time sheet is larger than 2. Classical color gauge fields are non-vanishing for
all non-vacuum extremals. This poses deep interpretational problems. If ordinary quarks and leptons
are assumed to carry weak charges feeded to larger space-time sheets within electro-weak length scale,
large hadronic, nuclear, and atomic parity breaking effects, large contributions of the classical Z
0
force to Rutherford scattering, and strong isotopic effects, are expected. If weak charges are screened
within electro-weak length scale, the question about the interpretation of long ranged classical weak
fields remains.
Various interpretations for the long ranged classical electro-weak fields
During years I have discussed several solutions to the problems listed above.
Option I: The trivial solution of the constraints is that Z
0
charges are neutralized at electro-weak
length scale. The problem is that this option leaves open the interpretation of classical long ranged
electro-weak gauge fields unavoidably present in all length scales when the dimension for the CP
2
projection of the space-time surface satisfies D > 2.
Option II: Second option involves several variants but the basic assumption is that nuclei or even
quarks feed their Z
0
charges to a space-time sheet with size of order neutrino Compton length. The
large parity breaking effects in hadronic, atomic, and nuclear length scales is not the only difficulty.
The scattering of electrons, neutrons and protons in the classical long range Z
0
force contributes to the
Rutherford cross section and it is very difficult to see how neutrino screening could make these effects
small enough. Strong isotopic effects in condensed matter due to the classical Z
0
interaction energy
are expected. It is far from clear whether all these constraints can be satisfied by any assumptions
about the structure of topological condensate.
Option III: During 2005 (27 years after the birth of TGD!) third option solving the problems
emerged based on the progress in the understanding of the basic mathematics behind TGD.
In ordinary phase the Z
0
charges of elementary particles are indeed neutralized in intermediate
boson length scale so that the problems related to the parity breaking, the large contributions of
classical Z
0
force to Rutherford scattering, and large isotopic effects in condensed matter, trivialize.
Classical electro-weak gauge fields in macroscopic length scales are identified as space-time corre-
lates for the gauge fields created by dark matter, which corresponds to a macroscopically quantum
coherent phase for which elementary particles possess complex conformal weights such that the net
conformal weight of the system is real.
In this phase U(2)
ew
symmetry is not broken below the scaled up weak scale except for fermions
so that gauge bosons are massless below this length scale whereas fermion masses are essentially the
same as for ordinary matter. By charge screening gauge bosons look massive in length scales much
longer than the relevant p-adic length scale. The large parity breaking effects in living matter (chiral
selection for bio-molecules) support the view that dark matter is what makes living matter living.
Classical color gauge fields
Classical long ranged color gauge fields always present for non-vacuum extremals are interpreted as
space-time correlates of gluon fields associated with dark copies of hadron physics. It seems that
this picture is indeed what TGD predicts. A very special feature of classical color fields is that the
holonomy group is Abelian. This follows directly from the expression g
A
αβ
∝ H
A
J
αβ
of induced gluon
fields in terms of Hamiltonians H
A
of color isometries and induced K¨ahler form J
αβ
. This means that
classical color magnetic and electric fluxes reduce to the analogs of ordinary magnetic fluxes appearing
in the construction of configuration space geometry [B2, B3].
By a local color rotation the color field can be rotated to a fixed direction so that genuinely Abelian
field would be in question apart from the possible presence of gauge singularities making impossible
a global selection of color direction. These singularities could be present since K¨ahler form defines
a magnetic monopole field. An interesting question inspired by quantum classical correspondence is
what the Abelian holonomy tells about the sources of color gauge fields and color confinement.
92 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
For instance, could Abelian holonomy mean that colored gluons (and presumably also other col-
ored particles) do not propagate in the p-adic length scale considered? Color neutral gluons would
propagate but since also their sources must be color neutral, they should have vanishing net color
electric fluxes. This form of confinement would allow those states of color multiplets which have
vanishing color charges and obviously symmetry breaking down to U(1) U(1) would be in question.
This would serve as a signal for monopole confinement which would not exclude higher multipoles for
the Abelian color fields. This kind of fields appear in the the TGD based model for nuclei as nuclear
strings bound together by color flux tubes [F8]. In the sequel the model for nuclear color force is
briefly discussed in order to give an idea about how the dark color forces might act also in longer
length scales.
1.6.2 Dark color force as a space-time correlate for the strong nuclear
force?
Color confinement suggests a basic application of the basic criteria for the transition to large phase.
The obvious guess is that valence quarks are dark [J6, F10]. Dark matter phase for quarks does not
change the lowest order classical strong interaction cross sections but reduces dramatically higher
order perturbative corrections and resolves the problems created by the large value of QCD coupling
strength in the hadronic phase.
The challenge is to understand the strong binding solely in terms of dark QCD with large value
of reducing color coupling strength of valence quarks to v
0
· 2
−11
. The best manner to introduce
the basic ideas is as a series of not so frequently asked questions and answers.
Rubber band model of strong nuclear force as starting point
The first question is what is the vision for nuclear strong interaction that one can start from. The
sticky toffee model of Chris Illert [72] is based on the paradox created by the fact alpha particles
can tunnel from the nucleus but that the reversal of this process in nuclear collisions does not occur.
Illert proposes a classical model for the tunnelling of alpha particles from nucleus based on dynamical
electromagnetic charge. Illert is forced to assume that virtual pions inside nuclei have considerably
larger size than predicted by QCD and the model. Strikingly, the model favors fractional alpha particle
charges at the nuclear surface. The TGD based interpretation would be based on the identification of
the rubber bands of Illert as long color bonds having exotic light quark and anti-quark at their ends
and connecting escaping alpha particle to the mother nucleus. The challenge is to give meaning to
the attribute ”exotic”.
How the darkness of valence quarks can be consistent with the known sizes of nuclei?
The assumption about darkness of valence quarks in the sense of of large (
s
= /v
0
) is very natural
if one takes the basic criterion for darkness seriously. The obvious question is how the dark color force
can bind the nucleons to nuclei of ordinary size if the strength of color force is v
0
and color sizes of
valence quarks are about L(129)?
It seems also obvious that L(107) in some sense defines the size for nucleons, and somehow this
should be consistent with scaled up size L(k
eff
= 129) implied by the valence quarks with large .
The proposal of [J6, F10] inspired by RHIC findings [67] is that valence quarks are dark in the sense of
having large value of and thus correspond to k
eff
= 129 whereas sea quarks correspond to ordinary
value for and give rise to the QCD size ∼ L(107) of nucleon.
If one assumes that the typical distances between sea quark space-time sheets of nucleons is ob-
tained by scaling down the size scale of valence quarks, the size scale of nuclei comes out correctly.
Valence quarks and exotic quarks cannot be identical
The hypothesis is that nucleons contain or there are associated with them pairs of exotic quarks and
flux tubes of color field bodies of size ∼ L(129) connecting the exotic quark and anti-quark in separate
nuclei. Nucleons would be structures with the size of ordinary nucleus formed as densely packed
structures of size L(129) identifiable as the size of color magnetic body.
1.6. Exotic color and electro-weak interactions 93
The masses of exotic quarks must be however small so that they must differ from valence quarks.
The simplest possibility is that exotic quarks are not dark but p-adically scaled down versions of sea
quarks with ordinary value of having k = 127 so that masses are scaled down by a factor 2
−10
.
Energetic considerations favor the option that exotic quarks associate with nucleons via the k
eff
=
111 space-time sheets containing nucleons and dark quarks. Encouragingly, the assumption that
nucleons topologically condense at the weak k
eff
= 111 space-time sheet of size L(111) · 10
−14
m
of exotic quarks predicts essentially correctly the mass number of the highest known super-massive
nucleus. Neutron halos are outside this radius and can be understood in terms color Coulombic
binding by dark gluons. Tetraneutron can be identified as alpha particle containing two negatively
charged color bonds.
What determines the binding energy per nucleon?
The binding energies per nucleon for A ≥ 4 to not vary too much from 7 MeV but the lighter nuclei
have anomalously small binding energies. The color bond defined by a color magnetic flux tube
of length ∼ L(k = 127) or ∼ L(k
eff
= 129) connecting exotic quark and anti-quark in separate
nucleons with scaled down masses m
q
(dark) ∼ xm
q
, with x = 2
−10
for option for k = 127, is a good
candidate in this respect. Color magnetic spin-spin interaction would give the dominant contribution
to the interaction energy as in the case of hadrons. This interaction energy is expected to depend
on exotic quark pair only. The large zero point kinetic energy of light nuclei topologically condensed
at k
eff
= 111 space-time sheet having possible identification as the dark variant of k = 89 weak
space-time sheet explains why the binding energies of D and
3
He are anomalously small.
What can one assume about the color bonds?
Can one allow only quark anti-quark type color bonds? Can one allow the bonds to be also electro-
magnetically charged as the earlier model for tetra-neutron suggests (tetra-neutron would be alpha
particle containing two negatively charged color bonds so that the problems with the Fermi statistics
are circumvented). Can one apply Fermi statistics simultaneously to exotic quarks and anti-quarks
and dark valence quarks?
Option I: Assume that exotic and dark valence quarks are identical in the sense of Fermi statis-
tics. This assumption sounds somewhat non-convincing but is favored by p-adic mass calculations
supporting the view that the p-adic mass scale of hadronic quarks can vary. If this hypothesis holds
true at least effectively, very few color bonds from a given nucleon are allowed by statistics and there
are good reasons to argue that nucleons are arranged to highly tangled string like structures filling
nuclear volume with two nucleons being connected by color bonds having of length of order L(129).
The organization into closed strings is also favored by the conservation of magnetic flux.
The notion of nuclear string is strongly supported by the resulting model explaining the nuclear
binding energies per nucleon. It is essential that nucleons form what might be called nuclear strings
rather than more general tangles. Attractive p-p and n-n bonds must correspond to colored ρ
0
type
bonds with spin one and attractive p-n type bonds to color singlet pion type bonds. The quantitative
estimates for the spin-spin interaction energy of the lightest nuclei lead to more precise estimates
for the lengths of color bonds. The resulting net color quantum numbers must be compensated by
dark gluon condensate, the existence of which is suggested by RHIC experiments [67]. This option is
strongly favored by the estimate of nuclear binding energies.
Option II: If Fermi statistics is not assumed to apply in the proposed manner, then color magnetic
flux tubes bonds between any pair of nucleons are possible. The identification of color isospin as
strong isospin still effective removes color degree of freedom. As many as 8 color tubes can leave the
nucleus if exotic quarks and anti-quarks are in the same orbital state and a cubic lattice like structure
would become possible. This picture would be consistent with the idea that in ordinary field theory all
particle pairs contribute to the interaction energy. The large scale of the magnetic flux tubes would
suggest that the contributions cannot depend much on particle pair. The behavior of the binding
energies favors strongly the idea of nuclear string and reduces this option to the first one.
What is the origin of strong force and strong isospin?
Here the answer is motivated by the geometry of CP
2
allowing to identify the holonomy group of
electro-weak spinor connection as U(2) subgroup of color group. Strong isospin group SU(2) is iden-
94 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
tified as subgroup of isotropy group U(2) for space-time surfaces in a sub-theory defined by M
4
S
2
,
S
2
a homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere of CP
2
and second factor of U(1) U(1) subgroup
of the holonomies for the induced Abelian gauge fields corresponds to strong isospin component I
3
.
The extremely tight correlations between various classical fields lead to the hypothesis that the strong
isospin identifiable as color isospin I
3
of exotic quarks at the ends of color bonds attached to a given
nucleon is identical with the weak isospin of the nucleon. Note that this does not require that exotic
and valence quarks are identical particles in the sense of Fermi statistics.
Does the model explain the strong spin orbit coupling (L S force)? This force can be identified
as an effect due to the motion of fermion string containing the effectively color charged nucleons in
the color magnetic field v E induced by the motion of string in the color electric field at the dark
k = 107 space-time sheet.
How the phenomenological shell model with harmonic oscillator potential emerges?
Nucleus can be seen as a collection of of long color magnetic flux tubes glued to nucleons with the
mediation of exotic quarks and anti-quarks. If nuclei form closed string, as one expects in the case of
Fermi statistics constraint, also this string defines a closed string or possibly a collection of linked and
knotted closed strings. If Fermi statistics constraint is not applied, the nuclear strings form a more
complex knotted and linked tangle. The stringy space-time sheets would be the color magnetic flux
tubes connecting exotic quarks belonging to different nucleons.
The color bonds between the nucleons are indeed strings connecting them and the averaged in-
teraction between neighboring nucleons in the nuclear string gives in the lowest order approximation
3-D harmonic oscillator potential although strings have D = 2 transversal degrees of freedom. Even
in the case that nucleons for nuclear strings and thus have only two bonds to neighbors the average
force around equilibrium position is expected to be a harmonic force in a good approximation. The
nuclear wave functions fix the restrictions of stringy wave functionals to the positions of nucleons at
the nuclear strings. Using M-theory language, nucleons would represent branes connected by color
magnetic flux tubes representing strings whose ends co-move with branes.
Which nuclei are the most stable ones and what is the origin of magic numbers?
P = N closed strings correspond to energy minima and their deformations obtained by adding or
subtracting nucleons in general correspond to smaller binding energy per nucleon. Thus the observed
strong correlation between P and N finds a natural explanation unlike in the harmonic oscillator model.
For large values of A the generation of dark gluon condensate and corresponding color Coulombic
binding energy favors the surplus of neutrons and the generation of neutron halos. The model explains
also the spectrum of light nuclei, in particular the absence of pp, nn, ppp, and nnn nuclei.
In the standard framework spin-orbit coupling explains the magic nuclei and color Coulombic
force gives rise to this kind of force in the same manner as in atomic physics context. Besides the
standard magic numbers there are also non-standard ones (such as Z, N = 6, 12) if the maximum of
binding energy is taken as a definition of magic, there are also other magic numbers than the standard
ones. Hence can consider also alternative explanations for magic numbers. The geometric view about
nucleus suggests that the five Platonic regular solids might defined favor nuclear configurations and
it indeed turns that they explain non-standard magic numbers for light nuclei.
New magic nuclei might be obtained by linking strings representing doubly magic nuclei. An
entire hierarchy of linkings becomes possible and could explain the new magic numbers 14, 16, 30, 32
discovered for neutrons [68]. Linking of the nuclear strings could be rather stable by Pauli Exclusion
Principle. For instance,
16
O would corresponds to linked
4
He and
12
C nuclei. Higher magic numbers
28, 50, ... allow partitions to sums of lower magic numbers which encourages to consider the geometric
interpretation as linked nuclei. p-Adic length scale hypothesis in turn suggest the existence of magic
numbers coming as powers of 2
3
.
1.6.3 How brain could deduce the position and velocity of an object of
perceptive field?
The basic degrees of freedom for mind like space-time sheets can be regarded as parameters specifying
color quantization axes and spin quantization axis. The parameters characterizing the choices of
1.6. Exotic color and electro-weak interactions 95
the color quantization axes define 3+3-dimensional symplectic flag-manifold F
3
= SU(3)/U(1)
U(1) whereas the parameters fixing spin-quantization axes define two-dimensional flag-manifold F
2
=
SU(1)/U(1) = S
2
, which is identical to two-sphere and whose point characterizes some orientation
vector. A mathematically attractive identification of the flag manifold F
3
is as a representation for
the possible positions and velocities of an object of the perceptive field whereas F
2
could represent
some orientation, say ear-to-ear orientation axis. This identification, if correct, provides additional
support for the uniqueness of the choice of the imbedding space H = M
4
+
CP
2
. Amazingly, the
model of honeybee dance by Barbara Shipman leads to the identification of the flag manifold F
3
as a
fundamental mathematical structure associated with the cognition of the honeybee.
Without a good physical justification this kind of identification is however ad hoc. Fortunately, the
following argument makes it possible to understand why F
3
should code the position and the velocity
of the objects of the perceptive field.
1. The time development by quantum self-organization is expected to lead to well defined asymp-
totic values of (P, Q) coordinates during each wake-up period of the mind like space-time sheet
representing object of the perceptive field and in self-state.
2. The crucial observation is that classical em and Z
0
fields are accompanied by classical color
fields in TGD. Color rotations rotate the color field in color space whereas induced K¨ahler form
remains unchanged. Most importantly: classical em and Z
0
fields do not remain invariant under
color rotations as they would remain in standard model. This leads to the idea that different
(P, Q) values obtained by color rotations of cognitive and neuronal space-time sheets correspond
to slightly different membrane potentials and that it is the dependence of the membrane potential
on the position and velocity of the object of the perceptive field, which leads to (P, Q) coding.
3. An observation not directly related to (P, Q) coding is that classical em and color fields induce
tiny color polarization at quark level leading to color polarization of nuclei: this color polarization
could provide the quantum correlate for the color quale. The representation of color in this
manner however requires that (P, Q) are same for all neurons in the perceptive field so that the
coding of positions and velocities and color are mutually exclusive. Positions and velocities and
color are indeed represented by different regions of cortex.
4. Color rotation induces motion in F
3
rotating color quantization axes and leaving the induced
K¨ahler field invariant so that absolute minima of K¨ahler action are mapped to absolute minima
and zero modes are not changed. Classical Z
0
and em fields are however not invariant under
color rotations. How classical em and Z
0
depend on K¨ahler form becomes clear from the the
following formulas:
γ = 3J −
1
2
sin
2
θ
W
Z
0
,
Z
0
= 2J + 4e
0
∧ e
3
,
J = 2(e
0
∧ e
3
+e
1
∧ e
2
) . (1.6.1)
Here J denotes K¨ahler form invariant under color rotations and e
k
denote vierbein vectors of
CP
2
. e
0
∧e
3
denotes the part of Z
0
, which is not invariant under color rotations. From these for-
mulas it is evident that classical photon field is not in general invariant since it is a superposition
of the induced K¨ahler field and classical Z
0
field and reduces to induced K¨ahler field only when
the Weinberg angle vanishes: the physical value of the Weinberg angle is about sin
2

W
) = 1/4.
This means that various points (P, Q) of (3+3)-dimensional F
3
indeed correspond to different
classical Z
0
fields and classical em fields.
5. There is however an important exception to this picture. If CP
2
projection belongs to geodesic
sphere S
2
, the field equations reduces to those for X
4
⊂ M
4
S
2
. For space-time sheets for
which CP
2
projection is r = ∞ homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere of CP
2
one has
γ = (
3
4

sin
2

W
)
2
)Z
0
·
5Z
0
8
96 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
as the explicit study of r = ∞ geodesic sphere shows (see the appendix of the book). The
induced W fields vanish in this case and they vanish also for all geodesic spheres obtained by
SU(3) rotation. There are excellent reasons to believe that also the relationship between Z
0
and γ is SU(3) invariant so that there would be no mixing between em and Z
0
fields. For
homologically trivial geodesic spheres γ and Z
0
vanish and only W fields are non-vanishing.
This kind of MEs would naturally correspond to W MEs.
For D > 2-dimensional CP
2
projection the situation changes. MEs have always 2-D CP
2
projection field equations and field equations are satisfied without assuming that CP
2
projection
is a geodesic sphere and in this case one can hope of getting mixing of γ and Z
0
also in this
case perhaps characterizable in terms of the value of the Weinberg angle. Also W fields can be
present in this case.
6. Assuming that the values of (P, Q) coordinates are the same for the neuronal group representing
an object of the perceptive field and the mind like space-time sheet associated with it (this
could be forced by the wormhole contacts), (P, Q) coding for the positions and velocities for the
objects of the perceptive field follows if these observables are coded into the properties of the
classical Z
0
field associated with the neuronal membrane. This seems plausible since a change of
the classical Z
0
field implies a change of the classical em field if the induced K¨ahler field remains
invariant (as is natural). Thus the problem of understanding (P, Q) coding for position and
velocity reduces to the problem of understanding why the position and velocity should affect
some natural em field associated with cell membrane. Obviously membrane resting potential is
an excellent candidate for this em field.
7. The dependence of the value of the membrane resting potential for the representation of an
object of the perceptive field on the the position and velocity of the object is natural. For
instance, it is advantageous for the neurons representing object near to the observer to be
nearer to the criticality for firing. Thus the membrane potential must be reduced by a suitable
color rotation and effective code position of the object to Q coordinates. Also, when the object
moves towards/away from the observer, the resting potential should be reduced/increased and
this means that velocity is coded to P value (note that there is infinite number of canonical
coordinates at use). From these correlations it is quite plausible that (P, Q) coding could be
a result of natural selection. Of course, the coding of position and velocity to (P, Q) values
need not be one-to-one. For instance, simple organisms are sensitive for velocity only and some
organisms experience world as 2-dimensional.
1.6.4 Boolean mind and dark neutrinos
The unavoidable prediction of classical TGD is the presence of long ranged classical electro-weak fields
in all long scales and the only reasonable interpretation is in terms of dark matter hierarchy suggesting
the existence of light copies of ordinary elementary particles in all length scales coupling to ordinary
matter only via gravitation. Even more, the length scale range 10 nm-2.5 µm contains four Gaussian
Mersennes possibly assignable to fractally scaled down copies of electro-weak physics.
One ends up with a rather concrete quantum model for Boolean mind based on neutrinos by
1. combining the concept of association sequence as 3-surface which is a union of space-like 3-surface
with time-like separations with the fermionic realization of Boolean algebra ;
2. requiring that fermionic states exist only in a finite time interval defined by the duration of the
mind-like space-time sheets;
3. assuming that time-like entanglement is possible for many-fermion states. A rigorous defini-
tion of time like entanglement in terms of so called Connes tensor product is discussed in [C2].
According to this identification time-like entanglement at given level of cognitive hierarchy repre-
sents the S-matrix at lower level of hierarchy as entanglement coefficients so that states at higher
level can represent dynamics at the lower level. This highly restricted form of entanglement is
in accordance with the very restricted failure of classical determinism.
Ordinary fermions cannot reside on mind-like space-time sheets unless they are created as pairs
with vanishing total quantum numbers (in particular energy!) such that the quantum numbers of
1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 97
fermion and anti-fermion at space-time sheets of opposite time orientation compensate each other.
Dark neutrinos are however exceptional since their interaction energy [F8, F10] is negative and it is
possible to create pairs with vanishing net energy such that both members are at space-time sheet of
positive time orientation.
Dark neutrinos are an ideal tool of cognition since they do not couple to electromagnetic interac-
tions and, having couplings only to dark weak bosons, dissipate extremely weakly. The creation of
cognitive neutrino pairs by the splitting of a wormhole contact connecting two space-time sheets is
indeed possible and provides a possible realization for thinking system. Wormhole contact itself can
be regarded as a neutrino-antineutrino pair bound assignable to the causal horizons of the wormhole
contact. Logical statement and its negation correspond naturally to Fock sates of dark antineutrinos
(resp. dark neutrinos).
Quantum classical correspondence suggests that it is localization in zero modes, in fact the con-
scious selection between degenerate absolute minima of K¨ahler action, which selects beween various
configurations of the classical Z
0
field. If the pattern of cognitive neutrino pairs is fixed by the classi-
cal Z
0
field, the premises and conclusions of the logical deductions would be represented in terms of
cognitive neutrinos. This assumption is also in accordance with the hypothesis that the exponent of
the K¨ ahler action provides a measure for the cognitive resources of 3-surface defined as the number
of degenerate absolute minima of K¨ahler action associated with the 3-surface [H7].
From this it is still a long way to precise models and one can make only educated guesses.
1. Cognitive neutrino pairs could reside in the defect regions of neutrino super conductor which
is super-conductor of type I having complicated stripe like defect regions near criticality. TGD
based model for the interaction of dark neutrinos with condensed matter predicts that the
thickness of the defect regions is of order 10
−8
meters. Hence cell membranes are excellent
candidates for the defect regions. The model for the generation of cognitive neutrino pairs as
zero energy states favors this option very strongly.
2. Also chromosomes (having same thickness as cell membranes) could be identified as defect regions
of dark neutrino super conductor. Very simple model for the abstraction process as a hierarchy
of Boolean statements about Boolean statements about... starting from two basic statements
explains the basic numbers of the genetic code (see the chapter [H7]). It is difficult to believe
that this could be mere accident. Cognitive neutrino pairs indeed allow to construct a model of
a many-sheeted DNA realizing gene level Boolean mind and possibly explaining the mystery of
introns [20].
Of course, conscious Boolean mind at gene level need not have anything to do with our logical
mind, and probably does not. If it has, new forms of gene expression are necessary. The model for
abstraction process however predicts entire hierarchy of ”genetic codes”, and the level next to the
level realizing genetic code might correspond to what might be called memetic code realized in terms
of the cognitive neutrino pairs associated with the cell membrane in accordance with the option 1)
and leads up to a concrete model for memetic code relating temporal sequences of cognitive neutrino
pairs associated with axons to cognitive experiences [L1].
1.7 The relationship between p-adic and real physics
p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and intentionality are the most exotic new physics involved
with TGD and only heuristic ideas about the relationship of real and p-adic physics exist. The
interpretation of the p-adic as physics of cognition and the vision about reduction of physics to
rational physics continuable algebraically to various extensions of rationals and p-adic number fields
is an attractive general framework allowing to understand how p-adic fractality could emerge in real
physics. In this section it will be found that this vision provides a concrete tool in principle allowing to
construct global solutions of field equations by reducing long length scale real physics to short length
scale p-adic physics. Also p-adic length scale hypothesis can be understood and the notion of multi-p
p-fractality can be formulated in precise sense in this framework. This vision leads also to a concrete
quantum model for how intentions are transformed to actions and the S-matrix for the process has
the same general form as the ordinary S-matrix.
98 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
1.7.1 p-Adic physics and the construction of solutions of field equations
The number theoretic vision about physics relies on the idea that physics or, rather what we can
know about it, is basically rational number based. One interpretation would be that space-time
surfaces, the induced spinors at space-time surfaces, configuration space spinor fields, S-matrix, etc...,
can be obtained by algebraically continuing their values in a discrete subset of rational variant of the
geometric structure considered to appropriate completion of rationals (real or p-adic). The existence
of the algebraic continuation poses very strong additional constraints on physics but has not provided
any practical means to solve quantum TGD.
In the following it is however demonstrated that this view leads to a very powerful iterative method
of constructing global solutions of classical field equations from local data and at the same time gives
justification for the notion of p-adic fractality, which has provided very successful approach not only
to elementary particle physics but also physics at longer scales. The basic idea is that mere p-adic
continuity and smoothness imply fractal long range correlations between rational points which are
very close p-adically but far from each other in the real sense and vice versa.
The emergence of a rational cutoff
For a given p-adic continuation only a subset of rational points is acceptable since the simultaneous
requirements of real and p-adic continuity can be satisfied only if one introduces ultraviolet cutoff
length scale. This means that the distances between subset of rational points fixing the dynamics of
the quantities involved are above some cutoff length scale, which is expected to depend on the p-adic
number field R
p
as well as a particular solution of field equations. The continued quantities coincide
only in this subset of rationals but not in shorter length scales.
The presence of the rational cutoff implies that the dynamics at short scales becomes effectively
discrete. Reality is however not discrete: discreteness and rationality only characterize the inherent
limitations of our knowledge about reality. This conforms with the fact that our numerical calculations
are always discrete and involve finite set of points.
The intersection points of various p-adic continuations with real space-time surface should code for
all actual information that a particular p-adic physics can give about real physics in classical sense.
There are reasons to believe that real space-time sheets are in the general case characterized by integers
n decomposing into products of powers of primes p
i
. One can expect that for p
i
-adic continuations
the sets of intersection points are especially large and that these p-adic space-time surfaces can be
said to provide a good discrete cognitive mimicry of the real space-time surface.
Adelic formula represents real number as product of inverse of its p-adic norms. This raises the
hope that taken together these intersections could allow to determine the real surface and thus classical
physics to a high degree. This idea generalizes to quantum context too.
The actual construction of the algebraic continuation from a subset of rational points is of course
something which cannot be done in practice and this is not even necessary since much more elegant
approach is possible.
Hierarchy of algebraic physics
One of the basic hypothesis of quantum TGD is that it is possible to define exponent of K¨ahler action
in terms of fermionic determinants associated with the modified Dirac operator derivable from a Dirac
action related super-symmetrically to the K¨ahler action.
If this is true, a very elegant manner to define hierarchy of physics in various algebraic extensions
of rational numbers and p-adic numbers becomes possible. The observation is that the continuation
to various p-adic numbers fields and their extensions for the fermionic determinant can be simply
done by allowing only the eigenvalues which belong to the extension of rationals involved and solve
field equations for the resulting K¨ahler function. Hence a hierarchy of fermionic determinants results.
The value of the dynamical Planck constant characterizes in this approach the scale factor of the M
4
metric in various number theoretical variants of the imbedding space H = M
4
CP
2
glued together
along subsets of rational points of H. The values of are determined from the requirement of quantum
criticality [C2] meaning that K¨ahler coupling strength is analogous to critical temperature.
In this approach there is no need to restrict the imbedding space points to the algebraic extension
of rationals and to try to formulate the counterparts of field equations in these discrete imbedding
spaces.
1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 99
p-Adic short range physics codes for long range real physics and vice versa
One should be able to construct global solutions of field equations numerically or by engineering them
from the large repertoire of known exact solutions [D1]. This challenge looks formidable since the
field equations are extremely non-linear and the failure of the strict non-determinism seems to make
even in principle the construction of global solutions impossible as a boundary value problem or initial
value problem.
The hope is that short distance physics might somehow code for long distance physics. If this
kind of coding is possible at all, p-adicity should be crucial for achieving it. This suggests that one
must articulate the question more precisely by characterizing what we mean with the phrases ”short
distance” and ”long distance”. The notion of short distance in p-adic physics is completely different
from that in real physics, where rationals very close to each other can be arbitrary far away in the
real sense, and vice versa. Could it be that in the statement ”Short length scale physics codes for long
length scale physics” the attribute ”short”/”long” could refer to p-adic/real norm, real/p-adic norm,
or both depending on the situation?
The point is that rational imbedding space points very near to each other in the real sense are
in general at arbitrarily large distances in p-adic sense and vice versa. This observation leads to an
elegant method of constructing solutions of field equations.
1. Select a rational point of the imbedding space and solve field equations in the real sense in an
arbitrary small neighborhood U of this point. This can be done with an arbitrary accuracy by
choosing U to be sufficiently small. It is possible to solve the linearized field equations or use a
piece of an exact solution going through the point in question.
2. Select a subset of rational points in U and interpret them as points of p-adic imbedding space and
space-time surface. In the p-adic sense these points are in general at arbitrary large distances
from each and real continuity and smoothness alone imply p-adic long range correlations. Solve
now p-adic field equations in p-adically small neighborhoods of these points. Again the accuracy
can be arbitrarily high if the neighborhoods are choose small enough. The use of exact solutions
of course allows to overcome the numerical restrictions.
3. Restrict the solutions in these small p-adic neighborhoods to rational points and interpret these
points as real points having arbitrarily large distances. p-Adic smoothness and continuity alone
imply fractal long range correlations between rational points which are arbitrary distant in the
real sense. Return to 1) and continue the loop indefinitely.
In this manner one obtains even in numerical approach more and more small neighborhoods rep-
resenting almost exact p-adic and real solutions and the process can be continued indefinitely.
Some comments about the construction are in order.
1. Essentially two different field equations are in question: real field equations fix the local behavior
of the real solutions and p-adic field equations fix the long range behavior of real solutions.
Real/p-adic global behavior is transformed to local p-adic/real behavior. This might be the
deepest reason why for the hierarchy of p-adic physics.
2. The failure of the strict determinism for the dynamics dictated by K¨ahler action and p-adic
non-determinism due to the existence of p-adic pseudo constants give good hopes that the
construction indeed makes it possible to glue together the (not necessarily) small pieces of
space-time surfaces inside which solutions are very precise or exact.
3. Although the full solution might be impossible to achieve, the predicted long range correlations
implied by the p-adic fractality at the real space-time surface are a testable prediction for which
p-adic mass calculations and applications of TGD to biology provide support.
4. It is also possible to generalize the procedure by changing the value of p at some rational points
and in this manner construct real space-time sheets characterized by different p-adic primes.
5. One can consider also the possibility that several p-adic solutions are constructed at given ratio-
nal point and the rational points associated with p-adic space-time sheets labelled by p
1
, ...., p
n
belong to the real surface. This would mean that real surface would be multi-p p-adic fractal.
100 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
I have earlier suggested that even elementary particles are indeed characterized by integers and that
only particles for which the integers have common prime factors interact by exchanging particles
characterized by common prime factors. In particular, the primes p = 2, 3, ....., 23 would be common to
the known elementary particles and appear in the expression of the gravitational constant. Multi-p p-
fractality leads also to an explanation for the weakness of the gravitational constant. The construction
recipe for the solutions would give a concrete meaning for these heuristic proposals.
This approach is not restricted to space-time dynamics but is expected to apply also at the level
of say S-matrix and all mathematical object having physical relevance. For instance, p-adic four-
momenta appear as parameters of S-matrix elements. p-Adic four-momenta very near to each other
p-adically restricted to rational momenta define real momenta which are not close to each other and
the mere p-adic continuity and smoothness imply fractal long range correlations in the real momentum
space and vice versa.
p-Adic length scale hypothesis
Approximate p
1
-adicity implies also approximate p
2
-adicity of the space-time surface for primes p · p
k
1
.
p-Adic length scale hypothesis indeed states that primes p · 2
k
are favored and this might be due to
simultaneous p · 2
k
- and 2-adicity. The long range fractal correlations in real space-time implied by
2-adicity would indeed resemble those implied by p · 2
k
and both p · 2
k
-adic and 2-adic space-time
sheets have larger number of common points with the real space-time sheet.
If the scaling factor λ of appearing in the dark matter hierarchy is in good approximation λ = 2
11
also dark matter hierarchy comes into play in a resonant manner and dark space-time sheets at various
levels of the hierarchy tend to have many intersection points with each other.
There is however a problem involved with the understanding of the origin of the p-adic length
scale hypothesis if the correspondence via common rationals is assumed.
1. The mass calculations based on p-adic thermodynamics for Virasoro generator L
0
predict that
mass squared is proportional to 1/p and Uncertainty Principle implies that L
p
is proportional
to

p rather than p, which looks more natural if common rationals define the correspondence
between real and p-adic physics.
2. It would seem that length d
p
· pR, R or order CP
2
length, in the induced space-time metric must
correspond to a length L
p
·

pR in M
4
. This could be understood if space-like geodesic lines
at real space-time sheet obeying effective p-adic topology are like orbits of a particle performing
Brownian motion so that the space-like geodesic connecting points with M
4
distance r
M
4 has a
length r
X
4 ∝ r
2
M
4
. Geodesic random walk with randomness associated with the motion in CP
2
degrees of freedom could be in question. The effective p-adic topology indeed induces a strong
local wiggling in CP
2
degrees of freedom so that r
X
4 increases and can depend non-linearly on
r
M
4.
3. If the size of the space-time sheet associated with the particle has size d
p
∼ pR in the induced
metric, the corresponding M
4
size would be about L
p


pR and p-adic length scale hypothesis
results.
4. The strongly non-perturbative and chaotic behavior r
X
4 ∝ r
2
M
4
is assumed to continue only up
to L
p
. At longer length scales the space-time distance d
p
associated with L
p
becomes the unit
of space-time distance and geodesic distance r
X
4 is in a good approximation given by
r
X
4 =
r
M
4
L
p
d
p


p r
M
4 , (1.7.1)
and is thus linear in M
4
distance r
M
4.
1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 101
Does cognition automatically solve real field equations in long length scales?
In TGD inspired theory of consciousness p-adic space-time sheets are identified as space-time correlates
of cognition. Therefore our thoughts would have literally infinite size in the real topology if p-adics
and reals correspond to each other via common rationals (also other correspondence based on the
separate canonical identification of integers m and n in q = m/n with p-adic numbers).
The cognitive solution of field equations in very small p-adic region would solve field equations
in real sense in a discrete point set in very long real length scales. This would allow to understand
why the notions of Universe and infinity are a natural part of our conscious experience although our
sensory input is about an infinitesimally small region in the scale of universe.
The idea about Universe performing mimicry at all possible levels is one of the basic ideas of TGD
inspired theory of consciousness. Universe could indeed understand and represent the long length scale
real dynamics using local p-adic physics. The challenge would be to make quantum jumps generating
p-adic surfaces having large number of common points with the real space-time surface. We are used
to call this activity theorizing and the progress of science towards smaller real length scales means
progress towards longer length scales in p-adic sense. Also real physics can represent p-adic physics:
written language and computer represent examples of this mimicry.
1.7.2 A more detailed view about how local p-adic physics codes for p-adic
fractal long range correlations of the real physics
The vision described earlier gives only a rough heuristic view about how the local p-adic physics could
code for the p-adic fractality of long range real physics. There are highly non-trivial details related to
the treatment of M
4
and CP
2
coordinates and to the mapping of p-adic H-coordinates to their real
counterparts and vice versa.
How real and p-adic space-time regions are glued together?
The first task is to visualize how real and p-adic space-time regions relate to each other. It is convenient
to start with the extension of real axis to contain also p-adic points. For finite rationals q = m/n, m
and n have finite power expansions in powers of p and one can always write q = p
k
r/s such that r
and s are not divisible by p and thus have pinary expansion of in powers of p as x = x
0
+
¸
N
1
x
n
p
n
,
x
i
∈ ¦0, p¦, x
0
= 0.
One can always express p-adic number as x = p
n
y where y has p-adic norm 1 and has expansion in
non-negative powers of p. When x is rational but not integer the expansion contains infinite number
of terms but is periodic. If the expansion is infinite and non-periodic, one can speak about strictly
p-adic number having infinite value as a real number.
In the same manner real number x can be written as x = p
n
y, where y is either rational or has
infinite non-periodic expansion y = r
0
+
¸
n>0
r
n
p
−n
in negative powers of p. As a p-adic number y
is infinite. In this case one can speak about strictly real numbers.
This gives a visual idea about what the solution of field equations locally in various number fields
could mean and how these solutions are glued together along common rationals. In the following I
shall be somewhat sloppy and treat the rational points of the imbedding space as if they were points
of real axis in order to avoid clumsy formulas.
1. The p-adic variants of field equations can be solved in the strictly p-adic realm and by p-adic
smoothness these solutions are well defined also in as subset of rational points. The strictly
p-adic points in a neighborhood of a given rational point correspond as real points to infinitely
distant points of M
4
. The possibility of p-adic pseudo constants means that for rational points
of M
4
having sufficiently large p-adic norm, the values of CP
2
coordinates or induced spinor
fields can be chosen more or less freely.
2. One can solve the p-adic field equations in any p-adic neighborhood U
n
(q) = ¦x = q +p
n
y¦ of a
rational point q of M
4
, where y has a unit p-adic norm and select the values of fields at different
points q
1
and q
2
freely as long as the spheres U
n
(q
1
) and U
n
(q
2
) are disjoint (these spheres are
either identical or disjoint by p-adic ultra-metricity).
The points in the p-adic continuum part of these solutions are at an infinite distance from q in
M
4
. The points which are well-defined in real sense form a discrete subset of rational points of
102 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
M
4
. The p-adic space-time surface constructed in this manner defines a discrete fractal hierarchy
of rational space-time points besides the original points inside the p-adic spheres. In real sense
the rational points have finite distances and could belong to disjoint real space-time sheets.
The failure of the strict non-determinism for the field equations in the real sense gives hopes
for gluing these sheets partially together (say in particle reactions with particles represented as
3-surfaces).
3. All rational points q of the p-adic space-time sheet can be interpreted as real rational points and
one can solve the field equations in the real sense in the neighborhoods U
n
(q) = ¦x = q +p
n

corresponding to real numbers in the the range p
n
≤ x ≤ p
n+1
. Real smoothness and continuity
fix the solutions at finite rational points inside U
n
(q) and by the phenomenon of p-adic pseudo
constants these values can be consistent with p-adic field equations. Obviously one can can
continue the construction process indefinitely.
p-Adic scalings act only in M
4
degrees of freedom
p-Adic fractality suggests that finite real space-time sheets around points x +p
n
, x = 0, are obtained
as by just scaling of the M
4
coordinates having origin at x = 0 by p
n
of the solution defined in a
neighborhood of x and leaving CP
2
coordinates as such. The known extremals of K¨ahler action indeed
allow M
4
scalings as dynamical symmetries.
One can understand why no scaling should appear in CP
2
degrees of freedom. CP
2
is complex
projective space for which points can be regarded as complex planes and for these p-adic scalings act
trivially. It is worth of emphasizing that here could lie a further deep number theoretic reason for
why the space S in H = M
4
S must be a projective space.
What p-adic fractality for real space-time surfaces really means?
The identification of p-adic and real M
4
coordinates of rational points as such is crucial for p-adic
fractality. On the other hand, the identification rational real and p-adic CP
2
coordinates as such
would not be consistent with the idea that p-adic smoothness and continuity imply p-adic fractality
manifested as long range correlations for real space-time sheets
The point is that p-adic fractality is not stable against small p-adic deformations of CP
2
coordinates
as function of M
4
coordinates for solutions representable as maps M
4
→CP
2
. Indeed, if the rational
valued p-adic CP
2
coordinates are mapped as such to real coordinates, the addition of large power
p
n
to CP
2
coordinate implies small modification in p-adic sense but large change in the real sense so
that correlations of CP
2
at p-adically scaled M
4
points would be completely lost.
The situation changes if the map of p-adic CP
2
coordinates to real ones is continuous so that
p-adically small deformations of the p-adic space-time points are mapped to small real deformations
of the real space-time points.
1. Canonical identification I : x =
¸
x
n
p
n

¸
x
n
p
−n
satisfies continuity constraint but does not
map rationals to rationals.
2. The modification of the canonical identification given by
I(q = p
k

r
s
) = p
k

I(r)
I(s)
(1.7.2)
is uniquely defined for rational points, maps rationals to rationals, has a symmetry under
exchange of target and domain. This map reduces to a direct identification of rationals for
0 ≤ r < p and 0 ≤ s < p.
3. The form of this map is not general coordinate invariant nor invariant under color isometries.
The natural requirement is that the map should respect the symmetries of CP
2
maximally.
Therefore the complex coordinates transforming linearly under U(2) subgroup of SU(3) defining
the projective coordinates of CP
2
are a natural choice. The map in question would map the real
components of complex coordinates to their p-adic variants and vice versa. The residual U(2)
1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 103
symmetries correspond to rational unitary 2 2-matrices for which matrix elements are of form
U
ij
= p
k
r/s, r < p, s < p. It would seem that these transformations must form a finite subgroup
if they define a subgroup at all. In case of U(1) Pythagorean phases define rational phases but
sufficiently high powers fail to satisfy the conditions r < p, s < p. Also algebraic extensions of
p-adic numbers can be considered.
4. The possibility of pseudo constant allows to modify canonical identification further so that it
reduces to the direct identification of real and p-adic rationals if the highest powers of p in
r and s (q = p
n
r/s) are not higher than p
N
. Write x =
¸
n≥0
x
n
p
n
= x
N)
+ p
N+1
y with
x
N)
=
¸
N
n=0
x
n
p
n
, x
0
= 0, y
0
= 0, and define I
N
(x) = x
N)
+ p
N+1
I(y). For q = p
n
r/s
define I
N
(q) = p
n
I
N
(r)/I
N
(s). This map reduces to the direct identification of real and p-adic
rationals for y = 0.
5. There is no need to introduce the imaginary unit explicitly. In case of spinors imaginary unit
can be represented by the antisymmetric 2 2-matrix
ij
satisfying
12
= 1. As a matter fact,
the introduction of imaginary unit as number would lead to problems since for p mod 4 = 3
imaginary unit should be introduced as an algebraic extension and CP
2
in this sense would be
an algebraic extension of RP
2
. The fact that the algebraic extension of p-adic numbers by

−1
is equivalent with an extension introducing

p −1 supports the view that algebraic imaginary
unit has nothing to do with the geometric imaginary unit defined by K¨ahler form of CP
2
. For
p mod 4 = 1

−1 exists as a p-adic number but is infinite as a real number so that the notion
of finite complex rational would not make sense.
Preferred CP
2
coordinates as a space-time correlate for the selection of quantization axis
Complex CP
2
coordinates are fixed only apart from the choice of the quantization directions of color
isospin and hyper charge axis in SU(3) Lie algebra. Hence the selection of quantization axes seems
to emerge at the level of the generalized space-time geometry as quantum classical correspondence
indeed requires.
In a well-defined sense the choice of the quantization axis and a special coordinate system implies
the breaking of color symmetry and general coordinate invariance. This breaking is induced by the
presence of p-adic space-time sheets identified as correlates for cognition and intentionality. One could
perhaps say that the cognition affects real physics via the imbedding space points shared by real and
p-adic space-time sheets and that these common points define discrete coordinatization of the real
space-time surface analogous to discretization resulting in any numerical computation.
Relationship between real and p-adic induced spinor fields
Besides imbedding space coordinates also induced spinor fields are fundamental variables in TGD.
The free second quantized induced spinor fields define the fermionic oscillator operators in terms of
which the gamma matrices giving rise to spinor structure of the ”world of classical worlds” can be
expressed.
p-Adic fractal long range correlations must hold true also for the induced spinor fields and they are
in exactly the same role as CP
2
coordinates so that the variant of canonical identification mapping
rationals to rationals should map the real and imaginary parts of of real induced spinor fields to
their p-adic counterparts and vice versa at the rational space-time points common to p-adic and real
space-time sheets.
Could quantum jumps transforming intentions to actions really occur?
The idea that intentional action corresponds to a quantum jump in which p-adic space-time sheet is
transformed to a real one traversing through rational points common to p-adic and real space-time
sheet is consistent with the conservation laws since the sign of the conserved inertial energy can be
also negative in TGD framework and the density of inertial energy vanishes in cosmological length
scales [D5]. Also the non-diagonal transitions p
1
→p
2
are in principle possible and would correspond
to intersections of p-adic space-time sheets having a common subset of rational points. Kind of phase
transitions changing the character of intention or cognition would be in question.
1. Realization of intention as a scattering process
104 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
The first question concerns the interpretation of this process and possibility to find some familiar
counterpart for it in quantum field theory framework. The general framework of quantum TGD
suggests that the points common to real and p-adic space-time sheets could perhaps be regarded as
arguments of an n-point function determining the transition amplitudes for p-adic to real transition
or p
1
→ p
2
-adic transitions. The scattering event transforming an p-adic surface (infinitely distant
real surface in real M
4
) to a real finite sized surface (infinitely distant p-adic surface in p-adic M
4
)
would be in question.
2. Could S-matrix for realizations of intentions have the same general form as the ordinary S-
matrix?
One might hope that the realization of intention as a number theoretic scattering process could be
characterized by an S-matrix, which one might hope of being unitary in some sense. These S-matrix
elements could be interpreted at fundamental level as probability amplitudes between intentions to
prepare a define initial state and the state resulting in the process.
Super-conformal invariance is a basic symmetry of quantum TGD which suggests that the S-
matrix in question should be constructible in terms of n-point functions of a conformal field theory
restricted to a subset of rational points shared by real and p-adic space-time surfaces or their causal
determinants. According to the general vision discussed in [C1], the construction of n-point functions
effectively reduces to that at 2-dimensional sections of light-like causal determinants of space-time
surfaces identified as partonic space-time sheets.
The idea that physics in various number fields results by algebraic continuation of rational physics
serves as a valuable guideline and suggests that the form of the S-matrices between different number
fields (call them non-diagonal S-matrices) could be essentially the same as that of diagonal S-matrices.
If this picture is correct then the basic differences to ordinary real S-matrix would be following.
1. Intentional action could transform p-adic space-time surface to a real one only if the exponent
of K¨ahler function for both is rational valued (or belongs to algebraic extension of rationals).
2. The points appearing as arguments of n-point function associated with the non-diagonal S-
matrix are a subset of rational points of imbedding space whereas in the real case, where the
integration over these points is well defined, all values of arguments can be allowed. Thus the
difference between ordinary S-matrix and more general S-matrices would be that a continuous
Fourier transform of n-point function in space-time domain is not possible in the latter case.
The inherent nature of cognition would be that it favors localization in the position space.
3. Objection and its resolution
Exponent of K¨ahler function is the key piece of the configuration space spinor field. There is a
strong counter argument against the existence of the K¨ahler function in the p-adic context. The basic
problem is that the definite integral defining the K¨ahler action is not p-adically well-defined except in
the special cases when it can be done algebraically. Algebraic integration is however very tricky and
numerically completely unstable.
The definition of the exponent of K¨ahler function in terms of Dirac determinants or, perhaps
equivalently, as a result of normal ordering of the modified Dirac action for second quantized induced
spinors might however lead to an elegant resolution of this problem. This approach is discussed in
detail in [B4, D1]. The idea is that Dirac determinant can be defined as a product of eigenvalues of
the modified Dirac operator and one ends up to a hierarchy of theories based on the restriction of
the eigenvalues to various algebraic extensions of rationals identified as a hierarchy associated with
corresponding algebraic extensions of p-adic numbers. This hierarchy corresponds to a hierarchy of
theories (and also physics!) based on varying values of K¨ahler coupling constant and Planck constant.
The elegance of this approach is that no discretization at space-time level would be needed: everything
reduces to the generalized eigenvalue spectrum of the modified Dirac operator.
4. A more detailed view
Consider the proposed approach in more detail.
1. Fermionic oscillator operators are assigned with the generalized eigenvectors of the modified
Dirac operator defined at the light-like causal determinants:
1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 105
Ψ =
¸
n
Ψ
n
b
n
,

n
= Γ
α
D
α
Ψ
n
= λ
n

n
, O ≡ n
α
Γ
α
. (1.7.3)
Here Γ
α
= T
αk
Γ
k
denote so called modified gamma matrices expressible in terms of the energy
momentum current T
αk
assignable to K¨ahler action [B4]. The replacement of the ordinary
gamma matrices with modified ones is forced by the requirement that the super-symmetries of
the modified Dirac action are consistent with the property of being an extremal of K¨ahler action.
n
α
is a light like vector assignable to the light-like causal determinant and O = n
α
Γ
α
must be
rational and have the same value at real and p-adic side at rational points. The integer n labels
the eigenvalues λ
n
of the modified Dirac operator, and b
n
corresponds to the corresponding
fermionic oscillator operator.
2. The condition that the p-adic and real variants Ψ if the Ψ are identical at common rational points
of real and p-adic space-time surface (the same applies to 4-surfaces corresponding to different
p-adic number fields) poses a strong constraint on the algebraic continuation from rationals to
p-adics and gives hopes of deriving implications of this approach.
3. Ordinary fermionic anti-commutation relations do not refer specifically to any number field.
Super Virasoro (anti-)commutation relations involve only rationals. This suggest that fermionic
Fock space spanned by the oscillator operators b
n
is universal and same for reals and p-adic
numbers and can be regarded as rational. Same would apply to Super Virasoro representations.
Also the possibility to interpret configuration space spinor fields as quantum superpositions of
Boolean statements supports this kind of universality. This gives good hopes that the contri-
bution of the inner produces between Fock states to the S-matrix elements are number field
independent.
4. Dirac determinant can be defined as the product of the eigenvalues λ
n
restricted to a given
algebraic extension of rationals. The solutions of the modified Dirac equation correspond to
vanishing eigen values and define zero modes generating conformal super-symmetries and are
not of course included.
5. Only those operators b
n
for which λ
n
belongs to the algebraic extension of rationals in question
are used to construct physical states for a given algebraic extension of rationals. This might
mean an enormous simplification of the formalism in accordance with the fact that configuration
space Clifford algebra corresponds as a von Neumann algebra to a hyper-finite factor of type
II
1
for which finite truncations by definition allow excellent approximations [C2]. One can even
ask whether this hierarchy of algebraic extensions of rationals could in fact define a hierarchy of
finite-dimensional Clifford algebras. If so then the general theory of hyper-finite factors of type
II
1
would provide an extremely powerful tool.
1.8 Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra
The unique feature of the Super Virasoro algebra is that it allows a fractal hierarchy of sub-algebras
and one obtains hierarchy of exotic representations in p-adic sector. One must however assume that
Super Virasoro gauge conditions allow arbitrary values of the super-canonical scaling quantum number
L
0
is non-vanishing. L
0
= 0 condition would be replaced by L
0
mod p
n
= 0 condition in the p-adic
context so that conformal invariance would become approximate in p-adic sense. The alternative
interpretation would be as fractality in the sense that scalings would leave the states almost invariant.
One could however argue that exotic Super Virasoro representations can make sense only in the
purely p-adic sense and the assumption that mass values values M
2
∝ p
n
, which are gigantic in
real sense, can be mapped by the canonical identification to M
2
∝ p
−n
is highly counter intuitive
and has no physical basis. Also in p-adic mass calculations the canonical identification is applied
only to fix the real probabilities as canonical images of the p-adic probabilities. Essentially the
same predictions would result by using a real statistical ensemble defined by the real counterparts
106 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
of the p-adic probabilities since the three lowest powers of p determine the outcome in an excellent
approximation (that is only the states with M
2
∝ n, n ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦ are included).
The idea that the states L
0
mod p
n
= 0 are light in some well-defined physical sense is however too
beautiful to be given up immediately, and an analogy with condensed matter lattice systems comes in
rescue. For a one-dimensional lattice with lattice constant a only a discrete sub-group of translations
acts as symmetries and momentum cutoff emerges via the condition p ≡ p+n/a. Although the large
momenta p = n/a are still real, they correspond to the motion of the entire lattice.
By replacing the lattice obtained by translations with a lattice obtained by scalings one would
obtain a highly analogous situation. More concretely, suppose that L
0
act as infinitesimal scaling of
the imbedding space coordinates of the space-time surface. The action is almost trivial if the space-
time surface has a fractal structure in the sense of being approximately invariant under the scaling of
the points of M
4
by powers of p. Let a be a positive integer replacing e as the base of exponential
so that a
mL
0
defines an exponentiated scaling. The condition a
mL
0
mod p = 1 states that the state
remains invariant under this scaling and corresponds to the invariance of lattice state under translation
by a multiple ma of the lattice vector. By Fermat’s little theorem this condition is satisfied if one has
L
0
mod p
n
= 0.
One can consider also the 2-based exponential of L
0
giving 2
mL
0
mod p = 0. p-Adic length scale
hypothesis in its most general form stating p · 2
m
, m a positive integer, provides an approximate
solution to this condition. Note that the fractal lattice picture suggests that p-adic cognitive codons
corresponds to octaves of the p-adic frequency f(n, k) = /T(n, k). In the case of memetic code this
would mean that the frequency range 10 − 10
3
Hz dictated by the time scale 1 ms of nerve pulse
activity would contain 6 octaves meaning an effective reduction to genetic code with 6 bits. The
prediction would be that the frequencies 10,20,40,80,160,320,640 Hz are in a special role in neural
dynamics.
The idea p-adic local dynamics codes for the p-adic fractality of the long length scale real dynamics
indeed leads to this kind of picture and leads to a concrete quantum model for intentional action
allowing even to show that the S-matrix for intention-to-action transitions has the same general form
as the ordinary S-matrix [E1, H8].
1.8.1 Exotic p-adic representations as representations for which states are
almost p-adic fractals
When the value of L
0
is power of p: L
0
∝ p
n
, n = 1, 2, .., the real counterpart of the scaling quantum
number is extremely small since it is proportional to 1/p
n
in this case. In particular, the scalings
a
L
0
are p-adically very near to identity transformation for any integer by Fermat’s theorem. Fractals
are invariant under scalings and since the states of exotic representations are in good approximation
invariant under the group of scalings one could say that they are fractals modulo O(1/p), perhaps
resulting as asymptotic states of self-organization processes. One can also say that Virasoro condi-
tions are satisfied to order O(1/p) and that approximate conformal invariance is realized (L
0
= 0
condition would completely trivialize the super-canonical representations since mass squared operator
is not involved now). Note that the subalgebra of super-canonical algebra with conformal weights
proportional to p
m
emerges naturally as an algebra replacing the entire super-conformal algebra.
One could sharpen the notion of approximate super-conformal representation. The failure of L
0
to
annihilate the states means that L
mp
n can generate zero norm state only in order O(p
n
). Thus only
the generators L
−mp
n, m ≥ 0, but not L
mp
n can annihilate the physical states. Same would hold true
also for the super generators and super-canonical generators. Also multi-p-adic exotic representations
are possible since any integer n =
¸
i
p
k
i
i
defines a sub-algebra spanned by the generators for which
conformal weights are proportional to n.
The representations of the conformal algebra with a non-vanishing central charge could be in
question. The central charge term in the commutators of the conformal generators, being proportional
to (c/12)(n
3
−n) (c is central charge) is of order O(p
k
) unless p divides 12 (,that is p = 2 or p = 3 holds
true,) or p divides the denominator of c, which is in general rational number. The central extension
term for the anti-commutator of the fermionic super-generators G
n
and G
−n
is
c
12
(2n − 1)(2n + 1)
and is not of order O(p
k
) for n multiple of p
k
.
Semiclassical argument suggests that the lengths of MEs associated with these representations
correspond to p-adic length scales and it turns out that corresponding fundamental frequencies cor-
respond to important EEG frequencies in ELF frequency range. This encourages to think that the
1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 107
exotic representations of super-canonical algebra might of special interest from the point of view of
cognition.
Also quaternion conformal representations allow similar phenomenon and in this case p-adic mass
squared proportional to L
0
has extremely small real counterpart. The mass squared associated with the
corresponding real states is however astrophysical and, in contrast to the original working hypothesis, it
will be assumed that these states are not important for consciousness. There are however indications
supporting the importance of these states in hadron physics: one could perhaps understand non-
perturbative aspects of QCD in terms of exotic p-adic quaternion-conformal representations.
1.8.2 Mersenne primes and Gaussian Mersennes are special
Mersenne primes
One can also consider the milder requirement that the exponent λ = 2
L
0
represents trivial scaling
represented by unit in good approximation for some p-adic topology. Not surprisingly, this is the
case for L
0
= mp
k
since by Fermat’s theorem a
p
mod p = 1 for any integer a, in particular a = 2.
This is also the case for L
0
= mk such that 2
k
mod p = 1 for p prime. This occurs if 2
k
− 1 is
Mersenne prime: in this case one has 2
L
0
= 1 modulo p so that the sizes of the fractal sub-algebras
are exponentially larger than the sizes of L
0
∝ p
n
algebras. Note that all scalings a
L
0
are near to
unity for L
0
= p
n
whereas now only a = 2 gives scalings near unity for Mersenne primes. Perhaps
this extended fractality provides the fundamental explanation for the special importance of Mersenne
primes.
In this case integrated scalings 2
L
0
leave the states almost invariant so that even a stronger form
of the breaking of the exact conformal invariance would be in question in the super-canonical case.
The representation would be defined by the generators for which conformal weights are odd multiples
of n (M
n
= 2
n
−1) and L
−kn
, k > 0 would generate zero norm states only in order O(1/M
n
).
Especially interesting is the hierarchy of primes defined by the so called Combinatorial Hierarchy
resulting from TGD based model for abstraction process. The primes are given by 2, 3, 7 = 2
3
−1, 127 =
2
7
−1, 2
127
−1,..: L
0
= n 127 would correspond to M
127
-adicity crucial for the memetic code.
Gaussian Mersennes are also special
If one allows also Gaussian primes then the notion of Mersenne prime generalizes: Gaussian Mersennes
are of form (1±i)
n
−1. In this case one could replace the scaling operations by scaling combined with
a twist of π/4 around some symmetry axis: 1 + i =

2exp(iπ/4) and generalized p-adic fractality
would mean that for certain values of n the exponentiated operation consisting of n basic operations
would be very near to unity.
i) The integers k associated with the lowest Gaussian Mersennes are following: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 19, 29, 47, 73, 79, 113.
k = 113 corresponds to the p-adic length scale associated with the atomic nucleus and muon. Thus all
known charged leptons, rather than only e and τ, as well as nuclear physics length scale, correspond
to Mersenne primes in the generalized sense.
ii) The primes k = 151, 157, 163, 167 define perhaps the most fundamental biological length scales:
k = 151 corresponds to the thickness of the cell membrane of about ten nanometers and k = 167 to cell
size about 2.56 µm. This observation also suggests that cellular organisms have evolved to their present
form through four basic evolutionary stages. This also encourages to think that

2exp(iπ/4) operation
giving rise to logarithmic spirals abundant in living matter is fundamental dynamical symmetry in
bio-matter.
Logarithmic spiral provides the simplest model for biological growth as a repetition of the ba-
sic operation

2exp(iπ/4). The naive interpretation would be that growth processes consist of
k = 151, 157, 163, 167 steps involving scaling by

2. This however requires the strange looking as-
sumption that growth starts from a structure of size of order CP
2
length. Perhaps this exotic growth
process is associated with pair of MEs or magnetic flux tubes of opposite time orientation and energy
emergenging CP
2
sized region in a mini big bang type process and that the resulting structure serves
as a template for the biological growth.
iii) k = 239, 241, 283, 353, 367, 379, 457 associated with the next Gaussian Mersennes define astro-
nomical length scales. k = 239 and k = 241 correspond to the p-adic time scales .55 ms and 1.1 ms:
basic time scales associated with nerve pulse transmission are in question. k = 283 corresponds to
the time scale of 38.6 min. An interesting question is whether this period could define a fundamental
108 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
biological rhythm. The length scale L(353) corresponds to about 2.610
6
light years, roughly the size
scale of galaxies. The length scale L(367) · 3.3 10
8
light years is of same order of magnitude as
the size scale of the large voids containing galaxies on their boundaries (note the analogy with cells).
T(379) · 2.1 10
10
years corresponds to the lower bound for the order of the age of the Universe.
T(457) ∼ 10
22
years defines a completely superastronomical time and length scale.
Connection with the em realization of genetic code and Gaussian Mersennes?
The considerations above suggest that

2exp(iπ/4) might code for a fundamental logarithmic spiral
growth step in some sense. The powers of the phase factor exp(iπ/4) define 8-element cyclic group
which should be thus fundamental for 2-adic logarithmic spiral growth process in which the diagonal
of square becomes the side of the next square rotated by π/4 with respect to original one.
Perhaps it is worth of noticing that for 3-bit Boolean algebra with one statement excluded the
maximal Boolean algebra corresponds to 2 bits of information, and is naturally associated with the
predecessor of the genetic code in the hierarchy of codes predicted by the TGD based model for
abstraction process. In this case the counterpart of 64 DNA triplets code for 4 statements and the 4
DNA nucleotides themselves might correspond to these ”basic truths”.
Second point perhaps worth of noticing is that the model of electromagnetic realization of the
genetic code discussed in [H8], which was inspired by the observations Cyril Smith [47] about the
coding of arithmetic operations to the sequences of 7 binary electromagnetic pulses, led to a guess for
a 7-bit binary code for binary arithmetic operations of type f = f(f
1
, f
2
) = Xf
1
OY f
2
giving output
frequency as a function of two input frequencies f
1
and f
2
. O codes for the arithmetic operation proper
represented by single bit and the eight operations X and Y acting on the operands are represented
by 3 bits each. Depending on context, O = 0/1 represents either +/− or //.
There are eight different operations X (Y ), which suggests an interpretation in terms of 8-element
cyclic group. Perhaps the coding of the growth process might be achieved by this kind of coding. Each
DNA triplet would code this kind of elementary growth process whereas conjugate triplet would code
its time reversal. MEs would read genes to sequences of pulses of light-like vacuum current generating
hologram realized in terms of coherent photons in turn coding the growth program and conjugate
DNA would give rise to time reversed phase conjugate hologram coding for the time reversal of the
growth step.
What remains to be understood is the meaning of the arithmetic operation in the growth process.
The coding of growth process might reduce to coding of the growth of MEs and super-conducting
magnetic flux tubes. If the eight rotations are accompanied by scalings, then multiplication and
division of two growth steps would make sense since also the inverse of growth step makes sense.
What remains however mysterious why DNA triplets would code the growth steps in this manner. An
alternative interpretation is that a growth process of binary structures in question and that arithmetic
operation ± tells something about the second member of the binary structure. For instance, pairs of
mind like space-time sheets might be in question (pairs of spiralling MEs with light-like boundaries
or wormhole magnetic fields) and ± might tell whether the other space-time sheet has positive or
negative time orientation.
1.8.3 The huge degeneracies of the exotic states make them ideal for rep-
resentational purposes
For a given eigenvalue of L
0
there is degeneracy of states given essentially by the exponent of L
0
. The
states with L
0
= O(p
n
) have enormous degeneracy since the degeneracy of states increases exponen-
tially as function of mass (this in fact leads to Hagedorn temperature). Huge ground state degeneracy
is just what also spin glass analogy suggests and effective information storage and processing requires.
The huge (really!) information processing potential suggests that these states correspond to an in-
finite hierarchy of life forms. Thus matter or ’flesh’ would correspond to states of super-canonical
algebra with L
0
= 0 whereas the ’spirit’ would correspond to states with L
0
eigenvalue divisible by
p
n
, n = 1, 2, .., p prime and to states with L
0
∝ n, 2
n
−1 Mersenne prime. The identification of mind
like space-time sheets as MEs which allow these sub-Super Virasoro representations, means that this
hypothesis is consistent with TGD inspired theory of consciousness.
Thus one can conclude that life forms would be characterized by integer triplets
1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 109
(p, m, n), p prime .
This is a rather far-reaching prediction effectively promising a resolution to the riddle of life as a
quantum physical phenomenon and gives a hint about the predictive and explanatory powers of
geometrization of physics using p-adic numbers.
The Super Virasoro representations in question are associated with the algebra of super-canonical
transformations. There are two kinds of bosonic generators. The generators of first kind correspond to
infinitesimal canonical transformations of E
2
CP
2
localized with respect to the light-like coordinate
S
+
of the light-like projection of the light-like boundary of ME. The coordinate lines of S
±
correspond
in geometric optics picture curved light rays. E
2
denotes S
+
= constant (or S

= constant) 2-
surface and can be obviously chosen in several manners. If ME is glued along a space-like section to
some matter like 4-surface then this section most naturally corresponds to S
+
= constant section. A
tempting assumption is that sensory experience could be determined by the properties of the quantum
state in this section. The generators of second type correspond to the radial Virasoro algebra (functions
of S
+
coordinate) localized with respect to CP
2
coordinates so that they act as CP
2
-local radial
deformations of the light-like boundary. Fermionic generators are in one-one correspondence with
the bosonic generators and correspond to configuration space gamma matrices. In the case of future
light cone boundary similar algebra generates the isometries of the configuration space of 3-surfaces
[B2, B3].
As noticed super-canonical and super-conformal degrees of freedom do not contribute to mass
squared unlike quaternion conformal degrees of freedom. This means an immense degeneracy of
states with respect to energy broken only by the non-commutativity of Poincare algebra and super-
canonical and super-conformal algebras. It is not at all obvious whether one can assing this degeneracy
to elementary particles or only with the light-like boundaries of MEs.
Any function of E
2
CP
2
coordinates and of the radial coordinate S
+
of the light-like bound-
ary (that is function of the coordinates of light-cone boundary δM
4
+
) defines Hamiltonian and thus
configuration space isometry. It is convenient to assume that Hamiltonians correspond to CP
2
par-
tial waves with well defined color quantum numbers. In the case of S
2
one could assume angular
momentum eigenstates but this choice is not practical. Generalized Super Virasoro algebra acts as
CP
2
-local conformal symmetries of light-cone boundary which by its metric 2-dimensionality indeed
allows infinite-group of conformal symmetries. The functions of E
2
CP
2
coordinate having no depen-
dence on the light-like coordinate E
+
of the light-cone boundary define the Hamiltonians of canonical
transformations of E
2
CP
2
. The subset of Hamiltonians with vanishing color and angular momentum
quantum numbers ((I
3
, Y ) and J
z
) correspond to the zero modes in the proposed complexification
of the configuration space tangent space [B2, B3]. The group of these canonical transformations di-
vided by the Cartan group of U(1) SU(3) defines infinite-dimensional flag-manifold parametrizing
all possible choices of quantization axes.
Super generators are expressible in terms of fermionic oscillator operators carrying quantum num-
bers of quarks and leptons. The Super Virasoro representations differ from the standard representa-
tions used in superstring models in that super generators are not Hermitian G

r
= G
−r
) and carry
fermion number [C1]. In quaternion confromal case Super generators carry lepton number in the case
of Ramond type representations and quark number in the case of Neveu-Schwartz type representa-
tions. Super-canonical representations are Ramond type representations. Both quaternion conformal
and super canonical representations carry all possible quark/lepton numbers and thus spans what is
very much like the Fock states of second quantized theory with configuration space degrees of freedom
included as additional degrees of freedom and reflecting the fact that point like particles are replaces
with 3-D surfaces.
1.8.4 Could one assign life-forms to the exotic Super-Virasoro representa-
tions?
First order life forms associated with elementary particles
Exotic representations are possible also in quaternion-conformal sector. In this case mass squared
operator is of order M
2
= O(p) p-adically so that the real counterpart of the p-adic mass would be
of the order of elementary particle mass. Also now degeneracies of the states are gigantic. Unless
p-adic and real string tensions are different, the mass of the corresponding real state is by a factor of
110 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
order p higher (∼ 10
−4


p Planck masses!). This can be seen as a strong objection either against
the existence of light real counterparts of the exotic p-adic states or against the applicability of the
canonical identification map outside the realm of p-adic thermodynamics.
It is not clear whether super-canonical degeneracy is present for the quaternion conformal repre-
sentations. In fact, it might be that quaternion conformal representations are associated with CP
2
type extremals representing elementary particles and cannot be assigned to the light-like boundaries
of MEs. This would mean that the boundaries of MEs represent completely new form of light-like
matter. Massless states with super-canonical conformal weight L
0
= O(p) are possible and momentum
scale for these states is naturally determined by p. They define a more promising fractal hierarchy of
life forms.
The lowest quaternion-conformal life form in the hierarchy are states having mass squared M
2

L
0
= O(p) could be called first order life
1
. These states have masses which are same order of magnitude
as the masses of elementary particles with same value of p but have nothing to do with the elementary
particles themselves. The extremely weak direct interaction between these these representations and
ordinary elementary particles might mean that these life forms do not affect elementary particle physics
directly. On the other hand, there is intriguing numerical evidence that non-perturbative aspects of
hadron physics might be understood if transition from high energy hadron physics to low energy hadron
physics corresponds to a phase transition replacing ordinary Super Virasoro representations with exotic
Super Virasoro representations (Regge slope and pion mass are predicted with few percent accuracy:
see the chapter [F5]. This result is intriguing and forces to keep mind open for new interpretations
of the p-adicity. Life requires also the presence of macroscopic quantum phases and one cannot
therefore exclude the possibility of hadronic life when macroscopic quantum phases like Bose-Einstein
condensates of pions or of super conducting neutron pairs are possible. Neutron super-conductivity is
indeed believed to be possible in neutron stars.
To generate first order life forms in elementary particle length scales one would need MEs with
wavelengths of order elementary particle Compton length. Presumably also temperature should be
in interval around the energy defined by the secondary p-adic length scale. The Darwinian selection
implied by self-organization should select some preferred p-adic primes as winners in the struggle for
survival. Elementary particles are survivers at the lowest level and the first guess is that the primes
corresponding to elementary particles provide good candidates for survivers at higher levels. The
p-adic length scale L(169) · 5.1 microns associated with neutrinos is especially interesting as far as
first order life is considered and could (actually should, as the model of memetic code suggests) be an
essential aspect of life in cell length scale.
Also the other primary p-adic lengths scales seem to be important for the structure of bio-matter,
which suggests that first order life in these length scales is important for the understanding of living
matter.
Higher order life forms in biologically interesting length scales
L
0
= O(p
n
) n ≥ 1, representations of p-adic super-canonical algebra defining ’n:th order life’ are
especially interesting as far as living matter is considered. The reason is that the energy scale for
these excitations is so small that the ’matter-mind interaction’ with low frequency classical fields
associated with MEs becomes possible. There seems to be no obvious difference between life forms
with different values of n having p-adic length scales L(n, k) of same order of magnitude as far as
degeneracy of states is considered. However, if the negentropy gain in single quantum jump is limited
by log(p) or plog(p) as the simplest scenario suggests [H2]), then first order life forms have potential
for more information rich conscious experiences than higher order life forms with roughly the same
p-adic length scale. Also the estimate for the maximal number of primary qualia allows more primary
qualia for first order life forms.
What makes the hypothesis so interesting is that the number of interesting-to-us p-adic length
scales associated with the exotic representations is rather small. Especially interesting are the sec-
ondary p-adic length- and time scales defined by Mersenne primes. Mersenne primes M
89
, M
107
and
M
127
define fundamental p-adic length scale in elementary particle physics and correspond to inter-
mediate gauge bosons, hadrons and electron. M
61
could correspond also to new ultra high energy
1
Note that also Super Virasoro representations associated with ordinary particles allow light excitations with L
0

n
0
= O(p).
1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 111
physics. The natural guess is that secondary p-adic length scales, and those associated with Mersenne
primes in particular, are especially important for consciousness and life.
1. Higher order life in nanoscales
The secondary p-adic length associated with M
61
is L(127)/2
3/2
and is slightly below electron
length scale. Besides primary p-adic length scales L(k), k = 127, 131, 137, 139 listed in table below,
also the secondary p-adic length scales L
2
(k) = L(2k), k = 67, 71, 73 and even the tertiary length
scales L
3
(43) = L(129) and L
3
(47) = L(141) could have been important for the evolution of bio-
intelligence. L
2
(67) is .28 Angstroms, L
3
(47) = 3.1 Angstroms, L
2
(71) = 4.4 Angstroms and L
2
(73) =
1.8 nanometers might be crucial for self-organization and intelligence at level of DNA and proteins.
Thus the miracles of biochemical self-organization would not be reducible to standard chemistry but
would involve in absolutely essential manner the symbiosis with higher life forms. The energy scale
involved is in nanometer length scales of order keV and seems quite too high for life: room temperature
which corresponds to 10
−2
eV or at least the energy scale of atomic transitions seems to be the natural
energy scale in protein length scales.
k 127 131 67
2
137 139 71
2
73
2
L(k, n)/10
−10
m .025 .1 .28 .8 1.6 4.5 18.0
Table 1. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life in atomic and
nanolength scales. The length scale L(151) is taken to be the thickness of cell membrane, which is
10
−8
meters in a good approximation.
2. Higher order life forms in subcellular length scales and retina as living creature
First order life forms in subcellular length scales correspond to k = 149, 151, 157, 163, 167 and
169: corresponding p-adic length scales vary in the range of 5 nanometers and 5 micrometers and are
given in the table below. Second order life forms associated with L
2
(79) = L(158) = 113 nanometers,
L
2
(83) = L(166) = 1.8 micrometers as well as third order life form associated with L
3
(53) = L(159) =
160 nanometers could also be important for self-organization and intelligence at subcellular levels. The
energies for the secondary excitations of k = 83 Super Virasoro are in the region of visible light and
an interesting possibility is that that these excitations might be excited when photons are absorbed
by retina and that retina could be regarded as an intelligent conscious living being. This would
also partially explain why our vision is just in this particular wavelength range. To decide whether
interaction between photons and secondary Super Virasoro excitations is strong enough one should
be able to device a model for this interaction.
k 149 151 157 79
2
53
3
163 83
2
167 169
L
p
/10
−8
m .5 1 8 11.3 16 64 181 256 512
Table 2. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life between cell
membrane and cellular length scales.
3. Higher order life in submillimeter length scales
The length scale range between k = 169 and k = 191 contains primary length scales k =
173, 179, 181 given in table below, secondary length scale L
2
(89) = L(178) = 1.1 10
−4
meters,
and tertiary length scale L
3
(59) = L(177) = .8 10
−4
meters. The special importance of Mersenne
primes suggests M
89
second order life have managed to survive and might have meant a breakthrough
in evolution. The size scale of largest neurons, say pyramidal neurons in cortex is indeed of order
L
2
(M
89
). The fact that the lengths of micro-tubuli inside axons have length of order 10
−4
meters
suggests that they are accompanied by MEs corresponding to M
89
. This hypothesis is inspired also
by quantum antenna hypothesis and by the notion that MEs associated with axons serve as neural
windows. The frequency scale associated with M
89
is 3.310
12
Hz and in infrared range. The energies
involved correspond to 10
−12
eV which is the thermal energy associated with the room temperature.
This might explain the crucial importance of temperature for biolife. In too low temperatures sec-
ondary Super Virasoro excitations would be frozen whereas in too high temperatures situation would
be thermalized.
112 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
k 173 59
3
89
2
179 181
L
p
/10
−4
m .2 .8 1.1 1.6 3.2
Table 4. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life between cellular
and submillimeter length scales.
IR radiation is known to be important for odor perception of at least insects [50]: the energies of
k = 89 Super Virasoro are in this energy range. The structure of olfactory receptors also resembles
the structure of the photoreceptors in retina. This would suggest that odor (and possibly also taste)
perception might be regarded basically as IR vision with various odors playing the role of colors. The
large number of different odors suggests that the number of different ’cones’ is much higher than in
the case of vision. The secondary p-adic length scale associated with M
89
could give rise to secondary
excitations of electro-weak fields with huge degeneracies. If the size of the ’pixel’ characterizing sensory
experience corresponds to the p-adic length scale of Super Virasoro associated with primary sensory
organ, then one must conclude that also tactile senses could correspond to M
89
or some smaller prime.
Quite generally, vision, olfaction (and possibly also tastes) and tactile senses could thus be related
with the secondary p-adic length scales L
2
(83) and L
2
(89) and/or with the primary length scales
L(169) and L(173) and L(179) =

2L
2
(89). Note that the classical gauge fields associated with MEs
could be used to generate secondary sensory experiences in longer p-adic length scales.
4. Higher order life forms in human length scales
The length scale range relevant to the structures of human brain contains the primary length scales
corresponding to k = 191, 193, 197 and 199 varying in the range of 1-16 cm and are listed in the table
below. The secondary and tertiary length scales L
2
(97) = 2.8 cm, L
3
(67) = .32 meters, L
2
(101) = .45
meters and L
2
(103) = 1.81 meters covers length scale range between brain nuclei and human body
size. The fact that these primes correspond to the p-adic length scales associated with elementary
particles (quarks) suggest that also second order life in these length scales is winner in the fight for
survival. L
2
(97) corresponds to the size scale of brain nuclei which suggests that single pixel now
provides a summary about sensory experience of brain nucleus. For instance, ’amygdalar emotions’
might be in question.
It could be that the mind like space-times sheet with the size of brain and other body parts and
entire body correspond carries exotic representations of k = 67
3
, k = 101
2
and k = 103
2
Super
Virasoro. The hypothesis that these levels correspond to emotions understood as generalized sensory
experiences about the state of body solve the puzzles why emotions are ’single pixel’ emotions and
determined by the state of body. Secondary p-adic length scale should determine the size of the pixel
in the bitmap provided by generalized sensory experience: since the size of pixel is of order human
brain or even body, one could understand why emotions are ’single-pixel’ emotions. Note that ’our
experience’ about these emotions probably does not correspond to this experience but experience
coded to ELF level of self hierarchy. Body length scale would be associated with ’body-consciousness’
quite different from our consciousness which corresponds to much higher level of the hierarchy.
k 191 193 97
2
197 199 67
3
101
2
103
2
L
p
/m .01 .02 2.8 .08 .16 .32 .45 1.8
Table 5. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life at length scales
relevant to human brain and body.
5. Higher order life above body length scale
The primary p-adic length scales k = 211, 223, 227, 229, 233, 239, 241 and 251 between body size
and L
2
(127) (quite near to Earth’s circumference), and also longer p-adic length scales are listed in
the table above. This range contains the secondary length scales k = 107, 113 and k = 127 correspond
to a hierarchy of collective consciousness from the point of view of body (but, as it seems, not from
our point of view!). The reader is encouraged to find the tertiary length scales in this range.
1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 113
k 211 71
3
107
2
109
2
223
L
p
/m 10 20 28.3 113 640
T
p
/µs 3.3E-2 6.6E-2 9.2E-2 .37 2.1
k 113
2
227 229 233 79
3
L
p
/m 1.8E+3 2.5E + 3 5E + 3 2E + 4 8E+4
T
p
/µs 6.1 8.6 17 69 276
k 239 241 3
5
= 243 83
3
2
5
2
L
p
/m 1.6E + 5 3.2E + 5 6.4E+5 5.1E+6 7.2E+6
T
p
/ms .55 1.1 2.2 17.6 24.9
k 251 127
2
257 131
2
263
L
p
/m E + 7 2.8E+7 8E + 7 44.8 6.4E + 8
T
p
35 ms .1 s .28 s 1.6 s 2.26 s
k 269 271 137
2
277 139
2
L
p
/m 5E + 9 E + 10 2.8E+10 7.7E + 10 11.2E+10
T
p
18.1 s 36.2 s 1.7 min 4.3 min 6.1 min
k 281 283 289 97
3
293
L
p
/m 3.2E+11 6.4E+11 5.2E + 12 1.1E+13 2.1E + 13
T
p
17.3 min 34.6 min 4.6 h 6.3 h 18.5 h
k 149
2
151
2
101
3
307 103
3
L
p
/ld 4.9 19.5 27.6 98.6 197.2
T
p
/d 4.9 19.5 27.6 98.6 197.2
Table 6. p-Adic length and time scales above length scale L(211) = 10 meters possibly relevant to
life and consciousness.
The emergence of Mersenne prime M
107
could perhaps be associated with the emergence of social
groups. Amusingly, M
107
is hadronic length scale and associated with the emergence of color confined
many-quark states, kind of societies also these! More seriously, color confinement should make sense
also for the exotic Super Virasoro representations and might have some counterpart at the level of
consciousness. For M
107
the p-adic length scale is about 29.0 meters, which is between L(211) = 10.2
meters and L(223) = 655 meters. The corresponding frequency scale is 6 MHz. L
2
(113) · 1853
meters is the length scale associated with the next secondary Super Virasoro.
The tertiary length scales L
3
(83) = L(249), L
2
(k = 5
3
= 125) = L(250); secondary length scale
L
2
(127), and the primary p-adic length scales L(251), L
2
(127), L(2
2
8
) = L(256) and L(257) correspond
to the sequence of fundamental Super Virasoro frequencies
f(1, 0)
Hz
∈ ¦56.4, 40, 28.2, 10.0, 5.0, 3.5¦ ,
which are important resonance frequencies of EEG which strongly encouratges the view that exotic
Super Virasoro are involved with our qualia.
M
127
corresponds to Earth size and to frequency of 10 Hz which is in EEG range. Next Mersenne
prime corresponds to a completetely super-astronomical length scale. Uncertainty Principle suggests
that if EEG frequencies stimulate the quantum transitions giving rise to our conscious experiences,
then our mental images should correspond to MEs with k = 127 and 131. k = 131 indeed corresponds
to frequencies above .63 Hz (1.6 seconds) covering delta, theta and alpha frequencies up to 10 Hz
where the range of k = 127 frequencies begins (note however that the difference of M
127
energies can
be also below 10 Hz). Also the basic rhythms of body (heart beat and respiration) could correspond
to k = 131 time scales.
The next secondary p-adic time scales corresponding to k = 137, 139, 149 and k = 151. T
2
(137) is
are 1 minute 40 seconds, T
2
(139) is 6 minutes 40 seconds, T
2
(149) is 4.2 days roughly, T
2
(151) is 16.8
days roughly. T
2
(157) is roughly 1078.5 days (roughly three years). T
2
(163) is roughly 69024 days
which makes roughly 189 years. These time scales could be important for human life cycle and the
secondary excitations of these Super Virasoros could define important biological rhythms.
Acknowledgements
114 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia
I want to thank for Daniel Dubois and Peter Marcer for providing the opportunity to participate
CASYS’2000 conference. It was the very enlightening representation of Peter Marcer experimental
data concerning the effects of laser light on DNA which re-stimulated the work with massless extremals
and quantum antenna hypothesis and led to the realization of connection with the spectroscopy of
consciousness. An important stimulus came from Claude Rifat to whom I am also grateful. I want
also to express my gratitude to Gene Johnson for sending all kinds of material as well as enlightening
debates concerning the relation between quantum brain to neuroscientist’s brain.
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Chapter 2
Topological Quantum Computation
in TGD Universe
2.1 Introduction
Quantum computation is perhaps one of the most rapidly evolving branches of theoretical physics.
TGD inspired theory of consciousness has led to new insights about quantum computation and in this
chapter I want to discuss these ideas in a more organized manner.
There are three mathematically equivalent approaches to quantum computation [26]: quantum
Turing machines, quantum circuits, and topological quantum computation (TQC). In fact, the real-
ization that TGD Universe seems to be ideal place to perform TQC [27, 28] served as the stimulus
for writing this chapter.
Quite generally, quantum computation allows to solve problems which are NP hard, that is the
time required to solve the problem increases exponentially with the number of variables using classical
computer but only polynomially using quantum computer. The topological realization of the computer
program using so called braids resulting when threads are weaved to 2-dimensional patterns is very
robust so that de-coherence, which is the basic nuisance of quantum computation, ceases to be a
problem. More precisely, the error probability is proportional to exp(−αl), where l is the length scale
characterizing the distance between strands of the braid [28] .
2.1.1 Evolution of basic ideas of quantum computation
The notion of quantum computation goes back to Feynman [23] who demonstrated that some com-
putational tasks boil down to problems of solving quantum evolution of some physical system, say
electrons scattering from each other. Many of these computations are NP hard, which means that the
number of computational steps required grows exponentially with the number of variables involved so
that they become quickly unsolvable using ordinary computers. A quicker manner to do the computa-
tion is to make a physical experiment. A further bonus is that if you can solve one NP hard problem,
you can solve many equivalent NP hard problems. What is new that quantum computation is not
deterministic so that computation must be carried out several times and probability distribution for
the outcomes allows to deduce the answer. Often however the situation is such that it is easy to check
whether the outcome provides the sought for solution.
Years later David Deutch [24] transformed Feynman’s ideas into a detailed theory of quantum
computation demonstrating how to encode quantum computation in a quantum system and researchers
started to develop applications. One of the key factors in the computer security is cryptography which
relies on the fact that the factorization of large integers to primes is a NP hard problem. Peter Shor [25]
discovered an algorithm, which allows to carry out the factorization in time, which is exponentially
shorter than by using ordinary computers. A second example is problem of searching a particular
from a set of N items, which requires time proportional to N classically but quantally only a time
proportional to

N.
The key notion is quantum entanglement which allows to store information in the relationship
between systems, qubits in the simplest situation. This means that information storage capacity
123
124 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
increases exponentially as a function of number of qubits rather than only linearly. This explains
why NP hard problems which require time increasing exponentially with the number of variables can
be solved using quantum computers. It also means exponentially larger information storage capacity
than possible classically.
Recall that there are three equivalent approaches to quantum computation: quantum Turing
machine, quantum circuits, and topology based unitary modular functor approach. In quantum circuit
approach the unitary time evolution defining the quantum computation is assumed to be decomposable
to a product of more elementary operations defined by unitary operators associated with quantum
gates. The number of different gates needed is surprisingly small: only 1-gates generating unitary
transformations of single qubit, and a 2-gate representing a transformation which together with 1-
gates is able to generate entanglement are needed to generate a dense subgroup of unitary group U(2
n
)
in the case of n-qubit system. 2-gate could be conditional NOT (CNOT). The first 1-gate can induce
a phase factor to the qubit 0 and do nothing for qubit 1. Second 1-gate could form orthogonal square
roots of bits 1 and 0 as superposition of 1 and 0 with identical probabilities.
The formal definition of the quantum computation using quantum circuit is as a computation of
the value of a Boolean function of n Boolean arguments, for instance the k:th bit of the largest prime
factor of a given integer. The unitary operator U is constructed as a product of operators associated
with the basic gates. It is said that the function coding the problem belongs to the class BQP (function
is computable with a bounded error in polynomial time) if there exists a classical polynomial-time (in
string length) algorithm for specifying the quantum circuit. The first qubit of the outgoing n-qubit is
measured and the probability that the the value is 0 determines the value of the bit to be calculated.
For instance, for p(0) ≥ 2/3 the bit is 0 and for p(0) ≥ 1/3 the bit is 1. The evaluation of the outcome
is probabilistic and requires a repeat the computation sufficiently many times.
The basic problem of quantum computation is the extremely fragility of the physical qubit (say
spin). The fragility can be avoided by mapping q-bits to logical qubits realized as highly entangled
states of many qubits and quantum error-correcting codes and fault tolerant methods [27, 28, 29] rely
on this.
The space W of the logical qubits is known as a code space. The sub-space W of physical states of
space Y = V ⊗V..... ⊗V is called k-code if the effect of any k-local operator (affecting only k tensor
factors of Y linearly but leaving the remaining factors invariant) followed by an orthogonal projection
to W is multiplication by scalar. This means that k-local operator modify the states only in directions
orthogonal to W.
These spaces indeed exist and it can be shown that the quantum information coded in W is not
affected by the errors operating in fewer than k/2 of the n particles. Note that k = 3 is enough to
guarantee stability with respect to 1-local errors. In this manner it is possible to correct the errors
by repeated quantum measurements and by a suitable choice of the sub-space eliminate the errors
due to the local changes of qubits by just performing a projection of the state back to the subspace
(quantum measurement).
If the the error magnitude is below so called accuracy threshold, arbitrary long quantum compu-
tations are reliable. The estimates for this constant vary between 10
−5
and 10
−3
. This is beyond
current technologies. Error correction is based on the representation of qubit as a logical qubit defined
as a state in a linear sub-space of the tensor product of several qubits.
Topological quantum computation [28] provides an alternative approach to minimize the errors
caused by de-coherence. Conceptually the modular functor approach [30, 28] is considerably more
abstract than quantum circuit approach. Unitary modular functor is the S-matrix of a topological
quantum field theory. It defines a unitary evolution realizing the quantum computation in macroscopic
topological ground states degrees of freedom. The nice feature of this approach is that the notion of
physical qubit becomes redundant and the code space defined by the logical qubits can be represented
in terms topological and thus non-local degrees of freedom which are stable against local perturbations
as required.
2.1.2 Quantum computation and TGD
Concerning quantum computation [26] in general, TGD TGD inspired theory of consciousness provides
several new insights.
2.1. Introduction 125
Quantum jump as elementary particle of consciousness and cognition
Quantum jump is interpreted as a fundamental cognitive process leading from creative confusion via
analysis to an experience of understanding, and involves TGD counterpart of the unitary process
followed by state function reduction and state preparation. One can say that quantum jump is the
elementary particle of consciousness and that selves consists of sequences of quantum jump just like
hadrons, nuclei, atoms, molecules,... consist basically of elementary particles. Self loses its conscious-
ness when it generates bound state entanglement with environment. The conscious experience of
self is in a well-defined sense a statistical average over the quantum jump during which self exists.
During macro-temporal quantum coherence during macro-temporal quantum coherence a sequence
of quantum jumps integrates effectively to a single moment of consciousness and effectively defines
single unitary time evolution followed by state function reduction and preparation. This means a
fractal hierarchy of consciousness very closely related to the corresponding hierarchy for bound states
of elementary particles and structure formed from them.
Negentropy Maximization Principle guarantees maximal entanglement
Negentropy Maximization Principle is the basic dynamical principle constraining what happens in
state reduction and self measurement steps of state preparation. Each self measurement involves
a decomposition of system into two parts. The decomposition is dictated by the requirement that
the reduction of entanglement entropy in self measurement is maximal. Self measurement can lead to
either unentangled state or to entangled state with density matrix which is proportional to unit matrix
(density matrix is the observable measured). In the latter case maximally entangled state typically
involved with quantum computers results as an outcome. Hence Nature itself would favor maximally
entangling 2-gates. Note however that self measurement occurs only if it increases the entanglement
negentropy.
Number theoretical information measures and extended rational entanglement as bound
state entanglement
The emerging number theoretical notion of information allows to interpret the entanglement for which
entanglement probabilities are rational (or belong to an extension of rational numbers defining a finite
extension of p-adic numbers) as bound state entanglement with positive information content. Macro-
temporal quantum coherence corresponds to a formation of bound entanglement stable against state
function reduction and preparation processes.
Spin glass degeneracy, which is the basic characteristic of the variational principle defining space-
time dynamics, implies a huge number of vacuum degrees of freedom, and is the key mechanism
behind macro-temporal quantum coherence. Spin glass degrees of freedom are also ideal candidates
qubit degrees of freedom. As a matter fact, p-adic length scale hierarchy suggests that qubit represents
only the lowest level in the hierarchy of qupits defining p-dimensional state spaces, p prime.
Time mirror mechanism and negative energies
The new view about time, in particular the possibility of communications with and control of geometric
past, suggests the possibility of circumventing the restrictions posed by time for quantum computation.
Iteration based on initiation of quantum computation again and again in geometric past would make
possible practically instantaneous information processing.
Space-time sheets with negative time orientation carry negative energies. Also the possibility of
phase conjugation of fermions is strongly suggestive. It is also possible that anti-fermions possess
negative energies in phases corresponding to macroscopic length scales. This would explain matter-
antimatter asymmetry in elegant manner. Zero energy states would be ideal for quantum computation
purposes and could be even created intentionally by first generating a p-adic surface representing the
state and then transforming it to a real surface.
The most predictive and elegant cosmology assumes that the net quantum numbers of the Universe
vanish so that quantum jumps would occur between different kinds of vacua. Crossing symmetry
makes this option almost consistent with the idea about objective reality with definite conserved total
quantum numbers but requires that quantum states of 3-dimensional quantum theory represent S-
matrices of 2-dimensional quantum field theory. These quantum states are thus about something. The
126 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
boundaries of space-time surface are most naturally light-like 3-surfaces space-time surface and are
limiting cases of space-like 3-surface and time evolution of 2-surface. Hence they would act naturally
as space-time correlates for the reflective level of consciousness.
2.1.3 TGD and the new physics associated with TQC
TGD predicts the new physics making possible to realized braids as entangled flux tubes and also
provides a detailed model explaing basic facts about anyons.
Topologically quantized magnetic flux tube structures as braids
Quantum classical correspondence suggests that the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action corre-
sponds to a space-time representation of second law and that the 4-surfaces approach asymptotically
space-time representations of systems which do not dissipate anymore. The correlate for the absence
of dissipation is the vanishing of Lorentz 4-force associated with the induced K¨ahler field. This con-
dition can be regarded as a generalization of Beltrami condition for magnetic fields and leads to very
explicit general solutions of field equations [D1].
The outcome is a general classification of solutions based on the dimension of CP
2
projection. The
most unstable phase corresponds to D = 2-dimensional projection and is analogous to a ferromagnetic
phase. D = 4 projection corresponds to chaotic demagnetized phase and D = 3 is the extremely
complex but ordered phase at the boundary between chaos and order. This phase was identified as
the phase responsible for the main characteristics of living systems [I4, I5]. It is also ideal for quantum
computations since magnetic field lines form extremely complex linked and knotted structures.
The flux tube structures representing topologically quantized fields, which have D = 3 -dimensional
CP
2
projection, are knotted, linked and braided, and carry an infinite number of conserved topological
charges labelled by representations of color group. They seem to be tailor-made for defining the
braid structure needed by TQC. The boundaries of the magnetic flux tubes correspond to light-
like 3-surfaces with respect to the induced metric (being thus metrically 2-dimensional and allowing
conformal invariance) and can be interpreted either as 3-surfaces or time-evolutions of 2-dimensional
systems so that S-matrix of 2-D system can be coded into the quantum state of conformally invariant
3-D system.
Anyons in TGD
TGD suggests a many-sheeted model for anyons used in the modelling of quantum Hall effect [31, 19,
32]. Quantum-classical correspondence requires that dissipation has space-time correlates. Hence a
periodic motion should create a permanent track in space-time. This kind of track would be naturally
magnetic flux tube like structure surrounding the Bohr orbit of the charged particle in the magnetic
field. Anyon would be electron plus its track.
The magnetic field inside magnetic flux tubes impels the anyons to the surface of the magnetic flux
tube and a highly conductive state results. The partial fusion of the flux tubes along their boundaries
makes possible delocalization of valence anyons localized at the boundaries of flux tubes and implies
a dramatic increase of longitudinal conductivity. When magnetic field is gradually increased the radii
of flux tubes and the increase of the net flux brings in new flux tubes. The competition of these effects
leads to the emergence of quantum Hall plateaus and sudden increase of the longitudinal conductivity
σ
xx
.
The simplest model explains only the filling fractions ν = 1/m, m odd. The filling fractions
ν = N/m, m odd, require a more complex model. The transition to chaos means that periodic orbits
become gradually more and more non-periodic: closed orbits fail to close after the first turn and
do so only after N 2π rotations. Tracks would become N-branched surfaces. In N-branched space-
time the single-valued analytic two particle wave functions (ξ
k
−ξ
l
)
m
of Laughlin [32] correspond to
multiple valued wave functions (z
k
− z
l
)
m/N
at its M
4
+
projection and give rise to a filling fraction
ν = N/m. The filling fraction ν = N/m, m even, requires composite fermions [37]. Anyon tracks can
indeed contain up to 2N electrons if both directions of spin are allowed so that a rich spectroscopy is
predicted: in particular anyonic super-conductivity becomes possible by 2-fermion composites. The
branching gives rise to Z
N
-valued topological charge.
2.1. Introduction 127
One might think that fractional charges could be only apparent and result from the multi-branched
character as charges associated with a single branch. This does not seem to be the case. Rather, the
fractional charges result from the additional contribution of the vacuum K¨ahler charge of the anyonic
flux tube to the charge of anyon. For D = 3 K¨ahler charge is topologized in the sense that the charge
density is proportional to the Chern-Simons. Also anyon spin could become genuinely fractional due
to the vacuum contribution of the K¨ahler field to the spin. Besides electronic anyons also anyons
associated with various ions are predicted and certain strange experimental findings about fractional
Larmor frequencies of proton in water environment [43, 55] have an elegant explanation in terms of
protonic anyons with ν = 3/5. In this case however the magnetic field was weaker than the Earth’s
magnetic field so that the belief that anyons are possible only in systems carrying very strong magnetic
fields would be wrong.
In TGD framework anyons as punctures of plane would be replaced by wormhole like tubes connect-
ing different points of the boundary of the magnetic flux tube and are predicted to always appear as
pairs as they indeed do. Detailed arguments demonstrate that TGD anyons are for N = 4 (ν = 4/m)
ideal for realizing the scenario of [28] for TQC.
The TGD inspired model of non-Abelian anyons is consistent with the model of anyons based on
spontaneous symmetry breaking of a gauge symmetry G to a discrete sub-group H dynamically [38].
The breaking of electro-weak gauge symmetry for classical electro-weak gauge fields occurs at the
space-time sheets associated with the magnetic flux tubes defining the strands of braid. Symmetry
breaking implies that elements of holonomy group span H. This group is also a discrete subgroup of
color group acting as isotropy group of the many-branched surface describing anyon track inside the
magnetic flux tube. Thus the elements of the holonomy group are mapped to a elements of discrete
subgroup of the isometry group leading from branch to another one but leaving many-branched surface
invariant.
Witten-Chern-Simons action and light-like 3-surfaces
The magnetic field inside magnetic flux tube expels anyons at the boundary of the flux tube. In
quantum TGD framework light-like 3-surfaces of space-time surface and future light cone are in key
role since they define causal determinants for K¨ahler action. They also provide a universal manner
to satisfy boundary conditions. Hence also the boundaries of magnetic flux tube structures could be
light like surfaces with respect to the induced metric of space-time sheet and would be somewhat
like black hole horizons. By their metric 2-dimensionality they allow conformal invariance and due
the vanishing of the metric determinant the only coordinate invariant action is Chern-Simons action
associated K¨ahler gauge potential or with the induced electro-weak gauge potentials.
The quantum states associated with the light-like boundaries would be naturally ”self-reflective”
states in the sense that they correspond to S-matrix elements of the Witten-Chern-Simons topological
field theory. Modular functors could results as restriction of the S-matrix to ground state degrees of
freedom and Chern-Simons topological quantum field theory is a promising candidate for defining the
modular functors [32, 33].
Braid group B
n
is isomorphic to the first homotopy group of the configuration space C
n
(R
2
) of n
particles. C
n
(R
2
) is ((R
2
)
n
−D)/S
n
, where D is the singularity represented by the configurations in
which the positions of 2 or more particles. and be regarded also as the configuration associated with
plane with n + 1 punctures with n + 1:th particle regarded as inert. The infinite order of the braid
group is solely due to the 2-dimensionality. Hence the dimension D = 4 for space-time is unique also
in the sense that it makes possible TQC.
2.1.4 TGD and TQC
Many-sheeted space-time concept, the possibility of negative energies, and Negentropy Maximization
Principle inspire rather concrete ideas about TQC. NMP gives good hopes that the laws of Nature
could take care of building fine-tuned entanglement generating 2-gates whereas 1-gates could be re-
duced to 2-gates for logical qubits realized using physical qubits realized as Z
4
charges and not existing
as free qubits.
128 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
Only 2-gates are needed
The entanglement of qubits is algebraic which corresponds in TGD Universe to bound state entangle-
ment. Negentropy Maximization Principle implies that maximal entanglement results automatically
in quantum jump. This might saves from the fine-tuning of the 2-gates. In particular, the maximally
entangling Yang-Baxter R-matrix is consistent with NMP.
TGD suggests a rather detailed physical realization of the model of [28] for anyonic quantum
computation. The findings about strong correlation between quantum entanglement and topological
entanglement are apparently contradicted by the Temperley-Lie representations for braid groups using
only single qubit. The resolution of the paradox is based on the observation that in TGD framework
batches containing anyon Cooper pair (AA) and single anyon (instead of two anyons as in the model
of [28]) allow to represent single qubit as a logical qubit, and that mixing gate and phase gate can be
represented as swap operations s
1
and s
2
. Hence also 1-gates are induced by the purely topological
2-gate action, and since NMP maximizes quantum entanglement, Nature itself would take care of
the fine-tuning also in this case. The quantum group representation based on q = exp(i2π/5) is the
simplest representation satisfying various constraints and is also physically very attractive. [28, 30].
TGD makes possible zero energy TQC
TGD allows also negative energies: besides phase conjugate photons also phase conjugate fermions
and anti-fermions are possible, and matter-antimatter asymmetry might be only apparent and due to
the ground state for which fermion energies are positive and anti-fermion energies negative.
This would make in principle possible zero energy topological quantum computations. The least
one could hope wold be the performance of TQC in doubles of positive and negative energy computa-
tions making possible error detection by comparison. The TGD based model for anyon computation
however leads to expect that negative energies play much more important role.
The idea is that the quantum states of light-like 3-surfaces represent 2-dimensional time evolutions
(in particular modular functors) and that braid operations correspond to zero energy states with initial
state represented by positive energy anyons and final state represented by negative energy anyons.
The simplest manner to realize braid operations is by putting positive resp. negative energy anyons
near the boundary of tube T
1
resp. T
2
. Opposite topological charges are at the ends of the magnetic
threads connecting the positive energy anyons at T
1
with the negative energy anyons at T
2
. The
braiding for the threads would code the quantum gates physically.
Before continuing a humble confession is in order: I am not a professional in the area of quantum
information science. Despite this, my hope is that the speculations below might serve as an inspiration
for real professionals in the field and help them to realize that TGD Universe provides an ideal arena
for quantum information processing, and that the new view about time, space-time, and information
suggests a generalization of the existing paradigm to a much more powerful one.
2.2 Existing view about topological quantum computation
In the sequel the evolution of ideas related to topological quantum computation, dance metaphor, and
the idea about realizing the computation using a system exhibiting so called non-Abelian Quantum
Hall effect, are discussed.
2.2.1 Evolution of ideas about TQC
The history of the TQC paradigm is as old as that of QC and involves the contribution of several Fields
Medalists. At 1987 to-be Fields Medalist Vaughan Jones [34] demonstrated that the von Neumann
algebras encountered in quantum theory are related to the theory of knots and allow to distinguish
between very complex knots. Vaughan also demonstrated that a given knot can be characterized in
terms an array of bits. The knot is oriented by assigning an arrow to each of its points and projected
to a plane. The bit sequence is determined by a sequence of bits defined by the self-intersections of the
knot’s projection to plane. The value of the bit in a given intersection changes when the orientation
of either line changes or when the line on top of another is moved under it. Since the logic operations
performed by the gates of computer can be coded to matrices consisting of 0s and 1s, this means that
tying a know can encode the logic operations necessary for computation.
2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 129
String theorist Edward Witten [32, 33], also a Fields Medalist, connected the work of Jones to
quantum physics by showing that performing measurements to a system described by a 3-dimensional
topological quantum field theory defined by non-Abelian Chern-Simons action is equivalent with
performing the computation that a particular braid encodes. The braids are determined by linked
word lines of the particles of the topological quantum field theory. What makes braids and quantum
computation so special is that the coding of the braiding pattern to a bit sequence gives rise to a code,
which corresponds to a code solving NP hard problem using classical computer.
1989 computer scientist Alexei Kitaev [31] demonstrated that Witten’s topological quantum field
theory could form a basis for a computer. Then Fields Medalist Michael Freedman entered the scene
and in collaboration with Kitaev, Michael Larson and Zhenghan Wang developed a vision of how to
build a topological quantum computer [30, 28] using system exhibiting so called non-Abelian quantum
Hall effect [40].
The key notion is Z
4
valued topological charge which has values 1 and 3 for anyons and 0 and 2 for
their Cooper pairs. For a system of 2n non-Abelian anyon pairs created from vacuum there are n-1
anyon qubits analogous to spin . The notion of physical qubit is not needed at all and logical qubit is
coded to the topological charge of the anyon Cooper pair. The basic idea is to utilize entanglement
between Z
4
valued topological charges to achieve quantum information storage stable against de-
coherence. The swap of neighboring strands of the braid is the topological correlate of a 2-gate which
as such does not generate entanglement but can give rise to a transformation such as CNOT. When
combined with 1-gates taking square root of qubit and relative phase, this 2-gate is able to generate
U(2
n
).
The swap can be represented as the so called braid Yang-Baxter R-matrix characterizing also the
deviation of quantum groups from ordinary groups [29]. Quite generally, all unitary Yang-Baxter
R-matrices are entangling when combined with square root gate except for special values of param-
eters characterizing them and thus there is a rich repertoire of topologically realized quantum gates.
Temperley-Lieb representation provides a 1-qubit representation for swaps in 3-braid system [29, 30].
The measurement of qubit reduces to the measurement of the topological charge of the anyon Cooper
pair: in the case that it vanishes (qubit 0) the anyon Cooper pair can annihilate and this serves as
the physical signature.
2.2.2 Topological quantum computation as quantum dance
Although topological quantum computation involves very abstract and technical mathematical think-
ing, it is possible to illustrate how it occurs by a very elegant metaphor. With tongue in cheek one
could say that topological quantum computation occurs like a dance. Dancers form couples and in
this dancing floor the partners can be also of same sex. Dancers can change their partners. If the
partners are of the same sex, they define bit 1 and if they are of opposite sex they define bit 0.
To simplify things one can arrange dancers into a row or several rows such that neighboring
partners along the row form a couple. The simplest situation corresponds to a single row of dancers
able to make twists of 180 degrees permuting the dancers and able to change the partner to a new one
any time. Dance corresponds to a pattern of tracks of dancers at the floor. This pattern can be lifted
to a three-dimensional pattern introducing time as a third dimension. When one looks the tracks of
a row of dancers in this 2+1-dimensional space-time, one finds that the tracks of the dancers form
a complex weaved pattern known as braiding. The braid codes for the computation. The braiding
consists of primitive swap operations in which two neighboring word lines twist around each other.
The values of the bits giving the result of the final state of the calculation can be detected since
there is something very special which partners with opposite sex can do and do it sooner or later. Just
by looking which pairs do it allows to deduce the values of the bits. The alert reader has of course
guessed already now that the physical characterization for the sex is as a Z
4
valued topological charge,
which is of opposite sign for the different sexes forming Cooper pairs, and that the thing that partners
of opposite sex can do is to annihilate! All that is needed to look for those pairs which annihilate
after the dance evening to detect the 0s in the row of bits. The coding of the sex to the sign of the
topological charge implies also robustness.
It is however essential that the value of topological charge for a given particle in the final state
is not completely definite (this is completely general feature of all quantum computations). One can
tell only with certain probability that given couple in the final state is male-female or male-male or
130 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
female-female and the probabilities in question code for the braid pattern in turn coding for quantum
logic circuit. Hence one must consider an ensemble of braid calculations to deduce these probabilities.
The basic computational operation permuting the neighboring topological charges is topological
so that the program represented by the braiding pattern is very stable against perturbations. The
values of the topological charges are also stable. Hence the topological quantum computation is a
very robust process and immune to quantum de-coherence even in the standard physics context.
2.2.3 Braids and gates
In order to understand better how braids define gates one must introduce some mathematical notions
related to the braids.
Braid groups
Artin introduced the braid groups bearing his name as groups generated by the elements, which
correspond to the cross section between neighboring strands of the braid. The definition of these
groups is discussed in detail in [29]. For a braid having n + 1 strands the Artin group B
n1
has n
generators s
i
. The generators satisfy certain relations. Depending on whether the line coming from
left is above the the line coming from right one has s
i
or s
−1
i
. The elements s
i
and s
j
commute for
i < j and i > j + 1: s
i
s
j
= s
j
s
i
, which only says that two swaps which do not have common lines
commute. For i = j and i = j +1 commutativity is not assumed and this correspond to the situation
in which the swaps act on common lines.
As already mentioned, Artin’s braid group B
n
is isomorphic with the homotopy group π
1
((R
2
)
n
/S
n+1
)
of plane with n + 1 punctures. B
n
is infinite-dimensional because the conditions s
2
i
= 1 added to the
defining relations in the case of permutation group S
n
are not included. The infinite-dimensionality
of homotopy groups reflects the very special topological role of 2-dimensional spaces.
One must consider also variants of braid groups encountered when all particles in question are not
identical particles. The reason is that braid operation must be replaced by a 2π rotation of particle
A around B when the particles are not identical.
1. Consider first the situation in which all particles are non-identical. The first homotopy group of
R
2
)
n
−D, where D represents points configurations for which two or more points are identical is
identical with the colored braid group B
c
n
defined by n+1 punctures in plane such that n+1:th
is passive (punctures are usually imagined to be located on line). Since particles are not identical
the braid operation must be replaced by monodromy in which i:th particle makes 2π rotation
around j:th particle. This group has generators
γ
ij
= s
i
...s
j−2
s
2
j−1
s
j−2
...s
−1
i
, i < j , (2.2.1)
and can be regarded as a subgroup of the braid group.
2. When several representatives of a given particle species are present the so called partially colored
braid group B
pc
n
is believed to describe the situation. For pairs of identical particles the gen-
erators are braid generators and for non-identical particles monodromies appear as generators.
It will be found later that in case of anyon bound states, the ordinary braid group with the
assumption that braid operation can lead to a temporary decay and recombination of anyons to
a bound state, might be a more appropriate model for what happens in braiding.
3. When all particles are identical, one has the braid group B
n
, which corresponds to the fun-
damental group of C
n
(R
2
) = ((R
2
)
n
− D)/S
n
. Division by S
n
expresses the identicality of
particles.
2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 131
Extended Artin’s group
Artin’s group can be extended by introducing any group G and forming its tensor power G

n
=
G ⊗ ... ⊗ G by assigning to every strand of the braid group G. The extended group is formed from
elements of g
1
⊗ g
2
.... ⊗ g
n
and s
i
by posing additional relations g
i
s
j
= s
j
g
i
for i < j and i > j + 1.
The interpretation of these relations is completely analogous to the corresponding one for the Artin’s
group.
If G allows representation in some space V one can look for the representations of the extended
Artin’s group in the space V

n
. In particular, unitary representations are possible. The space in
question can also represent physical states of for instance anyonic system and the element g
i
associated
with the lines of the braid can represent the unitary operators characterizing the time development
of the strand between up to the moment when it experiences a swap operation represented by s
i
after
this operation g
i
becomes s
i
g
i
s
−1
i
.
Braids, Yang-Baxter relations, and quantum groups
Artin’s braid groups can be related directly to the so called quantum groups and Yang-Baxter relations.
Yang-Baxter relations follow from the relation s
1
s
2
s
1
= s
2
s
1
s
2
by noticing that these operations
permute the lines 123 of the braid to the order 321. By assigning to a swap operation permuting i:th
and j:th line group element R
ij
when i:th line goes over the j:th line, and noticing that R
ij
i acts in
the tensor product V
i
⊗V
j
, one can write the relation for braids in a form
R
32
R
13
R
12
= R
12
R
13
R
23
.
Braid Yang-Baxter relations are equivalent with the so called algebraic Yang-Baxter relations en-
countered in quantum group theory. Algebraic R can be written as R
a
= RS, where S is the matrix
representing swap operation as a mere permutation. For a suitable choice R
a
provides the fundamental
representations for the elements of the quantum group SL(n)
q
when V is n-dimensional.
The equations represent n
6
equations for n
4
unknowns and are highly over-determined so that
solving the equations is a difficult challenge. Equations have symmetries which are obvious on basis
of the topological interpretation. Scaling and automorphism induced by linear transformations of V
act as symmetries, and the exchange of tensor factors in V ⊗V and transposition are symmetries as
also shift of all indices by a constant amount (using modulo N arithmetics).
Unitary R-matrices
Quite a lot is known about the general solutions of the Yang-Baxter equations and for n = 2 the
general unitary solutions of equations is known [36]. All of these solutions are entangling and define
thus universal 1-gates except for certain parameter values.
The first solution is
R =
1

2

¸
¸
¸
1 1
1 −1
1 1
−1 1
¸

(2.2.2)
and contains no free parameters (dots denote zeros). This R-matrix is strongly entangling. Note
that the condition R
8
= 1 is satisfied. The defining relations for Artin’s braid group allow also more
general solutions obtained by multiplying R with an arbitrary phase factor. This would mean that
R
8
= 1 constraint is not satisfied anymore. One can argue that over-all phase does not matter: on
the other hand, the over all phase is visible in knot invariants defined by the trace of R.
The second and third solution come as families labelled four phases a, b, c and d:
132 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
R

(a, b, c, d) =
1

2

¸
¸
¸
a
b
c
d
¸

R

(a, b, c, d) =
1

2

¸
¸
¸
a
b
c
d
¸

(2.2.3)
These matrices are not as such entangling. The products U
1
⊗U
2
RV
1
⊗V
2
, where U
i
and V
i
are 2 2
unitary matrices, are however entangling matrices and thus act as universal gates for ad − bc = 0
guaranteeing that the state a[11` +b[10` +[01` +[00` is entangled.
It deserves to be noticed that the swap matrix
S = R

(1, 1, 1, 1) =
1

2

¸
¸
¸
1
1
1 1
1
¸

(2.2.4)
permuting the qubits does not define universal gate. This is understandable since in this representation
of braid group reduces it to permutation group and situation becomes completely classical.
One can write all solutions R of braid Yang-Baxter equation in the form R = R
a
, where R
a
is
the solution of so called algebraic Yang-Baxter equation. The interpretation is that the swap matrix
S represents the completely classical part of the swap operation since it acts as a mere permutation
whereas R
a
represents genuine quantum effects related to the swap operation.
In the article of Kauffman [29] its is demonstrated explicitly how to construct CNOT gate as a
product MRN, where M and N are products of single particle gates. This article contains also a
beautiful discussion about how the traces of the unitary matrices defined by the braids define knot
invariants. For instance, the matrix R satisfies R
8
= 1 so that the invariants constructed using R as
2-gate cannot distinguish between knots containing n and n + 8k sub-sequent swaps. Note however
that the multiplication of R with a phase factor allows to get rid of the 8-periodicity.
Knots, links, braids, and quantum 2-gates
In [29] basic facts about knots, links, and their relation to braids are discussed. Knot diagrams are
introduced, the so called Reidermeister moves and homeomorphisms of plane as isotopies of knots and
links are discussed. Also the notion of braid closure producing knots or links is introduced together
with the theorem of Markov stating that any knot and link corresponds to some (not unique) braid.
Markov moves as braid deformations leaving corresponding knots and links invariant are discussed and
it the immediate implication is that traces of the braid matrices define knot invariants. In particular,
the traces of the unitary matrices defined by R-matrix define invariants having same value for the
knots and links resulting in the braid closure.
In [29] the state preparation and quantum measurement allowing to deduce the absolute value of
the trace of the unitary matrix associated with the braid defining the quantum computer is discussed
as an example how quantum computations could occur in practice. The braid in question is product
of the braid defining the invariant and trivial braid with same number n of strands. The incoming
state is maximally entangled state formed
¸
n
[n` ⊗[n`, where n runs over all possible bit sequences
defined by the tensor product of n qubits. Quantum measurement performs a projection to this state
and from the measurements it is possible to deduce the absolute value of the trace defining the knot
invariant.
2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 133
2.2.4 About quantum Hall effect and theories of quantum Hall effect
Using the dance metaphor for TQC, the system must be such that it is possible to distinguish between
the different sexes of dancers. The proposal of [28] is that the system exhibiting so called non-Abelian
Quantum Hall effect [19, 20] could make possible realization of the topological computation.
The most elegant models of quantum Hall effect are in terms of anyons regarded as singularities
due to the symmetry breaking of gauge group G down to a finite sub-group H, which can be also
non-Abelian. Concerning the description of the dynamics of topological degrees of freedom topological
quantum field theories based on Chern-Simons action are the most promising approach.
Quantum Hall effect
Quantum Hall effect [31, 19] occurs in 2-dimensional systems, typically a slab carrying a longitudi-
nal voltage V causing longitudinal current j. A magnetic field orthogonal to the slab generates a
transversal current component j
T
by Lorentz force. j
T
is proportional to the voltage V along the slab
and the dimensionless coefficient is known as transversal conductivity. Classically the coefficients is
proportional ne/B, where n is 2-dimensional electron density and should have a continuous spectrum.
The finding that came as surprise was that the change of the coefficient as a function of parameters like
magnetic field strength and temperature occurred as discrete steps of same size. In integer quantum
Hall effect the coefficient is quantized to 2να, α = e
2
/4π, such that ν is integer.
Later came the finding that also smaller steps corresponding to the filling fraction ν = 1/3 of the
basic step were present and could be understood if the charge of electron would have been replaced
with ν = 1/3 of its ordinary value. Later also QH effect with wide large range of filling fractions of
form ν = k/m was observed.
The model explaining the QH effect is based on pseudo particles known as anyons [38, 19]. Accord-
ing to the general argument of [31] anyons have fractional charge νe. Also the TGD based model for
fractionization to be discussed later suggests that the anyon charge should be νe quite generally. The
braid statistics of anyon is believed to be fractional so that anyons are neither bosons nor fermions.
Non-fractional statistics is absolutely essential for the vacuum degeneracy used to represent logical
qubits.
In the case of Abelian anyons the gauge potential corresponds to the vector potential of the
divergence free velocity field or equivalently of incompressible anyon current. For non-Abelian anyons
the field theory defined by Chern-Simons action is free field theory and in well-defined sense trivial
although it defines knot invariants. For non-Abelian anyons situation would be different. They would
carry non-Abelian gauge charges possibly related to a symmetry breaking to a discrete subgroup
H of gauge group [38] each of them defining an incompressible hydrodynamical flow. Non-Abelian
QH effect has not yet been convincingly demonstrated experimentally. According to [28] the anyons
associated with the filling fraction ν = 5/2 are a good candidate for non-Abelian anyons and in this
case the charge of electron is reduced to Q = 1/4 rather than being Q = νe.
Non-Abelian anyons [40, 19] are always created in pairs since they carry a conserved topological
charge. In the model of [28] this charge should have values in 4-element group Z
4
so that it is conserved
only modulo 4 so that charges +2 and -2 are equivalent as are also charges 3 and -1. The state of
n anyon pairs created from vacuum can be show to possess 2
n−1
-dimensional vacuum degeneracy
[20]: later a TGD based argument for why this is the case is constructed. When two anyons fuse the
2
n−1
-dimensional state space decomposes to 2
n−2
-dimensional tensor factors corresponding to anyon
Cooper pairs with topological charges 2 and 0. The topological ”spin” is ideal for representing logical
qubits. Since free topological charges are not possible the notion of physical qubit does not make sense
(note the analogy with quarks). The measurement of topological qubit reduces to a measurement of
whether anyon Cooper pair has vanishing topological charge or not.
Quantum Hall effect as a spontaneous symmetry breaking down to a discrete subgroup
of the gauge group
The system exhibiting quantum Hall effect is effectively 2-dimensional. Fractional statistics suggests
that topological defects, anyons, allowing a description in terms of the representations of the homotopy
group of ((R
2
)
n
−D)/S
n
. The gauge theory description would be in terms of spontaneous symmetry
breaking of the gauge group G to a finite subgroup H by a Higgs mechanism [38, 19]. This would
make all gauge degrees of freedom massive and leave only topological degrees of freedom. What is
134 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
unexpected that also non-Abelian topological degrees of freedom are in principle possible. Quantum
Hall effect is Abelian or non-Abelian depending on whether the group H has this property.
In the symmetry breaking G → H the non-Abelian gauge fluxes defined as non-integrable phase
factors Pexp(i

A
µ
dx
µ
) around large circles (surrounding singularities (so that field approaches a
pure gauge configuration) are elements of the first homotopy group of G/H, which is H in the case
that H is discrete group and G is simple. An idealized manner to model the situation [19] is to assume
that the connection is pure gauge and defined by an H-valued function which is many-valued such that
the values for different branches are related by a gauge transformation in H. In the general case a
gauge transformation of a non-trivial gauge field by a multi-valued element of the gauge group would
give rise to a similar situation.
One can characterize a given topological singularity magnetically by an element in conjugacy class
C of H representing the transformation of H induced by a 2π rotation around singularity. The elements
of C define states in given magnetic representation. Electrically the particles are characterized by an
irreducible representations of the subgroup of H
C
⊂ H which commutes with an arbitrarily chosen
element of the conjugacy class C.
The action of h(B) resulting on particle A when it makes a closed turn around B reduces in
magnetic degrees of freedom to translation in conjugacy class combined with the action of element of
H
C
in electric degrees of freedom. Closed paths correspond to elements of the braid group B
n
(X
2
)
identifiable as the mapping class group of the punctured 2-surface X
2
and this means that symmetry
breaking G →H defines a representation of the braid group. The construction of these representations
is discussed in [19] and leads naturally via the group algebra of H to the so called quantum double
D(H) of H, which is a quasi-triangular Hopf algebra allowing non-trivial representations of braid
group.
Anyons could be singularities of gauge fields, perhaps even non-Abelian gauge fields, and the latter
ones could be modelled by these representations. In particular, braid operations could be represented
using anyons.
Witten-Chern-Simons action and topological quantum field theories
The Wess-Zumino-Witten action used to model 2-dimensional critical systems consists of a 2-dimensional
conformally invariant term for the chiral field having values in group G combined with 2+1-dimensional
term defined as the integral of Chern-Simons 3-form over a 3-space containing 2-D space as its bound-
ary. This term is purely topological and identifiable as winding number for the map from 3-dimensional
space to G. The coefficient of this term is integer k in suitable normalization. k gives the value of
central extension of the Kac-Moody algebra defined by the theory.
One can couple the chiral field g(x) to gauge potential defined for some subgroup of G
1
of G. If
the G
1
coincides with G, the chiral field can be gauged away by a suitable gauge transformation and
the theory becomes purely topological Witten-Chern-Simons theory. Pure gauge field configuration
represented either as flat gauge fields with non-trivial holonomy over homotopically non-trivial paths or
as multi-valued gauge group elements however remain and the remaining degrees of freedom correspond
to the topological degrees of freedom.
Witten-Chern-Simons theories are labelled by a positive integer k giving the value of central
extension of the Kac-Moody algebra defined by the theory. The connection with Wess-Zumino-Witten
theory come from the fact that the highest weight states associated with the representations of the Kac-
Moody algebra of WZW theory are in one-one correspondence with the representations R
i
possible
for Wilson loops in the topological quantum field theory.
In the Abelian case case 2+1-dimensional Chern-Simons action density is essentially the inner
product A ∧ dA of the vector potential and magnetic field known as helicity density and the theory
in question is a free field theory. In the non-Abelian case the action is defined by the 3-form
k

Tr

A∧ (dA+
2
3
A∧ A)

and contains also interaction term so that the field theory defined by the exponential of the interaction
term is non-trivial.
In topological quantum field theory the usual n-point correlation functions defined by the functional
integral are replaced by the functional averages for Diff
3
invariant quantities defined in terms of
non-integrable phase factors defined by ordered exponentials over closed loops. One can consider
2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 135
arbitrary number of loops which can be knotted, linked, and braided. These quantities define both
knot and 3-manifold invariants (the functional integral for zero link in particular). The perturbative
calculation of the quantum averages leads directly to the Gaussian linking numbers and infinite number
of perturbative link and not invariants.
The experience gained from topological quantum field theories defined by Chern-Simons action
has led to a very elegant and surprisingly simple category theoretical approach to the topological
quantum field theory [30, 31] allowing to assign invariants to knots, links, braids, and tangles and
also to 3-manifolds for which braids as morphisms are replaced with cobordisms. The so called
modular Hopf algebras, in particular quantum groups Sl(2)
q
with q a root of unity, are in key role
in this approach. Also the connection between links and 3-manifolds can be understood since closed,
oriented, 3-manifolds can be constructed from each other by surgery based on links.
Witten’s article [32] ”Quantum Field Theory and the Jones Polynomial” is full of ingenious con-
structions, and for a physicist it is the easiest and certainly highly enjoyable manner to learn about
knots and 3-manifolds. For these reasons a little bit more detailed sum up is perhaps in order.
1. Witten discusses first the quantization of Chern-Simons action at the weak coupling limit k →∞.
First it is shown how the functional integration around flat connections defines a topological
invariant for 3-manifolds in the case of a trivial Wilson loop. Next a canonical quantization is
performed in the case X
3
= Σ
2
R
1
: in the Coulomb gauge A
3
= 0 the action reduces to a sum of
n = dim(G) Abelian Chern-Simons actions with a non-linear constraint expressing the vanishing
of the gauge field. The configuration space consists thus of flat non-Abelian connections, which
are characterized by their holonomy groups and allows K¨ahler manifold structure.
2. Perhaps the most elegant quantal element of the approach is the decomposition of the 3-manifold
to two pieces glued together along 2-manifold implying the decomposition of the functional inte-
gral to a product of functional integrals over the pieces. This together with the basic properties
of Hilbert of complex numbers (to which the partition functions defined by the functional in-
tegrals over the two pieces belong) allows almost a miracle like deduction of the basic results
about the behavior of 3-manifold and link invariants under a connected sum, and leads to the
crucial skein relations allowing to calculate the invariants by decomposing the link step by step
to a union of unknotted, unlinked Wilson loops, which can be calculated exactly for SU(N).
The decomposition by skein relations gives rise to a partition function like representation of
invariants and allows to understand the connection between knot theory and statistical physics
[16]. A direct relationship with conformal field theories and Wess-Zumino-Witten model emerges
via Wilson loops associated with the highest weight representations for Kac Moody algebras.
3. A similar decomposition procedure applies also to the calculation of 3-manifold invariants using
link surgery to transform 3-manifolds to each other, with 3-manifold invariants being defined as
Wilson loops associated with the homology generators of these (solid) tori using representations
R
i
appearing as highest weight representations of the loop algebra of torus. Surgery operations
are represented as mapping class group operations acting in the Hilbert space defined by the
invariants for representations R
i
for the original 3-manifold. The outcome is explicit formulas
for the invariants of trivial knots and 3-manifold invariant of S
3
for G = SU(N), in terms of
which more complex invariants are expressible.
4. For SU(N) the invariants are expressible as functions of the phase q = exp(i2π/(k + N))
associated with quantum groups. Note that for SU(2) and k = 3, the invariants are expressible
in terms of Golden Ratio. The central charge k = 3 is in a special position since it gives rise to
k + 1 = 4-vertex representing naturally 2-gate physically. Witten-Chern-Simons theories define
universal unitary modular functors characterizing quantum computations [30].
Chern-Simons action for anyons
In the case of quantum Hall effect the Chern-Simons action has been deduced from a model of electrons
as a 2-dimensional incompressible fluid [32]. Incompressibility requires that the electron current has
a vanishing divergence, which makes it analogous to a magnetic field. The expressibility of the
current as a curl of a vector potential b, and a detailed study of the interaction Lagrangian leads
to the identification of an Abelian Chern-Simons for b as a low energy effective action. This action
136 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
is Abelian, whereas the anyonic realization of quantum computation would suggest a non-Abelian
Chern-Simons action.
Non-Abelian Chern-Simons action could result in the symmetry breaking of a non-Abelian gauge
group G, most naturally electro-weak gauge group, to a non-Abelian discrete subgroup H [38] so that
states would be labelled by representations of H and anyons would be characterized magnetically
H-valued non-Abelian magnetic fluxes each of them defining its own incompressible hydro-dynamical
flow. As will be found, TGD predicts a non-Abelian Chern-Simons term associated with electroweak
long range classical fields.
2.2.5 Topological quantum computation using braids and anyons
By the general mathematical results braids are able to code all quantum logic operations [41]. In
particular, braids allow to realize any quantum circuit consisting of single particle gates acting on
qubits and two particle gates acting on pairs of qubits. The coding of braid requires a classical
computation which can be done in polynomial time. The coding requires that each dancer is able to
remember its dancing history by coding it into its own state.
The general ideas are following.
1. The ground states of anyonic system characterize the logical qubits, One assumes non-Abelian
anyons with Z
4
-valued topological charge so that a system of n anyon pairs created from vacuum
allows 2
n−1
-fold anyon degeneracy [20]. The system is decomposed into blocks containing one
anyonic Cooper pair with Q
T
∈ ¦2, 0¦ and two anyons with such topological charges that the
net topological charge vanishes. One can say that the states (0, 1−1) and (0, −1, +1)) represent
logical qubit 0 whereas the states (2, −1, −1) and (2, +1, +1) represent logical qubit 1. This
would suggest 2
2
-fold degeneracy but actually the degeneracy is 2-fold.
Free physical qubits are not possible and at least four particles are indeed necessarily in order
to represent logical qubit. The reason is that the conservation of Z
4
charge would not allow
mixing of qubits 1 and 0, in particular the Hadamard 1-gate generating square root of qubit
would break the conservation of topological charge. The square root of qubit can be generated
only if 2 units of topological charge is transferred between anyon and anyon Cooper pair. Thus
qubits can be represented as entangled states of anyon Cooper pair and anyon and the fourth
anyon is needed to achieve vanishing total topological charge in the batch.
2. In the initial state of the system the anyonic Cooper pairs have Q
T
= 0 and the two anyons have
opposite topological charges inside each block. The initial state codes no information unlike in
ordinary computation but the information is represented by the braid. Of course, also more
general configurations are possible. Anyons are assumed to evolve like free particles except
during swap operations and their time evolution is described by single particle Hamiltonians.
Free particle approximation fails when the anyons are too near to each other as during braid
operations. The space of logical qubits is realized as k-code defined by the 2
n−1
ground states,
which are stable against local single particle perturbations for k = 3 Witten-Chern-Simons
action. In the more general case the stability against n-particle perturbations with n < [k/2] is
achieved but the gates would become [k/2]-particle gates (for k = 5 this would give 6-particle
vertices).
3. Anyonic system provides a unitary modular functor as the S-matrix associated with the anyon
system whose time evolution is fixed by the pre-existing braid structure. What this means that
the S-matrices associated with the braids can be multiplied and thus a unitary representation
for the group formed by braids results. The vacuum degeneracy of anyon system makes this
representation non-trivial. By the NP complexity of braids it is possible to code any quantum
logic operation by a particular braid [39]. There exists a powerful approximation theorem
allowing to achieve this coding classically in polynomial time [41]. From the properties of the
R-matrices inducing gate operations it is indeed clear that two gates can be realized. The
Hadamard 1-gate could be realized as 2-gate in the system formed by anyon Cooper pair and
anyon.
4. In [28] the time evolution is regarded as a discrete sequence of modifications of single anyon
Hamiltonians induced by swaps [38]. If the modifications define a closed loop in the space
2.3. General implications of TGD for quantum computation 137
of Hamiltonians the resulting unitary operators define a representation of braid group in a
dense discrete sub-group of U(2
n
). The swap operation is 2-local operation acting like a 2-gate
and induces quantum logical operation modifying also single particle Hamiltonians. What is
important that this modification maps the space of the ground states to a new one and only if
the modifications correspond to a closed loop the final state is in the same code space as the
initial state. What time evolution does is to affect the topological charges of anyon Cooper pairs
representing qubits inside the 4-anyon batches defined by the braids.
In quantum field theory the analog but not equivalent of this description would be following.
Quite generally, a given particle in the final state has suffered a unitary transformation, which
is an ordered product consisting of two kinds of unitary operators. Unitary single particle
operators U
n
= Pexp(i

t
n+1
t
n
H
0
dt) are analogs of operators describing single qubit gate and
play the role of anyon propagators during no-swap periods. Two-particle unitary operators
U
swap
= Pexp(i

H
swap
dt) are analogous to four-particle interactions and describe the effect of
braid operations inducing entanglement of states having opposite values of topological charge
but conserving the net topological charge of the anyon pair. This entanglement is completely
analogous to spin entanglement. In particular, the braid operation mixes different states of
the anyon. The unitary time development operator generating entangled state of anyons and
defined by the braid structure represents the operation performed by the quantum circuit and
the quantum measurement in the final state selects a particular final state.
5. Formally the computation halts with a measurement of the topological charge of the left-most
anyon Cooper pair when the outcome is just single bit. If decay occurs with sufficiently high
probability it is concluded that the value of the computed bit is 0, otherwise 1.
2.3 General implications of TGD for quantum computation
TGD based view about time and space-time could have rather dramatic implications for quantum
computation in general and these implications deserve to be discussed briefly.
2.3.1 Time need not be a problem for quantum computations in TGD
Universe
Communication with and control of the geometric past is the basic mechanism of intentional action,
sensory perception, and long term memory in TGD inspired theory of consciousness. The possibility
to send negative energy signals to the geometric past allows also instantaneous computations with
respect to subjective time defined by a sequence of quantum jumps. The physicist of year 2100 can
induce the quantum jump to turn on the quantum computer at 2050 to perform a simulation of field
equations defined by the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action and lasting 50 geometric years, and if
this is not enough iterate the process by sending the outcome of computation back to the past where
it defines initial values of the next round of iteration. Time would cease to be a limiting factor to
computation.
2.3.2 New view about information
The notion of information is very problematic even in the classical physics and in quantum realm
this concept becomes even more enigmatic. TGD inspired theory consciousness has inspired number
theoretic ideas about quantum information which are still developing. The standard definition of
entanglement entropy relies on the Shannon’s formula: S = −
¸
k
p
k
log(p
k
). This entropy is always
non-negative and tells that the best one can achieve is entanglement with zero entropy.
The generalization of the notion of entanglement entropy to the p-adic context however led to
realization that entanglement for which entanglement probabilities are rational or in an extension of
rational numbers defining a finite extension of p-adics allows a hierarchy of entanglement entropies S
p
labelled by primes. These entropies are defined as S
p
= −
¸
k
p
k
log([p
k
[
p
), where [p
k
[
p
denotes the
p-adic norm of probability. S
p
can be negative and in this case defines a genuine information measure.
For given entanglement probabilities S
p
has a minimum for some value p
0
of prime p, and S
p
0
could be
taken as a measure for the information carried by the entanglement in question whereas entanglement
138 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
in real and p-adic continua would be entropic. The entanglement with negative entanglement entropy
is identified as bound state entanglement.
Since quantum computers by definition apply states for which entanglement coefficients belong
to a finite algebraic extension of rational numbers, the resulting states, if ideal, should be bound
states. Also finite-dimensional extensions of p-adic numbers by transcendentals are possible. For
instance, the extension by the p − 1 first powers of e (e
p
is ordinary p-adic number in R
p
). As
an extension of rationals this extension would be discrete but infinite-dimensional. Macro-temporal
quantum coherence can be identified as being due to bound state formation in appropriate degrees of
freedom and implying that state preparation and state function reduction effectively ceases to occur
in these degrees of freedom.
Macro-temporal quantum coherence effectively binds a sequence of quantum jumps to single quan-
tum jump so that the effective duration of unitary evolution is stretched from about 10
4
Planck times
to arbitrary long time span. Also quantum computations can be regarded as this kind of extended
moments of consciousness.
2.3.3 Number theoretic vision about quantum jump as a building block of
conscious experience
The generalization of number concept resulting when reals and various p-adic number fields are fused
to a book like structure obtaining by gluing them along rational numbers common to all these num-
ber fields leads to an extremely general view about what happens in quantum jump identified as
basic building block of conscious experience. First of all, the unitary process U generates a formal
superposition of states belonging to different number fields including their extensions. Negentropy
Maximization Principle [H2] constrains the dynamics of state preparation and state function reduc-
tion following U so that the final state contains only rational or extended rational entanglement with
positive information content. At the level of conscious experience this process can be interpreted as
a cognitive process or analysis leading to a state containing only bound state entanglement serving
as a correlate for the experience of understanding. Thus quantum information science and quantum
theory of consciousness seem to meet each other.
In the standard approach to quantum computing entanglement is not bound state entanglement.
If bound state entanglement is really the entanglement which is possible for quantum computer, the
entanglement of qubits might not serve as a universal entanglement currency. That is, the reduction
of the general two-particle entanglement to entanglement between N qubits might not be possible in
TGD framework.
The conclusion that only bound state entanglement is possible in quantum computation in human
time scales is however based on the somewhat questionable heuristic assumption that subjective time
has the same universal rate, that is the average increment ∆t of the geometric time in single quantum
jump does not depend on the space-time sheet, and is of order CP
2
time about 10
4
Planck times. The
conclusion could be circumvented if one assumes that ∆t depends on the space-time sheet involved:
for instance, instead of CP
2
time ∆t could be of order p-adic time scale T
p
for a space-time sheet
labelled by p-adic prime p and increase like

p. In this case the unitary operator defining quantum
computation would be simply that defining the unitary process U.
2.3.4 Dissipative quantum parallelism?
The new view about quantum jump implies that state function reduction and preparation process
decomposes into a hierarchy of these processes occurring in various scales: dissipation would occur in
quantum parallel manner with each p-adic scale defining one level in the hierarchy. At space-time level
this would correspond to almost independent quantum dynamics at parallel space-time sheets labelled
by p-adic primes. In particular, dissipative processes can occur in short scales while the dynamics
in longer scales is non-dissipative. This would explain why the description of hadrons as dissipative
systems consisting of quarks and gluons in short scales is consistent with the description of hadrons
as genuine quantum systems in long scales. Dissipative quantum parallelism would also mean that
thermodynamics at shorter length scales would stabilize the dynamics at longer length scales and in
this manner favor scaled up quantum coherence.
NMR systems [26] might represent an example about dissipative quantum parallelism. Room tem-
perature NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) systems use highly redundant replicas of qubits which
2.3. General implications of TGD for quantum computation 139
have very long coherence times. Quantum gates using radio frequency pulses to modify the spin
evolution have been implemented, and even effective Hamiltonians have been synthesized. Quantum
computations and dynamics of other quantum systems have been simulated and quantum error pro-
tocols have been realized. These successes are unexpected since the energy scale of cyclotron states is
much below the thermal energy. This has raised fundamental questions about the power of quantum
information processing in highly mixed states, and it might be that dissipative quantum parallelism
is needed to explain the successes.
Magnetized systems could realize quite concretely the renormalization group philosophy in the
sense that the magnetic fields due to the magnetization at the atomic space-time sheets could define a
return flux along larger space-time sheets as magnetic flux quanta (by topological flux quantization)
defining effective block spins serving as thermally stabilized qubits for a long length scale quantum
parallel dynamics. For an external magnetic field B ∼ 10 Tesla the magnetic length is L ∼ 10 nm
and corresponds to the p-adic length scale L(k = 151). The induced magnetization is M ∼ nµ
2
B/T,
where n is the density of nuclei and µ = ge/2m
p
is the magnetic moment of nucleus. For solid matter
density the magnetization is by a factor ∼ 10 weaker than the Earth’s magnetic field and corresponds
to a magnetic length L ∼ 15 µm: the p-adic length scale is around L(171). For 10
22
spins per block
spin used for NMR simulations the size of block spin should be ∼ 1mm solid matter density so that
single block spin would contain roughly 10
6
magnetization flux quanta containing 10
16
spins each. The
magnetization flux quanta serving as logical qubits could allow to circumvent the standard physics
upper bound for scaling up of about 10 logical qubits [26].
2.3.5 Negative energies and quantum computation
In TGD universe space-times are 4-surfaces so that negative energies are possible due to the fact that
the sign of energy depends on time orientation (energy momentum tensor is replaced by a collection
of conserved momentum currents). This has several implications. Negative energy photons having
phase conjugate photons as physical correlates of photons play a key role in TGD inspired theory
of consciousness and living matter and there are also indications that magnetic flux tubes structures
with negative energies are important.
Negative energies makes possible communications to the geometric past, and time mirror mecha-
nism involving generation of negative energy photons is the key mechanism of intentional action and
plays central role in the model for the functioning of bio-systems. In principle this could allow to
circumvent the problems due to the time required by computation by initiating computation in the
geometric past and iterating this process. The most elegant and predictive cosmology is that for which
the net conserved quantities of the universe vanish due the natural boundary condition that nothing
flows into the future light cone through its boundaries representing the moment of big bang.
Also topological quantum field theories describe systems for which conserved quantities associated
with the isometries of space-time, such as energy and momentum, vanish. Hence the natural question
is whether negative energies making possible zero energy states might also make possible also zero
energy quantum computations.
Crossing symmetry and Eastern and Western views about what happens in scattering
The hypothesis that all physical states have vanishing net quantum numbers (Eastern view) forces to
interpret the scattering events of particle physics as quantum jumps between different vacua. This
interpretation is in a satisfactory consistency with the assumption about existence of objective reality
characterized by a positive energy (Western view) if crossing symmetry holds so that configuration
space spinor fields can be regarded as S-matrix elements between initial state defined by positive
energy particles and negative energy state defined by negative energy particles. As a matter fact,
the proposal for the S-matrix of TGD at elementary particle level relies on this idea: the amplitudes
for the transition from vacuum to states having vanishing net quantum numbers with positive and
negative energy states interpreted as incoming and outgoing states are assumed to be interpretable
as S-matrix elements.
More generally, one could require that scattering between any pair of states with zero net energies
and representing S-matrix allows interpretation as a scattering between positive energy states. This
requirement is satisfied if their exists an entire self-reflective hierarchy of S-matrices in the sense that
the S-matrix between states representing S-matrices S
1
and S
2
would be the tensor product S
1
⊗S
2
. At
140 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
the observational level the experience the usual sequence of observations [m
1
` → [m
2
`..... → [m
n
`...
based on belief about objective reality with non-vanishing conserved net quantum numbers would
correspond to a sequence ([m
1
→ m
2
` → [m
2
→ m
3
`... between ”self-reflective” zero energy states.
These sequences are expected to be of special importance since the contribution of the unit matrix to
S-matrix S = 1+iT gives dominating contribution unless interactions are strong. This sequence would
result in the approximation that S
2
= 1 +iT
2
in S = S
1
⊗S
2
is diagonal. The fact that the scattering
for macroscopic systems tends to be in forward direction would help to create the materialistic illusion
about unique objective reality.
It should be possible to test whether the Eastern or Western view is correct by looking what
happens strong interacting systems where the western view should fail. The Eastern view is consistent
with the basic vision about quantum jumps between quantum histories having as a counterpart the
change of the geometric past at space-time level.
Negative energy anti-fermions and matter-antimatter asymmetry
The assumption that space-time is 4-surface means that the sign of energy depends on time orientation
so that negative energies are possible. Phase conjugate photons [52] are excellent candidates for
negative energy photons propagating into geometric past.
Also the phase conjugate fermions make in principle sense and one can indeed perform Dirac
quantization in four manners such that a) both fermions and anti-fermions have positive/negative
energies, b) fermions (anti-fermions) have positive energies and anti-fermions (fermions) have negative
energies. The corresponding ground state correspond to Dirac seas obtained by applying the product
of a) all fermionic and anti-fermionic annihilation (creation) operators to vacuum, b) all fermionic
creation (annihilation) operators and anti-fermionic annihilation (creation) operators to vacuum. The
ground states of a) have infinite vacuum energy which is either negative or positive whereas the ground
states of b) have vanishing vacuum energy. The case b) with positive fermionic and negative anti-
fermionic energies could correspond to long length scales in which are matter-antisymmetric due to
the effective absence of anti-fermions (”effective” meaning that no-one has tried to detect the negative
energy anti-fermions). The case a) with positive energies could naturally correspond to the phase
studied in elementary particle physics.
If gravitational and inertial masses have same magnitude and same sign, consistency with empiri-
cal facts requires that positive and negative energy matter must have been separated in cosmological
length scales. Gravitational repulsion might be the mechanism causing this. Applying naively New-
ton’s equations to a system of two bodies with energies E
1
> 0 and −E
2
< 0 and assuming only
gravitational force, one finds that the sign of force for the motion in relative coordinates is determined
by the sign of the reduced mass −E
1
E
2
/(E
1
−E
2
), which is negative for E
1
> [E
2
[: positive masses
would act repulsively on smaller negative masses. For E
1
= −E
2
the motion in the relative coordi-
nate becomes free motion and both systems experience same acceleration which for E
1
corresponds
to a repulsive force. The reader has probably already asked whether the observed acceleration of the
cosmological expansion interpreted in terms of cosmological constant due to vacuum energy could
actually correspond to a repulsive force between positive and negative energy matter.
It is possible to create pairs of positive energy fermions and negative energy fermions from vacuum.
For instance, annihilation of photons and phase conjugate photons could create electron and negative
energy positron pairs with a vanishing net energy. Magnetic flux tubes having positive and negative
energies carrying fermions and negative energy positrons pairs of photons and their phase conjugates
via fermion anti-fermion annihilation. The obvious idea is to perform zero energy topological quantum
computations by using anyons of positive energy and anti-anyons of negative energy plus their Cooper
pairs. This idea will be discussed later in more detail.
2.4 TGD based new physics related to topological quantum
computation
The absolute minimization of K¨ahler action is the basic dynamical principle of space-time dynamics.
For a long time it remained an open question whether the known solutions of field equations are
building blocks of the absolute minima of K¨ahler action or represent only the simplest extremals one
can imagine and perhaps devoid of any real significance. Quantum-classical correspondence meant a
2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 141
great progress in the understanding the solution spectrum of field equations. Among other things,
this principle requires that the dissipative quantum dynamics leading to non-dissipating asymptotic
self-organization patterns should have the vanishing of the Lorentz 4-force as space-time correlate.
The absence of dissipation in the sense of vanishing of Lorentz 4-force is a natural correlate for the
absence of dissipation in quantum computations. Furthermore, absolute minimization, if it is really
a fundamental principle, should represent the second law of thermodynamics at space-time level. Of
course, one cannot exclude the possibility that second law of thermodynamics at space-time level
could replace absolute minimization as the basic principle.
The vanishing of Lorentz 4-force generalizes the so called Beltrami conditions [17, 19] stating the
vanishing of Lorentz force for purely magnetic field configurations and these conditions reduce in
many cases to topological conditions. The study of classical field equations predicts three phases
corresponding to non-vacuum solutions of field equations possessing vanishing Lorentz force. The
dimension D of CP
2
projection of the space-time sheet serves as classifier of the phases.
1. D = 2 phase is analogous to ferro-magnetic phase possible in low temperatures and relatively
simple, D = 4 phase is in turn analogous to a chaotic de-magnetized high temperature phase.
2. D = 3 phase represents spin glass phase, kind of boundary region between order and chaos
possible in a finite temperature range and is an ideal candidate for the field body serving as a
template for living systems. D = 3 phase allows infinite number of conserved topological charges
having interpretation as invariants describing the linking of the magnetic field lines. This phase
is also the phase in which topological quantum computations are possible.
2.4.1 Topologically quantized generalized Beltrami fields and braiding
From the construction of the solutions of field equations in terms topologically quantized fields it is
obvious that TGD Universe is tailor made for TQC.
D = 3 phase allows infinite number of topological charges characterizing the linking of
magnetic field lines
When space-time sheet possesses a D = 3-dimensional CP
2
projection, one can assign to it a non-
vanishing and conserved topological charge characterizing the linking of the magnetic field lines defined
by Chern-Simons action density A ∧ dA/4π for induced K¨ahler form. This charge can be seen as
classical topological invariant of the linked structure formed by magnetic field lines. For D = 2
the topological charge densities vanish identically, for D = 3 they are in general non-vanishing and
conserved, whereas for D = 4 they are not conserved. The transition to D = 4 phase can thus be used
to erase quantum computer programs realized as braids. The 3-dimensional CP
2
projection provides
an economical manner to represent the braided world line pattern of dancers and would be the space
where the 3-dimensional quantum field theory would be defined.
The topological charge can also vanish for D = 3 space-time sheets. In Darboux coordinates
for which K¨ahler gauge potential reads as A = P
k
dQ
k
, the surfaces of this kind result if one has
Q
2
= f(Q
1
) implying A = fdQ
1
, f = P
1
+ P
2

Q
1
Q
2
, which implies the condition A ∧ dA = 0.
For these space-time sheets one can introduce Q
1
as a global coordinate along field lines of A and
define the phase factor exp(i

A
µ
dx
µ
) as a wave function defined for the entire space-time sheet. This
function could be interpreted as a phase of an order order parameter of super-conductor like state and
there is a high temptation to assume that quantum coherence in this sense is lost for more general
D = 3 solutions. Note however that in boundaries can still remain super-conducting and it seems
that this occurs in the case of anyons.
Chern-Simons action is known as helicity in electrodynamics [20]. Helicity indeed describes the
linking of magnetic flux lines as is easy to see by interpreting magnetic field as incompressible fluid flow
having A as vector potential: B = ∇A. One can write A using the inverse of ∇ as A = (1/∇)B.
The inverse is non-local operator expressible as
1

B(r) =

dV

(r −r

)
[r −r

[
3
B(r

) ,
as a little calculation shows. This allows to write

A B as
142 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

dV A B =

dV dV

B(r)

(r −r

)
[r −r

[
3
B(r

)

,
which is completely analogous to the Gauss formula for linking number when linked curves are replaced
by a distribution of linked curves and an average is taken.
For D = 3 field equations imply that K¨ahler current is proportional to the helicity current by a
factor which depends on CP
2
coordinates, which implies that the current is automatically divergence
free and defines a conserved charge for D = 3-dimensional CP
2
projection for which the instanton
density vanishes identically. K¨ahler charge is not equal to the helicity defined by the inner product of
magnetic field and vector potential but to a more general topological charge.
The number of conserved topological charges is infinite since the product of any function of CP
2
coordinates with the helicity current has vanishing divergence and defines a topological charge. A very
natural function basis is provided by the scalar spherical harmonics of SU(3) defining Hamiltonians of
CP
2
canonical transformations and possessing well defined color quantum numbers. These functions
define and infinite number of conserved charges which are also classical knot invariants in the sense
that they are not affected at all when the 3-surface interpreted as a map from CP
2
projection to M
4
+
is deformed in M
4
+
degrees of freedom. Also canonical transformations induced by Hamiltonians in
irreducible representations of color group affect these invariants via Poisson bracket action when the
U(1) gauge transformation induced by the canonical transformation corresponds to a single valued
scalar function. These link invariants are additive in union whereas the quantum invariants defined
by topological quantum field theories are multiplicative.
Also non-Abelian topological charges are well-defined. One can generalize the topological current
associated with the K¨ahler form to a corresponding current associated with the induced electro-weak
gauge fields whereas for classical color gauge fields the Chern-Simons form vanishes identically. Also
in this case one can multiply the current by CP
2
color harmonics to obtain an infinite number of
invariants in D = 3 case. The only difference is that A∧dA is replaced by Tr(A∧(dA+2A∧A/3)).
There is a strong temptation to assume that these conserved charges characterize colored quantum
states of the conformally invariant quantum theory as a functional of the light-like 3-surface defining
boundary of space-time sheet or elementary particle horizon surrounding wormhole contacts. They
would be TGD analogs of the states of the topological quantum field theory defined by Chern-Simons
action as highest weight states associated with corresponding Wess-Zumino-Witten theory. These
charges could be interpreted as topological counterparts of the isometry charges of configuration
space of 3-surfaces defined by the algebra of canonical transformations of CP
2
.
The interpretation of these charges as contributions of light-like boundaries to configuration space
Hamiltonians would be natural. The dynamics of the induced second quantized spinor fields relates to
that of K¨ahler action by a super-symmetry, so that it should define super-symmetric counterparts of
these knot invariants. The anti-commutators of these super charges would contribute to configuration
space metric a part which would define a K¨ahler magnetic knot invariant. These Hamiltonians and
their super-charge counterparts would be responsible for the topological sector of quantum TGD.
The color partial wave degeneracy of topological charges inspires the idea that also anyons could
move in color partial waves identifiable in terms of ”rigid body rotation” of the magnetic flux tube
of anyon in CP
2
degrees of freedom. Their presence could explain non-Abelianity of Chern-Simons
action and bring in new kind bits increasing the computational capacity of the topological quantum
computer. The idea about the importance of macroscopic color is not new in TGD context. The
fact that non-vanishing K¨ahler field is always accompanied by a classical color field (proportional to
it) has motivated the proposal that colored excitations in macroscopic length scales are important in
living matter and that colors as visual qualia correspond to increments of color quantum numbers in
quantum phase transitions giving rise to visual sensations.
Knot theory, 3-manifold topology, and D = 3 solutions of field equations
Topological quantum field theory (TQFT) [30] demonstrates a deep connection between links and
3-topology, and one might hope that this connection could be re-interpreted in terms of imbeddings
of 3-manifolds to H = M
4
+
CP
2
as surfaces having 3-dimensional CP
2
projection, call it X
3
in
the sequel. D = 3 suggests itself because in this case Chern-Simons action density for the induced
K¨ahler field is generically non-vanishing and defines an infinite number of classical charges identifiable
2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 143
as K¨ahler magnetic canonical covariants invariant under Diff(M
4
+
). The field topology of K¨ahler
magnetic field should be in a key role in the understanding of these invariants.
1. Could 3-D CP
2
projection of 3-surface provide a representation of 3-topology?
Witten-Chern-Simons theory for a given 3-manifold defines invariants which characterize both the
topology of 3-manifold and the link. Why this is the case can be understood from the construction
of 3-manifolds by drilling a tubular neighborhood of a link in S
3
and by gluing the tori back to get
a new 3-manifolds. The links with some moves defining link equivalences are known to be in one-one
correspondence with closed 3-manifolds and the axiomatic formulation of TQFT [30] as a modular
functor clarifies this correspondence. The question is whether the CP
2
projection of the 3-surface
could under some assumptions be represented by a link so that one could understand the connection
between the links and topology of 3-manifolds.
In order to get some idea about what might happen consider the CP
2
projection X
3
of 3-surface.
Assume that X
3
is obtained from S
3
represented as a 3-surface in CP
2
by removing from S
3
a tubular
link consisting of linked and knotted solid tori D
2
S
1
. Since the 3-surface is closed, it must have folds
at the boundaries being thus representable as a two-valued map S
3
→ M
4
+
near the folds. Assume
that this is the case everywhere. The two halves of the 3-surface corresponding to the two branches
of the map would be glued together along the boundary of the tubular link by identification maps
which are in the general case characterized by the mapping class group of 2-torus. The gluing maps
are defined inside the overlapping coordinate batches containing the boundary S
1
S
1
and are maps
between the pairs (Ψ
i
, Φ
i
), i = 1, 2 of the angular coordinates parameterizing the tori.
Define longitude as a representative for the a + nb of the homology group of the 2-torus. The
integer n defines so called framing and means that the longitude twists n times around torus. As a
matter fact, TQFT requires bi-framing: at the level of Chern-Simons perturbation theory bi-framing
is necessary in order to define self linking numbers. Define meridian as the generator of the homology
group of the complement of solid torus in S
3
. It is enough to glue the carved torus back in such a
manner that meridian is mapped to longitude and longitude to minus meridian. This map corresponds
to the SL(2, C) element

0 1
−1 0

.
Also other identification maps defined by SL(2, Z) matrices are possible but one can do using only
this. Note that the two component SL(2, Z) spinors defined as superpositions of the generators (a, b)
of the homology group of torus are candidates for the topological correlates of spinors. In the gluing
process the tori become knotted and linked when seen in the coordinates of the complement of the
solid tori.
This construction would represent the link surgery of 3-manifolds in terms of CP
2
projections
of 3-surfaces of H. Unfortunately this representation does not seem to be the only one. One can
construct closed three-manifolds also by the so called Heegaard splitting. Remove from S
3
D
g
, a
solid sphere with g handles having boundary S
g
, and glue the resulting surface with its oppositely
oriented copy along boundaries. The gluing maps are classified by the mapping class group of S
g
.
Any closed orientable 3-manifold can be obtained by this kind of procedure for some value of g. Also
this construction could be interpreted in terms of a fold at the boundary of the CP
2
projection for
a 2-valued graph S
3
→ M
4
+
. Whether link surgery representation and Heegaard splitting could be
transformed to each other by say pinching D
g
to separate tori is not clear to me.
When the graph CP
2
→ M
4
+
is at most 2-valued, the intricacies due to the imbedding of the 3-
manifold are at minimum, and the link associated with the projection should give information about
3-topology and perhaps even characterize it. Also the classical topological charges associated with
K¨ahler Chern-Simons action could give this kind of information.
2. Knotting and linking for 3-surfaces
The intricacies related to imbedding become important in small co-dimensions and it is of consid-
erable interest to find what can happen in the case of 3-surfaces. For 1-dimensional links and knots
the projection to a plane, the shadow of the knot, characterizes the link/knot and allows to deduce
link and knot invariants purely combinatorially by gradually removing the intersection points and
writing a contribution to the link invariant determined by the orientations of intersecting strands and
144 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
by which of them is above the other. Thus also the generalization of knot and link diagrams is of
interest.
Linking of m- and n-dimensional sub-manifolds of D-dimensional manifold H
D
occurs when the
condition m + n = D − 1 holds true. The n-dimensional sub-manifold intersects m + 1-dimensional
surfaces having m-dimensional manifold as its boundary at discrete points, and it is usually not
possible to remove these points by deforming the surfaces without intersections in some intermediate
stage. The generalization of the link diagram results as a projection D−1-dimensional disk D
D−1
of
H
D
.
3-surfaces link in dimension D = 7 so that the linking of 3-surfaces occurs quite generally in
time=constant section of the imbedding space. A link diagram would result as a projection to E
2

CP
2
, E
2
a 2-dimensional plane: putting CP
2
coordinates constant gives ordinary link diagram in
E
2
. For magnetic flux tubes the reduction to 2-dimensional linking by idealizing flux tubes with
1-dimensional strings makes sense.
Knotting occurs in codimension 2 that is for an n-manifold imbedded in D = n + 2-dimensional
manifold. Knotting can be understood as follows. Knotted surface spans locally n + 1-dimensional
2-sided n+1-disk D
n+1
(disk for ordinary knot). The portion of surface going through D
n+1
can be
idealized with a 1-dimensional thread going through it and by n+2 = D knotting is locally linking of
this 1-dimensional thread with n-dimensional manifold. N-dimensional knots define n+1-dimensional
knots by so called spinning. Take an n-knot with the topology of sphere S
n
such that the knotted part
is above n + 1-plane of n + 2-dimensional space R
n+2
(z ≥ 0), cut off the part below plane (z < 0),
introduce an additional dimension (t) and make a 2π rotation for the resulting knot in z − t plane.
The resulting manifold is a knotted S
n+1
. The counterpart of the knot diagram would be a projection
to n + 1-dimensional sub-manifold, most naturally disk D
n+1
, of the imbedding space.
3-surfaces could become knotted under some conditions. Vacuum extremals correspond to 4-
surfaces X
4
⊂ M
4
+
Y
2
whereas the four-surfaces X
4
⊂ M
4
+
S
2
, S
2
homologically non-trivial
geodesic sphere, define their own ”sub-theory”. In both cases 3-surfaces in time=constant section
of imbedding space can get knotted in the sense that un-knotting requires giving up the defining
condition temporarily. The counterpart of the knot diagram is the projection to E
2
X
2
, X
2
= Y
2
or S
2
, where E
2
is plane of M
4
+
. For constant values of CP
2
coordinates ordinary knot diagram
would result. Reduction to ordinary knot diagrams would naturally occur for D = 2 magnetic flux
tubes. The knotting occurs also for 4-surfaces themselves in M
4
+
X
2
: knot diagram is now defined
as projection to E
3
X
2
.
3. Could the magnetic field topology of 3-manifold be able to mimic other 3-topologies?
In D = 3 case the topological charges associated with K¨ahler Chern-Simons term characterize the
linking of the field lines of the K¨ahler gauge potential A. What dA∧A = 0 means that field lines are
linked and it is not possible to define a coordinate varying along the field lines of A. This is impossible
even locally since the dA ∧ A = 0 condition is equivalent with non existence of a scalar functions k
and Φ such that ∇Φ = kA guaranteing that Φ would be the sought for global coordinate.
One can idealize the situation a little bit and think of a field configuration for which magnetic flux
is concentrated at one-dimensional closed lines. The vector potential would in this case be simply
A = ∇(kΨ + lΦ), where Ψ is an angle coordinate around the singular line and Φ a coordinate along
the singular circle. In this idealized situation the failure to have a global coordinate would be due
to the singularities of otherwise global coordinates along one-dimensional linked and knotted circles.
The reason is that the field lines of A and B rotate helically around the singular circle and the
points (x, y, z) with constant values of x, y are on a helix which becomes singular at z-axis. Since
the replacement of a field configuration with a non-singular field configuration but having same field
line topology does not affect the global field line topology, one might hope of characterizing the field
topology by its singularities along linked and knotted circles also in the general case.
Just similar linked and knotted circles are used to construct 3-manifolds in the link surgery which
would suggest that the singularities of the field line topology of X
3
code the non-trivial 3-topology
resulting when the singularities are removed by link surgery. Physically the longitude defining the
framing a +nb would correspond to the field line of A making an n2π twist along the singular circle.
Meridian would correspond to a circle in the plane of B. The bi-framing necessitated by TQFT would
have a physical interpretation in terms of the helical field lines of A and B rotating around the singular
circle. At the level of fields the gluing operation would mean a gauge transformation such that the
meridians would become the field lines of the gauge transformed A and being non-helical could be
2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 145
continued to the the interior of the glued torus without singularities. Simple non-helical magnetic
torus would be in question.
This means that the magnetic field patterns of a given 3-manifold could mimic the topologies of
other 3-manifolds. The topological mimicry of this kind would be a very robust manner to represent
information and might be directly relevant to TQC. For instance, the computation of topological
invariants of 3-manifold Y
3
could be coded by the field pattern of X
3
representing the link surgery
producing the 3-manifold from S
3
, and the physical realization of TQC program could directly utilize
the singularities of this field pattern. Topological magnetized flux tubes glued to the back-ground
3-surface along the singular field lines of A could provide the braiding.
This mimicry could also induce transitions to the new topology and relate directly to 3-manifold
surgery performed by a physical system. This transition would quite concretely mean gluing of simple
D = 2 magnetic flux tubes along their boundaries to the larger D = 3 space-time sheet from which
similar flux tube has been cut away.
4. A connection with anyons?
There is also a possible connection with anyons. Anyons are thought to correspond to singularities
of gauge fields resulting in a symmetry breaking of gauge group to a finite subgroup H and are
associated with homotopically non-trivial loops of C
n
= ((R
2
)
n
− D)/S
n
represented as elements of
H. Could the singularities of gauge fields relate to the singularities of the link surgery so that the
singularities would be more or less identifiable as anyons? Could N-branched anyons be identified in
terms of framings a+Nb associated with the gluing map? D = 3 solutions allow the so called contact
structure [D1], which means a decomposition of the coordinates of CP
2
projection to a longitudinal
coordinate s and a complex coordinate w. Could this decomposition generalize the notion of effective
2-dimensionality crucial for the notion of anyon?
5. What about Witten’s quantal link invariants?
Witten’s quantal link invariants define natural multiplicative factors of configuration space spinor
fields identifiable as representations of two 2-dimensional topological evolution. In Witten’s approach
these invariants are defined as functional averages of non-integrable phase factors associated with a
given link in a given 3-manifold. TGD does not allow any natural functional integral over gauge
field configurations for a fixed 3-surface unless one is willing to introduce fictive non-Abelian gauge
fields. Although this is not a problem as such, the representation of the invariants in terms of inherent
properties of the 3-surface or corresponding 4-surfaces would be highly desirable.
Functional integral representation is not the only possibility. Quantum classical correspondence
combined with topological field quantization implied by the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action
generalizing Bohr rules to the field context gives hopes that the 3-surfaces themselves might be able to
represent 3-manifold invariants classically. In D = 3 case the quantized exponents of K¨ahler-Chern-
Simons action and SU(2)
L
Chern-Simons action could define 3-manifold invariants. These invariants
would satisfy the obvious multiplicativity conditions and could correspond to the phase factors due to
the framing dependence of Witten’s invariants identifying the loops of surgery link as Wilson loops.
These phase factors are powers of U = exp(i2πc/24), where c is the central charge of the Virasoro
representation defined by Kac Moody representation. One has c = k dim(g)/(k +c
g
/2), which gives
U = exp(i2πk/8(k +2)) for SU(2). The dependence on k differs from what one might naively expect.
For this reason, and also because the classical Wilson loops do not depend explicitly on k, the value of
k appearing in Chern-Simons action should be fixed by the internal consistency and be a constant of
Nature according to TGD. The guess is that k possesses the minimal value k = 3 allowing a universal
modular functor for SU(2) with q = exp(i2π/5).
The loops associated with the topological singularities of the K¨ahler gauge potential (typically
the center lines of helical field configurations) would in turn define natural Wilson loops, and since
the holonomies around these loops are also topologically quantized, they could define invariants of
3-manifolds obtained by performing surgery around these lines. The behavior of the induced gauge
fields should be universal near the singularities in the sense that the holonomies associated with the
CP
2
projections of the singularities to CP
2
would be universal. This expectation is encouraged by
the notion of quantum criticality in general and in particular, by the interpretation of D = 3 phase
as a critical system analogous to spin glass.
The exponent of Chern-Simons action can explain only the phase factors due to the framing, which
are usually regarded as an unavoidable nuisance. This might be however all that is needed. For the
146 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
manifolds of type X
2
S
1
all link invariants are either equal to unity or vanish. Surgery would allow
to build 3-manifold invariants from those of S
2
S
1
. For instance, surgery gives the invariant Z(S
3
)
in terms of Z(S
2
S
1
, R
i
) and mapping class group action coded into the linking of the field lines.
Holonomies can be also seen as multi-valued SU(2)
L
gauge transformations and can be mapped
to a multi-valued transformations in the SU(2) subgroup of SU(3) acting on 3-surface as a geometric
transformations and making it multi-branched. This makes sense if the holonomies define a finite
group so that the gauge transformation is finitely many-valued. This description might apply to the
3-manifold resulting in a surgery defined by the Wilson loops identifiable as branched covering of the
initial manifold.
The construction makes also sense for the holonomies defined by the classical SU(3) gauge fields
defined by the projections of the isometry currents. Furthermore, the fact that any CP
2
Hamiltonian
defines a conserved topological charge in D = 3 phase should have a deep significance. At the level of
the configuration space geometry the finite-dimensional group defining Kac Moody algebra is replaced
with the group of canonical transformations of CP
2
. Perhaps one could extend the notion of Wilson
loop for the algebra of canonical transformations of CP
2
so that the representations R
i
of the gauge
group would be replaced by matrix representations of the canonical algebra. That the trace of the
identity matrix is infinite in this case need not be a problem since one can simply redefine the trace
to have value one.
Braids as topologically quantized magnetic fields
D = 3 space-time sheets would define complex braiding structures with flux tubes possessing infinite
number of topological charges characterizing the linking of field lines. The world lines of the quantum
computing dancers could thus correspond to the flux tubes that can get knotted, linked, and braided.
This idea conforms with the earlier idea that the various knotted and linked structures formed by
linear bio-molecules define some kind of computer programs.
1. Boundaries of magnetic flux tubes as light-like 3-surfaces
Field equations for K¨ahler action are satisfied identically at boundaries if the boundaries of mag-
netic flux tubes (and space-time sheet in general) are light-like in the induced metric. In M
4
+
metric
the flux tubes could look static structures. Light-likeness allows an interpretation of the boundary
state either as a 3-dimensional quantum state or as a time-evolution of a 2-dimensional quantum
state. This conforms with the idea that quantum computation is cognitive, self reflective process so
that quantum state is about something rather than something. There would be no need to force par-
ticles to flow through the braid structure to build up time-like braid whereas for time-like boundaries
of magnetic flux tubes a time-like braid results only if the topologically charged particles flow through
the flux tubes with the same average velocity so that the length along flux tubes is mapped to time.
Using the terminology of consciousness theory, one could say that during quantum dance the
dancers are in trance being entangled to a single macro-temporally coherent state which represents
single collective consciousness, and wake up to individual dancers when the dance ends. Quantum
classical correspondence suggests that the generation of bound state entanglement between dancers
requires tangled join along boundaries bonds connecting the space-time sheets of anyons (braid of
flux tubes again!): dancers share mental images whereas direct contact between magnetic flux tubes
defining the braid is not necessary. The bound state entanglement between sub-systems of unentan-
gled systems is made possible by the many-sheeted space-time. This kind of entanglement could be
interpreted as entanglement not visible in scales of larger flux tubes so that the notion is natural in
the philosophy based on the idea of length scale resolution.
2. How braids are generated?
The encoding of the program to a braid could be a mechanical process: a bundle of magnetic
flux tubes with one end fixed would be gradually weaved to a braid by stretching and performing the
needed elementary twists. The time to perform the braiding mechanically requires classical computer
program and the time needed to carry out the braiding depends polynomially on the number of
strands.
The process could also occur by a quantum jump generating the braided flux tubes in single flash
and perhaps even intentionally in living systems (flux tubes with negative topological charge could
have negative energy so that it would require no energy to generate the structure from vacuum). The
2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 147
interaction with environment could be used to select the desired braids. Also ensembles of braids
might be imagined. Living matter might have discovered this mechanism and used int intentionally.
3. Topological quantization, many-sheetedness, and localization
Localization of modular functors is one of the key problems in topological quantum computation
(see the article of Freedman [38]. For anyonic computation this would mean in the ideal case a
decomposition of the system into batches containing 4 anyons each so that these anyon groups interact
only during swap operations.
The role of topological quantization would be to select of a portion of the magnetic field defining
the braid as a macroscopic structure. Topological field quantization realizes elegantly the requirement
that single particle time evolutions between swaps involve no interaction with other anyons.
Also many-sheetedness is important. The (AA) pair and two anyons would correspond braids
inside braids and as it turns out this gives more flexibility in construction of quantum computation
since the 1-gates associated with logical qubits of 4-batch can belong to different representation of
braid group than that associated with braiding of the batches.
2.4.2 Quantum Hall effect and fractional charges in TGD
In fractional QH effect anyons possess fractional electromagnetic charges. Also fractional spin is
possible. TGD explains fractional charges as being due to multi-branched character of space-time
sheets. Also the Z
n
-valued topological charge associated with anyons has natural explanation.
Basic TGD inspired ideas about quantum Hall effect
Quantum Hall effect is observed in low temperature systems when the intensity of a strong magnetic
field perpendicular to the current carrying slab is varied adiabatically. Classically quantum Hall effect
can be understood as a generation of a transversal electric field, which exactly cancels the magnetic
Lorentz force. This gives E = −j B/ne. The resulting current can be also understood as due to a
drift velocity proportional to EB generated in electric and magnetic fields orthogonal to each other
and allowing to cancel Lorentz force. This picture leads to the classical expression for transversal Hall
conductivity as σ
xy
= ne/B. σ
xy
should vary continuously as a function of the magnetic field and
2-dimensional electron density n.
In quantum Hall effect σ
xy
is piece-wise constant and quantized with relative precision of about
10
−10
. The second remarkable feature is that the longitudinal conductivity σ
xx
is very high at plateaus:
variations by 13 orders of magnitude are observed. The system is also very sensitive to small pertur-
bations.
Consider now what these qualitative observations might mean in TGD context.
1. Sensitivity to small perturbations means criticality. TGD Universe is quantum critical and
quantum criticality reduces to the spin glass degeneracy due to the enormous vacuum degeneracy
of the theory. The D = 2 and D = 3 non-vacuum phases predicted by the generalized Beltrami
ansatz are this in-stability might play important role in the effect.
2. The magnetic fields are genuinely classical fields in TGD framework, and for D = 2 proportional
to induced K¨ahler magnetic field. The canonical symmetries of CP
2
act like U(1) gauge transfor-
mations on the induced gauge field but are not gauge symmetries since canonical transformations
change the shape of 3-surface and affect both classical gravitational fields and electro-weak and
color gauge fields. Hence different gauges for classical K¨ahler field represent magnetic fields for
which topological field quanta can have widely differing and physically non-equivalent shapes.
For instance, tube like quanta act effectively as insulators whereas magnetic walls parallel to the
slab act as conducting wires.
Wall like flux tubes parallel to the slab perhaps formed by a partial fusion of magnetic flux
tubes along their boundaries would give rise to high longitudinal conductivity. For disjoint flux
tubes the motion would be around the flux tubes and the electrons would get stuck inside these
tubes. By quantum criticality and by D < 4 property the magnetic flux tube structures are
unstable against perturbations, in particular the variation of the magnetic field strength itself.
The transitions from a plateau to a new one would correspond to the decay of the magnetic
148 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
walls back to disjoint flux tubes followed by a generation of walls again so that conductivity is
very high outside transition regions. The variation of any parameter, such as temperature, is
expected to be able to cause similar effects implying dramatic changes in Hall conductivity.
The percolation model for the quantum Hall effect represents slab as a landscape with mountains
and valleys and the varied external parameter, say B or free electron density, as the sea level.
For the critical values of sea level narrow regions carrying so called edge states allow liquid to fill
large regions appear and implies increase of conductivity. Obviously percolation model differs
from the model based on criticality for which the landscape itself is highly fragile and a small
perturbation can develop new valleys and mountains.
3. The effective 2-dimensionality implies that the solutions of Schr¨odinger equation of electron in
external magnetic field are products of any analytic function with a Gaussian representing the
ground state of a harmonic oscillator. Analyticity means that the kinetic energy is completely
degenerate for these solutions. The Lauhglin ansatz for the state functions of electron in the
external magnetic field is many-electron generalization of these solutions: the wave functions
consists of products of terms of form (z
i
−z
j
)
m
, m odd integer from Fermi statistics.
The N-particle variant of Laughlin’s ansatz allows to deduce that the system is incompressible.
The key observation is that the probability density for the many-particle state has an interpre-
tation as a Boltzmann factor for a fictive two-dimensional plasma in electric field created by
constant charge density [31, 32]. The probability density is extremely sensitive to the changes
of the positions of electrons giving rise to the constant electron density. The screening of charge
in this fictive plasma implies the filling fraction ν = 1/m, m odd integer and requires charge
fractionization e →e/m. The explanation of the filling fractions ν = N/m would require multi-
valued wave functions (z
i
− z
j
)
N/m
. In single-sheeted space-time this leads to problems. TGD
suggests that these wave functions are single valued but defined on N-branched surface.
The degeneracy with respect to kinetic energy brings in mind the spin glass degeneracy induced
by the vacuum degeneracy of the K¨ahler action. The Dirac equation for the induced spinors is
not ordinary Dirac equation but super-symmetrically related to the field equations associated
with K¨ahler action. Also it allows vacuum degeneracy. One cannot exclude the possibility that
also this aspect is involved at deeper level.
4. The fractionization of charge in quantum Hall effect challenges the idea that charged particles of
the incompressible liquid are electrons and this leads to the notion of anyon. Quantum-classical
correspondence inspires the idea that although dissipation is absent, it has left its signature as a
track associated with electron. This track is magnetic flux tube surrounding the classical orbit
of electron and electron is confined inside it. This reduces the dissipative effects and explains the
increase of conductivity. The rule that there is single electron state per magnetic flux quantum
follows if Bohr quantization is applied to the radii of the orbits. The fractional charge of anyon
would result from a contribution of classical K¨ahler charge of anyon flux tube to the charge of
the anyon. This charge is topologized in D = 3 phase.
Anyons as multi-branched flux tubes representing charged particle plus its track
Electrons (in fact, any charged particles) moving inside magnetic flux tubes move along circular paths
classically. The solutions of the field equations with vanishing Lorentz 4-force correspond to asymptotic
patterns for which dissipation has already done its job and is absent. Dissipation has however definite
effects on the final state of the system, and one can argue that the periodic motion of the charged
particle has created what might called its ”track”. The track would be realized as a circular or helical
flux tube rotating around field lines of the magnetic field. The corresponding cyclotron states would
be localized inside tracks. Simplest tracks are circular ones and correspond to absence of motion in
the direction of the magnetic field. Anyons could be identified as systems formed as particles plus the
tracks containing them.
1. Many-branched tracks and approach to chaos
When the system approaches chaos one expects the the periodic circular tracks become non-
periodic. One however expects that this process occurs in steps so that the tracks are periodic in the
sense that they close after N 2π rotations with the value of N increasing gradually. The requirement
2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 149
that K¨ahler energy stays finite suggests also this. A basic example of this kind of track is obtained when
the phase angles Ψ and Φ of complex CP
2
coordinates (ξ
1
, ξ
2
) have finitely multi-valued dependence
on the coordinate φ of cylindrical coordinates: (Ψ, Φ) = (m
1
/N, m
2
/N)φ). The space-sheet would be
many-branched and it would take N turns of 2π to get back to the point were one started. The phase
factors behave as a phase of a spinning particle having effective fractional spin 1/N. I have proposed
this kind of mechanism as an explanation of so called hydrino atoms claimed to have the spectrum of
hydrogen atom but with energies scaled up by N
2
[46, G2]. The first guess that N corresponds to m
in ν = 1/m is wrong. Rather, N corresponds to N in ν = N/m which means many-valued Laughlin
wave functions in single branched space-time.
Similar argument applies also in CP
2
degrees of freedom. Only the N-multiples of 2π rotations by
CP
2
isometries corresponding to color hyper charge and color iso-spin would affect trivially the point of
multi-branched surface. Since the contribution of K¨ahler charge to electromagnetic charge corresponds
also to anomalous hyper-charge of spinor field in question, an additional geometric contribution to
the anomalous hypercharge would mean anomalous electromagnetic charge.
It must be emphasized the fractionization of the isometry charges is only effective and results from
the interpretation of isometries as space-time transformations rather than transformation rotating
entire space-time sheet in imbedding space. Also classical charges are effectively fractionized in the
sense that single branch gives in a symmetric situation a fraction of 1/n of the entire charge. Later it
will be found that also a genuine fractionization occurs and is due to the classical topologized K¨ahler
charge of the anyon track.
2. Modelling anyons in terms of gauge group and isometry group
Anyons can be modelled in terms of the gauge symmetry breaking SU(2)
L
→ H, where H is
discrete sub-group. The breaking of gauge symmetry results by the action of multi-valued gauge
transformation g(x) such that different branches of the multi-valued map are related by the action of
H.
1. The standard description of anyons is based on spontaneous symmetry breaking of a gauge
symmetry G to a discrete sub-group H dynamically [38]. The gauge field has suffered multi-
valued gauge transformation such that the elements of H permute the different branches of g(x).
The puncture is characterized by the element of the H associated with the loop surrounding
puncture. In the idealized situation that gauge field vanishes, the parallel translation of a particle
around puncture affects the particle state, itself a representation of G, by the element of the
homotopy π
1
(G/H) = H identifiable as non-Abelian magnetic charge. Thus holonomy group
corresponds to homotopy group of G/H which in turn equals to H. This in turn implies that
the infinite-dimensional braid group whose elements define holonomies in turn is represented in
H.
2. In TGD framework the multi-valuedness of g(x) corresponds to a many-branched character
of 4-surface. This in turn induces a branching of both magnetic flux tube and anyon tracks
describable in terms of H ⊂ SU(2)
L
acting as an isotropy group for the boundaries of the
magnetic flux tubes. H can correspond only to a non-Abelian subgroup SU(2)
L
of the electro-
weak gauge group for the induced (classical) electro-weak gauge fields since the Chern-Simons
action associated with the classical color gauge fields vanishes identically. The electro-weak
holonomy group would reduce to a discrete group H around loops defined by anyonic flux tubes
surrounding magnetic field lines inside the magnetic flux tubes containing anyons. The reduction
to H need to occur only at the boundaries of the space-time sheet where conducting anyons
would reside: boundaries indeed correspond to asymptotia in well-defined sense. Electro-weak
symmetry group can be regarded as a sub-group of color group of isometries in a well-defined
sense so that H can be regarded also as a subgroup of color group acting as isotropies of the
multi-branched surface at least in the in regions where gauge field vanishes.
3. For branched surfaces the points obtained by moving around the puncture correspond in a good
approximation to some elements of h ∈ H leading to a new branch but the 2-surface as a
whole however remains invariant. The braid group of the punctured 2-surface would be also
now represented as transformations of H. The simplest situation is obtained when H is a cyclic
group Z
N
of the U(1) group of CP
2
geodesic in such a manner that 2π rotation around symmetry
axis corresponds to the generating element exp(i2π/N) of Z
N
.
150 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
Dihedral group D
n
having order 2n and acting as symmetries of n-polygon of the plane is
especially interesting candidate for H. For n = 2 the group is Abelian group Z
2
Z
2
whereas
for n > 2 D
n
is a non-Abelian sub-group of the permutation group S
n
. The cyclic group Z
4
crucial for TQC is a sub-group of D
4
acting as symmetries of square. D
4
has a 2-dimensional
faithful representation. The numbers of elements for the conjugacy classes are 1,1,2,2,2. The
sub-group commuting with a fixed element of a conjugacy class is D
4
for the 1-element conjugacy
classes and cyclic group Z
4
for 2-element conjugacy classes. Hence 2-valued magnetic flux would
be accompanied by Z
4
valued ”electric charge” identifiable as a cyclic group permuting the
branches.
3. Can one understand the increase in conductivity and filling fractions at plateaus?
Quantum Hall effect involves the increase of longitudinal conductivity by a factor of order 10
13
[31].
The reduction of dissipation could be understood as being caused by the fact that anyonic electrons are
closed inside the magnetic flux tubes representing their tracks so that their interactions with matter
and thus also dissipation are reduced.
Laughlin’s theory [32, 31] gives almost universal description of many aspects of quantum Hall effect
and the question arises whether Laughlin’s wave functions are defined on possibly multi-branched
space-time sheet X
4
or at projection of X
4
to M
4
+
. Since most theoreticians that I know still live in
single sheeted space-time, one can start with the most conservative assumption that they are defined
at the projection to M
4
+
. The wave functions of one-electron state giving rise filling fraction ν = 1/m
are constructed of (z
i
−z
j
)
m
, where m is odd by Fermi statistics.
Also rational filling fractions of form ν = 1/m = N/n have been observed. These could relate
to the presence of states whose projections to M
4
are multi-valued and which thus do not have any
”classical” counterpart. For N-branched surface the single-valued wave functions (ξ
i
−ξ
j
)
n
, n odd by
Fermi statistics, correspond to apparently multi-valued wave functions (z
i
−z
j
)
n/N
at M
4
projection
with fractional relative angular momenta m = n/N. The filling fraction would be ν = N/n, n odd.
All filling fractions reported in [31] have n odd with n varying in the range 1 − 7. N has the values
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9. Also values N = 12, 13 for which n = 5 are reported [28].
The filling fractions ν = N/n = 5/2, 3/8, 3/10 reported in [37] would require even values of n
conflicting with Fermi statistics. Obviously Lauhglin’s model fails in this case and the question is
whether one these fractions could correspond to bosonic anyons, perhaps Cooper pairs of electrons
inside track flux tubes. The Z
N
valued charge associated with N-branched surfaces indeed allows the
maximum 2N electrons per anyon. Bosonic anyons are indeed the building block of the TQC model
of [28]. The anyon Cooper pairs could be this kind of states and their BE condensation would make
possible genuine super-conductivity rather than only exceptionally high value of conductivity.
One can imagine also more complex multi-electron wave functions than those of Laughlin. The
so called conformal blocks representing correlation functions of conformal quantum field theories
are natural candidates for the wave functions [20] and they appear naturally as state functions of
in topological quantum field theories. For instance, wave functions which are products of factors
(z
k
−z
l
)
2
with the Pfaffian Pf(A
kl
) of the matrix A
kl
= 1/(z
k
−z
l
) guaranteing anti-symmetrization
have been used to explain even values of m [20].
4. N-branched space-time surfaces make possible Z
N
valued topological charge
According to [20] that 2n non-Abelian anyon pairs with charge 1/4 created from vacuum gives rise
to a 2
n−1
-fold degenerate ground state. It is also argued that filling fraction 5/2 could correspond
to this charge [28]. TGD suggests somewhat different interpretation. 4-fold branching implies auto-
matically the Z
4
-valued topological charge crucial for anyonic quantum computation. For 4-branched
space-time surface the contribution of a single branch to electron’s charge is indeed 1/4 units but
this has nothing to do with the actual charge fractionization. The value of ν is of form ν = /m and
electromagnetic charge equals to ν = 4e/m in this kind of situation.
If anyons (electron plus flux tube representing its track) have Z
4
charges 1 and 3, their Cooper
pairs have charges 0 and 2. The double-fold degeneracy for anyon’s topological charge means that
it possesses topological spin conserved modulo 4. In presence of 2n anyon pairs one would expect
2
n
-fold degeneracy. The requirement that the net topological charge vanishes modulo 4 however fixes
the topological charge of n:th pair so that 2
n−1
fold degeneracy results.
A possible interpretation for Z
N
-valued topological charge is as fractional angular momenta k/N
2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 151
associated with the phases exp(ik2π/N), k = 0, 1, ...., n−1 of particles in multi-branched surfaces. The
projections of these wave functions to single-branched space-time would be many-valued. If electro-
weak gauge group breaks down to a discrete subgroup H for magnetic flux tubes carrying anyonic
”tracks”, this symmetry breakdown could induce their multi-branched property in the sense rotation
by 2π would correspond to H isometry leading to a different branch.
Topologization of K¨ahler charge as an explanation for charge fractionization
The argument based on what happens when one adds one anyon to the anyon system by utilizing
Faraday’s law [31] leads to the conclusion that anyon charge is fractional and given by νe. The anyonic
flux tube along boundary of the flux tube corresponds to the left hand side in the Faraday’s equation

E dl = −

dt
.
By expressing E in turns of current using transversal conductivity and integrating with respect to
time, one obtains
Q = νe
for the charge associated with a single anyon. Hence the addition of the anyon means an addition of
a fractional charge νe to the system. This argument should survive as such the 1-branched situation
so that at least in this case the fractional charges should be real.
In N-branched case the closed loop

E dl around magnetic flux tube corresponds to N-branched
anyon and surrounds the magnetic flux tube N times. This would suggest so that net magnetic flux
should be N times the one associated with single but unclosed 2π rotation. Hence the formula would
seem to hold true as such also now for the total charge of the anyon and the conclusion is that charge
fractionization is real and cannot be an effective effect due to fractionization of charge at single branch
of anyon flux tube.
One of the basic differences between TGD and Maxwell’s theory is the possibility of vacuum
charges and this provides an explanation of the effect is in terms of vacuum K¨ahler charge. K¨ahler
charge contributes e/2 to the charge of electron. Anyon flux tube can generate vacuum K¨ahler charge
changing the net charge of the anyon. If the anyon charge equals to νe the conclusions are following.
1. The vacuum K¨ahler charge of the anyon track is q = (ν −1)e.
2. The dimension of the CP
2
projection of the anyon flux tube must be D = 3 since only in this case
the topologization of anyon charge becomes possible so that the charge density is proportional
to the Chern-Simons term A ∧ dA/4π. Anyon flux tubes cannot be super-conducting in the
sense that non-integrable phase factor exp(

A dl) would define global order parameter. The
boundaries of anyonic flux tubes could however remain potentially super-conducting and anyon
Cooper pairs would be expelled there by Meissner effect. This gives super-conductivity in length
scale of single flux tube. Conductivity and super-conductivity in long length scales requires that
magnetic flux tubes are glued together along their boundaries partially.
3. By Bohr quantization anyon tracks can have r
n
=

n r
B
, n ≤ m, where r
m
corresponds to
the radius of the magnetic flux tube carrying m flux quanta. Only the tracks with radius r
m
contribute to boundary conductivity and super-conductivity giving ν = 1/m for singly branched
surfaces.
The states with ν = N/m cannot correspond to non-super-conducting anyonic tracks with
radii r
n
, n < m, n odd, since these cannot contribute to boundary conductivity. The many-
branched character however allows an N-fold degeneracy corresponding to the fractional angular
momentum states exp(ikφ/N), k = 0, ..., N −1 of electron inside anyon flux tubes of radius r
m
.
k is obviously a an excellent candidate for the Z
N
-valued topological charge crucial for anyonic
quantum computation. Z
4
is uniquely selected by the braid matrix R.
Only part of the anyonic Fermi sea need to be filled so that filling fractions ν = k/m, k = 1, ..., N
are possible. Charges νe are possible if each electron inside anyon track contributes 1/m units
to the fractional vacuum K¨ahler charge. This is achieved if the radius of the anyonic flux tube
grows as

k/m when electrons are added. The anyon tracks containing several electrons give
152 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
rise to composite fermions with fermion number up to 2N if both directions of electron spin are
allowed.
4. Charge fractionization requires vacuum K¨ahler charge has rational values Q
K
= (ν − 1)e. The
quantization indeed occurs for the helicity defined by Chern-Simons term A ∧ dA/4π. For
compact 3-spaces without boundary the helicity can be interpreted as an integer valued invariant
characterizing the linking of two disjoint closed curves defined by the magnetic field lines. This
topological charge can be also related to the asymptotic Hopf invariant proposed by Arnold
[18], which in non-compact case has a continuum of values. Vacuum K¨ahler current is obtained
from the topological current A ∧ dA/4π by multiplying it with a function of CP
2
coordinates
completely fixed by the field equations. There are thus reasons to expect that vacuum K¨ahler
charge and also the topological charges obtained by multiplying Chern Simons current by SU(3)
Hamiltonians are quantized for compact 3-surfaces but that the presence of boundaries replaces
integers by rationals.
What happens in quantum Hall system when the strength of the external magnetic field
is increased?
The proposed mechanism of anyonic conducitivity allows to understand what occurs in quantum Hall
system when the intensity of the magnetic field is gradually increased.
1. Percolation picture encourages to think that magnetic flux tubes fuse partially along their bound-
aries in a transition to anyon conductivity so that the anyonic states localized at the boundaries
of flux tubes become delocalized much like electrons in metals. Laughlin’s states provide an
idealized description for these states. Also anyons, whose tracks have Bohr radii r
m
smaller
than the radius r
B
of the magnetic flux tube could be present but they would not participate
in this localization. Clearly, the anyons at the boundaries of magnetic flux tubes are highly
analogous to valence electrons in atomic physics.
2. As the intensity of the magnetic field B increases, the areas a of the flux tubes decreases as
a ∝ 1/B: this means that the existing contacts between neighboring flux tubes tend to be
destroyed so that anyon conductivity is reduced. On the other hand, new magnetic flux tubes
must emerge by the constancy of the average magnetic flux implying dn/da ∝ B for the average
density of flux tubes. This increases the probability that the newly generated flux tubes can
partially fuse with the existing flux tubes.
3. If the flux tubes are not completely free to move and change their shape by area preserving
transformations, one can imagine that for certain value ranges of B the generation of new
magnetic flux tubes is not favored since there is simply no room for the newcomers. The
Fermi statistics of the anyonic electrons at the boundaries of flux tubes might relate to this
non-hospitable behavior. At certain critical values of the magnetic field the sizes of flux tubes
become however so small that the situation changes and the new flux tubes penetrate the system
and via the partial fusion with the existing flux tubes increase dramatically the conductivity.
Also protonic anyons are possible
According to the TGD based model, any charged particle can form anyons and the strength of the
magnetic field does not seem to be crucial for the occurrence of the effect and it could occur even
in the Earth’s magnetic field. The change of the cyclotron and Larmor frequencies of the charged
particle in an external magnetic field to a value corresponding to the fractional charge provides a clear
experimental signature for both the presence of anyons and for their the fractional charge.
Interestingly, water displays a strange scaling of proton’s cyclotron frequency in an external mag-
netic field [43, 55]. In an alternating magnetic field of .1551 Gauss (Eearth’s field has a nominal value
of .58 Gauss) a strong absorption at frequency f = 156 Hz was observed. The frequency was halved
when D
2
O was used and varied linearly with the field strength. The resonance frequency however
deviated from proton’s Larmor frequency, which suggests that a protonic anyon is in question. The
Larmor frequency would be in this case f
L
= r νeB/2m
p
, where r = µ
p

B
= 2.2792743 is the ratio
of proton’s actual magnetic moment to its value for a point like proton. The experimental data gives
2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 153
ν = .6003 = 3/5 with the accuracy of 5 10
−4
so that 3-branched protonic anyons with m = 5 would
be responsible for the effect.
If this interpretation is correct, entire p-adic hierarchy of anyonic NMR spectroscopies associated
with various atomic nuclei would become possible. Bosonic anyon atoms and Cooper pairs of fermionic
anyon atom could also form macroscopic quantum phases making possible super-conductivity very
sensitive to the value of the average magnetic field and bio-systems and brain could utilize this feature.
2.4.3 Does the quantization of Planck constant transform integer quantum
Hall effect to fractional quantum Hall effect?
The model for topological quantum computation inspired the idea that Planck constant might be
dynamical and quantized. The work of Nottale [53] gave a strong boost to concrete development of
the idea and it took year and half to end up with a proposal about how basic quantum TGD could
allow quantization Planck constant associated with M
4
and CP
2
degrees of freedom such that the
scaling factor of the metric in M
4
degrees of freedom corresponds to the scaling of in CP
2
degrees of
freedom and vice versa [C3]. The dynamical character of the scaling factors of M
4
and CP
2
metrics
makes sense if space-time and imbedding space, and in fact the entire quantum TGD, emerge from a
local version of an infinite-dimensional Clifford algebra existing only in dimension D = 8 [C2].
The predicted scaling factors of Planck constant correspond to the integers n defining the quantum
phases q = exp(iπ/n) characterizing Jones inclusions. A more precise characterization of Jones
inclusion is in terms of group G
b
⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SU(3) in CP
2
degrees of freedom and G
a
⊂ SL(2, C) in
M
4
degrees of freedom. In quantum group phase space-time surfaces have exact symmetry such that
to a given point of M
4
corresponds an entire G
b
orbit of CP
2
points and vice versa. Thus space-time
sheet becomes N(G
a
) fold covering of CP
2
and N(G
b
)-fold covering of M
4
. This allows an elegant
topological interpretation for the fractionization of quantum numbers. The integer n corresponds to
the order of maximal cyclic subgroup of G.
In the scaling
0
→n
0
of M
4
Planck constant fine structure constant would scale as
α =
e
2
4πc

α
n
,
and the formula for Hall conductance would transform to
σ
H

ν
n
α .
Fractional quantum Hall effect would be integer quantum Hall effect but with scaled down α. The
apparent fractional filling fraction ν = m/n would directly code the quantum phase q = exp(iπ/n)
in the case that m obtains all possible values. A complete classification for possible phase transitions
yielding fractional quantum Hall effect in terms of finite subgroups G ⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SU(3) given by
ADE diagrams would emerge (A
n
, D
2n
, E
6
and E
8
are possible). What would be also nice that CP
2
would make itself directly manifest at the level of condensed matter physics.
2.4.4 Why 2+1-dimensional conformally invariant Witten-Chern-Simons
theory should work for anyons?
Wess-Zumino-Witten theories are 2-dimensional conformally invariant quantum field theories with
dynamical variables in some group G. The action contains the usual 2-dimensional kinetic term
for group variables allowing conformal group action as a dynamical symmetry plus winding number
defined associated with the mapping of 3-surface to G which is Diff
4
invariant. The coefficient of
this term is quantized to integer.
If one couples this theory to a gauge potential, the original chiral field can be transformed away
and only a Chern-Simons term defined for the 3-manifold having the 2-dimensional space as boundary
remains. Also the coefficient k of Chern-Simons term is quantized to integer. Chern-Simons-Witten
action has close connection with Wess-Zumino-Witten theory. In particular, the states of the topo-
logical quantum field theory are in one-one correspondence with highest weights of the WZW action.
The appearance of 2+1-dimensional Diff
3
invariant action can be understood from the funda-
mentals of TGD.
154 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
1. Light-like 3-surfaces of both future light-cone M
4
+
and of space-time surface X
4
itself are in a
key role in the construction of quantum TGD since they define causal determinants for K¨ahler
action.
2. At the space-time level both the boundaries of X
4
and elementary particle horizons surrounding
the orbits of wormhole contacts define light-like 3-surfaces. The field equations are satisfied
identically at light-like boundaries. Of course, the projections of the the light-like surfaces of X
4
to Minkowski space need not look light-like at all, and even boundaries of magnetic flux tubes
could be light-like.
Light-like 3-surfaces are metrically 2-dimensional and allow a generalized conformal invariance
crucial for the construction of quantum TGD. At the level of imbedding space conformal super-
canonical invariance results. At the space-time level the outcome is conformal invariance highly
analogous to the Kac Moody symmetry of super string models [B2, B3, E2]. In fact, there are
good reasons to believe that the three-dimensional Chern-Simons action appears even in the con-
struction of configuration space metric and give an additional contribution to the configuration
space metric when the light-like boundaries of 3-surface have 3-dimensional CP
2
projection.
3. By the effective two-dimensionality the Wess-Zumino-Witten action containing Chern-Simons
term is an excellent candidate for the quantum description of S-matrix associated with the light-
like 3-surfaces since by the vanishing of the metric determinant one cannot define any general
coordinate invariant 3-dimensional action other than Chern-Simons action. The boundaries of
the braid formed by the magnetic flux tubes having light-like boundaries, perhaps having join
along boundaries bonds between swapped flux tubes would define the 2+1-dimensional space-
time associated with a braid, would define the arena of Witten-Chern-Simons theory describing
anyons. This S-matrix can be interpreted also as characterizing either a 3-dimensional quantum
state since light-like boundaries are limiting cases of space-like 3-surfaces.
4. K¨ahler action defines an Abelian Chern-Simons term and the induced electroweak gauge fields
define a non-Abelian variant of this term. The Chern-Simons action associated with the classical
color degrees of freedom vanishes as is easy to find. The classical color fields are identified as
projections of Killing vector fields of color group: A
c
α
= j
A
k

α
s
k
τ
A
= J
r
k

r
H
A

α
s
k
. The
classical color gauge field is proportional to the induced K¨ahler form: F
c
αβ
= H
A
J
αβ
τ
A
. A little
calculation shows that the instanton density vanishes by the identity H
A
H
A
= 1 (this identity
is forced by the necessary color-singletness of the YM action density and is easy to check in the
simpler case of S
2
.
5. Since qubit realizes the fundamental representation of the quantum group SU(2)
q
, SU(2) is in
a unique role concerning the construction of modular functors and quantum computation using
Chern-Simons action. The quantum group corresponding to q = exp(i2π/r), r = 5 is realized
for the level k = 3 Chern-Simons action and satisfies the constraint r = k +c
g
, where c
g
= 2 is
the so called dual Coxeter number of SU(2) [30, 39, 28].
The exponent non-Abelian SU(2)
L
U(1) Chern-Simons action combined with the correspond-
ing action for K¨ahler form so that effective reduction to SU(2)
L
occurs, could appear as a
multiplicative factor of the configuration space spinor fields defined in the configuration space of
3-surfaces. Since 3-dimensional quantum state would represent a 2-dimensional time evolution
the role of these phase factor would be very analogous to the role of ordinary Chern-Simons
action.
2.5 Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe
The general philosophy behind TQC inspires the dream that the existence of basic gates, in particular
the maximally entangling 2-gate R, is guaranteed by the laws of Nature so that no fine tuning would
be needed to build the gates. Negentropy Maximization Principle, originally developed in context of
TGD inspired theory of consciousness, is a natural candidate for this kind of Law of Nature.
2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 155
2.5.1 Concrete realization of quantum gates
The bold dream is that besides 2-gates also 1-gates are realized by the basic laws of Nature. The
topological realization of the 3-braid representation in terms of Temperley-Lie algebra allows the
reduction of 1-gates to 2-gates.
NMP and TQC
Quantum jump involves a cascade of self measurements in which the system under consideration
can be though of as decomposing to two parts which are either un-entangled or possess rational or
extended rational entanglement in the final state. The sub-system is selected by the requirement that
entanglement negentropy gain is maximal in the measurement of the density matrix characterizing
the entanglement of the sub-system with its complement.
In the case case that the density matrix before the self measurement decomposes into a direct
sum of matrices of dimensions N
i
, such that N
i
> 1 holds true for some values of i, say i
0
, the
final state is a rationally entangled and thus a bound state. i
0
is fixed by the requirement that the
number theoretic entropy for the final state maximally negative and equals to klog(p), where p
k
is
the largest power of prime dividing N
i
0
. This means that maximally entangled state results and the
density matrix is proportional to a unit matrix as it is also for the entanglement produced by R. In
case of R the density matrix is 1/2 times 2-dimensional unit matrix so that bound state entanglement
negentropy is 1 bit.
The question is what occurs if the density matrix contains a part for which entanglement probabil-
ities are extended rational but not identical. In this case the entanglement negentropy is positive and
one could argue that no self-measurement occurs for this state and it remains entangled. If so then
the measurement of the density matrix would occur only when it increases entanglement negentropy.
This looks the only sensible option since otherwise only bound state entanglement with identical en-
tanglement probabilities would be possible. This question is relevant also because Temperley-Lieb
representation using (AA) − A − A system involves entanglement with entanglement probabilities
which are not identical.
In the case that the 2-gate itself is not directly entangling as in case of R

and R

, NMP should
select just the quantum history, that single particle gates at it guarantee maximum entanglement
negentropy. Thus NMP would come in rescue and give hopes that various gates are realized by
Nature.
Non-Abelian anyon systems are modelled in terms of punctures of plane and Chern-Simons action
for the incompressible vector potential of hydrodynamical flow. It is interesting to find how these
ideas relate to the TGD description.
Non-Abelian anyons reside at boundaries of magnetic flux tubes in TGD
In [28] anyons are modelled in terms of punctures of plane defined by the slab carrying Hall current. In
TGD the punctures correspond naturally to magnetic flux tubes defining the braid. It is now however
obvious under what conditions the braid containing the TGD counterpart of (AA)-A-A system can
be described as a punctured disk if the flux tubes describing the tracks of valence anyons are very
near to the boundaries of the magnetic flux tubes. Rather, the punctured disk is replaced with the
closed boundary of the magnetic flux tube or of the structure formed by the partial fusion of several
magnetic flux tubes. This microscopic description and is consistent with Laughlin’s model only if it
is understood as a long length scale description.
Non-Abelian charges require singularities and punctures but a two-surface which is boundary does
not allow punctures. The punctures assigned with an anyon pair would become narrow wormhole
threads traversing through the interior of the magnetic flux tube and connecting the punctures like
wormholes connect two points of an apple. It is also possible that the threads connect the surfaces of
two nearby magnetic flux tubes. The wormhole like character conforms with the fact that non-Abelian
anyons appear always in pairs.
The case in which which the ends of the wormhole thread belong to different neighboring magnetic
flux tubes, call them T
1
and T
2
, is especially interesting as far as the model for TQC is considered.
The state of (AA) −A−A system before (after) the 3-braid operation would be identifiable as anyons
near the surface of T
1
(T
2
). If only sufficiently local operations are allowed, the braid group would
be same as for anyons inside disk. This means consistency with the anyon model of [28] for TQC
156 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
requiring that the dimension for the space of ground states is 2
n−1
in a system consisting of n anyon
pairs.
The possibility of negative energies allows inspires the idea that the anyons at T
2
have negative
energies so that the anyon system would have a vanishing net energy. This would conform with the
idea that the scattering from initial to final state is equivalent with the creation of zero energy state
for which initial (final) state particles have positive (negative) energies, and with the fact that the
boundaries of magnetic flux tubes are light-like systems for which 3-D quantum state is representation
for a 2-D time evolution.
Since the correlation between anyons at the ends of the wormhole thread is purely topological, the
most plausible option is that they behave as free anyons dynamically. Assuming 4-branched anyon
surfaces, the charges of anyons would be of form Q = ν
A
e, ν
A
= 4/m, m odd.
Consider now the representation of 3-braid group. That the mapping class group for the 3-braid
system should have a 2-dimensional representation is obvious from the fact that the group has same
generators as the mapping class group for torus which is represented by as SL(2, Z) matrices acting
on the homology of torus having two generators a, b corresponding to the two non-contractible circles
around torus. 3-braid group would be necessarily represented in Temperley-Lieb representation.
The character of the anyon bound state is important for braid representations.
1. If anyons form loosely bound states (AA), the electrons are at different tracks and the charge
is additive in the process so that one has Q
AA
= 2Q
A
= 8/m, m odd, which is at odds with
statistics. It might be that the naive rule of assigning fractional charge to the state does not
hold true for loosely bound bosonic anyons. In this case (AA) − A system with charge states
((1, −1), 1) and ((1, 1), −1) would be enough for realizing 1-gates in TQC. The braid operation s
2
of Temperley-Lieb representation represented (A
1
A
2
) −A
3
→(A
1
A
3
) −A
2
would correspond to
an exchange of the dance partner by a temporary decay of (A
1
A
2
) followed by a recombination
to a quantum superposition of (A
1
A
2
) and (A
1
A
3
) and could be regarded as an ordinary braid
operation rather than monodromy. The relative phase 1-gate would correspond to s
1
represented
as braid operation for A
1
and A
2
inside (A
1
A
2
).
2. If anyons form tightly bound states (AA) in the sense that single anyonic flux tube carries two
electrons, charge need not be additive so that bound states could have charges Q = 4/2m
1
so
that the vacuum K¨ahler charge Q
K
= 4(1/m
1
− 2/m) would be created in the process. This
would stabilize (AA) state and would mean that the braid operation (A
1
A
2
)−A
3
→(A
1
A
3
)−A
2
cannot occur via a temporary decay to free anyons and it might be necessary to replace 3-braid
group by a partially colored 3-braid group for (AA)−A−A system which is sub-group of 3-braid
group and has generators s
2
1
(two swaps for (AA) −A) and s
2
(swap for A−A) instead of s
1
and
s
2
. Also in this case a microscopic mechanism changing the value of (AA) Z
4
charge is needed
and the situation might reduce to the case a) after all.
The Temperley Lieb representation for this group is obtained by simply taking square of the
generator inducing entanglement (s
2
rather than s
1
in the notation used!). The topological
charge assignments for (AA) −A −A system are ((1, −1), 1, −1) and ((1, 1), −1, −1). s
2
1
would
correspond to the group element generating (AA) −A entanglement and s
2
acting on A−A pair
would correspond to phase generating group element.
Braid representations and 4-branched anyon surfaces
Some comments about braid representations in relation to Z
N
- valued topological charges are in order.
1. Yang-Baxter braid representation using the maximally entangling braid matrix R is especially
attractive option. For anyonic computation with Z
4
-valued topological charge R is the unique
2-gate conserving the net topological charge (note that the mixing of the [1, 1` and [ − 1, −1`
is allowed). On the other, R allows only the conservation of Z
4
value topological charge. This
suggests that the the entanglement between logical qubits represented by (AA) −A−A batches
is is generated by R. The physical implication is that only ν = 4/n 4-branched anyons could be
used for TQC.
2. In TGD framework the entangling braid representation inside batches responsible for 1-gates
need not be the same since batches correspond to magnetic flux tubes. In standard physics con-
2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 157
text it would be harder to defend this kind of assumption. As will be found 3-braid Temperley-
Lieb representation is very natural for 1-gates. The implication is that the n-braid system
with braids represented as 4-batches would have 2
n
-dimensional space of logical qubits in fact
identical with the space of realizable qubits.
3. Also n-braid Temperley-Lieb representations are possible and the explicit expressions of the
braiding matrices for 6-braid case suggest that Z
4
topological charge is conserved also now [30].
In this case the dimension of the space of logical qubits is for highly favored value of quantum
group parameter q = exp(iπ/5) given by the Fibonacci number F(n) for n-braid case and behaves
as Φ
4n
asymptotically so that this option would be more effective. From Φ
4
= 1 + 3Φ · 8.03
one can say that single 4-batch carries 3 bits of information instead of one. This is as it must
be since topological charge is not conserved inside batches separately for this option.
4. (AA) − A representation based on Z
4
-valued topological charge is unique in that the space of
logical qubits would be the space of topologically realizable qubits. Quantum superposition of
logical qubits could could be represented (AA) − A entangled state of form a[2, −1` + b[0, 1`
generated by braid action. Relative phase could be generated by braid operation acting on
the entangled state of anyons of (AA) Cooper pair. Since the superposition of logical cubits
corresponds to an entangled state a[2, −1` + b[0, 1` for which coefficients are extended ratio-
nal numbers, the number theoretic realization of the bound state property could pose severe
conditions on possible relative phases.
2.5.2 Temperley-Lieb representations
The articles of Kaufmann [29] and Freedman [30, 38] provide enjoyable introduction to braid groups
and to Tempeley-Lie representations. In the sequel Temperley-Lieb representations are discussed from
TGD view point.
Temperley-Lieb representation for 3-braid group
In [29] it is explained how the so called Temperley-Lie algebra defined by 2 2-matrices I, U
1
, U
2
satisfying the relations U
2
1
= dU
1
, U
2
2
= dU
2
, U
1
U
2
U
1
= U
2
, U
2
U
1
U
2
= U
1
allows a unitary represen-
tation of Artin’s braid group by unitary 2 2 matrices. The explicit representations of the matrices
U
1
and U
2
(note that U
i
/d acts as a projector) given by
U
1
=

d 0
0 0

,
U
2
=

¸
1
d

1 −
1
d
2

1 −
1
d
2
d −
1
d
¸

. (2.5.1)
Note that the eigenvalues of U
i
are d and 0. The representation of the elements s
1
and s
2
of the
3-braid group is given by
Φ(s
1
) = AI +A
−1
U
1
=

−U
−3
0
0 U

,
Φ(s
2
) = AI +A
−1
U
2
=

¸

U
3
d
U
−1

1−(1/d)
2
U
−1

1−(1/d)
2
U
−5
d
¸

,
U = exp(iφ) . (2.5.2)
Here the condition d = −A
2
− A
−2
is satisfied. For A = exp(iφ), with [φ[ ≤ π/6 or [π − φ[ ≤ π/6,
the representation is unitary. The constraint comes from the requirement d > 1. From the basic
representation it follows that the eigenvalues of Φ(s
i
) are −exp(−3iφ) and exp(iφ).
Tihs 3-braid representation is a special case of a more general Temperley-Lieb-Jones representation
discussed in [30] using notations A =

−1exp(−i2π/4r), s = A
2
, and q = A
4
. In this case all eigen-
values of all representation matrices are −1 and q = exp(−i2π/r). This representation results by
158 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
multiplying Temperley-Lieb representation above with an over-all phase factor exp(4iφ) and by the
replacement A = exp(iφ) →

−1A.
Constraints on the parameters of Temperley-Lieb representation
The basic mathematical requirement is that besides entangling 2-gate there is minimum set of 1-gates
generating infinite sub-group of U(2). Further conditions come from the requirement that a braid
representation is in question. In the proposal of [28, 30] the 1-gates are realized using Temperley-
Lieb 3-braid representation. It is found that there are strong constraints to the representation and
that relative phase gate generating the phase exp(iφ) = exp(i2π/5) is the simplest solution to the
constraints.
The motivation comes from the findings made already by Witten in his pioneering work related to
the topological quantum field theories and one can find a good representation about what is involve
din [30].
Topological quantum field theories can produce unitary modular functors when the A = q
1/4
=
exp(iφ) characterizing the quantum group multiplication is a root of unity so that the quantum
enveloping algebra U(Sl(2))
q
defined as the quantum version of the enveloping algebra U(Sl(2)) is
not homomorphic with U(Sl(2)) and theory does not trivialize. Besides this, q must satisfy some
consistency conditions. First of all, A
4n
= 1 must be satisfied for some value of n so that A is either
a primitive l:th, 2l:th of unity for l odd, or 4l:th primitive root of unity.
This condition relates directly to the fact that the quantum integers [n]
q
= (A
2n
−A
−2n
)/(A
2
−A
−2
)
vanish for n ≥ l so that the representations for a highest weight n larger than l are not irreducible. This
implies that the theory simplifies dramatically since these representations can be truncated away but
can cause also additional difficulties in the definition of link invariants. Indeed, as Witten found in his
original construction, the topological field theories are unitary for U(Sl(2))
q
only for A = exp(ikπ/2l),
k not dividing 2l, and A = exp(iπ/l), l odd (no multiples are allowed) [30]. n = 2l = 10, which is the
physically favored choice, corresponds to the relative phase 4φ = 2π/5.
Golden Mean and quantum computation
Temperley-Lieb representation based on q = exp(i2π/5) is highly preferred physically.
1. One might hope that the Yang-Baxter representation based on maximally entangling braid
matrix R might work. R
8
= 1 constraint is however not consistent with Temperley-Lieb repre-
sentations. The reason is that Φ
8
(s
1
) = 1 gives φ = π/4 > π/6 so that unitarity constraint is not
satisfied. φ = exp(i2π/16) corresponding r = 4 and to the matrix Φ(s
2
) =
ˆ
R = exp(i2π/16) R
allows to satisfy the unitarity constraint. This would look like a very natural looking selection
since Φ(s
2
) would act as a Hadamard gate and NMP would imply identical entanglement prob-
abilities if a bound state results in a quantum jump. Unfortunately, s
1
and s
2
do not generate
a dense subgroup of U(2) in this case as shown in [30].
2. φ = π/10 corresponding to r = 5 and Golden Mean satisfies all constraints coming from quantum
computation and knot theory. That is it spans a dense subgroup of U(2), and allows the
realization of modular functor defined by Witten-Chern-Simons SU(2) action for k = 3, which
is physically highly attractive since the condition
r = k +c
g
(SU(2))
connecting r, k and the dual Coxeter number c
g
(SU(N)) = n in WCS theories is satisfied for
SU(2) in this case for r = 5 and k = 3.
SU(2) would have interpretation as the left-handed electro-weak gauge group SU(2)
L
associated
with classical electro-weak gauge fields. The symmetry breaking of SU(2)
L
down to a discrete
subgroup of SU(2)
L
yielding anyons would relate naturally to this. The conservation of the
topologized K¨ahler charge would correlate with the fact that there is no symmetry breaking
in the classical U(1) sector. k = 3 Chern-Simons theory is also known to share the same
universality class as simple 4-body Hamiltonian [28] (larger values of k would correspond to
k + 1-body Hamiltonians).
2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 159
3. Number theoretical vision about intentional systems suggests that the preferred relative phases
are algebraic numbers or more generally numbers which belong to a finite-dimensional exten-
sion of p-adic numbers. The idea about p-adic cognitive evolution as a gradual generation of
increasingly complex algebraic extensions of rationals allows to see the extension containing
Golden Mean Φ = (1 +

5)/2 as one of the simplest extensions. The relative phase exp(i4φ) =
exp(i2π/5) is expressible in an extension containing

Φ and Φ: one has cos(4φ) = (Φ − 1)/2
and sin(4φ) =

5Φ/2.
The general number theoretical ideas about cognition support the view that Golden Mean is in a very
special role in the number theoretical world order. This would be due to the fact that log(Φ)/π is a
rational number. This hypothesis would explain scaling hierarchies based on powers of Golden Mean.
One could argue that the geometry of the braid should reflect directly the value of the A = exp(i2φ).
The angle increment per single DNA nucleotide is φ/2 = 2π/10 for DNA double strand (note that
q would be exp(iπ/10), which raises the question whether DNA might be a topological quantum
computer.
Bratteli diagram for n = 5 case, Fibonacci numbers, and microtubuli
Finite-dimensional von Neumann algebras can be conveniently characterized in terms of Bratteli dia-
grams [16]. For instance, the diagram a) of the figure 2.5.2 at the end of the chapter represents the
inclusion N ⊂ M, where N = M
2
(C) ⊗ C, M = M
6
(C) ⊗ M
3
(C) ⊗ C. The diagram expresses the
imbeddings of elements A⊗x of M
2
(C) ⊗C to M
6
(C) as a tensor product A
1
⊗A
2
⊗x
A
1
=

¸
A . .
. A .
. . A
¸

,
A
2
=

A .
. x

.
(2.5.3)
Bratteli diagrams of infinite-dimensional von Neumann algebras are obtained as limiting cases of
finite-dimensional ones.
Figure 2.1: a) Illustration of Bratteli diagram. b) and c) give Bratteli diagrams for n = 4 and n = 5
Temperley Lieb algebras
2. Temperley Lieb algebras approximate II
1
factors
The hierarchy of inclusions of with [M
i+1
: M
i
[ = r defines a hierarchy of Temperley-Lieb algebras
characterizable using Bratteli diagrams. The diagrams b) and c) of the figure 2.5.2 at the end of the
chapter characterize the Bratteli diagrams for n = 4 and n = 5. For n = 4 the dimensions of algebras
come in powers of 2 in accordance with the fact r = 2 is the dimension of the effective tensor factor
of II
1
.
160 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
For n = 5 and B
m
= ¦1, e
1
, ..., e
m
¦ the dimensions of the two tensor factors of the Temperley Lieb-
representation are two subsequent Fibonacci numbers F
m−1
, F
m
(F
m+1
= F
m
+F
m−1
, F
1
= 1, F
2
= 1)
so that the dimension of the tensor product is dim(B
m
) = F
m
F
m−1
. One has dim(B
m+1
)/dim(B
m
) =
F
m
/F
m−2
→Φ
2
= 1 +Φ, the dimension of the effective tensor factor for the corresponding hierarchy
of II
1
factors. Hence the two dimensional hierarchies ”approximate” each other. In fact, this result
holds completely generally.
The fact that r is approximated by an integer in braid representations is highly interesting from
the point of view of TQC. For 3-braid representation the dimension of Temperley-Lieb representation
is 2 for all values of n so that 3-braid representation defines single (topo)logical qubit as (AA) −A−A
realization indeed assumes. One could optimistically say that TGD based physics automatically
realizes topological qubit in terms of 3-braid representation and the challenge is to understand the
details of this realization.
2. Why Golden Mean should be favored?
The following argument suggests a physical reason for why just Golden Mean should be favored
in the magnetic flux tube systems.
1. Arnold [18] has shown that if Lorentz 3-force satisfies the condition F
B
= q(∇B) B = q∇Φ,
then the field lines of the magnetic field lie on Φ = constant tori. On the other hand, the
vanishing of the Lorentz 4-forces for solutions of field equations representing asymptotic self-
organized states, which are the ”survivors” selected by dissipation, equates magnetic force with
the negative of the electric force expressible as qE, E = −∇Φ + ∂
t
A, which is gradient if the
vector potential does not depend on time. Since the vector potential depends on three CP
2
coordinates only for D = 3, this seems to be the case.
2. The celebrated Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem is about the stability of systems,
whose orbits are on invariant tori characterized by the frequencies associated with the n in-
dependent harmonic oscillator like degrees of freedom. The theorem states that the tori for
which the frequency ratios are rational are highly unstable against perturbations: this is due
to resonance effects. The more ”irrational” the frequencies are, the higher the stability of the
orbits is, and the most stable situation corresponds to frequencies whose ratio is Golden Mean.
In quantum context the frequencies for wave motion on torus would correspond to multiples
ω
i
= n2π/L
i
, L
i
the circumference of torus. This poor man’s argument would suggest that the
ratio of the circumferences of the most stable magnetic tori should be given by Golden Mean in
the most stable situation: perhaps one might talk about Golden Tori!
3. Golden Mean and microtubuli
What makes this observation so interesting is that Fibonacci numbers appear repeatedly in the
geometry of living matter. For instance, micro-tubuli, which are speculated to be systems performing
quantum computation, represent in their structure the hierarchy Fibonacci numbers 5, 8, 13, which
brings in mind the tensor product representation 5 ⊗ 8 of B
5
(5 braid strands!) and leads to ask
whether this Temperley-Lieb representation could be somehow realized using microtubular geometry.
According to the arguments of [28] the state of n anyons corresponds to 2
n−1
topological degrees of
freedom and code space corresponds to F
n
-dimensional sub-space of this space. The two conformations
of tubulin dimer define the standard candidate for qubit, and one could assume that the conformation
correlates strongly with the underlying topological qubit. A sequence of 5 resp. 8 tubulin dimers
would give 2
4
resp. 2
7
-dimensional space with F
5
= 5- resp. F
7
= 13-dimensional code sub-space
so that numbers come out nicely. The changes of tubulin dimer conformations would be induced by
the braid groups B
4
and B
7
. B
4
would be most naturally realized in terms of a unit of 5-dimers by
regarding the 4 first tubulins as braided punctures and 5th tubulin as the passive puncture. B
7
would
be realized in a similar manner using a unit of 8 tubulin dimers.
Flux tubes would connect the subsequent dimers along the helical 5-strand resp. 8-strand defined
by the microtubule. Nearest neighbor swap for the flux tubes would induce the change of the tubulin
conformation and induce also entanglement between neighboring conformations. A full 2π helical
twist along microtubule would correspond to 13 basic steps and would define a natural TQC program
module. In accordance with the interpretation of II
1
factor hierarchy, (magnetic or electric) flux tubes
could be assumed to correspond to r = 2 II
1
factor and thus carry 2-dimensional representations of
2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 161
n = 5 or n = 4 3-braid group. These qubits could be realized as topological qubits using (AA) − A
system.
Topological entanglement as space-time correlate of quantum entanglement
Quantum-classical correspondence encourages to think that bound state formation is represented at
the space-time level as a formation of join along boundaries bonds connecting the boundaries of 3-
space sheets. In particular, the formation of entangled bound states would correspond to a topological
entanglement for the join along boundaries bonds forming braids. The light-likeness of the boundaries
of the bonds gives a further support for this identification. During macro-temporal quantum coherence
a sequence of quantum jumps binds effectively to single quantum jump and subjective time effectively
ceases to run. The light-likeness for the boundaries of bonds means that geometric time stops and
is thus natural space-time correlate for the subjective experience during macro-temporal quantum
coherence.
Also the work with TQC lends support for a a deep connection between quantum entanglement
and topological entanglement in the sense that the knot invariants constructed using entangling 2-gate
R can detect linking. Temperley-Lieb representation for 3-braids however suggests that topological
entanglement allows also single qubit representations for with quantum entanglement plays no role.
One can however wonder whether the entanglement might enter into the picture in some natural
manner in the quantum computation of Temperley-Lieb representation. The idea is simple: perhaps
the physics of (AA) − A − A system forces single qubit representation through the simple fact that
the state space reduces in 4-batch to single qubit by topological constraints.
For TQC the logical qubits correspond to entangled states of anyon Cooper pair (AA) and second
anyon A so that the quantum superposition of qubits corresponds to an entangled state in general.
Several arguments suggest that logical qubits would provide Temperley-Lieb representation in a nat-
ural manner.
1. The number of braids inside 4-anyon batch (or 3-anyon batch in case that (AA) can decay
temporarily during braid operation) 3 so that by the universality this system allows to compute
the unitary Temperley-Lieb braid representation. The space of logical qubits equals to the entire
state space since the number of qubits represented by topological ground state degeneracy is 1
instead of the expected three since 2n anyon system gives rise to 2
n−1
-fold vacuum degeneracy.
The degeneracy is same even when two of the anyons fuse to anyon Cooper pair. Thus it
would seem that the 3-braid system in question automatically produces 1-qubit representation
of 3-braid group.
2. The braiding matrices Φ(s
1
) and Φ(s
2
) are different and only Φ(s
2
) mixes qubit values. This
can be interpreted as the presence of two inherently different braid operations such that only
the second braiding operation can generate entanglement of states serving as building blocks
of logical qubits. The description of anyons as 2-dimensional wormholes led to precisely this
picture. The braid group reduces to braid group for one half of anyons since anyon and its
partner at the end of wormhole are head and feet of single dancer, and the anyon pair (AA)
forming bound state can change partner during swap operation with anyon A and this generates
quantum entanglement. The swap for anyons inside (AA) can generate only relative phase.
3. The vanishing of the topological charge in a pairwise manner is the symmetry which reduces
the dimension of the representation space to 2
n−1
as already found. For n = 4 only single
topological qubit results. The conservation and vanishing of the net topological charge inside
each batch gives a constraint, which is satisfied by the maximally entangling R-matrix R so that
it could take care of braiding between different 4-batches and one would have different braid
representation for 4-batches and braids consisting of them. Topological quantization justifies
this picture physically. Only phase generating physical 1-gates are allowed since Hadamard
gate would break the conservation of topological charge whereas for logical 1-gates entanglement
generating 2-gates can generate mixing without the breaking of the conservation of topological
charges.
162 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
Summary
It deserves to summarize the key elements of the proposed model for which the localization (in the
precise sense defined in [38]) made possible by topological field quantization and Z
4
valued topological
charge are absolutely essential prerequisites.
1. 2n-anyon system has 2
n−1
-fold ground state degeneracy, which for n = 2 leaves only single
logical qubit. In standard physics framework (AA) −A−A is minimal option because the total
homology charge of the system must vanish. In TGD (AA) − A system is enough to represent
3-braid system if the braid operation between AA and A can be realized as an exchange of the
dancing partner. This option makes sense because the anyons with opposite topological charges
at the ends of wormhole threads can be negative energy anyons representing the final state of
the braid operation. A pair of magnetic flux tubes is needed to realize single anyon-system
containing braid.
2. Maximally entangling R-matrix realizes braid interactions between (AA) − A systems realized
as 3-braids inside larger braids and the space of logical qubits is equivalent with the space of
realizable qubits. The topological charges are conserved separately for each (AA) − A system.
Also the more general realization based on n-braid representations of Temperley-Lieb algebra is
formally possible but the different topological realization of braiding operations does not support
this possibility.
3. Temperley-Lieb 3-braid representation for (AA) − A − A system allows to realize also 1-gates
as braid operations so that topology would allow to avoid the fine-tuning associated with 1-
gates. Temperley-Lieb representation for φ = exp(iπ/10) satisfies all basic constraints and
provides representation of the modular functor expressible using k = 3 Witten-Chern-Simons
action. Physically 1-gates are realizable using Φ
1
acting as phase gate for anyon pair inside
(AA) and Φ(s
2
) entangling (AA) and A by partner exchange. The existence of single qubit
braid representations apparently conflicting with the identification of topological entanglement
as a correlate of quantum entanglement has an explanation in terms of quantum computation
under topological symmetries.
2.5.3 Zero energy topological quantum computations
As already described, TGD suggests a radical re-interpretation for matter antimatter asymmetry in
long length scales. The asymmetry would be due to the fact that ground state for fermion system
corresponds to infinite sea of negative energy fermions and positive energy anti-fermions so that
fermions would have positive energies and anti-fermions negative energies.
The obvious implication is the possibility to interpret scattering between positive energy states as
a creation of a zero energy state with outgoing particles represented as negative energy particles. The
fact that the quantum states of 3-dimensional light-like boundaries of 3-surfaces represent evolutions
of 2-dimensional quantum systems suggests a realization of topological quantum computations using
physical boundary states consisting of positive energy anyons representing the initial state of anyon
system and negative energy anyons representing the outcome of the braid operation.
The simplest scenario simply introduces negative energy charge conjugate of the (AA) −A system
so that no deviations from the proposed scenario are needed. Both calculation and its conjugate
are performed. This picture is the only possible one if one assumes that given space-time sheet
contains either positive or negative energy particles but not both and very natural if one assumes
ordinary fermionic vacuum. The quantum computing system would could be generated without any
energy costs and even intentionally by first generating the p-adic space-time sheets responsible for the
magnetic flux tubes and anyons and then transformed to their real counterparts in quantum jump.
This double degeneracy is analogous to that associated with DNA double strand and could be used
for error correction purposes: if the calculation has been run correctly both anyon Cooper pairs and
their charge conjugates should decay with the same probability.
Negative energies could have much deeper role in TQC. This option emerges naturally in the
wormhole handle realization of TQC. The TGD realization of 1-gates in 3-braid Temperley-Lieb
representation uses anyons of opposite topological charges at the opposite ends of threads connecting
magnetic flux tube boundaries. Single 3-braid unit would correspond to positive energy electronic
2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 163
anyons at the first flux tube boundary and negative energy positronic anyons at the second flux tube
boundary. The sequences of 1-gates represented as 3-braid operations would be coded by a sequence
of 3-braids representing generators of 3-braid group along a pair of magnetic flux tubes. Of course,
also n-braid operations could be coded in the similar manner in series. Hence TQC could be realized
using only two magnetic flux tubes with n-braids connecting their boundaries in series.
Condensed matter physicist would probably argue that all this could be achieved by using electrons
in strand and holes in the conjugate strand instead of negative energy positrons: this would require only
established physics. One can however ask whether negative energy positrons could appear routinely in
condensed matter physics. For instance, holes might in some circumstances be generated by a creation
of an almost zero energy pair such that positron annihilates with a fermion below the Fermi surface.
The signature for this would be a photon pair consisting of ordinary and phase conjugate photons.
The proposed interpretation of the S-matrix in the Universe having vanishing net quantum numbers
encourages to think that the S-matrices of 2+1-dimensional field theories based on Witten-Chern-
Simons action defined in the space of zero (net) energy states could define physical states for quantum
TGD. Thus the 2+1-dimensional S-matrix could define quantum states of 4-dimensional theory having
interpretation as states representing ”self-reflective” level representing in itself the S-matrix of a lower-
dimensional theory. The identification of the quantum state as S-matrix indeed makes sense for light-
like surfaces which can be regarded as limiting cases of space-like 3-surfaces defining physical state
and time-like surfaces defining a time evolution of the state of 2-dimensional system.
Time evolution would define also an evolution in topological degrees of freedom characterizing
ground states. Quantum states associated with light-like (with respect to the induced metric of space-
time sheet) 3-dimensional boundaries of say magnetic flux tubes would define quantum computations
as modular functors. This conforms with quantum-classical correspondence since braids, the classical
states, indeed define quantum computations.
The important implication would be that a configuration which looks static would code for the
dynamic braiding. One could understand the quantum computation in this framework as signals
propagating through the strands and being affected by the gate. Even at the limit when the signal
propagates with light velocity along boundary of braid the situation looks static from outside. Time
evolution as a state could be characterized as sequence of many-anyon states such that basic braid
operations are realized as zero energy states with initial state realized using positive energy anyons and
final state realized using negative energy energy anyons differing by the appropriate gate operation
from the positive energy state.
In the case of n-braid system the state representing the S-matrix S = S
1
S
2
....S
n
associated with
a concatenation of n elementary braid operations would look like
[S` = P
k
1
S
1
k
1
k
2
P
k
2
S
2
k
2
k
3
P
k
3
S
3
k
3
k
4
... ,
P
k
= [k, <`[k, >` . (2.5.4)
Here S
k
are S-matrices associated with gates representing simple braiding operations s
k
for n + 1
threads connecting the magnetic flux tubes. P
k
represents a trivial transition [k` → [k → k` as zero
energy state [k, > 0`[k, <`. The states P
k
represent matrix elements of the identification map from
positive energy Hilbert space to its negative energy dual.
What would happen can be visualized in two alternative manners.
1. For this option the braid maps occur always from flux tube 1 to flux tube 2. A braiding transition
from 1 to 2 is represented by S
k
1
; a trivial transition from 2 to 1 is represented by P
k
; a braiding
transition from 1 to 2 is represented by S
k
2
, etc... In this case flux tube 1 contains positive
energy anyons and flux tube 2 the negative energy anyons.
2. An alternative representation is the one in which P
k
represents transition along the strand so
that S
k
resp. S
k+1
corresponds to braiding transition from strand 1 to 2 resp. 2 to 1. In this
case both flux tubes contain both positive and negative energy anyons.
164 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
2.6 Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding
space
In the following the recent view about structure of imbedding space forced by the quantization of
Planck constant is described. This view has developed much before the original version of this chapter
was written.
The original idea was that the proposed modification of the imbedding space could explain naturally
phenomena like quantum Hall effect involving fractionization of quantum numbers like spin and charge.
This does not however seem to be the case. G
a
G
b
implies just the opposite if these quantum numbers
are assigned with the symmetries of the imbedding space. For instance, quantization unit for orbital
angular momentum becomes n
a
where Z
n
a
is the maximal cyclic subgroup of G
a
.
One can however imagine of obtaining fractionization at the level of imbedding space for space-
time sheets, which are analogous to multi-sheeted Riemann surfaces (say Riemann surfaces associated
with z
1/n
since the rotation by 2π understood as a homotopy of M
4
lifted to the space-time sheet
is a non-closed curve. Continuity requirement indeed allows fractionization of the orbital quantum
numbers and color in this kind of situation.
2.6.1 Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible
The observation above stimulates the question whether it might be possible in some sense to replace
H or its factors by their multiple coverings.
1. This is certainly not possible for M
4
, CP
2
, or H since their fundamental groups are trivial.
On the other hand, the fixing of quantization axes implies a selection of the sub-space H
4
=
M
2
S
2
⊂ M
4
CP
2
, where S
2
is a geodesic sphere of CP
2
.
ˆ
M
4
= M
4
`M
2
and
ˆ
CP
2
= CP
2
`S
2
have fundamental group Z since the codimension of the excluded sub-manifold is equal to two
and homotopically the situation is like that for a punctured plane. The exclusion of these sub-
manifolds defined by the choice of quantization axes could naturally give rise to the desired
situation.
2. Zero energy ontology forces to modify this picture somewhat. In zero energy ontology causal
diamonds (CDs) defined as the intersections of future and past directed light-cones are loci for
zero energy states containing positive and negative energy parts of state at the two light-cone
boundaries. The location of CD in M
4
is arbitrary but p-adic length scale hypothesis suggests
that the temporal distances between tips of CD come as powers of 2 using CP
2
size as unit.
Thus M
4
is replaces by CD and
ˆ
M
4
is replaced with
ˆ
CD defined in obvious manner.
3. H
4
represents a straight cosmic string inside CD. Quantum field theory phase corresponds to
Jones inclusions with Jones index ´ : ^ < 4. Stringy phase would by previous arguments
correspond to ´: ^ = 4. Also these Jones inclusions are labeled by finite subgroups of SO(3)
and thus by Z
n
identified as a maximal Abelian subgroup.
One can argue that cosmic strings are not allowed in QFT phase. This would encourage the
replacement
ˆ
CD
ˆ
CP
2
implying that surfaces in CD S
2
and (M
2
∩ CD) CP
2
are not
allowed. In particular, cosmic strings and CP
2
type extremals with M
4
projection in M
2
and
thus light-like geodesic without zitterwebegung essential for massivation are forbidden. This
brings in mind instability of Higgs=0 phase.
4. The covering spaces in question would correspond to the Cartesian products
ˆ
CD
n
a

ˆ
CP
2n
b
of the covering spaces of
ˆ
CD and
ˆ
CP
2
by Z
n
a
and Z
n
b
with fundamental group is Z
n
a
Z
n
b
.
One can also consider extension by replacing M
2
∩ CD and S
2
with its orbit under G
a
(say
tedrahedral, octahedral, or icosahedral group). The resulting space will be denoted by
ˆ
CD
ˆ
G
a
resp.
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
G
b
.
5. One expects the discrete subgroups of SU(2) emerge naturally in this framework if one allows
the action of these groups on the singular sub-manifolds M
2
∩CD or S
2
. This would replace the
singular manifold with a set of its rotated copies in the case that the subgroups have genuinely
3-dimensional action (the subgroups which corresponds to exceptional groups in the ADE corre-
spondence). For instance, in the case of M
2
∩CD the quantization axes for angular momentum
2.6. Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space 165
would be replaced by the set of quantization axes going through the vertices of tedrahedron, oc-
tahedron, or icosahedron. This would bring non-commutative homotopy groups into the picture
in a natural manner.
6. Also the orbifolds
ˆ
CD/G
a

ˆ
CP
2
/G
b
can be allowed as also the spaces
ˆ
CD/G
a
(
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
G
b
)
and (
ˆ
CD
ˆ
G
a
)
ˆ
CP
2
/G
b
. Hence the previous framework would generalize considerably by the
allowance of both coset spaces and covering spaces.
There are several non-trivial questions related to the details of the gluing procedure and phase
transition as motion of partonic 2-surface from one sector of the imbedding space to another one.
1. How the gluing of copies of imbedding space at (M
2
∩ CD) CP
2
takes place? It would seem
that the covariant metric of M
4
factor proportional to
2
must be discontinuous at the singular
manifold since only in this manner the idea about different scaling factor of M
4
metric can make
sense. This is consistent with the identical vanishing of Chern-Simons action in M
2
S
2
.
2. One might worry whether the phase transition changing Planck constant means an instantaneous
change of the size of partonic 2-surface in CD degrees of freedom. This is not the case. Light-
likeness in (M
2
∩CD) S
2
makes sense only for surfaces X
1
D
2
⊂ (M
2
∩CD) S
2
, where X
1
is light-like geodesic. The requirement that the partonic 2-surface X
2
moving from one sector
of H to another one is light-like at (M
2
∩CD) S
2
irrespective of the value of Planck constant
requires that X
2
has single point of (M
2
∩ CD) as M
2
projection. Hence no sudden change of
the size X
2
occurs.
3. A natural question is whether the phase transition changing the value of Planck constant can
occur purely classically or whether it is analogous to quantum tunneling. Classical non-vacuum
extremals of Chern-Simons action have two-dimensional CP
2
projection to homologically non-
trivial geodesic sphere S
2
I
. The deformation of the entire S
2
I
to homologically trivial geodesic
sphere S
2
II
is not possible so that only combinations of partonic 2-surfaces with vanishing total
homology charge (K¨ahler magnetic charge) can in principle move from sector to another one,
and this process involves fusion of these 2-surfaces such that CP
2
projection becomes single
homologically trivial 2-surface. A piece of a non-trivial geodesic sphere S
2
I
of CP
2
can be
deformed to that of S
2
II
using 2-dimensional homotopy flattening the piece of S
2
to curve. If this
homotopy cannot be chosen to be light-like, the phase transitions changing Planck constant take
place only via quantum tunnelling. Obviously the notions of light-like homotopies (cobordisms)
and classical light-like homotopies (cobordisms) are very relevant for the understanding of phase
transitions changing Planck constant.
2.6.2 Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones
inclusions?
What could be the interpretation of these two kinds of spaces?
1. Jones inclusions appear in two varieties corresponding to ´ : ^ < 4 and ´ : ^ = 4 and one
can assign a hierarchy of subgroups of SU(2) with both of them. In particular, their maximal
Abelian subgroups Z
n
label these inclusions. The interpretation of Z
n
as invariance group is
natural for ´ : ^ < 4 and it naturally corresponds to the coset spaces. For ´ : ^ = 4 the
interpretation of Z
n
has remained open. Obviously the interpretation of Z
n
as the homology
group defining covering would be natural.
2. ´ : ^ = 4 should correspond to the allowance of cosmic strings and other analogous objects.
Does the introduction of the covering spaces bring in cosmic strings in some controlled manner?
Formally the subgroup of SU(2) defining the inclusion is SU(2) would mean that states are
SU(2) singlets which is something non-physical. For covering spaces one would however obtain
the degrees of freedom associated with the discrete fiber and the degrees of freedom in question
would not disappear completely and would be characterized by the discrete subgroup of SU(2).
For anyons the non-trivial homotopy of plane brings in non-trivial connection with a flat cur-
vature and the non-trivial dynamics of topological QFTs. Also now one might expect similar
166 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
non-trivial contribution to appear in the spinor connection of
ˆ
CD
ˆ
G
a
and
ˆ
CP
2
ˆ
G
b
. In confor-
mal field theory models non-trivial monodromy would correspond to the presence of punctures
in plane.
3. For factor spaces the unit for quantum numbers like orbital angular momentum is multiplied
by n
a
resp. n
b
and for coverings it is divided by this number. These two kind of spaces are
in a well defined sense obtained by multiplying and dividing the factors of
ˆ
H by G
a
resp. G
b
and multiplication and division are expected to relate to Jones inclusions with ´: ^ < 4 and
´: ^ = 4, which both are labeled by a subset of discrete subgroups of SU(2).
4. The discrete subgroups of SU(2) with fixed quantization axes possess a well defined multipli-
cation with product defined as the group generated by forming all possible products of group
elements as elements of SU(2). This product is commutative and all elements are idempotent
and thus analogous to projectors. Trivial group G
1
, two-element group G
2
consisting of reflec-
tion and identity, the cyclic groups Z
p
, p prime, and tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral
groups are the generators of this algebra.
By commutativity one can regard this algebra as an 11-dimensional module having natural numbers
as coefficients (”rig”). The trivial group G
1
, two-element group G
2
¡ generated by reflection, and
tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral groups define 5 generating elements for this algebra. The
products of groups other than trivial group define 10 units for this algebra so that there are 11 units
altogether. The groups Z
p
generate a structure analogous to natural numbers acting as analog of
coefficients of this structure. Clearly, one has effectively 11-dimensional commutative algebra in 1-1
correspondence with the 11-dimensional ”half-lattice” N
11
(N denotes natural numbers). Leaving
away reflections, one obtains N
7
. The projector representation suggests a connection with Jones
inclusions. An interesting question concerns the possible Jones inclusions assignable to the subgroups
containing infinitely manner elements. Reader has of course already asked whether dimensions 11,
7 and their difference 4 might relate somehow to the mathematical structures of M-theory with 7
compactified dimensions. One could introduce generalized configuration space spinor fields in the
configuration space labelled by sectors of H with given quantization axes. By introducing Fourier
transform in N
11
one would formally obtain an infinite-component field in 11-D space.
The question how do the Planck constants associated with factors and coverings relate is far from
trivial and I have considered several options.
1. If one assumes that
2
(X), X = M
4
, CP
2
corresponds to the scaling of the covariant metric
tensor g
ij
and performs an over-all scaling of metric allowed by Weyl invariance of K¨ahler action
by dividing metric with
2
(CP
2
), one obtains r
2

2
/
2
0

2
(M
4
)/
2
(CP
2
). This puts M
4
and
CP
2
in a very symmetric role and allows much more flexibility in the identification of symmetries
associated with large Planck constant phases.
2. Algebraist would argue that Planck constant must define a homomorphism respecting multipli-
cation and division (when possible) by G
i
. This requires r(X) = (X)
0
= n for covering and
r(X) = 1/n for factor space or vice versa. This gives two options.
3. Option I: r(X) = n for covering and r(X) = 1/n for factor space gives r ≡ /
0
= r(M
4
)/r(CP
2
).
This gives r = n
a
/n
b
for
ˆ
H/G
a
G
b
option and r = n
b
/n
a
for
ˆ
H
ˆ
times(G
a
G
b
) option with
obvious formulas for hybrid cases.
4. Option II: r(X) = 1/n for covering and r(X) = n for factor space gives r = r(CP
2
)/r(M
4
).
This gives r = n
b
/n
a
for
ˆ
H/G
a
G
b
option and r = n
a
/n
b
for
ˆ
H
ˆ
times(G
a
G
b
) option with
obvious formulas for the hybrid cases.
5. At quantum level the fractionization would come from the modification of fermionic anti-
commutation (bosonic commutation) relations involving at the right hand side so that particle
number becomes a multiple of 1/n or n. If one postulates that the total number states is invari-
ant in the transition, the increase in the number of sheets is compensated by the increase of the
fundamental phase space volume proportional to . This would give r(X) →r(X)/n for factor
space and r(X) →nr(X) for the covering space to compensate the n-fold reduction/increase of
states. This would favor Option II.
2.6. Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space 167
6. The second manner to distinguish between these two options is to apply the theory to concrete
physical situations. Since G
a
and G
b
act as symmetries in CD and CP
2
degrees of freedom, one
might of being able to distinguish between the two options if it is possible to distinguish between
the action of G as symmetry of quantum states associated with covering and factor space. Also
the quantization of the orbital spin quantum number at single particle level as multiples of n
can be distinguished from that in multiples of 1/n.
2.6.3 A simple model of fractional quantum Hall effect
The generalization of the imbedding space suggests that it could possible to understand fractional
quantum Hall effect [34] at the level of basic quantum TGD. This section represents the first rough
model of QHE constructed for a couple of years ago is discussed. Needless to emphasize, the model
represents only the basic idea and involves ad hoc assumption about charge fractionization.
Recall that the formula for the quantized Hall conductance is given by
σ = ν
e
2
h
,
ν =
n
m
. (2.6.1)
Series of fractions in ν = 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, 4/9, 5/11, 6/13, 7/15..., 2/3, 3/5, 4/7, 5/9, 6/11, 7/13..., 5/3, 8/5, 11/7, 14/9...4/3, 7/5, 10/7, 13/9...,
1/5, 2/9, 3/13..., 2/7, 3/11..., 1/7.... with odd denominator have been observed as are also ν = 1/2 and
ν = 5/2 states with even denominator [34].
The model of Laughlin [32] cannot explain all aspects of FQHE. The best existing model proposed
originally by Jain is based on composite fermions resulting as bound states of electron and even number
of magnetic flux quanta [35]. Electrons remain integer charged but due to the effective magnetic field
electrons appear to have fractional charges. Composite fermion picture predicts all the observed
fractions and also their relative intensities and the order in which they appear as the quality of sample
improves.
The generalization of the notion of imbedding space suggests the possibility to interpret these
states in terms of fractionized charge, spin, and electron number. There are four combinations of
covering and factors spaces of CP
2
and three of them can lead to the increase of Planck constant.
Besides this there are two options for the formula of Planck constant so that which the very meager
theoretical background one can make only guesses. On the following just for fun consideration option
I is considered although the conservation of number of states in the phase transition changing favors
option II.
1. The easiest manner to understand the observed fractions is by assuming that both M
4
and CP
2
correspond to covering spaces so that both spin and electric charge and fermion number are
fractionized. This means that e in electronic charge density is replaced with fractional charge.
Quantized magnetic flux is proportional to e and the question is whether also here fractional
charge appears. Assume that this does not occur.
2. With this assumption the expression for the Planck constant becomes for Option II as r =
/
0
= n
a
/n
b
and charge and spin units are equal to 1/n
b
and 1/n
a
respectively. This gives
ν = nn
a
/n
b
. The values m = 2, 3, 5, 7, .. are observed. Planck constant can have arbitrarily
large values. There are general arguments stating that also spin is fractionized in FQHE.
3. The appearance of ν = 5/2 has been observed [36]. The fractionized charge is e/4 in this case.
Since n
i
> 3 holds true if coverings are correlates for Jones inclusions, this requires to n
b
= 4
and n
a
= 10. n
b
predicting a correct fractionization of charge. The alternative option would
be n
b
= 2 that also Z
2
would appear as the fundamental group of the covering space. Filling
fraction 1/2 corresponds in the composite fermion model and also experimentally to the limit
of zero magnetic field [35]. n
b
= 2 is however inconsistent with the observed fractionization of
electric charge and with the vision inspired by Jones inclusions.
4. A possible problematic aspect of the TGD based model is the experimental absence of even values
of n
b
except n
b
= 2 (Laughlin’s model predicts only odd values of n). A possible explanation is
168 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe
that by some symmetry condition possibly related to fermionic statistics (as in Laughlin model)
n
a
/n
b
must reduce to a rational with an odd denominator for n
b
> 2. In other words, one has
n
a
∝ 2
r
, where 2
r
the largest power of 2 divisor of n
b
.
5. Large values of n
a
emerge as B increases. This can be understood from flux quantization. One
has e

BdS = n(M
4
) = nn
a

0
. By using actual fractional charge e
F
= e/n
b
in the flux factor
would give e
F

BdS = n(n
a
/n
b
)
0
= n. The interpretation is that each of the n
a
sheets
contributes one unit to the flux for e. Note that the value of magnetic field in given sheet is not
affected so that the build-up of multiple covering seems to keep magnetic field strength below
critical value.
6. The understanding of the thermal stability is not trivial. The original FQHE was observed in
80 mK temperature corresponding roughly to a thermal energy of T ∼ 10
−5
eV. For graphene
the effect is observed at room temperature. Cyclotron energy for electron is (from f
e
= 6
10
5
Hz at B = .2 Gauss) of order thermal energy at room temperature in a magnetic field
varying in the range 1-10 Tesla. This raises the question why the original FQHE requires
so low temperature. The magnetic energy of a flux tube of length L is by flux quantization
roughly e
2
B
2
S ∼ E
c
(e)m
e
L (
0
= c = 1) and exceeds cyclotron roughly by a factor L/L
e
, L
e
electron Compton length so that thermal stability of magnetic flux quanta is not the explanation.
A possible explanation is that since FQHE involves several values of Planck constant, it is
quantum critical phenomenon and is characterized by a critical temperature. The differences of
the energies associated with the phase with ordinary Planck constant and phases with different
Planck constant would characterize the transition temperature.
As already noticed, it is possible to imagine several other options and the identification of charge
unit is rather ad hoc. Therefore this model can be taken only as a warm-up exercise. In [C4] Quantum
Hall effect and charge fractionization are discussed in detail and one ends up with a rather detailed
view about the delicacies of the K¨ahler structure of generalized imbedding space.
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2003, page 16.
Part II
PHYSICS INSPIRED MODELS
FOR GENOME AND
EVOLUTION OF GENETIC
CODE
175
Chapter 3
Genes and Memes
3.1 Introduction
In TGD based model of consciousness genes and memes are in very similar position. The quantum
self-organization process explains genetic code as an outcome of Darwinian selection basically carried
out by dissipation, and also memes should be subject to similar selection. Cognitive codes would be
for neuroscience what genetic code is for biology. Hence there are good motivations to guess what
the precise form and realization of these codes might be if it really exists. In fact, p-adic length
scale hierarchy suggests an entire fractal hierarchy of cognitive codes with quantized durations of the
codeword and preferred numbers of bits per code word [K1]. There exists however some preferred
cognitive codes. A simple model for abstraction process leads to an entire hierarchy of genetic codes
and one of them explains the basic numbers of the genetic code. A fascinating possibility is that
the next level in the hierarchy yields memetic code and also this possibility will be studied in the
sequel. Genetic and memetic codes represent particular examples associated with Mersenne primes
p = 127 = 2
7
−1 and p = M
127
= 2
127
−1.
3.1.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy of codes
The basic numbers of genetic code are probably not accidental. This led for more than ten years
ago to an attempt to construct a model for abstraction process reproducing the basic numbers of the
genetic code.
Genetic code from a model for abstraction process
The simplest model for an abstraction process is based to a repeated formation of statements about
statements starting from two basic statements representing the most primitive logical thoughts. If
one drops at each step of construction the statement corresponding to empty set in the set theoretic
realization of Boolean algebra, one obtains a hierarchy allowing to understand the basic numbers of
genetic code.
The outcome is the so called Combinatorial Hierarchy [16] consisting of the Mersenne numbers
2, M(1) = 3, 7 ,127, 2
127
− 1, .. constructed using the rule M(n + 1) = M
M(n)
= 2
M(n)
− 1. The
explicitly listed ones are known to be primes. Combinatorial Hierarchy emerges from a model of
abstraction process as sub-sequent transitions from level to meta level by forming Boolean statements
about Boolean statements of level n and dropping one statement away. Combinatorial Hierarchy
results also by constructing the sets of all subsets with empty set excluded starting from two element
set. The set of statements at level n can be given a structure of Finite Field G(M(n), 1) if M(n)
is prime. The multiplicative groups Z
M(n)−1
form a nested hierarchy and the coset spaces Z
k
n
≡ Z
M(n)−1
/Z
M(n−1)−1
are cyclic groups (k
n
= (M(n) − 1)/(M(n − 1) − 1)). Hilbert’s conjecture
states that each Mersenne number in the Combinatorial Hierarchy is prime.
Combinatorial Hierarchy based model of genetic code explains the number of DNAs and amino-
acids, and the representation of words of the genetic code as triplets of 4 different lower level codewords.
Genetic code corresponds to n = 3 level of the hierarchy with 127 statements representable as 7-bit
sequences with the sequence of seven ’0’:s dropped away. Only the 64 6-bit code words can be fully
177
178 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
realized and correspond to (M(3) + 1)/2 = 64 DNA triplets. k
3
= 126/6 = 21 equals to the number
of amino-acids plus stopping codon. There is a natural imbedding of subgroup Z
21
identifiable as a
representation of amino-acids to the group Z
126=6×21
.
More abstractly, at level n the counterparts of DNA triplets correspond to the set X
N(DNA)

Z
M(n)−1
of N(DNA) = (M(n) + 1)/2 statements consistent with a fixed atomic statement (64 for
n = 3). Atomic statement corresponds to a fixed value, assumed to be one, of a fixed bit in a bit
sequence representation and a subset consisting of single element in the set theoretic representation.
These statements could be regarded as statements consistent with the axiom defined by the selection of
the atomic statement. The counterparts of amino-acids and stopping codon correspond to k
n
theorems
of a formal system defined by n
th
level of Combinatorial Hierarchy having a unique imbedding as the
group Z
k
n
⊂ Z
M(n)−1
. The DNAs coding for a given ”amino-acid” correspond to the special cases of
the theorem.
Mapping of DNA code words to amino-acids generalizes to the mapping x → x
k
n−1
in Z
M(n)−1
mapping DNA type statements to amino-acid type statements. (M
(
n) +1)/2 DNAs can be imbedded
to Z
126
with several manners. Genetic code is fixed ones this imbedding is given. For n = 3 one
obtains ordinary genetic code defined by the map x → x
6
and imbedding of the DNAs to Z
126
. The
numbers of DNA:s coding single amino-acid can be reproduced by a symmetry breaking mechanism
involving the finite groups Z
p
n−1
and Z
k
n
and symmetry breaking is in a well defined sense minimal.
The infinite hierarchy of possible genetic codes (at least if Hilbert’s conjecture holds true) suggests
the possibility of an infinite hierarchy of increasingly complex life forms.
If one allows only Mersenne primes, the model for the abstraction process predicts at least one
further code, which I have used to call memetic code. It corresponds to the Mersenne prime M
127
=
2
127
− 1 and has 2
126
code words and (2
126
− 1)/(2
6
− 1) ”amino-acids”. The secondary p-adic time
scale T(2, M
127
) is .1 seconds and defines a fundamental time scale in bio-systems.
There are reasons to expect that memetic code is an especially interesting higher level cognitive
code and realized in terms of field patterns. In particular intronic portion of DNA could realize
memetic codewords as sequences of 21 DNA triplets and memes would define the counterparts of
computer programs at DNA level whereas genes would define the counterpart of computer hardware
coded into lower level programs and built only when needed. Both memes and genes could express
themselves in terms of field patterns.
Memes and genes should relate like computer software and hardware. In the case of language the
rules producing a given linguistic expression can be seen as the software whereas words can be seen as
the hardware built from phonemes. This leads to the idea that memetic codewords define the basic
program modules producing linguistic expressions by activating genes which express themselves as
words or word sequences. Phonemes could directly correspond to DNA triplets and define the basic
building blocks of language having as such no meaning. If this view is correct, the development of
spoken and written language would mean basically the emergence of a higher level of intentionality,
which utilizes an already existing repertoire of memes already expressed in many other manners. This
would in turn suggest that animals and even plants possess some kind of languages realized at cellular
level, and that even inter-species communications using common memetic vocabulary.
Myth about Fall of Man as metaphor for codes
There are basically two genetic and memetic codes: 6-bit and almost-7-bit (2
3
− 1 code words rep-
resented consciously) genetic codes and 126- and almost-127 bit memetic codes. The myth about
the Fall of Man provides a little bit tongue-in-cheek metaphor for the extension of 126-bit code to
almost-127-bit code. God gave to Adam and Eve the moral code as a single moral law formulated
as an atomic statement ”Do anything but do not eat from the Tree of Good and Bad Knowledge”.
Adam and Eve of course did this and probably as many fractally scaled versions.
The first Fall occurred probably already at the molecular level and meant the replacement of 6-bit
genetic code with almost-7-bit code: 63 = 9 7 sins beside 64 good deeds appeared (there are 9
classes of sins containing one sin for every day of the week, one of them containing the seven deadly
ones!). Imagination and intentions realized as deeds emerged and Adam and Eve became moral agents.
For the memetic code the replacement of 126-bit memetic code led to almost 127-bit code and the
repertoire of good and bad deeds was now much more impressive: 2
126
good deeds and 2
126
− 1 sins
(the basic classification sins to 7 basic types makes senses still!). One can of course wonder what was
this un-doable sin with strong G¨odelian flavor. A code word with only zeros cannot give rise to a
3.1. Introduction 179
conscious experience. Hence the un-doable sin could be such that the sinner cannot experience its
consequences in this life, that is suicide.
Genetic code and thinking at DNA level
TGD predicts entire infinite hierarchy of selves starting from elementary particle level so that con-
sciousness should be present also at DNA and protein level. The notion of self indeed allows to
understand protein folding, which is rather mysterious phenomenon in standard physics framework.
The physical model of the genetic code constructed in [L2], when interpreted in terms of the model
for an abstraction process, suggests the interpretation of the genetic code as mapping the fundamental
64 truths to 20 basic conscious experiences, perhaps the protein level emotional experience about truth-
ness: it must be emphasized that our experiences are probably not in question. Amino-acid P could
correspond to the emotionally experienced truth ’G
1
(P) or G
2
(P).. or G
n
(P) is true’, where G
i
code
for protein P. 3 stopping sign codewords cannot be experienced emotionally as truths not non-truths
(holy trinity at protein level!).
In the model for introns discussed in the chapter [L2] cognitive neutrino play an essential role in
the genetic program of eukaryotes and suggests that Boolean mind appears already at molecular level
and could correspond to the logical statements represented by genes. This Boolean mind does not
correspond to our conscious logical thinking.
Does memetic code emerge at the next level of abstraction process?
The natural question is whether a counterpart of the genetic code could make sense for memes.
Combinatorial Hierarchy model for abstraction process that memetic code should correspond to the
level M
127
of the hierarchy. This leads to a precise realization of the memetic code in terms of
binary sequences. The secondary p-adic time scale associated with M
127
is .1 seconds, which seems
to define the duration for the immediate subjective memory. If this time scale corresponds to a
sequence consisting 127 bits, the duration of single bit is 1/1270 seconds, which happens to be very
near to definite p-adic time scale but is somewhat shorter than the typical duration of nerve pulse.
This suggests that nerve pulse patterns as such cannot realize the full memetic code. The time scale
associated with k = 252 = 2 6 21 is .05 seconds and one half of the duration of 127-bit memetic
codon. k = 252 allows the representations of both 6- and 7-bit genetic codes and of the 126-bit
memetic code.
An attractive hypothesis is that the temporal sequences for the Z
0
magnetization directions for a
block cognitive antineutrinos at cell membrane space-time sheet provide a representation of the almost
127-bit memetic codeword. The conscious experience results when the Z
0
magnetization directions flip
back to the direction of external Z
0
magnetic field in spin flipping cyclotron transition. M
127
= 2
127
−1
different conscious experiences results since nothing happens if all cognitive antineutrinos are in the
same direction as external Z
0
magnetic field. Z
0
magnetization direction could be altered by the Z
0
magnetic pulse associated with the Z
0
ME inducing cell membrane oscillations of nerve pulse pattern.
This raises obvious questions. Does genome have a memetic counterpart; what would be the
function of the memone; what would be the memetic counterparts of the transcription and translation
processes for genes? The natural guess is that memes are the basic building blocks of cognition and
language. Perhaps also memes are coded by DNA, most naturally by introns, whose portion from the
genome increases with the evolutionary level of organism and is 99 per cent for Homo Sapiens. The
sequences of 21 DNA triplets would naturally realize 126-bit memetic codons 2
126
memetic codons
at DNA level. The prediction is that the intronic portions of the genome should consist of basic
units containing 21 DNA triplets. This would also mean that the language conscious-to-us is only
a tip of an iceberg. The intronic part of the DNA would be expressed in terms of MEs and involve
communications between cell membrane and nucleus. The dynamics of this realization would be fast
and nucleus would play the role of cellular brain.
3.1.2 The product model for the evolution of genetic code
It became as a surprise to me personally that the genetic code has an exact A-G permutation symmetry
and an almost exact T-C permutation symmetry with respect to the third nucleotide. Seen with the
eyes of a theoretical physicist knowing the enormous importance of spontaneous symmetry breaking in
180 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
physics, these simple symmetries point the way to the understanding of the basic mechanism behind
the evolution of the genetic code.
This inspired a simple model for our genetic code allowing to see the genetic code as a product of
much simpler doublet and singlet codes with a small symmetry breaking due to the interaction between
singlets and doublets. This model, even admittedly rather formal, might have deep implications for
the theories how the life at the molecular level has involved. The physical realization of this model
will be also discussed briefly. A detailed discussion can be found in [L7].
3.1.3 General ideas about codes and languages
By quantum-classical correspondence space-time sheets provide a symbolic representation for the
contents of consciousness. Therefore one can say that everything in principle represents and the task
is to understand how these symbolic representations are generated, how codes are established, and
how these symbolic representations generated the desired mental images. This obviously means a
profound departure from the basic belief system of standard biology.
Computer languages form a hierarchy such that highest level languages are very flexible approach-
ing gradually to the spoken language whereas lowest level languages are very precise and rigid. The
notion of self hierarchy suggests that our spoken language is only a top of an iceberg and that below it
is a hierarchy of languages ending down to the cellular level and DNA is one particular example about
”computer language” realized in terms of p-adic cognitive codes, in particular genetic and memetic
codes. In an attempt to understand whether and how memetic and other p-adic cognitive codes might
relate to the spoken and written language one must have some general ideas codes and language.
The hierarchy of cognitive codes
p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggests an entire hierarchy of cognitive codes and languages. The
primes p · 2
k
, k integer seems to be interesting physically, and prime values of k seem to be espe-
cially interesting. The codes would be characterized by the duration of the codeword given by n-ary
p-adic time scale T
p
(n) = p
(n−1)/2
T
p
, T
p
= 2
k/2−127
T(2, 127), T(2, 127) = .1 seconds. The most
general assumption is that number k
1
of bits of the codeword for given integer k
1
corresponds to some
factor of k, the largest factor maximizing the information content. Codes could be represented either
as temporal sequences of bits represented as pulses of maximal duration T
p
(n)/k
1
or as superpositions
of k
1
harmonics of f
1
= 1/T
p
(n), where Fourier components having intensity above/below critical
value would represent bit 1/0. These representations will be referred to as pulse and frequency repre-
sentations. Frequency representations would be realized in terms of topological light rays (”massless
extremals”, MEs) representing topologically quantized transverse radiation and pulse representations
in terms of scalar wave pulses not possible in Maxwell’s electrodynamics [G3]. This representational
dichotomy reflects particle-wave duality and talking left brain and singing right brain dichotomy.
Memetic and genetic codes represent special examples of cognitive codes. One must distinguish
between two representations: the representations involving 6 bits or almost 7 bits and 126 bits or
almost 127 bits. ’Almost’ means that only 2
k
− 1 bit sequences rather than all 2
k
bit sequences are
realized as conscious bits if bits are realized as phase transitions.
Codes are always involved with classical communications involving transformation of mental images
to a symbolic representation by some code. At our level of the hierarchy this symbolic representation
could be speech, written language, picture, body language... This would suggest that also p-adic
cognitive codes are involved with conscious communications. If these codes are realized in living
systems, the bit sequences with the predicted durations and bit contents should induce biological
effects serving as correlates for the conscious understanding of the message generated by the codewords
at some level of the hierarchy.
TGD based view about living matter relies on the notion of field body or magnetic body associated
with any system and having size much larger than the material body. Also these bodies form a fractal
hierarchy. The communications from material body to field body could be based on cognitive codes.
Given p-adic frequency corresponds f
p
to a p-adic length scale L
p
= c/f
p
characterizing the size of the
magnetic body involved and for EEG frequencies the size scale of Earth is natural unit. For instance,
p-adic cognitive codes realized in terms of field patterns would be involved with the communication
of long term declarative memories from the geometric past.
3.1. Introduction 181
What language is?
The attempt to understand the possible role of memetic code, a rough vision about what language is,
allows to eliminate several ideas which look promising at first.
1. Language involves generation of symbolic representation of a mental image by a more or less
rigid code. An example of a very flexible code is code based on associations. The symbolic
representation of mental image should induce in the receiver the original mental image as faith-
fully as possible. This requires that a lot of common context. In particular, the neurologies
and biologies of the sender and receiver must resemble each other sufficiently. In the case of
high level languages like ordinary language even this is not enough and only simplest verbal
signals and body language are understood universally. The cognitive codes associated with say
cell level communications might make possible communications between cells of even different
species remaining however unconscious to us.
2. The p-adic vision about evolution of cognitive skills like spoken language is that they evolve from
long time and length scales to shorter ones. First a rough sketch about the motor action is created
and gradually more and more details are added. This applies also at the level of the evolution
of language itself. Simple signals expressing and generating emotions evolve gradually to spoken
language which evolves to written language which in turn evolves to computer languages.
3. Learning of language requires learning of the conventions assigning to a given symbol a mental
image. Sharing of mental images which represent more primitive ”telepathic” communication
makes possible this process. The observation that even plants and cells can react to our emotions
and that this reaction does not depend much on distance [21], suggest that the sharing of
mental images is in question. This allows to consider the possibility of inter-species linguistic
communications using field patterns.
4. The understanding of language requires transformation of symbolic representation to conscious
experience and here the notion of conscious bit (”cbit” [H8]) realized as a phase transition or as an
absence of phase transition suggests itself. Phase transition could correspond to magnetization
or formation of electret state and living matter could generate these representations in various
length scales.
5. In TGD Universe intentions are realized as actions by a process, which proceeds from the mag-
netic body downwards along the hierarchy much like a desire of a boss of some institution to the
lower levels of hierarchy. At each level intention or intentions are transformed to desires commu-
nicated to the lower levels of hierarchy. Intentions have p-adic space-time sheets as space-time
correlates and are transformed to real ones representing the desire.
The most plausible realization of this process is in terms of time mirror mechanism. The space-
time sheets in question would correspond to negative energy topological light rays representing the
propagation of signals to the geometric past and induce processes. The process would continue down to
the level of neurons and even DNA level and generate the desired action as a reaction to the resulting
complex of desires. The beauty of the mechanism is that the communication to the geometric past
makes it instantaneous.
Spoken and written language would rely on the same process and could propagate down to the
level of genome and select the memes to be expressed. The expression of these memes as field patterns
would then be a process propagating upwards in the hierarchy and finally generating speech or written
word. When I decide to say something say the words ”time mirror”, this intention is transformed to
a desire communicated to the geometric past to the lower level of the self hierarchy, and that at this
level this desire generates further desires communicated to the lower levels. Ultimately this process
ends down to the level of cells and even cell nuclei and DNA and induces response which propagates
to the higher levels as neural and other activities inducing muscular activities in speech organs and
generates the words ”time mirror”.
The signal to the geometric past involves negative energy photons and topological light rays. The
working hypothesis has been that the signal to the geometric past is only a space-time correlate for
sharing of the desire to generate the action, and does not involve any code. If this is the case then
only the response propagating to the geometric future would be classical signal based on some code.
182 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
One must however keep mind open to the possibility that also communications to the geometric past
involve code.
Conscious bits and cognitive representations
The symbols representing message must be transformed to standardized mental images. The simplest
possibility is that the mental images are coded to patterns of conscious bits or cbits. The general
model for sensory and other qualia suggests that conscious bits should be realized as quantum jumps
sequences associated with phase transitions. In this manner same quantum number increment is occurs
for many particle for single quantum jump and for sufficiently long sequence of quantum jumps. Bit
1 would correspond to the occurrence of phase transition and bit 0 to the non-occurrence of the phase
transition. For a code of k bits this has important implication: the codeword containing only zeros
does not generate any conscious experience so that the number of experienced code words is 2
k
− 1.
This could explain why Mersenne primes seem to be define especially important p-adic time scales.
Living matter is populated by dynamical electrets so that phase transitions between ordinary and
electret states at various length scales are expected to be of special importance. Also magnetization
of super phases at magnetic flux tubes of say Earth’s magnetic field is expected to be one mechanism
producing basic qualia serving as as bits.
Computer metaphor at DNA level
Software and hardware are essential elements of the computer and at DNA level this could mean
that genes code for hardware which is not stable as in case of ordinary computers. This means
that computer hardware is replaced by the possibility to generate it and genes carry the information
needed for this. Introns would in turn represent the software, the programs and therefore also the
linguistic aspect of DNA. An interesting possibility is that introns realize memes as sequences of 21
DNA triplets. This picture allows and even suggests that even DNA level might be involved with the
generation of spoken words and define the deep structure of language.
3.2 Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code
It is already found that Combinatorial Hierarchy emerges as a unique hierarchy of mappings of Boolean
thoughts to association sequences, which could perhaps correspond to nerve pulse patterns, or more
probably, to temporal field patterns. In the following the connection of Combinatorial Hierarchy with
genetic code is demonstrated.
3.2.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a model for abstraction process
One could view the development of intelligence as a process, which takes place as sub-sequent tran-
sitions from hierarchy level to a higher hierarchy level, meta-level. First there are statements about
concrete things, say numbers. Then come the statements about statements (say theorems about the-
orems of number theory): ”If theorem A is true then theorem B is true”. Then come the statements
about statements about...
What is remarkable is that the so called Combinatorial Hierarchy [16] (which emerged first in
particle physics context) results from this kind of gradual abstraction process consider Z
2
valued
functions. The value 1 might correspond to ”true” and 0 to ”not true”.
i) Assume that lowest level corresponds to 2 statements.
ii) Go to the meta level and consider statements about statements (theorems about theorems in
mathematics). Therefore one must consider Z
2
valued Boolean functions in Z
2
corresponding to
statements of type ’P is true’ and ’P is not true’ : there are altogether 4 of them. Drop the statement
represented by (0, 0).
iii) Again one goes to meta level and considers statements about statements about statements that
is functions from 3-element set to Z
2
: 7 elements altogether, when one throws away the statement
represented by sequence of zero bits.
iv) Continuing this process one clearly gets Combinatorial Hierarchy.
The somewhat mysterious feature is the dropping of one statement. If the construction corresponds
to the construction assigning creation of the cognitive fermion pair with the splitting of a wormhole
3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 183
contact connecting two space-time sheets, then the requirement that the two space-time sheets form a
connected structure drops exactly one configuration (no wormhole contacts connecting the two space-
time sheets) from consideration. Second interpretation would be in terms of conscious bit. If conscious
bit ’1’ is represented as a phase transition of some kind then the sequence of ’0’s is not representable
as a conscious bits so that only 2
k
−1 code words are representable for k bit code and the only k −1
bits are fully representable which suggests that only 2
k−1
bits represent information and remaining
bits could play the same role as parity bits.
There is second construction which is purely set theoretical and gives a natural explanation for the
dropping of one statement. Consider subsets of the set (0, 1). There are 3 of them if the physically non-
realizable empty set is excluded. Consider next the subsets of the 3-element set: there are 2
3
−1 = 7
of these sets if empty set is excluded. By continuing the process one finds that the numbers of the
Combinatorial Hierarchy result. This suggests that the physical non-realizability of (0, 0, ...) Boolean
statement is basic reason for dropping it from consideration.
The numbers of the Combinatorial Hierarchy have some properties, which suggest that they are
very closely related to Genetic Code.
1. The numbers p = 3 = M
2
, 7 = M
3
, 127 = M
7
, M
127
are Mersenne primes. It is possible that
all the Mersenne numbers M(n + 1) = M
M(n)
of the sequence are primes. This implies that
the statements can be given the algebraic structure of Finite Field G(p, 1). Therefore the set
of the Boolean statements has also interpretation as a simplified model for arithmetics and the
arithmetic abilities of the intelligent system grow gradually in transitions from level to meta
level. As a consequence the basic conjecture
M(n + 1) = M
M(n)
= 2
M(n)
−1 prime n = 1, 2, ... ,
(3.2.1)
roughly means that there is no upper bound for the arithmetic abilities of intelligent system!
2. The statements at the level p are of two types: ’P is true’ and ’P is not true’ and there are
clearly N(p) = (p + 1)/2 mutually consistent statements at level p. These numbers come
as 2, 4, 64, 2
126
, .. for p = 3, 7, 127, ... What is remarkable is that N(7) = 4 is the number of
different DNA:s and N(127) is the number of different DNA sequences. This suggests that
DNA:s represent physically consistent with a given atomic statement at level p.
3. The Finite Field G(p, 1) has the cyclic group Z
p−1
as the multiplicative group of nonzero ele-
ments. The dimensions of these groups read as 1, 2, 6 = 2 3, 126 = 6 21, ... for Combinatorial
Hierarchy. The multiplicative group of the previous level can be regarded as a subgroup of the
next level multiplicative group for the lowest members of the Combinatorial Hierarchy at least:
Z
p
n
−1
⊂ Z
p
n+1
−1
. The reason is that p
n+1
− 1 is divisible by p
n
− 1 for the lowest Mersenne
primes. In fact divisibility holds true also for M
127
−1 and M
7
−1. Divisibility condition gives
2
126
−1 = 63n . (3.2.2)
The condition is satisfied!: 63 = 3
2
7 divides 2
126
−1, whose prime factorization [17] is given by
2
126
−1 = 3
3
7
2
19 43 73 127 X ,
X = 337 5419 92737 649657 77158673929 . (3.2.3)
Actually the divisibility follows quite generally from the following little theorem:
Theorem: M(n) −1 divides M(n + 1) −1 always and M(n) divides M(n + 1) −1 if M(n) is prime.
The divisibility of M(M(n)) − 1 by prime M(n) follows as a particular case a = 2, p = M(n) of
Fermat’s theorem stating that a
p−1
= 1 mod p holds true for any natural number a and any prime
184 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
p. The divisibility of M(M(n)) − 1 by M(n) − 1 is equivalent with the divisibility of 2
M(n)−1
− 1
with 2
M(n−1)−1
−1. This property holds true for the lowest Mersenne numbers of the Combinatorial
Hierarchy and can be proven to hold true generally by induction using the following lemma [18]:
Lemma: The greatest common multiplier (x, y) for integers x = 2
a
− 1 and y = 2
b
− 1 satisfies
(2
a
−1, 2
b
−1) = 2
(a,b)
−1. The proof of the lemma is based on the observation that the polynomial
x
n
− 1 (x = 2 now) factorizes into a product of factors (x
n
i
− 1), where n
i
is factor of n. For the
polynomials x
a
−1 and x
b
−1 the largest common multiplier is therefore x
(a,b)
−1.
For a = M(n) − 1 and b = M(M(n + 1)) − 1 lemma together with the induction assumption gives
(a, b) = 2
(M(n)−1,M(n−1)−1)
− 1 = 2
M(n−1)−1
− 1: the result means that 2
M(n−1)−1
− 1 = M(n) − 1
divides 2
M(n)−1
−1 = M(n+1) −1. The prime number property of Mersenne numbers is not needed
in the proof.
As a consequence one has an infinite hierarchy of coset spaces Z
p
n+1
−1
/Z
p
n
−1
= Z
k
n
, which
are also cyclic groups. The first members of this hierarchy are Z
k
1
)
= Z
2
, Z
3
, Z
21
, .... Also the
groups Z
k
n
satisfy the condition Z
k
n
⊂ Z
k
n+1
for the lowest values of k with k
1
excluded and an
interesting possibility is that k
n
divides k
n+1
quite generally for some number theoretic reason. What is
remarkable is that k
2
= 3 is the number of DNA:s in DNA triplets and k
3
= 21 is the number of amino-
acids plus stopping sign coded by DNA:s. This observation suggests that amino-acids correspond to
the subset of the statements of G(p
n
, 1) imbeddable as subgroup Z
k
n
to Z
p
n
−1
for p
n
= 127. A
little consideration shows that the map x →x
k
n−1
gives a unique imbedding for the amino-acid type
statements to Z
p
n
−1
.
n 1 2 3 4
M(n) 3 7 127 2
127
−1
N(DNA, n) = (M(n) + 1)/2 2 4 64 2
126
N(amino, n) = (M(n) −1)/(M(n −1) −1) 2 3 21 (2
126
−1)/63
Table 1. The lowest Mersenne numbers of Combinatorial Hierarhcy (known to be primes), the
numbers of ’DNA’ k
n−1
-plets and the numbers of ’amino-acids’ for these levels.
These observations suggest a general model for Genetic Code. The 64 DNA sequences give a
physical representation for the statements compatible with a given atomic statement at p = 127 level
of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. The choice of these mutually compatible statements as a subset of
G(127, 1) is by no means unique and is determined by the evolution. The 21 amino-acids (stopping
sign is regarded formally as ’amino-acid’) at p = 127 level correspond to the unique statements
representable in the form y = x
6
in Z
126
and form cyclic group Z
21
. Genetic code can be regarded
as the mapping x → x
6
mapping all DNA type statements to amino acid type statements. The
interpretation of the amino-acid type statements is as general axioms and DNA type statements are
regarded as special cases of these axioms. Amino-acid sequences in turn are regarded as theorems
derivable from axioms by constructing amino-acid sequences: the direction of the sequence is unique
by the chirality of the amino-acid molecules.
The formation of theorems in formal system indeed corresponds to the formation of symbol
sequences by some rules (now the rules are extremely simple, perhaps too simple!). The repre-
sentability of DNA:s as triplets of 4 basic units has explanation: actually a more general the formula
N(DNA, n) = (p
n
+1)/2 = ((p
n−1
+1)/2)
k
n−1
= N(DNA, n−1)
N(amino,n−1)
holds true for all levels
of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. In particular, for p = 127 one has 64 = 4
3
. Actually an infinite
hierarchy of Genetic Codes suggests itself: for the n:th member of the Hierarchy there are k
n
axioms
and if k
n
divides k
n+1
the axioms of level n are imbeddable as a subgroup Z
k
n
to the group Z
k
n+1
of
axioms at level n + 1 and the counterpart of G¨odel’s Incompleteness Theorem holds true.
3.2.2 Interpretation of genetic code
Finite Field Computer picture leads to the interpretation of genetic code as a map from the set of well
defined truth values X
64
⊂ G(127, 1) (DNA:s) to the set Z
126
/Z
6
= Z
21
⊂ G(127, 1) (amino-acids).
1. The interpretation of the previous observation is that amino-acids and ’stopping sign’ correspond
to the elements x of the coset space Y = Z
126
/Z
6
= Z
21
obtained by identifying two elements a
and b of Z
126
are identified if a
6
= b
6
holds true. The realization of Z
21
as a subset of G
127,1
is
obtained as the set of non-vanishing sixth powers of G(127, 1) elements
3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 185
z ∈ Z
21
<=> z = x
6
, 0 = x ∈ G(127, 1) . (3.2.4)
Since a coset space is in question d = 126/21 = 6 elements of Z
126
are mapped to a given element
of Z
21
in the map x →x
6
.
2. According to the proposed model of intelligent system DNA triplets correspond to a subset X
64
of 64 well determined truth values of p = 127 logic but at this stage there is no first principle
telling which subset corresponds to truth values. Let us however assume that X
64
corresponds
to subset of Z
126
so that zero element is excluded from X
64
.
3. With these identifications genetic code correspond to the mapping x → x
6
from the set X
64
of
well defined truth values to Z
21
x ∈ X
64
→ x
6
∈ Z
21
. (3.2.5)
The number of DNA triplets d coding same amino acid is just the number of elements of X
64
mapped to same element of Y and this gives strong constraints for the identification of X
64
as
subset of G(127, 1). Clearly, genetic code is to a high degree equivalent with the identification
of 64-element DNA triplets as subset of Z
126
. The identification of X
64
as subset of Z
126
cannot
however be determined uniquely since the group Z
6
acts as the symmetry group of the code
permuting the 6 elements of Z
21
mapped to same element of Z
126
and leading to a code with
same degeneracies d.
An important prediction is that at most six DNA triplets can correspond to same amino acid.
As the following table shows the condition is satisfied: there are three amino acids for which DNA
degeneracy d is 6. This means that it is indeed possible to realize genetic code in the proposed manner.
d 6 4 3 2 1
N 3 5 2 9 2
Table 1. The number of amino acids N associated with a given degeneracy d telling the number
of DNA triplets mapped to the amino acid in genetic code. The degeneracies are always smaller than
7 as predicted by the proposed explanation of the Genetic Code.
One can consider first simple guesses for the identification of X
64
as a subset of G(127, 1). The
identification as even elements y = 2k, k = 0, 63 is not possible since zero cannot belong to X
64
: same
applies to the identification as odd elements. The identification as the elements expressible as squares
y = x
2
is excluded for the same reason. One could include the 64
th
DNA by identifying it as an
arbitrary element of Z
126
. All these identifications yield almost completely symmetric genetic code:
d = 3 for all 21 amino acids except one for with one has d = 4 so that something more complicated is
needed.
3.2.3 Genetic Code as a result of geometric symmetry breaking
One could try to understand the pattern of degeneracies as a symmetry breaking pattern, but not in
terms of group representations as is done usually but in terms of group orbits. For single DNA multiplet
associated with given amino-acid the natural symmetry group is Z
6
or some of its subgroups and DNA
multiplet of given amino-acid can be regarded as a union of orbits for the subgroup in question. The
subgroups of Z
126
/Z
6
= Z
3
Z
7
in turn can transform the DNA multiplets with same degeneracy to
each other and amino-acids with same degeneracy can be regarded as a union of orbits of Z
7
, Z
3
or
Z
1
. This symmetry pattern seems to work!
1. Consider first the group Z
6
acting inside DNA multiplets associated with given amino-acid. The
definition of Z
21
implies that the DNA:as associated with d = 6 amino-acids must be identified
as six-element orbits of Z
6
symmetry. d = 3, d = 2, d = 1 amino acids correspond to the
186 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
breaking of Z
6
to Z
3
,Z
2
and to Z
1
respectively. d = 4 amino-acids are however problematic
since Z
6
does not have 4-element subgroup. One can interpret d = 4 DNA:s either as a union
of two Z
2
orbits or as a union of Z
3
and Z
1
orbits: Z
1
orbit corresponds most naturally to the
mirror image of one Z
3
point, when the points of Z
126
are represented as points of unit circle.
This interpretation seems to be more appropriate.
2. Consider next the group Z
21
acting on amino-acids. The 3 d = 6 amino-acids could be identified
as an orbit of Z
3
⊂ Z
21
. If one regards the 5 d = 4 multiplets as unions of Z
3
and Z
1
orbits one
can obtain altogether 2 +5 Z
3
⊂ Z
6
orbits, which could be regarded as Z
7
orbit. What remains
is 5 +2 = 7 Z
1
orbits, which could be regarded as Z
7
orbit. Therefore it seems that amino-acids
can be ordered nicely into the orbits of Z
3
and Z
7
. It turns however that exact symmetry is
broken and some orbits are slightly deformed or even broken to pieces.
There are good reasons for symmetry breaking.
1. Besides symmetry also redundancy of the genetic code is desirable: this means that the number
of the amino-acids with small degeneracy should be as small as possible. Z
6
(or some subgroup)
symmetry and redundancy are competing factors since average degeneracy is always same and
symmetry tends to increase the redundancy associated with some amino acids. Therefore re-
dundancy requirement might be one underlying reason for symmetry breaking.
2. It turns out that also the competition between symmetries Z
3
and Z
7
in Z
27
forces either Z
7
or
Z
3
symmetry breaking already before the ’actual’ symmetry breaking.
3. The third reason for the symmetry breaking is the constraint that the numbers of DNA triplets
and amino-acids are constrained to 64 and 21 respectively. For, instance 63 DNA:s allows
representation as a union 9 Z
6
orbits having Z
3
⊂ Z
21
as symmetry group but for 64 DNA:s
there is necessarily one Z
1
orbit present.
It would be nice if one could understand the genetic code as a small perturbation of some code with
both high symmetry and high redundancy. One could even assume that the number of amino-acids
before the symmetry breaking is smaller than 21 so that symmetry breaking is necessary to obtain 21
amino-acids. A geometric picture of the situation is obtained by regarding the points of Z
126
as points
Φ = n2π/126 of a unit circle endowed with standard metric so that it becomes possible to define what
’small’ symmetry breaking means.
3.2.4 Symmetry breaking scenarios
The genetic code can be reproduced as the following symmetry breaking pattern.
1. Unbroken symmetry corresponds to the following situation. There are 6 = 3+3 amino-acids with
maximal degeneracy d = 6 and 7 amino-acids with degeneracy d = 4: altogether 13 < 21 so that
symmetry breaking is necessary. d = 6 multiplets correspond to 6 Z
6
orbits Φ = n2π/6 +k∆(i),
with ∆(i) = k
i
2π/126 < 2π/6. Single d = 4 multiplet corresponds to Z
3
orbit plus single point,
which is diametrically opposite to one of the points at Z
3
orbit. More explicitly: basic (3, 1)
multiplet corresponds to the Z
3
orbit Φ
3
(k) = 6∆+k2π/3, k = 0, 1, 2 plus the point Φ
1
= 6∆+π.
By acting on this orbit with rotations ∆
1
(i) = k
i
2π/126, i = 0, ..., 6, ∆
1
(i) < 2π/6 one obtains
7 d = 4 multiplets. Obviously one must have ∆(i) = ∆
1
(j) for each i, j pair in order to avoid
overlapping. The actual imbedding of Z
6
multiplets is not relevant for the degeneracies of the
genetic code and will be discussed later.
2. The first symmetry breaking is Z
6
→ Z
2
and occurs for 3 d = 6 amino-acids and leads from
3 Z
6
orbits to 9 Z
2
orbits so that 9 d = 2 amino-acids result. Breaking can be understood
geometrically as follows. Single d = 6 multiplet is obtained by Z
2
action (reflection) from Z
3
orbit, say Φ(k) = k2π/3. What happens is that two points on Z
3
orbit that for Z
3
orbit the
points Φ(k) with k = 1 and 4 are rotated slightly with different rotation angles
3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 187
Φ(1) → Φ(1) +δ
1
,
Φ(4) → Φ(4) +δ
1
,
Φ(5) → Φ(5) −δ
2
,
Φ(6) → Φ(6) −δ
2
,
δ
i
=
k
i

126
,
1 < k
i
< 6 . (3.2.6)
Here δ
i
must be chosen so that the deformed points do not coincide with already ’occupied’
points. Minimal symmetry breaking is obtained with k
1
= 1 = k
2
but would lead to overlapping.
One must also have k
1
= k
2
(k
1
= k
2
would imply additional reflection symmetry). The
symmetry breaking leads to 9 + 7 = 16 amino acids with degeneracies d ≥ 2.
3. The second symmetry breaking leads from 7 d = 4 multiplets to 5 d = 4 multiplets, 2 d = 3
multiplets and 2 d = 1 multiplets. What happens is that 2 basic d = 4 multiplets consisting of
Z
3
orbit and mirror image of one of Z
3
points is deformed d = 3 plus d = 1 multiplet: this is
achieved if mirror image point is slighly shifted. The deformation is obtained by performing for
the basic multiplet (Φ
3
(k) = k2π/3, Φ
1
= π) the deformation
Φ
1
= π → π ±δ
3
. (3.2.7)
δ
3
= k
3
2π/126, 1 < k
3
< 6 followed by appropriate rotation carrying broken multiplet to its
own position. k
3
= 1 is not allowed since it would lead to overlapping and k
3
= 2 leads to the
smallest possible symmetry breaking.
One can try to find unique imbedding of X
64
(and also try to understand the uniqueness of the
genetic code) by requiring that amino-acids form orbits of Z
21
or its subgroups. Z
3
and Z
7
are
competing symmetries and not consistent with each other: the reason is that Z
3
orbits and Z
7
orbits
in same basic angular range of length 2π/6 necessarily overlap since between two points of Z
3
orbit
there are always just 6 points so that Z
7
orbit cannot be put between two points on Z
3
orbit. Therefore
one must choose between either enhanced Z
3
or Z
7
symmetry for the imbedding of X
64
.
Consider first Z
3
symmetric situation.
1. 6 = 3 + 3 Z
6
orbits decompose naturally into two orbits of Z
3
. The first Z
3
orbit corresponds
to Φ(k, m) = 6m 2π/126 +k2π/6 , m = 0, 1, 2 and second Z
3
orbit is obtained from this orbit
by a rotation ∆Φ = 2π/126. When Z
6
orbits break down to 9 Z
2
orbits the Z
2
orbits can form
3 separate orbits of Z
3
.
2. The graphical experimentation with various possibilities shows that one must split Z
7
orbit to
three pieces 7 = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 so that the 2:s form Z
3
orbit. Therefore complete breaking of Z
7
symmetry makes possible additional Z
3
symmetry. This means that one d = 4 orbits arrange
into 2 Z
3
orbits and one Z
1
orbit before symmetry breaking. After the symmetry breaking the
2 d = 3 multiplets and d = 3:s belonging to 5 d = 4 : s form still Z
3
orbits but two d = 1:s are
thrown out of corresponding Z
3
orbits.
3. An example of an imbedding satisfying these constraints is given by the following formulas
188 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
d N(d) Φ/∆ = n mod 126 , ∆ = 2π/126
6 3 n = A(i) +B(k) ,A(i) = 21i, B(k) = 7k, i ∈ I, k ∈ K
I = ¦0, 1, .., 5¦, K = ¦0, 1, 2¦
2 9 n = (A(i) +B(k) + 1 +δ
1
(i)), i ∈ I, k ∈ K
δ
1
(0) = δ
1
(3) = 0, δ
1
(1) = δ
1
(4) = −3, δ
1
(2) = δ
1
(5) = 4
4 5 n = i + 42k, n = i + 63, i = 2, 10, 11, 17, 18, k ∈ K
3 2 n = i + 42k ,i = 3, 4, k ∈ K
1 2 n = i + 63 +δ
2
(i) ,i = 3, 4, δ
2
(3) = −1, δ
2
(4) = 1
Table 2. Explicit form for the Z
3
symmetric imbedding of X
64
consistent with Genetic Code.
The index k appearing in the formulas labels points on Z
3
orbit. The imbedding is illustrated
in figure 3.2.4.
Consider next Z
7
type scenario. 7 d = 4:s can be put into single Z
7
orbit. d = 6 representations
cannot however form neither Z
7
full orbits nor full Z
3
orbits in this case. After the symmetry breaking
the 2 d = 3 multiplets and d = 3:s belonging to 5 d = 4 : s form still Z
7
orbits but two d = 1:s are
thrown out of corresponding Z
7
orbits. There exists no full Z
7
orbit consisting of amino-acids with
same d after symmetry breaking so that in this sense Z
7
sceneario possesses much less symmetry than
Z
3
scenario. An explicit example is given by the following formulas
d N(d) Φ/∆ = n mod 126, ∆ = 2π/126
6 3 n = A(i) +B(k) , A(i) = 21i, B(k) = 7k +δ
1
(k),i ∈ I,k ∈ K
I = ¦0, .., 5¦, K = ¦0, 1, 2¦, δ
1
(1) = 5, δ
1
(0) = delta
1
(2) = 0
2 9 n = A(i) +δ
2
(i) + 1 +B(k),i ∈ I, k ∈ K
δ
2
(1) = δ
2
(4) = −2 , δ
2
(2) = δ −2(5) = 2,
4 5 n = 3 +i + 42k, n = i + 63, i = 2, ..., 6, k ∈ K
3 2 n = 3 +i + 42k ,i = 1, 7, k ∈ K
1 2 n = i + 63 +δ
3
(i) ,i = 1 or 7, δ
3
(1) = −1, δ
3
(7) = 1
Table 3. Explicit form for the Z
7
type imbedding of X
64
consistent with Genetic Code. The imbedding
is illustrated in figure 3.2.4.
3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 189
Figure 3.1: The imbedding X
64
⊂ Z
126
reproducing Genetic Code and possessing Z
3
type symmetry.
The lengths of radial lines are 6 + d, where d = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 is the number of DNA:s associated with
amino-acid. The angular distance between points on Z
3
(Z
7
) orbits is to 20 (2.85) degrees.
190 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
Figure 3.2: Z
7
type imbedding X
64
⊂ Z
126
reproducing Genetic Code. Symmetry breaking is much
larger for this imbedding although visually the imbedding looks perhaps more symmetric than Z
3
type imbedding.
3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 191
3.2.5 In what sense the physical genetic code is unique?
The proposed symmetry breaking scenario is certainly not the only one. A constraint on symmetry
breaking patterns comes from the requirement that all amino acids are coded. In terms of orbit
multiplicities g(k) (number of amino acids with same number of DNA:s) one has two conditions
¸
k=1,2,3,4,6
g(k) = 21 ,
¸
k=1,2,3,4,6
g(k)k = 64 . (3.2.8)
k = 4 case corresponds to two Z
3
and Z
1
orbits associated with single amino acid. This gives
g(1) = −22 +g(3) + 2g(4) + 4g(6) ,
g(2) = 43 −2g(3) −3g(4) −5g(6) . (3.2.9)
This means that all possible genetic codes are labeled by the three integers g(3), g(4) and g(6). The
conditions imply
g(3) + 2g(4) + 4g(6) ≥ 22 ,
2g(3) + 3g(4) + 5g(6) ≤ 43 . (3.2.10)
These conditions restrict the possible symmetry breaking scenarios. In particular, g(6) ≤ 8 must hold
true so that maximal symmetry corresponds to the codes with (g(3), g(4), g(6)) equal to (1, 0, 8) or
(0, 1, 8).
In the proposed symmetry breaking scenario the number of DNA:s is automatically fixed to 64 and
the only requirement is that deformation of X
64
is such that the number of amino-acids is not smaller
than 21. If one assumes that the only symmetry breakings are of form 6 → 3 2 and 4 → 3 + 1 and
denotes the numbers of broken d = 6 and d = 4 multiplets with k
6
and k
4
respectively the condition
for 21 amino acids reads as (6−k
6
)+3k
6
+(7−k
4
)+2k
4
= 21 , which gives k
6
= 4−k
4
/2, k
4
= 0, 2, 4, 6.
k
4
gives the number of d = 1 amino-acids and k
4
/2 + 2 gives the number of the unbroken 6 orbits:
these numbers clearly measure redundancy and symmetry. The numbers of amino-acids with various
degeneracies are given by
N(d = 1) = N(3) = k
4
,
N(2) = 3(4 −k
4
/2) ,
N(4) = 7 −k
4
,
N(6) = 2 +k
4
. (3.2.11)
The following table summarizes the 4 genetic codes possible under these assumptions
N(d = 1) N(d = 2) N(d = 3) N(d = 4) N(d = 6)
0 12 0 7 2
2 9 2 5 3
4 6 4 3 4
6 3 6 3 5
Table 4.: The 4 possible genetic codes assuming unbroken initial Z
3
symmetry with numbers of
amimo acids with same degeneracy.
The physically realized genetic code (second row) is clearly a compromise between symmetry and
redundancy. By the previous construction the physically realized code is characterized by additional
symmetry: namely the group Z
3
⊂ Z
21
transforming both 3 d = 6 amino-acids and 3 triplets of d = 2
amino acids to each other. For all other Z
3
type alternatives this symmetry is broken. Therefore the
physical genetic code corresponds in a well defined sense to minimal symmetry breaking.
192 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
3.2.6 Hierarchy of Genetic Codes?
Genetic Code generalizes to an entire hierarchy of genetic codes at formal level, at least.
1. The spaces X
4
⊂ X
64
⊂ X
(M
127
+1)/2
= X
2
126 ⊂ .... an be regarded as a hierarchy of ’DNA
triplets’.
2. The preceding results suggest that the multiplicative groups associated with the Combinatorial
Hierarchy form also a hierarchy: Z
2
⊂ Z
6
⊂ Z
126
⊂ Z
M
127
−1
⊂ ...... This is true if the dimensions
divide each other: 2[6[126[M
127
−1[..... 126 indeed divides M
127
−1 = 2(2
126
−1) and the number
of ’amino-acids’ at the third level is (2
126
− 1)/63! The result holds generally from Fermat’s
theorem (2
p−1
= 1 mod p) if the Mersenne numbers of the Combinatorial Hierarchy are primes.
3. If Combinatorial Hierarchy consists of primes the coset spaces Z
6
/Z
2
= Z
3
⊂ Z
126
/Z
6
= Z
21

Z
M
127
−1
/Z
126
⊂ .... exist and form a hierarchy of ’amino-acids’.
The redundancy of the genetic code could be interpreted as resulting from a hierarchy of discrete
gauge symmetries: Z
M
n
−1
acts as gauge symmetry in the space Z
M
M
n
−1
.
There is still further apparent numerical co-incidence. For the first 3 levels the numbers of ’amino-
acids’ are
a
0
= 2 ,
a
1
= 3 (3.2.12)
per,
a
2
= 21 ,
a
3
= ((M
127
−1)/2)/((M
7
+ 1)/2)) = (2
126
−1)/63 . (3.2.13)
The numbers of ’DNA’-n-plets (well defined truth values) are
d
0
= 2 ,
d
1
= 4 = 2
2
= d
a
0
0
,
d
2
= 64 = 4
3
= d
a
1
1
,
d
3
= 2
126
= 64
21
= d
a
2
2
.
(3.2.14)
The formulas imply that one can construct the physical DNA-triplets at level 2 as d
2
= d
a
1
1
= 4
3
triplets of DNA molecules. At level 3 one can construct d
3
= d
a
2
2
= 63
21
= 2
126
’DNA’ 21-plets of 64
different DNA-triplets. More generally, DNA-plets at given level n correspond to a
n−1
-plets of DNA
formed from the DNA-plets of the previous level since the identity
d
n
=
(M
n
+ 1)
2
= d
a
n−1
n−1
= 2
a
n−1
a
n−2
a
n−3
...a
0
. (3.2.15)
holds true in general since the groups Z
M
n
−1
forms a hierarchy of nested subgroups.
The result means that the concrete physical representation of truth values of M
n
logic as ’DNA’
sequences is an internal property of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. The immediate prediction is that
sequences of 21 DNA-triplets should code for a
3
= (2
126
− 1)/63 generalized amino-acids consisting
of sequences of 21 amino-acids acids: these units could be regarded as some kind of ’pre-genes’.
The number of amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids (of order 2
91
is much smaller than
the number of generalized amino-acids (of order 2
120
), which means that the ordinary amino acids
cannot provide an optimal realization of DNA sequences: many generalized amino-acids have no
DNA sequence as their representative. DNA sequences are known to contain passive sections, introns,
which do not code DNA. An interesting question is whether these sections could represent M
127
level
sequences: if so the number of DNA triplets in these sections should be a multiple of 21.
If the lowest level of the Hierarchy is present DNA:s should be representable as doublets formed
from two different p = 3 ’pre-DNA’:s and these should code for 3 different ’pre-amino-acids’. This
kind of structure is not realized in Nature so that the p = 7 level of DNA:s is in this sense irreducible.
3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 193
3.2.7 The structure of the negation map
The negation map mapping statement to its negation is highly non-unique unless it possesses symme-
tries and it is interesting to find what one can conclude about the structure of this map by symmetry
arguments.
1. For each amino-acid type general statement there are six special cases of the statement. The fact
that only 64 statements are actually consistent with a given atomic statement means that some
special cases associated with different amino-acids correspond to statement and its negation
whereas two points at given Z
6
orbit cannot correspond to a statement and its negation.
2. 62 negations of 64 DNA type statements belong to Z
126
. One lacking negation corresponds
to the zero element of G(127, 1) and the second one corresponds to the excluded statement in
the construction of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. One can associate to each amino-acid definite
number of negations as the number of elements in the complement of DNA type statements on
the Z
6
orbit defined by amino-acid (at Z
6
orbit all statements must be consistent with a fixed
atomic statement). These numbers are d
1
= 0 for 3 d = 6 amino-acids , d
1
= 2 for 5 d = 3 +1
amino-acids, d
1
= 4 for 9 d = 2 amino-acids and d
1
= 5 for the 2 d = 1 amino-acids so that
negations ’code’ only 18 amino-acids so that duality symmetry between statements and their
negations is not possible.
3. Negation must map statements at given orbit to a different orbit. It is however natural to re-
quire that points on same orbit, say A, are mapped on same orbit, say B, if possible and that
the angles and ordering of points belonging to same orbit are preserved in negation map. More
generally, the ordering of points on circle should be preserved.
4. For 2 d = 3 amino-acids, call them a and b, the Z
3
orbit a (b) is mapped to the complement of
Z
3
orbit b (a). The map is unique apart from Z
3
rotation.
5. For 9 d = 2 amino-acids Z
2
orbits (pairs of diametrically opposite points) form 3 Z
3
orbits
and Z
3
rotation plus a rotation inside Z
6
orbit gives good candidate for negation map. As a
consequence 9 Z
2
orbits in the complement remains ’free’ and form 3 Z
3
orbits, call them G
i
.
6. It is natural map d = 6 orbits to these free 9 Z
2
orbits in Z
3
symmetric manner, which means
that the content of single Z
6
orbit i is mapped into 3 d = 2 orbits in G
i
. Diametrically opposite
point pair on Z
6
orbit is mapped to a similar point pair in G
i
. The map is unique if one requires
that Z
6
element on the initial orbit goes to same Z
6
element on the final orbit and this in turn
makes the map of 9 Z
2
orbits unique apart from reflection.
7. The 5 d = 3+1 amino-acids form unions of diametrically opposite point pair A
i
plus point pair
B
i
,i = 1, ..., 5 separated by angle of 120 degrees. Point pairs B
i
can be mapped to the mirror
image
¯
B
j
of B
j
, j = i: one can require that cyclic ordering of pairs B
i
is preserved in map to
remove part of the non-uniqueness. 2 + 2 pairs A
i
can be mapped to the 2 + 2 pairs C
i
in the
complements of 2 d = 1 orbits containing 5 points each (2 diametrically opposite pairs C
i
plus
single point). The remaining pair, say A
i
0
, can be mapped to zero element of G(127, 1) and to
the ’dropped out’ statement.
8. Denoting the mirror images of 2 d = 1 statements a and b by ¯ a and
¯
b the negation map for them
reads as (a, b) →(
¯
b, ¯ a).
3.2.8 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a hierarchy of formal systems
Usually [19] formal system is understood as a system of symbols, axioms interpreted as allowed basic
strings of symbols and rules for constructing new sequences from the symbols. In [19] the exciting
analogies between the symbol sequences of formal systems and DNA and amino acids sequences and
Genetic Code were emphasized and it indeed seems that more than analogy is in question. The
model for the Genetic Code suggests an interpretation of Combinatorial Hierarchy as a hierarchy
of formal systems with DNA type statements identifiable as a maximal set of mutually consistent
statements and amino-acid type statements as basic axiom type truths. Genetic code results from the
194 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
necessary but non-unique selection of these statements consistent with a fixed atomic statement and
the selection of these statements could be a result of fight for survival at the level of amino-acids. The
rule for forming statements in this system is simple: just form DNA sequences with building blocks
consisting of a
n−1
(number of ’amino-acids’ at level n−1) DNA-sequences of previous level. Theorems
are obtained by coding these statements to amino-acid sequences.
Consider first DNA type statements.
1. It was already suggested that the elements of Finite Fields in the Combinatorial Hierarchy
correspond to a hierarchy of statements about statements about .... and therefore a sequence
of formal systems formed from basic formal system by successive construction of meta level
statements.
2. Finite Field provides a language to construct all possible statements. As already found, the
(p +1)/2 (p is Mersenne prime in the Combinatorial Hierarchy) statements correspond to max-
imal set of statements consistent with a fixed atomic statement of this formal system. This is
indeed a possible interpretation. Combinatorial Hierarchy was constructed by starting from a
set containing just two statements 1 and 0. In the first p = 3 level one forms 4 statements
about these two statements and drops the one representable as (0, 0). There are however 2
contradictory statements of type P and not P in this set so that only 2 = (p + 1)/2 statements
are consistent with a given atomic statement in the real world. At the level p one has p = M
n
statements about lower level statements and by construction (p − 1)/2 statements P have also
their negation in the set of all possible statements so that (p+1)/2 consistent statements with a
fixed atomic statement are possible. Thus the conclusion is that 64 DNA triplets represent the
maximum number of mutually consistent statements at level p = M
7
= 127 of a formal system
possibly having a hierarchy of meta levels.
Consider next the interpretation for the set Z
k
n
= Z
p
n
−1
/Z
p
n−1
−1
, k
n
= (p
n
− 1)/(p
n−1
+ 1) of
amino-acid type statements.
1. In any formal system there are two kind of meta statements that is statements P(Q
1
, ..Q
n
)
about statements. The first class corresponds to theorems P(Q
1
, ...Q
n
) without any reference
to the particular value of statements Q
i
: a simple example is general theorem stating the
conditions under which an orthogonal triangle with two integer sides is Pythagorean triangle:
m
2
+ n
2
= l
2
with m, n, l integers. Second class corresponds to the theorems with (Q
1
, ..., Q
n
)
possessing definite values: a simple example is previous theorem for triangle having sides 2, 1
and 3: 2
2
+ 1
2
= 3
2
. The set of ’amino-acid’ type statements does not depend on the choice
of the choice fo the (p + 1)/2 statements consistent with a given atomic statement and this
suggests the interpretation ’amino-acid’ type statements as general axiom like truths without
any reference to the values of the argument of the statement.
What is special in the proposed hierarchy of formal systems that the substitution operation
corresponds to the multiplication of Z
k
element with the element Z
p
n−1
−1
. The introduction of
mutual consistency by selecting (p +1)/2 special statements implies that the number of DNA:s
per amino-acid corresponds to the number of special cases associated with a given ’axiom’
depends on the ’axiom’. There is still upper bound for special cases given by p
n−1
−1.
2. In a good formal system the choice of DNA type statements should be such that there is at
least one statement per each truth. The most important truths (as far as survival is considered)
should correspond to full Z
p
n−1
−1
orbits.
G¨odel’s Incompleteness Theorem was one of the basic themes in the book of Hofstadter [19].
Theorem states that in any sufficiently complicated formal system (,that is, practically interesting)
there are truths, which are not provable. The Incompleteness Theorem seems to have its analog in
bio-systems. As already observed at the level M
127
DNA sequences consisting of 21 triplets corre-
spond to true statements, which can be regarded as special cases of general truths, whose number
is (2
126−1
)/63 ∼ 2
120
. Amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids give a natural realization
for a subset of these truths and the genetic code map is induced from the Genetic Code at the basic
level p = 127. The number of the truths given by these sequences is of order 20
21
∼ 2
91
(taking into
account the reduction caused by the stopping sign) and much smaller than all possible truths. The
3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 195
interpretation is that the number of possible theorems obtained by forming amino-acid sequences is
much smaller than the number of truths. One could always add ’axioms’ by realizing the remaining
truths in some new manner but since the number of levels in the Combinatorial Hierarchy is infinite
(assuming that the Mersenne numbers in question are primes) there are always unprovable truths
in the system. One can obviously classify the formal systems according to which level is the basic
irreducible level inducing genetic code at higher levels.
p = 7 (n = 2) and p = 3 (n = 1) level as the defining, irreducible level are also in principle possible.
1. At level p = 7 4 doublets of level p = 3 ’DNA’ code 2 ’pre-amino-acids’ plus stopping sign and
at the next level this coding induces 2
3
= 8 < 21 different ’amino-acids’ since stopping sign does
not appear in theorems. If stopping sign would correspond to actual amino-acid there would
be 3
3
= 27 > 21 theorems so that the number of theorems would be larger than the number of
truths!
2. At level p = 3 2 ’DNA’:s of code one amino-acid plus stopping sign so that genetic code is
one-to-one.
An interesting possibility is that p = 3 and p = 7 levels might have been defining, irreducible
levels for bio-systems at some early stage of evolution. These formal systems can be regarded
as a subsystem of the full DNA-amino-acid system. RNA-triplets of form UXY , X, Y ∈ ¦A, C¦
give indeed realization for p = 7 system: UAA codes stopping sign,UAC codes cys and UCA and
UCC code ser (using the standard short hand notation for RNA:s and amino-acids [19]). The
sequences formed from these DNA:s and corresponding amino-acids indeed realize p = 7 formal
system as subsystem of p = 127 system. p = 3 formal system can be realized as UAA coding
stopping sign and UAC coding cys. An interesting possibility is that this DNA-amino-acid
subsystem has formed first in the biochemical evolution. For both p = 3 and p = 7 degenerate
genetic codes one has G+C/A+U = 1/2. G+C/A+U content varies in the range (.7, 1.5) for
insects and in the range (1.17, 1.56) in the case of fish and for younger evolutionary forms A+U
content is known to increase [20].
3. The transition to ’p = M
127
life’ would require the addition of a rather large number of new
’amino-acids’ to the set of all possible amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids whereas
DNA triplets could be simply replaced with sequences of 21 DNA triplets. In the transition to
p = 127 life tRNA triplets binding single amino-acid would be replaced by sequences of 21
tRNA triplets binding besides amino-acid sequences suitably modified amino-acid sequences in
order to achieve maximal number of ’amino-acids’ at level p = 127. Also the modification
of the translation system (in ribosomes) is required so that the ’reading head’ recognizes a
sequence of 21 mRNA-triplets instead of single mRNA triplet. An interesting question is whether
biochemistry might allow this kind of extension.
3.2.9 Summary
The simple model of abstraction has rather interesting connections with genetic code.
1. Combinatorial Hierarchy results as hierarchy of abstraction levels for statements or thoughts.
Lowest level A
2
corresponds to the two possible values of Boolean variable and thoughts of the
level A
n+1
correspond to statements about statements of level n that is Boolean maps A
n
→A
2
.
If the statement corresponding to sequence of zero bits is excluded the dimensions form a series
of Mersenne numbers 3, 7, 127, M
127
, ... Combinatorial Hierarchy is obtained also by considering
the set of subsets with empty set excluded. The hypothesis that there is no upper bound
for intelligence is equivalent with the hypothesis that these numbers are primes and that the
numbers p
n
− 1 in the sequence have the property that p
n
− 1 divides p
n+1
− 1. This implies
that one obtains a hierarchy of Finite Fields G(p
n
, 1) and their multiplicative groups Z
p
n
−1
as
well as coset groups Z
p
n
−1
/Z
p
n−1
−1
= Z
k
n
, k
n
= (p
n
−1)/(p
n−1
−1).
2. There are (p
n
+ 1)/2 statements consistent with a given atomic statement at level n and the
numbers come as 2, 4, 64, ... These statements are referred to as ’DNA’ type statements for
obvious reasons. The dimensions k
n
comes as 2, 3, 21, ... The hypothesis is that amino-acid
type statements correspond to the statements of Z
k
n
⊂ Z
p
n
−1
and can be regarded as general
theorems whereas DNA type statements correspond to special cases of these theorems and are
196 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
mapped to general theorems the mapping x → x
p
n−1
−1
at level n. At level n the genetic code
corresponds to the non-unique choice of the (p
n
+ 1)/2 DNA type statements consistent with a
given atomic statement in Z
p
n
−1
.
3. Biologically Genetic Code is determined by the competition between amino-acids: each amino-
acid tries to maximize the number of DNA:s coding it (amino-acids are like politicians who are
representatives of one truth and DNA:s are in the role of voters). The tendency favors Z
p
n−1
−1
(Z
6
) symmetry. The physically realized code can be understood as resulting from the symmetry
breaking caused by the competition between the groups Z
p
n−1
−1
(Z
6
) acting on DNA:s associated
with single amino-acid and factor groups of Z
k
n
(Z
21
= Z
3
Z
7
) transforming amino-acids to each
other. Instead of finite dimensional representations of Lie groups the orbits of the cyclic groups
Z
n
are basic objects in the symmetry breaking mechanism.
4. At level n basic objects are k
n−1
-plets of DNA:s of level n−1 and sequences of same DNA units
can in principle appear at all levels of the hierarchy. At the next k = M
127
level ’DNA’:s could
therefore be regarded as sequences of 21 DNA triplets.
5. A hierarchy of increasingly complicated formal systems is predicted if one accepts the hypothesis.
For the formal system of order n n:th level of the Combinatorial Hierarchy is the defining level
in the sense that the number of ’amino-acids’ is maximal and equal k
n
. Formal systems of order
n
1
< n are imbeddable into the formal system of order n. The formation of amino-acid sequences
corresponds to the formation of theorems. For a formal system of order n amino-acid sequences
realize only a small subset of all possible k
n
1
truths at higher levels n
1
> n of the Combinatorial
Hierarchy in accordance with G¨odel’s theorem. One can also classify all possible bio-systems
according to the value of n for the corresponding formal system. The Earthly life corresponds to
n = 3 formal system and ’life of order 4’ would require the addition of rather large number of new
’amino-acids’ to the set of all possible amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids whereas
DNA triplets could be simply replaced with sequences of 21 DNA triplets. The realization of
’n = 4 life’ requires that tRNA triplets binding single amino-acid are replaced by sequences of
21 tRNA triplets binding besides amino-acid sequences suitably modified amino-acid sequences
in order to achieve maximal number of ’amino-acids’ at level n = 4. Also the modification of
the reading system (in ribosomes) is required so that the ’reading head’ recognizes a sequence
of 21 mRNA triplets instead of single mRNA triplet.
6. An open problem relates to the precise role of DNA and proteins. The model of Boolean
thoughts represented in terms of the cognitive fermion pairs leads to the correspondence between
fermions and mind like space-time sheets and gives Combinatorial Hierarchy a special status.
What comes in mind is that DNA provides a hardware representations of thoughts analogous to a
computer memory. DNA molecules would be conscious selves representing 3 basic symbols in the
mind of higher level self formed by DNA triplet. DNA sequences would be selves, experiencing
DNA triplets as their sub-selves. Individual DNA molecules would represent sub-sub-selves so
that DNA sequence would experience only the average of the experiences of individual DNA
molecules.
7. It deserves to be noticed that I Ching claims that there are 64 fundamental mental states: could
it be that these mental states correspond to all possible DNA triplet selves? It this interpretation
is correct then Buddhist meditators would have achieved bio-feedback at DNA level! Genetic
Code itself could be interpreted as a mapping of DNA selves to protein selves: this could be
perhaps regarded as kind of mimicry or conscious abstraction process. Protein selves would
represent theorem like abstractions of conscious thoughts represented by DNA selves.
8. It is known that cell numbers of different cell types in nervous, muscular, adipose, gonadic and
homopoietic organs concentrate themselves around powers of two – 2
n
, where n in the range
20 − 40 [22]: this can be understood if they result in n regularly occurring cell divisions. It
might however be that the explanation of the regularity involves something much deeper. For
instance, the cell types represent various n-bit sequences.
3.3. Genes, memes, and universal language 197
3.3 Genes, memes, and universal language
In TGD framework the notion of magnetic body plays a key role in the understanding of bio-systems
and communications between magnetic and material body could be based on memetic code words.
Magnetic body is the fundamental intentional agent is in the same relation to the material body as
memetic code to the genetic code and computer software to the hardware or the manual to the elec-
tronic instrument. Hence there is a strong temptation to believe that memetic codewords represented
as field patterns of duration .1 seconds is associated with the communications between magnetic body
and brain.
For instance, the fact that 10 Hz is basic hippocampal frequency suggests that declarative memories
could be based on time mirror mechanism with negative energy signal from the magnetic body of the
geometric future reflected from the brain of the geometric past as a positive energy signal back to the
magnetic body of the geometric future. Classical communications could utilize memetic code using
pulse or frequency coding. These field patterns could also define shared mental images. For instance,
sequences of the memes represented as field patterns could activate intronic memes, which in turn
would activate genes.
3.3.1 Genes-memes, biology-culture, hardware-software?
The reports of the Public Consortium about human genome in Nature, Feb 15, 2001 [29] and of Celera
Genomics in Science of Feb 16th, 2001, [30] demonstrated that the amount of human genome differs
relatively little from those of lower organisms: we have only about 30,000 genes, little more than twice
the number 13,601 of genes for fruit fly. This paradoxical finding strongly supports the view that our
genome is not solely responsible for what we are and that the intronic portion of DNA (only about
1 per cent codes of human DNA codes or amino-acid sequences), is not ”junk DNA”, but contains
important biological information and expresses it non-chemically.
In TGD Universe introns would express memes as the classical field patterns associated with MEs
(”topological light rays”) responsible for the basic expressions of language understood in an extremely
general sense. This language includes body language and even cellular signalling, and could quite well
make possible (not necessarily conscious) interspecies communications based on the memes and genes
expressed by both communicating species and forming a common portion of grammar and vocabulary.
All eukaryotes (cells with nuclei), even bacteria, would possess part of the memes of this universal
language. The memetic code word is predicted to consist of a sequence of 21 DNA triplets and carries
126 bits of information instead of 6 bits of genetic code. Of course, also genes could be expressed in
terms of MEs and could define a lower level language possessed also by prokaryotes.
The actual role of DNA could be understood using a computer analogy. Memes represent the
program modules written using the programming language defined by the memetic code and realized
in terms of the field patterns associated with MEs. Genes represent the lower level programs coding
for the necessary hardware. System builds only the hardware needed, that is cell expresses only a
small fraction of the genome. For neurons this fraction is known to be highest. DNA engineering
requires besides the addition of the new programs (memes, introns) also the insertion of the necessary
hardware (new genes). Memes and corresponding genes should have very intimate relationship. In this
conceptual framework the standard view is wrong since it identifies the build-up of a new hardware
as the sole activity at the DNA level. This would be like identifying the addition of a net card to a
computer as the fundamental activity related with computers.
3.3.2 Pulse and frequency representations of the genetic and memetic code
words
The most general form of p-adic length scale hypothesis implies that each p-adic prime p · 2
k
, k
integer, defines a hierarchy of physically favored p-adic time scales given by T
p
(n) = p
(n−1)/2
T
p

T(n, k), T
p
=

pT
CP
2
, where T
CP
2
is the so called CP
2
time scale about 10
4
Planck times. The
most general assumption assigns to any prime p · 2
k
, k integer, a hierarchy of cognitive codes with
codeword having a duration equal to n-ary p-adic time scale T
p
(n) such that the number of bits is
factor k
1
of k.
Code words could be realized either as k
1
first harmonics of the fundamental frequency f
p
(n) =
1/T
p
(n) or as temporal sequences of k
1
bits of duration τ = T
p
(n)/k
1
represented as pulses of max-
198 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes
imal duration τ. These representations will be referred to as frequency and pulse representations
respectively. EEG represents a good candidate for frequency representation.
1. Pulse representations, scalar wave pulses, and transformation of intentions to actions
Pulse representations could be realized in terms of scalar wave pulses predicted by TGD and
claimed to exist already by Tesla [G3]. Scalar wave pulses can be visualized as capacitors moving
with light velocity and carrying longitudinal essentially constant electric field. If charged particles
of matter end up temporarily to the space-time sheets of the scalar wave pulse, they are accelerated
without dissipation and generate negative energy ”acceleration radiation” rather than brehmstrahlung
at harmonics of the frequency determined by the duration of the scalar wave pulse. Under obvious
conditions on the duration of the scalar wave pulse the negative energy radiation can be