# 1

**GENES AND MEMES
**

Matti Pitk¨anen

K¨oydenpunojankatu D 11, 10900, Hanko, Finland

Contents

0.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

0.2 Basic Ideas of TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

0.2.1 TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

0.2.2 TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

0.2.3 Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time concept . . 2

0.3 The ﬁve threads in the development of quantum TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

0.3.1 Quantum TGD as conﬁguration space spinor geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

0.3.2 p-Adic TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

0.3.3 TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory consciousness . . . . . . . . . . 3

0.3.4 TGD as a generalized number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

0.3.5 Dynamical quantized Planck constant and dark matter hierarchy . . . . . . . . 7

0.4 Bird’s eye of view about the topics of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

0.5 The contents of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

0.5.1 PART I: Some Physical and Mathematical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

0.5.2 PART II: Physics inspired models for genome and evolution of genetic code . . 12

0.5.3 Part III: Number theoretical models for genetic code and its evolution . . . . . 20

I SOME PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND 27

1 About the New Physics Behind Qualia 29

1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

1.1.1 Living matter and dark matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

1.1.2 Macroscopic quantum phases in many-sheeted space-time . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1.1.3 Mind like space-time sheets as massless extremals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1.1.4 Classical color and electro-weak ﬁelds in macroscopic length scales . . . . . . . 30

1.1.5 p-Adic-to-real transitions as transformation of intentions to actions . . . . . . . 31

1.1.6 Exotic super-Virasoro representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

1.2 Dark matter and living matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

1.2.1 Quantum criticality, hierarchy of dark matters, and dynamical . . . . . . . . 32

1.2.2 From naive formulas to conceptualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

1.2.3 Dark atoms and dark cyclotron states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

1.2.4 Dark matter and mind: general ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

1.2.5 Dark matter hierarchy, sensory representations, and motor action . . . . . . . . 48

1.3 MEs and mes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

1.3.1 Massless extremals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

1.3.2 About the electro-weak and color ﬁelds associated with massless extremals . . 55

1.3.3 MEs as absorbing and emitting quantum antennae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

1.3.4 Quantum holography and quantum information theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

1.3.5 MEs and quantum control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

1.3.6 Experimental evidence for MEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

1.4 Bio-systems as superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

1.4.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

1.4.2 Superconductivity at magnetic ﬂux quanta in astrophysical length scales . . . . 71

1.4.3 Fractal hierarchy of EEGs and ZEGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

1.4.4 TGD assigns 10 Hz biorhythm to electron as an intrinsic frequency scale . . . . 72

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iv CONTENTS

1.5 Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive life

forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

1.5.1 Evidence for many-sheeted space-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

1.5.2 Laboratory evidence for plasmoids as life forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

1.5.3 Universal metabolic quanta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

1.5.4 Life as a symbiosis of plasmoids and biological life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

1.6 Exotic color and electro-weak interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

1.6.1 Long range classical weak and color gauge ﬁelds as correlates for dark massless

weak bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

1.6.2 Dark color force as a space-time correlate for the strong nuclear force? . . . . . 92

1.6.3 How brain could deduce the position and velocity of an object of perceptive ﬁeld? 94

1.6.4 Boolean mind and dark neutrinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

1.7 The relationship between p-adic and real physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

1.7.1 p-Adic physics and the construction of solutions of ﬁeld equations . . . . . . . 98

1.7.2 A more detailed view about how local p-adic physics codes for p-adic fractal

long range correlations of the real physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

1.8 Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

1.8.1 Exotic p-adic representations as representations for which states are almost p-

adic fractals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

1.8.2 Mersenne primes and Gaussian Mersennes are special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

1.8.3 The huge degeneracies of the exotic states make them ideal for representational

purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

1.8.4 Could one assign life-forms to the exotic Super-Virasoro representations? . . . 109

2 Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe 123

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

2.1.1 Evolution of basic ideas of quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

2.1.2 Quantum computation and TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

2.1.3 TGD and the new physics associated with TQC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

2.1.4 TGD and TQC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

2.2 Existing view about topological quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

2.2.1 Evolution of ideas about TQC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

2.2.2 Topological quantum computation as quantum dance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

2.2.3 Braids and gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

2.2.4 About quantum Hall eﬀect and theories of quantum Hall eﬀect . . . . . . . . . 133

2.2.5 Topological quantum computation using braids and anyons . . . . . . . . . . . 136

2.3 General implications of TGD for quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

2.3.1 Time need not be a problem for quantum computations in TGD Universe . . . 137

2.3.2 New view about information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

2.3.3 Number theoretic vision about quantum jump as a building block of conscious

experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

2.3.4 Dissipative quantum parallelism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

2.3.5 Negative energies and quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

2.4 TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . 140

2.4.1 Topologically quantized generalized Beltrami ﬁelds and braiding . . . . . . . . 141

2.4.2 Quantum Hall eﬀect and fractional charges in TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

2.4.3 Does the quantization of Planck constant transform integer quantum Hall eﬀect

to fractional quantum Hall eﬀect? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

2.4.4 Why 2+1-dimensional conformally invariant Witten-Chern-Simons theory should

work for anyons? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

2.5 Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

2.5.1 Concrete realization of quantum gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

2.5.2 Temperley-Lieb representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

2.5.3 Zero energy topological quantum computations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

2.6 Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

2.6.1 Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

2.6.2 Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones inclusions? 165

CONTENTS v

2.6.3 A simple model of fractional quantum Hall eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

II PHYSICS INSPIRED MODELS FOR GENOME AND EVOLUTION

OF GENETIC CODE 175

3 Genes and Memes 177

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

3.1.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy of codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

3.1.2 The product model for the evolution of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

3.1.3 General ideas about codes and languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

3.2 Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

3.2.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a model for abstraction process . . . . . . . . . . . 182

3.2.2 Interpretation of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

3.2.3 Genetic Code as a result of geometric symmetry breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

3.2.4 Symmetry breaking scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

3.2.5 In what sense the physical genetic code is unique? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

3.2.6 Hierarchy of Genetic Codes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

3.2.7 The structure of the negation map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

3.2.8 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a hierarchy of formal systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

3.2.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

3.3 Genes, memes, and universal language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

3.3.1 Genes-memes, biology-culture, hardware-software? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

3.3.2 Pulse and frequency representations of the genetic and memetic code words . . 197

3.3.3 Mapping of the memetic code to microtubular code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

3.3.4 Genes, memes, and language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

3.3.5 Does memetic code make possible communications between diﬀerent species? . 208

3.3.6 Intronic portions of genome code for RNA: for what purpose? . . . . . . . . . . 211

3.4 Corals and men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

3.4.1 Why corals and vertebrates should have common genes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

3.4.2 Did corals and vertebrates receive their common genes via horizontal transfer? 214

3.4.3 What happened in Cambrain explosion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

3.4.4 What ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle means at the level of DNA? . 217

3.4.5 Where did those 223 genes pop up? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

4 Many-Sheeted DNA 229

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

4.1.1 Many-sheeted DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

4.1.2 Realization of the genetic program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

4.1.3 Are nonchemical transcription factors and nonchemical gene expression possible?232

4.1.4 Model for the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

4.1.5 The relationship between genetic and memetic codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

4.1.6 Super-genes and hyper-genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

4.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

4.2.1 DNA and RNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

4.2.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

4.2.3 Replication, transcription, translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

4.2.4 Introns, pseudogenes, repetitive DNA, silent DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

4.2.5 Is Central Dogma an absolute truth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

4.2.6 Is life nothing but biochemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

4.3 Many-sheeted DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

4.3.1 Many-sheeted DNA as hierarchy of genetic programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

4.3.2 Possible answers to the basic questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

4.3.3 What is the number of the levels in program ieharchy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

4.3.4 Band structure of chromosomes as an evidence for many-sheeted DNA? . . . . 246

4.4 Model for the genetic program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

4.4.1 Genes as statements of conscious formal system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

vi CONTENTS

4.4.2 Genes as modules of a genetic program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

4.4.3 How gene expression is regulated? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

4.4.4 Model for the physical distinction between exons and introns . . . . . . . . . . 251

4.4.5 Are the properties of the introns consistent with the proposed model? . . . . . 255

4.4.6 The phenomenon of superimposed genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

4.4.7 About genetic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

4.4.8 Possible explanations of the silent DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

4.5 TGD inspired ideas about the regulation of morphogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

4.5.1 Biological alarm clocks and morphogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

4.5.2 Could vacuum quantum numbers control gene expression via Josephson currents 262

4.5.3 Early morphogenesis of Drosophila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

4.5.4 Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

4.5.5 Evolution of Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

4.5.6 Characteristic features of Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

4.5.7 TGD based model for Hox genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

4.6 The new view about genetic code and evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

4.6.1 Basic vision about dark matter hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

4.6.2 How to identify the personal magnetic body? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

4.6.3 Generalization of the notion of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

4.6.4 The new view about genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

4.6.5 Dark matter hierarchy and evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

5 DNA as Topological Quantum Computer 279

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

5.1.1 Basic ideas of tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

5.1.2 Identiﬁcation of hardware of tqc and tqc programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

5.1.3 How much tqc resembles ordinary computation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

5.1.4 Basic predictions of DNA as tqc hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

5.2 How quantum computation in TGD Universe diﬀers from standard quantum computa-

tion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

5.2.1 General ideas related to topological quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

5.2.2 Fractal hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

5.2.3 Irreducible entanglement and possibility of quantum parallel quantum compu-

tation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

5.2.4 Connes tensor product deﬁnes universal entanglement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

5.2.5 Possible problems related to quantum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

5.3 DNA as topological quantum computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

5.3.1 Conjugate DNA as performer of tqc and lipids as quantum dancers . . . . . . . 289

5.3.2 How quantum states are realized? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

5.3.3 The role of high T

c

superconductivity in tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

5.3.4 Codes and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

5.4 How to realize the basic gates? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

5.4.1 Universality of tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

5.4.2 The fundamental braiding operation as a universal 2-gate . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

5.4.3 What the replacement of linear braid with planar braid could mean? . . . . . . 300

5.4.4 Single particle gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

5.5 About realization of braiding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

5.5.1 Could braid strands be split and reconnect all the time? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

5.5.2 What do braid strands look like? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

5.5.3 How to induce the basic braiding operation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

5.5.4 Some qualitative tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

5.6 A model for ﬂux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

5.6.1 Flux tubes as a correlate for directed attention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

5.6.2 Does directed attention generate memory representations and tqc like processes? 308

5.6.3 Realization of ﬂux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

5.6.4 Flux tubes and DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

5.7 Some predictions related to the representation of braid color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

CONTENTS vii

5.7.1 Anomalous em charge of DNA as a basic prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

5.7.2 Chargaﬀ’s second parity rule and the vanishing of net anomalous charge . . . . 313

5.7.3 Are genes and other genetic sub-structures singlets with respect to QCD color? 313

5.7.4 Summary of possible symmetries of DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

5.7.5 Empirical rules about DNA and mRNA supporting the symmetry breaking picture319

5.7.6 Genetic codes and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

5.8 Cell replication and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

5.8.1 Mitosis and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

5.8.2 Sexual reproduction and tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

5.8.3 What is the role of centrosomes and basal bodies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

5.9 Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

5.9.1 Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

5.9.2 Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones inclusions? 328

5.9.3 A simple model of fractional quantum Hall eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

6 The Notion of Wave-Genome and DNA as Topological Quantum Computer 339

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

6.1.1 The ﬁndings of Peter Gariaev and collaborators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

6.1.2 The relevant aspects of TGD based view about living matter . . . . . . . . . . 340

6.1.3 The basic assumptions of model explaining ﬁndings of Gariaev . . . . . . . . . 340

6.2 TGD counterpart for wave-genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

6.2.1 The notion of bio-hologram in TGD framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

6.2.2 How to fuse the notion of bio-hologram with the model of DNA as tqc? . . . . 342

6.3 The eﬀects of laser light on living matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

6.3.1 Phantom DNA eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

6.3.2 Eﬀects of the polarization modulated laser light on living matter . . . . . . . . 343

6.3.3 PLR spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

6.4 The scattering of incoherent UV-IR light on DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

6.4.1 Basic facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

6.4.2 TGD based model for the replicas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

6.5 Water memory, phantom DNA eﬀect, and development of tqc hardware . . . . . . . . 349

6.5.1 A possible realization of water memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

6.5.2 Could virtual DNAs allow a controlled development of the genome? . . . . . . 352

7 Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time 365

7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

7.1.1 Questions and answers about evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

7.1.2 Topics of the chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

7.2 What is known about pre-biotic evolution? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

7.2.1 Some believed-to-be facts about the early history of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

7.2.2 Standard approaches are mechanistic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

7.2.3 The notion of primordial ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

7.2.4 Urey-Miller experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

7.2.5 RNA world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

7.2.6 How biochemical pathways and DNA-amino-acid code emerged? . . . . . . . . 370

7.2.7 Problems with the polymerization in primordial ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

7.2.8 The notion of protocell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

7.3 TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

7.3.1 Basic prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

7.3.2 TGD based vision about pre-biotic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

7.3.3 Pre-biotic chemistry and new physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

7.3.4 DNA as a topological quantum computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

7.4 Physical model for genetic code and its evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

7.4.1 RNA world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

7.4.2 Programming of bio-molecular self assembly pathways from TGD point of view 393

7.4.3 The archeology of tRNA molecules as a guideline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

7.4.4 Recent genetic code as a fusion of singlet and doublet codes? . . . . . . . . . . 399

viii CONTENTS

7.4.5 Is RNA era continuing inside cell nuclei? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

7.4.6 Could nanno-bacteria correspond to predecessors of the triplet life-forms? . . . 403

7.5 Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

7.5.1 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion . . . . . 406

7.5.2 Did pre-biotic life evolve in mantle-core boundary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

7.5.3 What conditions can one pose on life at mantle-core boundary? . . . . . . . . . 412

7.5.4 What about analogs of EEG? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

7.6 Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

7.6.1 General ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

7.6.2 Enzyme action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

7.6.3 Quantum evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

7.6.4 Plasmoid like life forms in laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

7.7 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion . . . . . . . . . 437

7.7.1 The claims of Adams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

7.7.2 The critic of Adams of the subduction mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

7.7.3 Expanding Earth theories are not new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

7.7.4 Summary of TGD based theory of Expanding Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

7.7.5 Did intra-terrestrial life burst to the surface of Earth during Cambrian expansion?442

8 A Model for Protein Folding and Bio-catalysis 453

8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

8.1.1 Flux tubes as correlates of directed attention at molecular level . . . . . . . . . 453

8.1.2 The model of folding code based on ﬂux tube connections between amino-acids 454

8.1.3 A model for protein folding based on ﬂux tubes between amino-acids and water

molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455

8.2 A model for ﬂux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

8.2.1 Flux tubes as a correlate for directed attention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

8.2.2 Does directed attention generate memory representations and tqc like processes 457

8.2.3 Realization of ﬂux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

8.2.4 Flux tubes and DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

8.2.5 Introns and DNA-protein attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

8.3 Model for the folding code based on interactions mediated by ﬂux tubes between

aminoacids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

8.3.1 4-D spin glass energy landscape and code of catalytic action . . . . . . . . . . . 461

8.3.2 Flux tubes and amino-acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

8.3.3 Trying to identify the folding code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

8.4 A simple quantitative model for protein folding and catalyst action assuming ﬂux tubes

between amino-acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

8.4.1 The model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

8.4.2 Basic mathematical consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

8.4.3 Model for the helical structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

8.4.4 Model for β sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

8.4.5 Secondary protein structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

8.4.6 Model for protein-protein binding sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476

8.5 A model for protein folding based on ﬂux tubes connections between water molecules

and amino-acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477

8.5.1 Could there be new physics behind hydrophily and hydrophoby? . . . . . . . . 477

8.5.2 An improve model for protein folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

8.5.3 A model for which the magnetic body of water is involved . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

9 Three new physics realizations of the genetic code and the role of dark matter in

bio-systems 483

9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

9.1.1 The notions of dark matter and magnetic body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

9.1.2 Realizations of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

9.1.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

9.2 A vision about evolution and codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

CONTENTS ix

9.2.1 Basic insights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

9.2.2 The simplest scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485

9.2.3 How dark baryon code could be involved with transcription and translation

mechanisms? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486

9.3 DNA as topological quantum computer: realization of the genetic code in terms of

quarks and anti-quarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

9.3.1 Basic ideas of tqc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

9.3.2 Identiﬁcation of hardware of tqc and tqc programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

9.3.3 How much tqc resembles ordinary computation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

9.3.4 Basic predictions of DNA as tqc hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

9.4 Realization of genetic code in terms of dark baryons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

9.4.1 Dark nuclear strings as analogs of DNA-, RNA- and amino-acid sequences and

baryonic realization of genetic code? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

9.4.2 DNA as tqc hypothesis and dark baryon code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

9.5 Flux tube realization of the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

9.5.1 Divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

9.5.2 Topological interpretation of the divisor code in TGD framework . . . . . . . . 495

9.5.3 About detailed correspondence between DNA codons, dark baryon codons, and

their divisor code counterparts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

9.6 A model for protein folding and catalytic action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

9.6.1 Earlier model for the folding code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

9.6.2 Hydrophily and hydrophoby number theoretically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

9.6.3 Could there be new physics behind hydrophily and hydrophoby . . . . . . . . . 500

9.6.4 An improved model for protein folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

9.6.5 The model for which the magnetic body of water is involved . . . . . . . . . . . 501

9.7 Appendix: Generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

9.7.1 Generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

9.7.2 Phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

III NUMBER THEORETICAL MODELS FOR GENETIC CODE AND

ITS EVOLUTION 511

10 Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically? 513

10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513

10.1.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513

10.1.2 The chain of arguments leading to a number theoretical model for the genetic

code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514

10.1.3 What is the physical counterpart of the number theoretical thermodynamics? . 515

10.2 The ﬁrst model for the evolution of the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

10.2.1 Does amino-acid structure reﬂect the product structure of the code? . . . . . . 515

10.2.2 Number theoretical model for the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

10.3 Basic ideas and concepts underlying second model of genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

10.3.1 Genetic code from the maximization of number theoretic information? . . . . . 522

10.3.2 Genetic code from a minimization of a number theoretic Shannon entropy . . . 522

10.3.3 High temperature limit for bosonic, fermionic, and supersymmetric thermody-

namics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

10.4 Could ﬁnite temperature number theoretic thermodynamics reproduce the genetic code?525

10.4.1 How to choose the Hamiltonian? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526

10.4.2 Could supersymmetric n

0

> 0 polynomial thermodynamics determine the ge-

netic code? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528

10.4.3 Could small perturbations of Hamiltonian cure the situation? . . . . . . . . . . 529

10.4.4 Could one ﬁx Hamiltonian H(r) from negentropy maximization? . . . . . . . . 530

10.4.5 Could the symmetries of the genetic code constrain number theoretical thermo-

dynamics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533

10.5 Confrontation of the model with experimental facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536

10.5.1 Basic facts about aminoacids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536

x CONTENTS

10.5.2 Could the biological characteristics of an aminoacid sequence be independent

on the order of aminoacids? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537

10.5.3 Are the aminoacids and DNAs representing 0 and 1 somehow diﬀerent? . . . . 537

10.5.4 The deviations from the standard code as tests for the number theoretic model 537

10.5.5 Model for the evolution of the genetic code and the deduction of n →p(n) map

from the structure of tRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

10.5.6 Genetic code as a product of singlet and doublet codes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

10.6 Exponential thermodynamics does not work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

10.6.1 What can one conclude about p-adic temperature associated with the genetic

code in the case of exponential thermodynamics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

10.6.2 Low temperature limit of exponential thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543

10.6.3 How to ﬁnd the critical temperature in exponential thermodynamics? . . . . . 544

10.7 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544

10.7.1 Computational aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545

10.7.2 Number theoretic model for singlet and doublet codes as a toy model . . . . . 547

11 Uniﬁcation of Four Approaches to the Genetic Code 551

11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

11.2 Unifying various approaches to the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

11.2.1 Geometric approach to the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

11.2.2 4-adicity and 5-adicity as possible realizations of the symmetries of the genetic

code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

11.2.3 Number theoretical thermodynamics and genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

11.2.4 Group theoretic interpretation of the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

11.2.5 Divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

11.2.6 Topological interpretation of the divisor code in TGD framework . . . . . . . . 554

11.2.7 Is the fusion of geometric, thermodynamical, and divisor code approaches pos-

sible in the 5-adic case? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556

11.3 5-adicity or 4-adicity? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556

11.3.1 The problems of the 4-adic model of the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556

11.3.2 5-adic model works for thermodynamics based on partitions . . . . . . . . . . . 557

11.4 5-adic thermodynamical model for the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559

11.4.1 The simplest model for the 5-adic temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559

11.4.2 The simplest possible model for thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559

11.4.3 Number theoretic Hamilton depending on the number of partitions of integer

characterizing DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560

11.4.4 Number theoretical Hamiltonian identiﬁed as spin-spin interaction . . . . . . . 563

11.5 A possible physical interpretation of various codes in TGD framework . . . . . . . . . 565

11.5.1 Generalization of imbedding space and interpretation of discrete bundle like

structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565

11.5.2 A possible interpretation for the divisor code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566

11.5.3 About the geometric interpretation for the thermodynamics of partitions of n

2)

566

11.5.4 About the physical interpretation for the thermodynamics of partitions of n

2)

. 566

11.5.5 A possible interpretation for the p-adic prime labeling amino-acid and DNAs

coding it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568

11.6 Appendix: 4-adic realization of n → n + 32 symmetry, divisor code, and labeling of

amino-acids by primes are not mutually consistent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569

A Appendix 575

A-1 Basic properties of CP

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

A-1.1 CP

2

as a manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

A-1.2 Metric and K¨ahler structures of CP

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

A-1.3 Spinors in CP

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577

A-1.4 Geodesic submanifolds of CP

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578

A-2 Identiﬁcation of the electroweak couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578

A-2.1 Discrete symmetries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582

A-3 Space-time surfaces with vanishing em, Z

0

, K¨ahler, or W ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583

CONTENTS xi

A-3.1 Em neutral space-times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583

A-3.2 Space-times with vanishing Z

0

or K¨ahler ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584

A-3.3 Induced gauge ﬁelds for space-times for which CP

2

projection is a geodesic sphere585

List of Figures

2.1 a) Illustration of Bratteli diagram. b) and c) give Bratteli diagrams for n = 4 and

n = 5 Temperley Lieb algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

3.1 The imbedding X

64

⊂ Z

126

reproducing Genetic Code and possessing Z

3

type symme-

try. The lengths of radial lines are 6 +d, where d = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 is the number of DNA:s

associated with amino-acid. The angular distance between points on Z

3

(Z

7

) orbits is

to 20 (2.85) degrees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

3.2 Z

7

type imbedding X

64

⊂ Z

126

reproducing Genetic Code. Symmetry breaking is

much larger for this imbedding although visually the imbedding looks perhaps more

symmetric than Z

3

type imbedding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

6.1 The left hand side ﬁgure is from [42] and represents the replica images of the instruments

and the image interpreted by experimenters as a replica image of DNA sample (second

method). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

6.2 The picture shows the discrete replica like structure of the band like image interpreted

by experimenters as replica image of DNA sample (ﬁrst method). . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

6.3 The picture reveals the 5-fold ﬁne structure of the band like image interpreted by ex-

perimenters as replica image of DNA sample. The 5-fold character probably correspond

to ﬁve red LEDs above the sample (second method). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

6.4 Illustration of a possible vision about dark nucleus as a nuclear string consisting of

rotating baryonic strings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

7.1 The structure of DNA hairpin (stem loop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

7.2 The structure of tRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

9.1 Illustration of the reconnection by magnetic ﬂux loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485

9.2 Illustration of the reconnection by ﬂux tubes connecting pairs of molecules. . . . . . . 485

9.3 Illustration of the book-like structure of the generalized imbedding space. . . . . . . . 496

9.4 Illustration of the selection rules for magnetic ﬂux tubes connecting magnetic bodies of

tRNA and amino-acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

10.1 The chemical structure of amino-acids. The ﬁrst group (ala,. ..) corresponds to non-

polar amino-acid side groups, the remaining amino-acids to polar side groups. The two

lowest groups correspond to acidic (asp, glu) and basic side groups. . . . . . . . . . . . 520

11.1 Illustration of the book-like structure of the generalized imbedding space. . . . . . . . 555

11.2 Illustration of the selection rules for magnetic ﬂux tubes connecting magnetic bodies of

tRNA and amino-acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556

xiii

0.1. Background 1

0.1 Background

T(opological) G(eometro)D(ynamics) is one of the many attempts to ﬁnd a uniﬁed description of basic

interactions. The development of the basic ideas of TGD to a relatively stable form took time of about

half decade [16]. The great challenge is to construct a mathematical theory around these physically

very attractive ideas and I have devoted the last twenty-three years for the realization of this dream

and this has resulted in seven online books [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] about TGD and eight online books

about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15].

Quantum T(opological)D(ynamics) as a classical spinor geometry for inﬁnite-dimensional conﬁgu-

ration space, p-adic numbers and quantum TGD, and TGD inspired theory of consciousness have been

for last decade of the second millenium the basic three strongly interacting threads in the tapestry of

quantum TGD.

For few yeas ago the discussions with Tony Smith generated a fourth thread which deserves the

name ’TGD as a generalized number theory’. The work with Riemann hypothesis made time ripe

for realization that the notion of inﬁnite primes could provide, not only a reformulation, but a deep

generalization of quantum TGD. This led to a thorough and extremely fruitful revision of the basic

views about what the ﬁnal form and physical content of quantum TGD might be.

The ﬁfth thread came with the realization that by quantum classical correspondence TGD predicts

an inﬁnite hierarchy of macroscopic quantum systems with increasing sizes, that it is not at all clear

whether standard quantum mechanics can accommodate this hierarchy, and that a dynamical quan-

tized Planck constant might be necessary and certainly possible in TGD framework. The identiﬁcation

of hierarchy of Planck constants whose values TGD ”predicts” in terms of dark matter hierarchy would

be natural. This also led to a solution of a long standing puzzle: what is the proper interpretation of

the predicted fractal hierarchy of long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge ﬁelds. Quantum

classical correspondences allows only single answer: there is inﬁnite hierarchy of p-adically scaled up

variants of standard model physics and for each of them also dark hierarchy. Thus TGD Universe

would be fractal in very abstract and deep sense.

TGD forces the generalization of physics to a quantum theory of consciousness, and represent TGD

as a generalized number theory vision leads naturally to the emergence of p-adic physics as physics

of cognitive representations. The seven online books [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] about TGD and eight online

books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15]

are warmly recommended to the interested reader.

0.2 Basic Ideas of TGD

The basic physical picture behind TGD was formed as a fusion of two rather disparate approaches:

namely TGD is as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation and TGD as a generalization of the

old-fashioned string model.

0.2.1 TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation

The ﬁrst approach was born as an attempt to construct a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation.

Space-time, rather than being an abstract manifold endowed with a pseudo-Riemannian structure,

is regarded as a surface in the 8-dimensional space H = M

4

+

CP

2

, where M

4

+

denotes the interior

of the future light cone of the Minkowski space (to be referred as light cone in the sequel) and

CP

2

= SU(3)/U(2) is the complex projective space of two complex dimensions [2, 18, 19, 5]. The

identiﬁcation of the space-time as a submanifold [21, 22] of M

4

CP

2

leads to an exact Poincare

invariance and solves the conceptual diﬃculties related to the deﬁnition of the energy-momentum

in General Relativity [Misner-Thorne-Wheeler, Logunov et al]. The actual choice H = M

4

+

CP

2

implies the breaking of the Poincare invariance in the cosmological scales but only at the quantum

level. It soon however turned out that submanifold geometry, being considerably richer in structure

than the abstract manifold geometry, leads to a geometrization of all basic interactions. First, the

geometrization of the elementary particle quantum numbers is achieved. The geometry of CP

2

explains

electro-weak and color quantum numbers. The diﬀerent H-chiralities of H-spinors correspond to the

conserved baryon and lepton numbers. Secondly, the geometrization of the ﬁeld concept results. The

2 LIST OF FIGURES

projections of the CP

2

spinor connection, Killing vector ﬁelds of CP

2

and of H-metric to four-surface

deﬁne classical electro-weak, color gauge ﬁelds and metric in X

4

.

0.2.2 TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model

The second approach was based on the generalization of the mesonic string model describing mesons

as strings with quarks attached to the ends of the string. In the 3-dimensional generalization 3-

surfaces correspond to free particles and the boundaries of the 3- surface correspond to partons in

the sense that the quantum numbers of the elementary particles reside on the boundaries. Various

boundary topologies (number of handles) correspond to various fermion families so that one obtains

an explanation for the known elementary particle quantum numbers. This approach leads also to a

natural topological description of the particle reactions as topology changes: for instance, two-particle

decay corresponds to a decay of a 3-surface to two disjoint 3-surfaces.

0.2.3 Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time

concept

The problem is that the two approaches seem to be mutually exclusive since the orbit of a particle like

3-surface deﬁnes 4-dimensional surface, which diﬀers drastically from the topologically trivial macro-

scopic space-time of General Relativity. The uniﬁcation of these approaches forces a considerable

generalization of the conventional space-time concept. First, the topologically trivial 3-space of Gen-

eral Relativity is replaced with a ”topological condensate” containing matter as particle like 3-surfaces

”glued” to the topologically trivial background 3-space by connected sum operation. Secondly, the

assumption about connectedness of the 3-space is given up. Besides the ”topological condensate”

there is ”vapor phase” that is a ”gas” of particle like 3-surfaces (counterpart of the ”baby universies”

of GRT) and the nonconservation of energy in GRT corresponds to the transfer of energy between the

topological condensate and vapor phase.

0.3 The ﬁve threads in the development of quantum TGD

The development of TGD has involved four strongly interacting threads: physics as inﬁnite-dimensional

geometry; p-adic physics; TGD inspired theory of consciousness and TGD as a generalized number

theory. In the following these ﬁve threads are brieﬂy described.

0.3.1 Quantum TGD as conﬁguration space spinor geometry

A turning point in the attempts to formulate a mathematical theory was reached after seven years

from the birth of TGD. The great insight was ”Do not quantize”. The basic ingredients to the new

approach have served as the basic philosophy for the attempt to construct Quantum TGD since then

and are the following ones:

a) Quantum theory for extended particles is free(!), classical(!) ﬁeld theory for a generalized

Schr¨odinger amplitude in the conﬁguration space CH consisting of all possible 3-surfaces in H. ”All

possible” means that surfaces with arbitrary many disjoint components and with arbitrary internal

topology and also singular surfaces topologically intermediate between two diﬀerent manifold topolo-

gies are included. Particle reactions are identiﬁed as topology changes [23, 24, 25]. For instance,

the decay of a 3-surface to two 3-surfaces corresponds to the decay A → B + C. Classically this

corresponds to a path of conﬁguration space leading from 1-particle sector to 2-particle sector. At

quantum level this corresponds to the dispersion of the generalized Schr¨odinger amplitude localized

to 1-particle sector to two-particle sector. All coupling constants should result as predictions of the

theory since no nonlinearities are introduced.

b) Conﬁguration space is endowed with the metric and spinor structure so that one can deﬁne

various metric related diﬀerential operators, say Dirac operator, appearing in the ﬁeld equations of

the theory.

0.3. The ﬁve threads in the development of quantum TGD 3

0.3.2 p-Adic TGD

The p-adic thread emerged for roughly ten years ago as a dim hunch that p-adic numbers might be

important for TGD. Experimentation with p-adic numbers led to the notion of canonical identiﬁcation

mapping reals to p-adics and vice versa. The breakthrough came with the successful p-adic mass

calculations using p-adic thermodynamics for Super-Virasoro representations with the super-Kac-

Moody algebra associated with a Lie-group containing standard model gauge group. Although the

details of the calculations have varied from year to year, it was clear that p-adic physics reduces not

only the ratio of proton and Planck mass, the great mystery number of physics, but all elementary

particle mass scales, to number theory if one assumes that primes near prime powers of two are in a

physically favored position. Why this is the case, became one of the key puzzless and led to a number

of arguments with a common gist: evolution is present already at the elementary particle level and

the primes allowed by the p-adic length scale hypothesis are the ﬁttest ones.

It became very soon clear that p-adic topology is not something emerging in Planck length scale

as often believed, but that there is an inﬁnite hierarchy of p-adic physics characterized by p-adic

length scales varying to even cosmological length scales. The idea about the connection of p-adics

with cognition motivated already the ﬁrst attempts to understand the role of the p-adics and inspired

’Universe as Computer’ vision but time was not ripe to develop this idea to anything concrete (p-adic

numbers are however in a central role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness). It became however

obvious that the p-adic length scale hierarchy somehow corresponds to a hierarchy of intelligences and

that p-adic prime serves as a kind of intelligence quotient. Ironically, the almost obvious idea about

p-adic regions as cognitive regions of space-time providing cognitive representations for real regions

had to wait for almost a decade for the access into my consciousness.

There were many interpretational and technical questions crying for a deﬁnite answer. What is the

relationship of p-adic non-determinism to the classical non-determinism of the basic ﬁeld equations

of TGD? Are the p-adic space-time region genuinely p-adic or does p-adic topology only serve as an

eﬀective topology? If p-adic physics is direct image of real physics, how the mapping relating them

is constructed so that it respects various symmetries? Is the basic physics p-adic or real (also real

TGD seems to be free of divergences) or both? If it is both, how should one glue the physics in

diﬀerent number ﬁeld together to get The Physics? Should one perform p-adicization also at the level

of the conﬁguration space of 3-surfaces? Certainly the p-adicization at the level of super-conformal

representation is necessary for the p-adic mass calculations. Perhaps the most basic and most irritating

technical problem was how to precisely deﬁne p-adic deﬁnite integral which is a crucial element of any

variational principle based formulation of the ﬁeld equations. Here the frustration was not due to the

lack of solution but due to the too large number of solutions to the problem, a clear symptom for the

sad fact that clever inventions rather than real discoveries might be in question.

Despite these frustrating uncertainties, the number of the applications of the poorly deﬁned p-adic

physics growed steadily and the applications turned out to be relatively stable so that it was clear

that the solution to these problems must exist. It became only gradually clear that the solution of

the problems might require going down to a deeper level than that represented by reals and p-adics.

0.3.3 TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory consciousness

General coordinate invariance forces the identiﬁcation of quantum jump as quantum jump between

entire deterministic quantum histories rather than time=constant snapshots of single history. The

new view about quantum jump forces a generalization of quantum measurement theory such that

observer becomes part of the physical system. Thus a general theory of consciousness is unavoidable

outcome. This theory is developed in detail in the books [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15].

Quantum jump as a moment of consciousness

The identiﬁcation of quantum jump between deterministic quantum histories (conﬁguration space

spinor ﬁelds) as a moment of consciousness deﬁnes microscopic theory of consciousness. Quantum

jump involves the steps

Ψ

i

→UΨ

i

→Ψ

f

,

4 LIST OF FIGURES

where U is informational ”time development” operator, which is unitary like the S-matrix charac-

terizing the unitary time evolution of quantum mechanics. U is however only formally analogous to

Schr¨odinger time evolution of inﬁnite duration although there is no real time evolution involved. It is

not however clear whether one should regard U-matrix and S-matrix as two diﬀerent things or not: U-

matrix is a completely universal object characterizing the dynamics of evolution by self-organization

whereas S-matrix is a highly context dependent concept in wave mechanics and in quantum ﬁeld

theories where it at least formally represents unitary time translation operator at the limit of an in-

ﬁnitely long interaction time. The S-matrix understood in the spirit of superstring models is however

something very diﬀerent and could correspond to U-matrix.

The requirement that quantum jump corresponds to a measurement in the sense of quantum ﬁeld

theories implies that each quantum jump involves localization in zero modes which parameterize also

the possible choices of the quantization axes. Thus the selection of the quantization axes performed

by the Cartesian outsider becomes now a part of quantum theory. Together these requirements imply

that the ﬁnal states of quantum jump correspond to quantum superpositions of space-time surfaces

which are macroscopically equivalent. Hence the world of conscious experience looks classical. At

least formally quantum jump can be interpreted also as a quantum computation in which matrix U

represents unitary quantum computation which is however not identiﬁable as unitary translation in

time direction and cannot be ’engineered’.

The notion of self

The concept of self is absolutely essential for the understanding of the macroscopic and macro-temporal

aspects of consciousness. Self corresponds to a subsystem able to remain un-entangled under the

sequential informational ’time evolutions’ U. Exactly vanishing entanglement is practically impossible

in ordinary quantum mechanics and it might be that ’vanishing entanglement’ in the condition for

self-property should be replaced with ’subcritical entanglement’. On the other hand, if space-time

decomposes into p-adic and real regions, and if entanglement between regions representing physics in

diﬀerent number ﬁelds vanishes, space-time indeed decomposes into selves in a natural manner.

It is assumed that the experiences of the self after the last ’wake-up’ sum up to single average

experience. This means that subjective memory is identiﬁable as conscious, immediate short term

memory. Selves form an inﬁnite hierarchy with the entire Universe at the top. Self can be also

interpreted as mental images: our mental images are selves having mental images and also we represent

mental images of a higher level self. A natural hypothesis is that self S experiences the experiences

of its subselves as kind of abstracted experience: the experiences of subselves S

i

are not experienced

as such but represent kind of averages 'S

ij

` of sub-subselves S

ij

. Entanglement between selves, most

naturally realized by the formation of join along boundaries bonds between cognitive or material space-

time sheets, provides a possible a mechanism for the fusion of selves to larger selves (for instance, the

fusion of the mental images representing separate right and left visual ﬁelds to single visual ﬁeld) and

forms wholes from parts at the level of mental images.

Relationship to quantum measurement theory

The third basic element relates TGD inspired theory of consciousness to quantum measurement theory.

The assumption that localization occurs in zero modes in each quantum jump implies that the world

of conscious experience looks classical. It also implies the state function reduction of the standard

quantum measurement theory as the following arguments demonstrate (it took incredibly long time

to realize this almost obvious fact!).

a) The standard quantum measurement theory a la von Neumann involves the interaction of brain

with the measurement apparatus. If this interaction corresponds to entanglement between microscopic

degrees of freedom m with the macroscopic eﬀectively classical degrees of freedom M characterizing the

reading of the measurement apparatus coded to brain state, then the reduction of this entanglement in

quantum jump reproduces standard quantum measurement theory provide the unitary time evolution

operator U acts as ﬂow in zero mode degrees of freedom and correlates completely some orthonormal

basis of conﬁguration space spinor ﬁelds in non-zero modes with the values of the zero modes. The

ﬂow property guarantees that the localization is consistent with unitarity: it also means 1-1 mapping

of quantum state basis to classical variables (say, spin direction of the electron to its orbit in the

external magnetic ﬁeld).

0.3. The ﬁve threads in the development of quantum TGD 5

b) Since zero modes represent classical information about the geometry of space-time surface

(shape, size, classical K¨ahler ﬁeld,...), they have interpretation as eﬀectively classical degrees of free-

dom and are the TGD counterpart of the degrees of freedom M representing the reading of the

measurement apparatus. The entanglement between quantum ﬂuctuating non-zero modes and zero

modes is the TGD counterpart for the m−M entanglement. Therefore the localization in zero modes

is equivalent with a quantum jump leading to a ﬁnal state where the measurement apparatus gives a

deﬁnite reading.

This simple prediction is of utmost theoretical importance since the black box of the quantum

measurement theory is reduced to a fundamental quantum theory. This reduction is implied by the

replacement of the notion of a point like particle with particle as a 3-surface. Also the inﬁnite-

dimensionality of the zero mode sector of the conﬁguration space of 3-surfaces is absolutely essential.

Therefore the reduction is a triumph for quantum TGD and favors TGD against string models.

Standard quantum measurement theory involves also the notion of state preparation which reduces

to the notion of self measurement. Each localization in zero modes is followed by a cascade of self

measurements leading to a product state. This process is obviously equivalent with the state prepa-

ration process. Self measurement is governed by the so called Negentropy Maximization Principle

(NMP) stating that the information content of conscious experience is maximized. In the self mea-

surement the density matrix of some subsystem of a given self localized in zero modes (after ordinary

quantum measurement) is measured. The self measurement takes place for that subsystem of self for

which the reduction of the entanglement entropy is maximal in the measurement. In p-adic context

NMP can be regarded as the variational principle deﬁning the dynamics of cognition. In real context

self measurement could be seen as a repair mechanism allowing the system to ﬁght against quantum

thermalization by reducing the entanglement for the subsystem for which it is largest (ﬁll the largest

hole ﬁrst in a leaking boat).

Selves self-organize

The fourth basic element is quantum theory of self-organization based on the identiﬁcation of quantum

jump as the basic step of self-organization [I1]. Quantum entanglement gives rise to the generation

of long range order and the emergence of longer p-adic length scales corresponds to the emergence of

larger and larger coherent dynamical units and generation of a slaving hierarchy. Energy (and quantum

entanglement) feed implying entropy feed is a necessary prerequisite for quantum self-organization.

Zero modes represent fundamental order parameters and localization in zero modes implies that the

sequence of quantum jumps can be regarded as hopping in the zero modes so that Haken’s classical

theory of self organization applies almost as such. Spin glass analogy is a further important element:

self-organization of self leads to some characteristic pattern selected by dissipation as some valley of

the ”energy” landscape.

Dissipation can be regarded as the ultimate Darwinian selector of both memes and genes. The

mathematically ugly irreversible dissipative dynamics obtained by adding phenomenological dissipa-

tion terms to the reversible fundamental dynamical equations derivable from an action principle can be

understood as a phenomenological description replacing in a well deﬁned sense the series of reversible

quantum histories with its envelope.

Classical non-determinism of K¨ahler action

The ﬁfth basic element are the concepts of association sequence and cognitive space-time sheet. The

huge vacuum degeneracy of the K¨ahler action suggests strongly that the absolute minimum space-time

is not always unique. For instance, a sequence of bifurcations can occur so that a given space-time

branch can be ﬁxed only by selecting a ﬁnite number of 3-surfaces with time like(!) separations on the

orbit of 3-surface. Quantum classical correspondence suggest an alternative formulation. Space-time

surface decomposes into maximal deterministic regions and their temporal sequences have interpre-

tation a space-time correlate for a sequence of quantum states deﬁned by the initial (or ﬁnal) states

of quantum jumps. This is consistent with the fact that the variational principle selects preferred

extremals of K¨ahler action as generalized Bohr orbits.

In the case that non-determinism is located to a ﬁnite time interval and is microscopic, this sequence

of 3-surfaces has interpretation as a simulation of a classical history, a geometric correlate for contents

of consciousness. When non-determinism has long lasting and macroscopic eﬀect one can identify it as

6 LIST OF FIGURES

volitional non-determinism associated with our choices. Association sequences relate closely with the

cognitive space-time sheets deﬁned as space-time sheets having ﬁnite time duration and psychological

time can be identiﬁed as a temporal center of mass coordinate of the cognitive space-time sheet. The

gradual drift of the cognitive space-time sheets to the direction of future force by the geometry of the

future light cone explains the arrow of psychological time.

p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and intentionality

The sixth basic element adds a physical theory of cognition to this vision. TGD space-time decomposes

into regions obeying real and p-adic topologies labelled by primes p = 2, 3, 5, .... p-Adic regions obey

the same ﬁeld equations as the real regions but are characterized by p-adic non-determinism since

the functions having vanishing p-adic derivative are pseudo constants which are piecewise constant

functions. Pseudo constants depend on a ﬁnite number of positive pinary digits of arguments just like

numerical predictions of any theory always involve decimal cutoﬀ. This means that p-adic space-time

regions are obtained by gluing together regions for which integration constants are genuine constants.

The natural interpretation of the p-adic regions is as cognitive representations of real physics. The

freedom of imagination is due to the p-adic non-determinism. p-Adic regions perform mimicry and

make possible for the Universe to form cognitive representations about itself. p-Adic physics space-

time sheets serve also as correlates for intentional action.

A more more precise formulation of this vision requires a generalization of the number concept

obtained by fusing reals and p-adic number ﬁelds along common rationals (in the case of algebraic

extensions among common algebraic numbers). This picture is discussed in [E1]. The application

this notion at the level of the imbedding space implies that imbedding space has a book like structure

with various variants of the imbedding space glued together along common rationals (algebraics). The

implication is that genuinely p-adic numbers (non-rationals) are strictly inﬁnite as real numbers so

that most points of p-adic space-time sheets are at real inﬁnity, outside the cosmos, and that the

projection to the real imbedding space is discrete set of rationals (algebraics). Hence cognition and

intentionality are almost completely outside the real cosmos and touch it at a discrete set of points

only.

This view implies also that purely local p-adic physics codes for the p-adic fractality characterizing

long range real physics and provides an explanation for p-adic length scale hypothesis stating that

the primes p · 2

k

, k integer are especially interesting. It also explains the long range correlations

and short term chaos characterizing intentional behavior and explains why the physical realizations

of cognition are always discrete (say in the case of numerical computations). Furthermore, a concrete

quantum model for how intentions are transformed to actions emerges.

The discrete real projections of p-adic space-time sheets serve also space-time correlate for a logical

thought. It is very natural to assign to p-adic pinary digits a p-valued logic but as such this kind

of logic does not have any reasonable identiﬁcation. p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggest that the

p = 2

k

−n pinary digits represent a Boolean logic B

k

with k elementary statements (the points of the

k-element set in the set theoretic realization) with n taboos which are constrained to be identically

true.

0.3.4 TGD as a generalized number theory

Quantum T(opological)D(ynamics) as a classical spinor geometry for inﬁnite-dimensional conﬁgura-

tion space, p-adic numbers and quantum TGD, and TGD inspired theory of consciousness, have been

for last ten years the basic three strongly interacting threads in the tapestry of quantum TGD. For

few yeas ago the discussions with Tony Smith generated a fourth thread which deserves the name

’TGD as a generalized number theory’. It relies on the notion of number theoretic compactiﬁction

stating that space-time surfaces can be regarded either as hyper-quaternionic, and thus maximally

associative, 4-surfaces in M

8

identiﬁable as space of hyper-octonions or as surfaces in M

4

CP

2

[E2].

The discovery of the hierarchy of inﬁnite primes and their correspondence with a hierarchy de-

ﬁned by a repeatedly second quantized arithmetic quantum ﬁeld theory gave a further boost for the

speculations about TGD as a generalized number theory. The work with Riemann hypothesis led to

further ideas.

After the realization that inﬁnite primes can be mapped to polynomials representable as surfaces

geometrically, it was clear how TGD might be formulated as a generalized number theory with inﬁnite

0.3. The ﬁve threads in the development of quantum TGD 7

primes forming the bridge between classical and quantum such that real numbers, p-adic numbers, and

various generalizations of p-adics emerge dynamically from algebraic physics as various completions of

the algebraic extensions of rational (hyper-)quaternions and (hyper-)octonions. Complete algebraic,

topological and dimensional democracy would characterize the theory.

What is especially satisfying is that p-adic and real regions of the space-time surface could emerge

automatically as solutions of the ﬁeld equations. In the space-time regions where the solutions of

ﬁeld equations give rise to in-admissible complex values of the imbedding space coordinates, p-adic

solution can exist for some values of the p-adic prime. The characteristic non-determinism of the

p-adic diﬀerential equations suggests strongly that p-adic regions correspond to ’mind stuﬀ’, the

regions of space-time where cognitive representations reside. This interpretation implies that p-adic

physics is physics of cognition. Since Nature is probably extremely brilliant simulator of Nature, the

natural idea is to study the p-adic physics of the cognitive representations to derive information about

the real physics. This view encouraged by TGD inspired theory of consciousness clariﬁes diﬃcult

interpretational issues and provides a clear interpretation for the predictions of p-adic physics.

0.3.5 Dynamical quantized Planck constant and dark matter hierarchy

By quantum classical correspondence space-time sheets can be identiﬁed as quantum coherence regions.

Hence the fact that they have all possible size scales more or less unavoidably implies that Planck

constant must be quantized and have arbitrarily large values. If one accepts this then also the idea

about dark matter as a macroscopic quantum phase characterized by an arbitrarily large value of

Planck constant emerges naturally as does also the interpretation for the long ranged classical electro-

weak and color ﬁelds predicted by TGD. Rather seldom the evolution of ideas follows simple linear

logic, and this was the case also now. In any case, this vision represents the ﬁfth, relatively new thread

in the evolution of TGD and the ideas involved are still evolving.

Dark matter as large phase

D. Da Rocha and Laurent Nottale [53] have proposed that Schr¨odinger equation with Planck constant

replaced with what might be called gravitational Planck constant

gr

=

GmM

v

0

( = c = 1). v

0

is

a velocity parameter having the value v

0

= 144.7 ± .7 km/s giving v

0

/c = 4.6 10

−4

. This is rather

near to the peak orbital velocity of stars in galactic halos. Also subharmonics and harmonics of v

0

seem to appear. The support for the hypothesis coming from empirical data is impressive.

Nottale and Da Rocha believe that their Schr¨odinger equation results from a fractal hydrodynamics.

Many-sheeted space-time however suggests astrophysical systems are not only quantum systems at

larger space-time sheets but correspond to a gigantic value of gravitational Planck constant. The

gravitational (ordinary) Schr¨odinger equation would provide a solution of the black hole collapse (IR

catastrophe) problem encountered at the classical level. The resolution of the problem inspired by

TGD inspired theory of living matter is that it is the dark matter at larger space-time sheets which

is quantum coherent in the required time scale [D7].

Already before learning about Nottale’s paper I had proposed the possibility that Planck constant

is quantized [E9] and the spectrum is given in terms of logarithms of Beraha numbers: the lowest

Beraha number B

3

is completely exceptional in that it predicts inﬁnite value of Planck constant. The

inverse of the gravitational Planck constant could correspond a gravitational perturbation of this as

1/

gr

= v

0

/GMm. The general philosophy would be that when the quantum system would become

non-perturbative, a phase transition increasing the value of occurs to preserve the perturbative

character and at the transition n = 4 → 3 only the small perturbative correction to 1/(3) = 0

remains. This would apply to QCD and to atoms with Z > 137 as well.

TGD predicts correctly the value of the parameter v

0

assuming that cosmic strings and their decay

remnants are responsible for the dark matter. The harmonics of v

0

can be understood as corresponding

to perturbations replacing cosmic strings with their n-branched coverings so that tension becomes

n

2

-fold: much like the replacement of a closed orbit with an orbit closing only after n turns. 1/n-

sub-harmonic would result when a magnetic ﬂux tube split into n disjoint magnetic ﬂux tubes. Also

a model for the formation of planetary system as a condensation of ordinary matter around quantum

coherent dark matter emerges [D7].

8 LIST OF FIGURES

Dark matter as a source of long ranged weak and color ﬁelds

Long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge ﬁelds are unavoidable in TGD framework. The

smallness of the parity breaking eﬀects in hadronic, nuclear, and atomic length scales does not however

seem to allow long ranged electro-weak gauge ﬁelds. The problem disappears if long range classical

electro-weak gauge ﬁelds are identiﬁed as space-time correlates for massless gauge ﬁelds created by

dark matter. Also scaled up variants of ordinary electro-weak particle spectra are possible. The

identiﬁcation explains chiral selection in living matter and unbroken U(2)

ew

invariance and free color

in bio length scales become characteristics of living matter and of bio-chemistry and bio-nuclear

physics. An attractive solution of the matter antimatter asymmetry is based on the identiﬁcation of

also antimatter as dark matter.

p-Adic and dark matter hierarchies and hierarchy of moments of consciousness

Dark matter hierarchy assigned to a spectrum of Planck constant having arbitrarily large values brings

additional elements to the TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

a) Macroscopic quantum coherence can be understood since a particle with a given mass can

in principle appear as arbitrarily large scaled up copies (Compton length scales as ). The phase

transition to this kind of phase implies that space-time sheets of particles overlap and this makes

possible macroscopic quantum coherence.

b) The space-time sheets with large Planck constant can be in thermal equilibrium with ordinary

ones without the loss of quantum coherence. For instance, the cyclotron energy scale associated with

EEG turns out to be above thermal energy at room temperature for the level of dark matter hierarchy

corresponding to magnetic ﬂux quanta of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld with the size scale of Earth and

a successful quantitative model for EEG results [M3].

Dark matter hierarchy leads to detailed quantitative view about quantum biology with several

testable predictions [M3]. The applications to living matter suggests that the basic hierarchy cor-

responds to a hierarchy of Planck constants coming as (k) = λ

k

(p)

0

, λ · 2

11

for p = 2

127−1

,

k = 0, 1, 2, ... [M3]. Also integer valued sub-harmonics and integer valued sub-harmonics of λ might

be possible. Each p-adic length scale corresponds to this kind of hierarchy and number theoretical

arguments suggest a general formula for the allowed values of Planck constant λ depending logarith-

mically on p-adic prime [C2]. Also the value of

0

has spectrum characterized by Beraha numbers

B

n

= 4cos

2

(π/n), n ≥ 3, varying by a factor in the range n > 3 [C2]. It must be however emphasized

that the relation of this picture to the model of quantized gravitational Planck constant h

gr

appearing

in Nottale’s model is not yet completely understood.

The general prediction is that Universe is a kind of inverted Mandelbrot fractal for which each

bird’s eye of view reveals new structures in long length and time scales representing scaled down copies

of standard physics and their dark variants. These structures would correspond to higher levels in self

hierarchy. This prediction is consistent with the belief that 75 per cent of matter in the universe is

dark.

1. Living matter and dark matter

Living matter as ordinary matter quantum controlled by the dark matter hierarchy has turned out

to be a particularly successful idea. The hypothesis has led to models for EEG predicting correctly the

band structure and even individual resonance bands and also generalizing the notion of EEG [M3].

Also a generalization of the notion of genetic code emerges resolving the paradoxes related to the

standard dogma [L2, M3]. A particularly fascinating implication is the possibility to identify great

leaps in evolution as phase transitions in which new higher level of dark matter emerges [M3].

It seems safe to conclude that the dark matter hierarchy with levels labelled by the values of

Planck constants explains the macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence naturally. That

this explanation is consistent with the explanation based on spin glass degeneracy is suggested by

following observations. First, the argument supporting spin glass degeneracy as an explanation of

the macro-temporal quantum coherence does not involve the value of at all. Secondly, the failure

of the perturbation theory assumed to lead to the increase of Planck constant and formation of

macroscopic quantum phases could be precisely due to the emergence of a large number of new degrees

of freedom due to spin glass degeneracy. Thirdly, the phase transition increasing Planck constant has

concrete topological interpretation in terms of many-sheeted space-time consistent with the spin glass

0.3. The ﬁve threads in the development of quantum TGD 9

degeneracy.

2. Dark matter hierarchy and the notion of self

The vision about dark matter hierarchy leads to a more reﬁned view about self hierarchy and

hierarchy of moments of consciousness [J6, M3]. The larger the value of Planck constant, the longer

the subjectively experienced duration and the average geometric duration T(k) ∝ λ

k

of the quantum

jump.

Quantum jumps form also a hierarchy with respect to p-adic and dark hierarchies and the geometric

durations of quantum jumps scale like . Dark matter hierarchy suggests also a slight modiﬁcation of

the notion of self. Each self involves a hierarchy of dark matter levels, and one is led to ask whether

the highest level in this hierarchy corresponds to single quantum jump rather than a sequence of

quantum jumps. The averaging of conscious experience over quantum jumps would occur only for

sub-selves at lower levels of dark matter hierarchy and these mental images would be ordered, and

single moment of consciousness would be experienced as a history of events. The quantum parallel

dissipation at the lower levels would give rise to the experience of ﬂow of time. For instance, hadron

as a macro-temporal quantum system in the characteristic time scale of hadron is a dissipating system

at quark and gluon level corresponding to shorter p-adic time scales. One can ask whether even entire

life cycle could be regarded as a single quantum jump at the highest level so that consciousness would

not be completely lost even during deep sleep. This would allow to understand why we seem to know

directly that this biological body of mine existed yesterday.

The fact that we can remember phone numbers with 5 to 9 digits supports the view that self corre-

sponds at the highest dark matter level to single moment of consciousness. Self would experience the

average over the sequence of moments of consciousness associated with each sub-self but there would

be no averaging over the separate mental images of this kind, be their parallel or serial. These mental

images correspond to sub-selves having shorter wake-up periods than self and would be experienced as

being time ordered. Hence the digits in the phone number are experienced as separate mental images

and ordered with respect to experienced time.

3. The time span of long term memories as signature for the level of dark matter hierarchy

The simplest dimensional estimate gives for the average increment τ of geometric time in quantum

jump τ ∼ 10

4

CP

2

times so that 2

127

−1 ∼ 10

38

quantum jumps are experienced during secondary p-

adic time scale T

2

(k = 127) · 0.1 seconds which is the duration of physiological moment and predicted

to be fundamental time scale of human consciousness [L1]. A more reﬁned guess is that τ

p

=

√

pτ gives

the dependence of the duration of quantum jump on p-adic prime p. By multi-p-fractality predicted

by TGD and explaining p-adic length scale hypothesis, one expects that at least p = 2-adic level is

also always present. For the higher levels of dark matter hierarchy τ

p

is scaled up by /

0

. One can

understand evolutionary leaps as the emergence of higher levels at the level of individual organism

making possible intentionality and memory in the time scale deﬁned τ [L2].

Higher levels of dark matter hierarchy provide a neat quantitative view about self hierarchy and

its evolution. For instance, EEG time scales corresponds to k = 4 level of hierarchy and a time scale of

.1 seconds [J6], and EEG frequencies correspond at this level dark photon energies above the thermal

threshold so that thermal noise is not a problem anymore. Various levels of dark matter hierarchy

would naturally correspond to higher levels in the hierarchy of consciousness and the typical duration

of life cycle would give an idea about the level in question.

The level would determine also the time span of long term memories as discussed in [M3]. k = 7

would correspond to a duration of moment of conscious of order human lifetime which suggests that

k = 7 corresponds to the highest dark matter level relevant to our consciousness whereas higher levels

would in general correspond to transpersonal consciousness. k = 5 would correspond to time scale of

short term memories measured in minutes and k = 6 to a time scale of memories measured in days.

The emergence of these levels must have meant evolutionary leap since long term memory is also

accompanied by ability to anticipate future in the same time scale. This picture would suggest that

the basic diﬀerence between us and our cousins is not at the level of genome as it is usually understood

but at the level of the hierarchy of magnetic bodies [L2, M3]. In fact, higher levels of dark matter

hierarchy motivate the introduction of the notions of super-genome and hyper-genome. The genomes

of entire organ can join to form super-genome expressing genes coherently. Hyper-genomes would

result from the fusion of genomes of diﬀerent organisms and collective levels of consciousness would

express themselves via hyper-genome and make possible social rules and moral.

10 LIST OF FIGURES

0.4 Bird’s eye of view about the topics of the book

The topics of this book relate to DNA and genetic code in several manners.

1. The oldest layers in the stratigraphy are the vision about DNA inspired by the notion of many-

sheeted space-time and the model of genetic code inspired by the notion of Combinatorial Hi-

erarchy predicting also the existence of what I have called memetic code. Additional number

theoretical models of genetic code based on p-adic thermodynamics for small p-adic primes and

maximization of entropy or negentropy emerged much later. One must however admit that

although these models reproduce the genetic code they fail to predict it. Models also fail also

to make interesting predictions.

2. The almost exact symmetries of the code table with respect to the ﬁrst letter lead to the proposal

that the genetic code could has evolved from a simpler code involving only two letters and this

leads to concrete suggestion about how the genetic code might have evolved as a fusion of two

letter code and single letter code. These symmetries were also an essential element of number

theoretical models.

3. The work with a model of topological quantum computation inspired by the vision about dark

matter hierarchy and the idea that genome and cell membrane act as topological quantum

computer generated several new chapters. The magnetic ﬂux tubes as carriers of dark matter

characterized by a large value of Planck constant would make living matter a macroscopic

quantum system. DNA nucleotides and lipids of the cell membrane would be connected by

magnetic ﬂux tubes and the ﬂow of the 2-D liquid formed by lipids induces braiding of ﬂux tubes

providing both temporal dynamics deﬁning topological quantum computation and a storage of

the program to memory by the braiding of ﬂux tubes in the ﬁnal state.

4. This model led to a cascade of ideas about quantum control in living matter. Quite generally,

magnetic ﬂux tubes would make living matter kind of Indra’s net explaining the strange features

of gel phase. For instance, the phase transitions changing Planck constant inducing a contraction

or lengthening of the ﬂux tubes would explain why bio-molecules are able to ﬁnd each other

extremely selectively in the dense soup of bio-molecules inside cell. The anomalies related to

ionic currents ﬁnd an explanation and a model of nerve pulse and EEG emerges along these

lines.

5. The discoveries of Peter Gariaev about the interaction of ordinary and laser light with genome

combined with the ideas about dark matter and water memory led to a concrete model for the

interaction of photons with DNA. One prediction is that it is possible to ”see” dark matter

by allowing ordinary matter interaction with DNA and Peter Gariaev might have already done

this. In this process ordinary photons would transform to dark ones, scatter from dark matter,

transform back to ordinary photons and arrive at camera. A second discovery - certainly one of

the greatest surprises of my professional life - was an end product of an attempt to understand

the mechanism behind water memory for which rather strong support exists now. The idea was

that dark nuclei which sizes zoomed up to atomic size scale could provide a representation of

genes. It indeed turned out that the model for dark nucleon consisting of three quarks predicts

counterparts of 64 DNAs and RNAs and 20 aminoacids and allows to identify genetic code as a

natural mapping of DNA type states to aminoacid type states. The numbers of DNAs mapped

to a given aminoacid are same as for the vertebrate genetic code. This would mean that genetic

code would be realized at the level of elementary particle physics and chemical realization would

be only one of the many. In fact, the quite recent experimental discoveries suggest that this

kind of representation must exist besides the representation based on the temporal patterns of

polarization direction discovered by Gariaev.

The topics of the book are organized as follows.

1. In the ﬁrst part of the book I will discuss the new physics relevant to biology suggested by

TGD and consider a general model for how TGD Universe could act as topological quantum

computer.

0.5. The contents of the book 11

2. In the second part of the book the idea that there exists a hierarchy of codes based on the

notion of Combinatorial Hierarchy is discussed. The hierarchy would contain at least three levels

including predecessor of genetic code, genetic code, and what I have coined as memetic code.

The chapter devoted to the notion of many-sheeted DNA represents rather old contributions.

The remaining chapters are devoted to the model of DNA as topological quantum computer

and the ideas inspired by this work. This includes a model of protein folding and biocatalysis, a

model for evolution in many-sheeted space-time, and a model for the above mentioned Gariaev’s

ﬁndings. The model for nucleon predicting correctly vertebrate genetic code is certainly the

most fascinating predictions of this line of approach.

3. The third part of the book is devoted to the number theoretical models of the genetic code.

The seven online books about TGD [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] and eight online books about TGD inspired

theory of consciousness and quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15] are warmly recommended

for the reader willing to get overall view about what is involved.

0.5 The contents of the book

0.5.1 PART I: Some Physical and Mathematical Background

About the new physics behind quantum biology

This chapter was originally about the new physics behind qualia. The model of qualia indeed involves

a lot of new physics: many-sheeted space-time; massless extremals; exotic Super Virasoro repre-

sentations associated with discrete qualia; magnetic and cyclotron phase transitions associated with

quantum critical quantum spin glass phases of exotic super conductors at cellular space-time sheets;

classical color and electro-weak gauge ﬁelds in macroscopic length scales, to name the most important

ingredients. Gradually the chapter however expanded so that it touches practically all new physics

possibly relevant to TGD inspired quantum biology. Various physical mechanisms are discussed in

exploratory spirit rather than restricting the consideration to those ideas which seem to be the ﬁnal

word about quantum biology or qualia just at this moment.

Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

Topological quantum computation (TQC) is one of the most promising approaches to quantum com-

putation. The coding of logical qubits to the entanglement of topological quantum numbers promises

to solve the de-coherence problem whereas the S-matrices of topological ﬁeld theories (modular func-

tors) providing unitary representations for braids provide a realization of quantum computer programs

with gates represented as simple braiding operations. Because of their eﬀective 2-dimensionality anyon

systems are the best candidates for realizing the representations of braid groups.

TGD allows several new insights related to quantum computation. TGD predicts new information

measures as number theoretical negative valued entanglement entropies deﬁned for systems having

extended rational entanglement and characterizes bound state entanglement as bound state entan-

glement. Negentropy Maximization Principle and p-adic length scale hierarchy of space-time sheets

encourage to believe that Universe itself might do its best to resolve the de-coherence problem. The

new view about quantum jump suggests strongly the notion of quantum parallel dissipation so that

thermalization in shorter length scales would guarantee coherence in longer length scales. The possibil-

ity of negative energies and communications to geometric future in turn might trivialize the problems

caused by long computation times: computation could be iterated again and again by turning the

computer on in the geometric past and TGD inspired theory of consciousness predicts that something

like this occurs routinely in living matter.

The absolute minimization of K¨ ahler action is the basic variational principle of classical TGD and

predicts extremely complex but non-chaotic magnetic ﬂux tube structures, which can get knotted and

linked. The dimension of CP

2

projection for these structures is D = 3. These structures are the corner

stone of TGD inspired theory of living matter and provide the braid structures needed by TQC.

Anyons are the key actors of TQC and TGD leads to detailed model of anyons as systems consisting

of track of a periodically moving charged particle realized as a ﬂux tube containing the particle inside

it. This track would be a space-time correlate for the outcome of dissipative processes producing the

12 LIST OF FIGURES

asymptotic self-organization pattern. These tracks in general carry vacuum K¨ahler charge which is

topologized when the CP

2

projection of space-time sheet is D = 3. This explains charge fractionization

predicted to occur also for other charged particles. When a system approaches chaos periodic orbits

become slightly aperiodic and the correlate is ﬂux tube which rotates N times before closing. This

gives rise to Z

N

valued topological quantum number crucial for TQC using anyons (N = 4 holds

true in this case). Non-Abelian anyons are needed by TQC, and the existence of long range classical

electro-weak ﬁelds predicted by TGD is an essential prerequisite of non-Abelianity.

Negative energies and zero energy states are of crucial importance of TQC in TGD. The possibility

of phase conjugation for fermions would resolve the puzzle of matter-antimatter asymmetry in an

elegant manner. Anti-fermions would be present but have negative energies. Quite generally, it is

possible to interpret scattering as a creation of pair of positive and negative energy states, the latter

representing the ﬁnal state. One can characterize precisely the deviations of this Eastern world view

with respect to the Western world view assuming an objective reality with a positive deﬁnite energy

and understand why the Western illusion apparently works. In the case of TQC the initial resp. ﬁnal

state of braided anyon system would correspond to positive resp. negative energy state.

The light-like boundaries of magnetic ﬂux tubes are ideal for TQC. The point is that 3-dimensional

light-like quantum states can be interpreted as representations for the time evolution of a two-

dimensional system and thus represented self-reﬂective states being ”about something”. The light-

likeness (no geometric time ﬂow) is a space-time correlate for the ceasing of subjective time ﬂow during

macro-temporal quantum coherence. The S-matrices of TQC can be coded to these light-like states

such that each elementary braid operation corresponds to positive energy anyons near the boundary

of the magnetic ﬂux tube A and negative energy anyons with opposite topological charges residing

near the boundary of ﬂux tube B and connected by braided threads representing the quantum gate.

Light-like boundaries also force Chern-Simons action as the only possible general coordinate invariant

action since the vanishing of the metric determinant does not allow any other candidate. Chern-Simons

action indeed deﬁnes the modular functor for braid coding for a TQC program.

0.5.2 PART II: Physics inspired models for genome and evolution of ge-

netic code

Genes and memes

In this chapter the basic TGD inspired ideas about genetic code are discussed.

1. Genetic and memetic code from the model of abstraction process

The basic numbers of genetic code are probably not accidental. This led for more than ten years ago

to an attempt to construct a model for abstraction process reproducing the basic numbers of the genetic

code. The simplest model for an abstraction process is based on a repeated formation of statements

about statements starting from two basic statements. If one drops at each step of the construction

the statement corresponding to empty set in the set theoretic realization of Boolean algebra, one

obtains a hierarchy allowing to understand the basic numbers of genetic code, including the number

of amino-acids. What one obtains is so called Combinatorial Hierarchy consisting of the Mersenne

numbers 2, M(1) = 3, 7 ,127, 2

127

− 1, .. constructed using the rule M(n + 1) = M

M(n)

= 2

M(n)

− 1.

The explicitly listed ones are known to be primes. Combinatorial Hierarchy emerges from a model of

abstraction process as subsequent transitions from level to meta level by forming Boolean statements

about Boolean statements of level n and dropping one statement away.

The inﬁnite hierarchy of possible genetic codes suggests the possibility of an inﬁnite hierarchy

of increasingly complex life-forms. The natural question is whether a counterpart of the genetic

code could make sense for our ideas, memes. Combinatorial Hierarchy model for abstraction process

predicts that memetic code should correspond to the level M

127

of the hierarchy. This leads to a

precise realization of the memetic code in terms of binary sequences. Codewords, counterparts of

mRNA, correspond to 126-bit sequences. Also almost-127-bit code with 2

127

−1 codons is possible.

2. Frequency and pulse representations of codes

p-Adic length scale hypothesis and identiﬁcation of codes as special cases of a hierarchy of p-adic

cognitive codes allows quantitative predictions. The most general assumption assigns to any prime

p · 2

k

, k integer, a hierarchy of cognitive codes with codeword having a duration equal to n-ary

p-adic time scale T

p

(n) such that the number of bits is factor k

1

of k. Codewords could be realized

either as k

1

harmonics of the fundamental frequency f

p

(n) = 1/T

p

(n) or as temporal sequences of bits

0.5. The contents of the book 13

of duration τ = T

p

(n)/k

1

represented as pulses of maximal duration τ. Pulse-frequency dichotomy

corresponds to dichotomies like particle-wave, nerve pulse-EEG, and talking left brain-singing right

brain.

Genetic code would correspond to k = 2

7

− 1 = 127 and have 6 bits (64 DNA triplets). These

codewords could be realized dynamically as temporal ﬁeld patterns. For genetic code primes p · 2

k

,

k = 6 n deﬁne candidates for the duration of the genetic code word if all factors of k are assumed to

deﬁne a possible number of bits of the code word. The time scales come as powers of 8 so that they

cover the entire range of biologically relevant time scales down to CP

2

length scale, and genetic code

could appear as fractally scaled versions unlike memetic code and perhaps also outside the biological

context. k = 2 126 = 2 6 21 = 252 allows the representation of both 126-bit memetic codeword,

6-bit genetic codeword, and almost-7-bit genetic code word. For pulse representation genetic codon

would have a duration of 50 ms whereas the bit would have duration of 8.3 ms so that the realization

using nerve pulse patterns is in principle possible. Frequency representation would be realized as 6

ﬁrst harmonics of the fundamental frequency f

1

= 2

n

20 Hz, where f

1

= 20 Hz deﬁnes the lower

end of audible frequency range and also the rate for the translation of mRNA triplets to amino-acids.

126-bit memetic code allows a representation as sequence of 21 nerve pulses of duration 2.4 ms each

of them accompanied by 6-bit genetic codon realized at the microtubular level (this representation of

genetic code has been suggested by Koruga).

The secondary p-adic time scale associated with M

127

is .1 seconds and deﬁnes the duration of

the almost 127-bit memetic codeword. For frequency representation is realized as 127 ﬁrst harmonics

of f

1

= 10 Hz and the duration of the bit for pulse representation is .8 ms which is shorter than the

duration of nerve pulse. The duration .1 seconds of code word might be identiﬁed as the minimal

duration of cortical mental images, and the so called features introduced by Walter Freeman could

deﬁne pulse representation of memetic code words of 127 bits. The highest frequency in the frequency

representation is 1270 Hz and could deﬁne the frequency responsible for synchronous neuronal ﬁring

known to be about 1 kHz. Various numerical co-incidences suggest that language corresponds to a

particular realization of memetic and genetic codes closely related to their realization at DNA level.

3. Model for the evolution of genetic code from the symmetries of the code

TGD leads to a model for the evolution of the genetic code motivated by the observation that the

genetic code possesses an exact A-G and almost exact T-C permutation symmetry with respect to

the third nucleotide of the DNA triplet. This leads to the hypothesis that genetic code has evolved

as a fusion of doublet and singlet codes accompanied by a small breaking of the product symmetry.

The hypothesis is highly predictive, and it is possible to reproduce genetic code and its variants by

this mechanism in a natural manner. The mechanism has deep implications for the models of the

bio-chemical evolution before genetic code: in particular a detailed model for the evolution of genetic

code and pre-biotic evolution emerges.

4. Mapping memetic code to 169-bit micro-tubular code

169-bit micro-tubular code words is excellent candidate for a representation of long term memories

as a temporal list of activated memes. The model for the mapping of memetic code to 169-bit

microtubular code is dictated by the general ideas about realization of intentions and p-adic cognitive

codes. When combined with general number theoretical arguments and physical considerations the

model becomes highly unique. The prediction for the intronic representation of the memetic codon

involving 9 DNA triplets as parity bits is readily testable, and also the prediction for the microtubular

electric ﬁeld pattern is in principle testable.

5. Genes, memes, and universal language

Also static representations of the memetic code are possible and intronic DNA could provide

representation of memetic codewords as sequences of 21 DNA triplets. At DNA level memes and

genes should relate like computer software and hardware. In the case of language the rules producing

a given linguistic expression can be seen as the high level software, main programs, whereas words

can be seen as hardware-like lower level subprograms. This leads to the idea that memetic codewords

deﬁne the basic program modules producing linguistic expressions by activating genes which express

themselves in terms of ﬁeld patterns generating nerv pulse patterns generating words or word sequences

very much analogous to proteins.

Time mirror mechanism and the structure of the computer language LISP inspire a concrete model

for memes as intronic programs initiated from magnetic body and calling genes as subprograms in turn

calling other genes as subprograms and generating at the lowest level ﬁeld patterns generating nerve

pulses patterns giving rise to the motor action producing speech. Phonemes could directly correspond

14 LIST OF FIGURES

to DNA triplets and deﬁne the basic building blocks of language having as such no meaning. If this

view is correct, the development of spoken and written language would mean basically the emergence

of a higher level of intentionality, which utilizes an already existing repertoire of memes expressed in

many other manners. This would in turn suggest that animals and even plants possess some kind

of languages realized at cellular level, and that even inter-species communications using common

memetic grammar and genetic vocabulary.

6. Corals and men

A strong support for the idea of interspecies communications come from the sensational ﬁnding

that the genome of corals, known to be the most primitive animals having nervous system, share a

large number of common genes with vertebrates whereas they share much less common genes with

ﬂies and worms. This ﬁnding challenges profoundly the existing view about the evolution of animals

and adds a further mystery to the halo of mysteries surrounding Cambrian explosion.

Since corals are usually regarded as relatively simple creatures, the most obvious questions concern

the function of the complex genome. The TGD inspired answer is that the common genes provide a

common vocabulary making possible communications between corals and vertebrates such as ﬁshes.

The genes express themselves in terms of electromagnetic ﬁeld patterns and cyclotron transitions

of Ca

++

ions giving rise to primitive EEG are crucially involved. The calcium containing skeleton

possessed by both corals and vertebrates could amplify the ﬁeld patterns representing genes and make

possible interspecies communications.

Coral reefs can be also seen as super organisms with cells replaced by double cell layers forming

the corals. This forces to consider the possibility that coral reefs are super-organisms perhaps even

possessing super-neural system consisting of super-neurons deﬁned by diﬀerentiated corals. Accord-

ingly, in TGD Universe coral reefs could be seen as descendants of higher level intra-terrestrial life

forms which boosted Cambrian explosion by horizontal transfer of genes to much simpler life forms

and providing also them with a nervous system.

7. Does ontogeny recapitulate also the future phylogeny at the level of genes and memes?

Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny means that the morphogenesis of the embryo repeats the evo-

lutionary steps leading to the organism. One might ask whether and how this process is realized at

the level of genes and memes (introns expressing themselves electromagnetically): this could provide

further understanding of the mysterious ”junk DNA”. Combining this question with some recent

puzzling ﬁndings leads to a rather radical revision of the view about evolution proceeding through

random mutations.

1. The second strange ﬁnding besides coral genome reported in New Scientist (5 June, 2004) was

that the removal of large portions of conserved intronic DNA from mice has no detectable

eﬀects on the basic biological functions. Conserved parts of DNA are usually thought as being

an outcome of a long selection process and far from genetic trash. This could be understood

if the conserved introns have been radiated from corals and the selection process has occurred

already before the Cambrian explosion induced by the emergence of the corals and leading to

the sudden emergence of new highly developed life forms. That mouse introns did not have any

identiﬁable function could mean that they are still waiting for time to become ripe for their

expression.

2. A third strange discovery relates to morphogenesis and is known as Ciba Geigy eﬀect. Chemists

Guido Ebner and Guido Schuerch exposed germs, seeds, and eggs to an electric ﬁeld with strength

in the range .5-2 kV/m. For instance, the resulting trouts appeared to resemble their ancient

predecessors. The leaves of certain plants represented a series of snapshots from evolution with

the oldest leaves dating back to 300 million years. This suggests that the memone and genome

represent ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle quite concretely, and that static electric

ﬁelds could provide the practical manner to activate and study the ancient morphologies. Even

partial transmutation of life forms to each other might be possible (beautiful swan to ugly

duckling at least!). The activation of morphologies not yet realized is probably more diﬃcult:

new memetic programs require new genetic hardware.

The resulting vision about evolution of higher organisms would be as the activation of conserved

memes and genes basically inherited from corals rather than by the emergence of new genes by

random mutations. Very much like learning new features of a text processing program. The explosive

evolution of human civilization could correspond to a rapid shift of the activated portion of memone

0.5. The contents of the book 15

and genome. The fact that 95 per cent of our DNA consists of introns suggests that an enormous

evolutionary potential exists also at the level of personal evolution during single life cycle. TGD

view about space-time as a 4-dimensional living organism would mean that this personal evolution

continues after the biological death since the 4-body of geometric past does not disappear in the

biological death.

Many-sheeted DNA

The problems of how genes code information about the morphology of organism and how this informa-

tion is expressed, belong to the great puzzles of the developmental biology. A closely related mystery

is the diﬀerentiation of cells. The notion of the genetic program is far from precise and it is not clear

how close the analogy with a computer program is. There are also several problems which challenge

the basic dogmas of genetics.

1. Only 1 per cent of DNA of human genome actually codes polypeptides. Eukaryote genes contain

intron sequences which are transcribed into hnRNA but snipped of when hnRNA is transformed

mRNA in process called slicing. The higher the evolutionary level of organism, the higher the

fraction of introns is. Molecular Darwinistis see introns as ”junk DNA” but there is evidence

that introns are far from junk. For instance, the splicing of intron contribution from hnRNA

to give mRNA can give several diﬀerent outcomes depending on the stage of development of

the organism and introns are crucial for the eﬀectiveness of immune system. Hence one can

wonder whether intronic mRNA and protein mRNA could both form the real output of gene

subprograms serving in some sense as input for other gene subprograms. This interpretation

obviously conﬂicts with ”gene-single protein” dogma in its basic form.

2. There are large amounts of highly repetitive DNA which is silent. One can wonder whether there

is some fundamental mis-understanding involved. Could it be that this DNA is analogous to

control DNA not transcribed to RNA and therefore not all useless. There is also active repetitive

DNA.

3. There is large amount of silent DNA in control sections between genes. Could it be that this

silent DNA expresses itself in some nonchemical manner? Chemical expression is very slow,

translation rate being twenty aminoacids per second, and one can wonder whether life might

have invented faster modes of gene expression and control of gene expression.

4. Plant genome is often by a factor of hundred longer than human genome. One could argue

that the complexity of organism is measured by the length of the shortest program coding the

organism. It is however not at all obvious how the genome of plants could be more reduntant

than human genome since repetitive sequences common to all animals are present. Introns are

in fact more frequent in human genome. This suggests that some new unidentiﬁed degrees of

freedom giving rise to complexity might be present and that the chemistry of DNA in the sense

of standard physics is perhaps not all that is needed to understand genetic program.

5. Various self-organization process such as self-assembly and de-assembly are very frequent in

living systems. The problem how genes give rise to morphology of the organism is poorly

understood. This forces to challenge the dogma of genetic determinism. One should be able

to understand what is determined by genes and what is determined by self-organization and

whether the genes of the standard physics are enough.

The reason why the above mentioned problems have turned out to be so untractable might be due

to a wrong view about space-time. Many-sheeted space-time concept of TGD might be absolutely

crucial for the expression of genetic code. Gene itself might be many-sheeted space-time structure

coding faithfully the topology of the expression domain of gene. This many-sheeted structure of DNA

could allow to understand the miraculous looking features of DNA replication and cell diﬀerentiation.

TGD based view of evolution as p-adic evolution implied by the basic quantum theory, should be

a crucial element of the picture. Together with p-adic length scale hypothesis, with Combinatorial

Hierarchy model for genetic code allowing to interpret genes as Boolean statements, and general vision

about quantum control and coordination based on a hierarchy of weakly coupled super conductors,

the notion of many-sheeted DNA leads to precise quantitative predictions and a general model for

16 LIST OF FIGURES

genetic program. In particular, one can understand the mystery of introns. What interesting from

the point of view of our consciousness is that it might be possible to interpret the Boolean statements

represented by the exon and intron parts of genes as a physical representation for our belief system.

Thus genes would code both matter– and mind like hardware of the living system.

DNA as Topological Quantum Computer

This chapter represents a vision about how DNA might act as a topological quantum computer (tqc).

Tqc means that the braidings of braid strands deﬁne tqc programs and M-matrix (generalization of

S-matrix in zero energy ontology) deﬁning the entanglement between states assignable to the end

points of strands deﬁne the tqc usually coded as unitary time evolution for Schr¨odinger equation. One

can ends up to the model in the following manner.

1. Darwinian selection for which the standard theory of self-organization provides a model, should

apply also to tqc programs. Tqc programs should correspond to asymptotic self-organization

patterns selected by dissipation in the presence of metabolic energy feed. The spatial and

temporal pattern of the metabolic energy feed characterizes the tqc program - or equivalently -

sub-program call.

2. Since braiding characterizes the tqc program, the self-organization pattern should correspond

to a hydrodynamical ﬂow or a pattern of magnetic ﬁeld inducing the braiding. Braid strands

must correspond to magnetic ﬂux tubes of the magnetic body of DNA. If each nucleotide is

transversal magnetic dipole it gives rise to transversal ﬂux tubes, which can also connect to

the genome of another cell. As a matter fact, the ﬂux tubes would correspond to what I call

wormhole magnetic ﬁelds having pairs of space-time sheets carrying opposite magnetic ﬂuxes.

3. The output of tqc sub-program is probability distribution for the outcomes of state function

reduction so that the sub-program must be repeated very many times. It is represented as

four-dimensional patterns for various rates (chemical rates, nerve pulse patterns, EEG power

distributions,...) having also identiﬁcation as temporal densities of zero energy states in various

scales. By the fractality of TGD Universe there is a hierarchy of tqcs corresponding to p-adic and

dark matter hierarchies. Programs (space-time sheets deﬁning coherence regions) call programs

in shorter scale. If the self-organizing system has a periodic behavior each tqc module deﬁnes a

large number of almost copies of itself asymptotically. Generalized EEG could naturally deﬁne

this periodic pattern and each period of EEG would correspond to an initiation and halting of

tqc. This brings in mind the periodically occurring sol-gel phase transition inside cell near the

cell membrane. There is also a connection with hologram idea: EEG rhythm corresponds to

reference wave and nerve pulse patters to the wave carrying the information and interfering with

the reference wave.

4. Fluid ﬂow must induce the braiding which requires that the ends of braid strands must be

anchored to the ﬂuid ﬂow. Recalling that lipid mono-layers of the cell membrane are liquid

crystals and lipids of interior mono-layer have hydrophilic ends pointing towards cell interior,

it is easy to guess that DNA nucleotides are connected to lipids by magnetic ﬂux tubes and

hydrophilic lipid ends are stuck to the ﬂow.

5. The topology of the braid traversing cell membrane cannot be aﬀected by the hydrodynamical

ﬂow. Hence braid strands must be split during tqc. This also induces the desired magnetic

isolation from the environment. Halting of tqc reconnects them and make possible the commu-

nication of the outcome of tqc.

There are several problems related to the details of the realization.

1. How nucleotides A,T,C,G are coded to the strand color and what this color corresponds to

physically? There are two options which could be characterized as fermionic and bosonic.

i) Magnetic ﬂux tubes having quark and anti-quark at their ends with u,d and u

c

, d

c

coding for

A,G and T,C. CP conjugation would correspond to conjugation for DNA nucleotides.

ii) Wormhole magnetic ﬂux tubes having wormhole contact and its CP conjugate at its ends

with wormhole contact carrying quark and anti-quark at its throats. The latter are predicted

to appear in all length scales in TGD Universe.

0.5. The contents of the book 17

2. How to split the braid strands in a controlled manner? High T

c

super conductivity provides

a possible mechanism: braid strand can be split only if the supra current ﬂowing through it

vanishes. A suitable voltage pulse induces the supra-current and its negative cancels it. The

conformation of the lipid controls whether it it can follow the ﬂow or not.

3. How magnetic ﬂux tubes can be cut without breaking the conservation of the magnetic ﬂux?

The notion of wormhole magnetic ﬁeld could save the situation now: after the splitting the

ﬂux returns back along the second space-time sheet of wormhole magnetic ﬁeld. An alternative

solution is based on reconnection of ﬂux tubes. Since only ﬂux tubes of same color can reconnect

this process can induce transfer of color: ”color inheritance”: when applied at the level of amino-

acids this leads to a successful model of protein folding. Reconnection makes possible breaking

of ﬂux tube connection for both the ordinary magnetic ﬂux tubes and wormhole magnetic ﬂux

tubes.

4. How magnetic ﬂux tubes are realized? The interpretation of ﬂux tubes as correlates of directed

attention at molecular level leads to concrete picture. Hydrogen bonds are by their asymmetry

natural correlates for a directed attention at molecular level. Also ﬂux tubes between acceptors of

hydrogen bonds must be allowed and acceptors can be seen as the subjects of directed attention

and donors as objects. Examples of acceptors are aromatic rings of nucleotides, O = atoms

of phosphates, etc.. A connection with metabolism is obtained if it is assumed that various

phosphates XMP, XDP, XTP, X = A, T, G, C act as fundamental acceptors and plugs in the

connection lines. The basic metabolic process ATP →ADP +P

i

allows an interpretation as a

reconnection splitting ﬂux tube connection, and the basic function of phosphorylating enzymes

would be to build ﬂux tube connections as also of breathing and photosynthesis.

The model makes several testable predictions about DNA itself. In particular, matter-antimatter

asymmetry and slightly broken isospin symmetry have counterparts at DNA level induced from the

breaking of these symmetries for quarks and antiquarks associated with the ﬂux tubes. DNA cell

membrane system is not the only possible system that could perform tqc like activities and store

memories in braidings: ﬂux tubes could connect biomolecules and the braiding could provide an

almost deﬁnition for what it is to be living. Even water memory might reduce to braidings. The

model leads also to an improved understanding of other roles of the magnetic ﬂux tubes containing

dark matter. Phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant for the magnetic ﬂux tubes could

be key element of bio-catalysis and electromagnetic long distance communications in living matter.

For instance, one ends up to what might be called code for protein folding and bio-catalysis.

The Notion of Wave-Genome and DNA as Topological Quantum Computer

Peter Gariaev and collaborators have reported several strange eﬀects of laser light and also ordinary

light on DNA. These ﬁndings include the rotation of polarization plane of laser light by DNA, phantom

DNA eﬀect, the transformation of laser light to radio-wave photons having biological eﬀects, the

coding of DNA sequences to the modulated polarization plane of laser light and the ability of this

kind of light to induce gene expression in another organisms provided the modulated polarization

pattern corresponds to an ”address” characterizing the organism, and the formation of images of

what is believed to be DNA sample itself and of the objects of environment by DNA sample in a cell

irradiated by ordinary light in UV-IR range. In this article a TGD based model for these eﬀects is

discussed. A speculative picture proposing a connection between homeopathy, water memory, and

phantom DNA eﬀect is discussed and on basis of this connection a vision about how the tqc hardware

represented by the genome is actively developed by subjecting it to evolutionary pressures represented

by a virtual world representation of the physical environment. The speculation inspired by this vision

is that genetic code as well as DNA-, RNA- and amino-acid sequences should have representation in

terms of nuclear strings. The model for dark baryons indeed leads to an identiﬁcation of these analogs

and the basic numbers of genetic code including also the numbers of aminoacids coded by a given

number of codons are predicted correctly. Hence it seems that genetic code is universal rather than

being an accidental outcome of the biological evolution.

18 LIST OF FIGURES

Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time

The topics of the chapter has been restricted to those, which seem to represent the most well-

established ideas. There are many other, more speculative, ideas such as the strong form of the

hypothesis that plasmoid like life forms molecular life forms has evolved in ”Mother Gaia’s womb”,

maybe even in the hot environment deﬁned by the boundary of mantle and core.

1. Basic facts about and TGD based model for pre-biotic evolution are discussed.

2. A model for the ATP-ADP process based on DNA as topological quantum computer vision, the

identiﬁcation of universal metabolic energy quanta in terms of zero point kinetic energies, and

the notion of remote metabolism is discussed.

3. A model for the evolution of the recent genetic code (3-codons) as a fusion of codes for which

codons are nucleotides (1-codons) and di-nucleotides (2-codons) is discussed. The symmetries

of the genetic code, the observation that tRNA can be seen as a fusion of two hairpin like DNA

molecules, and the ﬁnding that the ﬁrst nucleotides of 3-codon code for the reaction path leading

from a precursors of the aminoacid to aminoacids for hydrophobic/hydrohilic dichotomy, serve

as motivations of the model. 1- and 2-codes corresponding to the two forms of RNA (the exotic

2

−5

RNA and the usual 3

−5

**RNA) would have prevailed in RNA world. Aminoacids would
**

have served as catalysts for the copying of RNA on one hand, and RNA molecules would have

catalyzed the formation of aminoacids from their precursors on one hand, meaning the presence

of a positive feedback loop. In the transition to DNA-aminoacid era RNA began to be translated

to aminoacid sequences.

4. Cambrian explosion represents a rather mysterious period in biology: new highly developed

phylas emerged out of nowhere. A second strange ﬁnding is that continents would ﬁt together

to form single super-continent covering entire Earth’s surface at time of Cambrian explosion

if the radius of Earth would have been one half of its recent value. This ﬁnding has inspired

Expanding Earth theories but it has not been possible to identify the mechanism causing the

expansion. The success of the standard tectonic plate theory requires that possible expansion

must have occurred in relatively short geological time scale. The hierarchy of Planck constants

implies that cosmic expansion has occurred in quantum leaps increasing the value of and

thus of quantum scales by factors which tend to be powers of 2. Cosmic expansion would have

occurred as jerks even in the case of planets. In the proposed model Cambrian explosion would

have accompanied the expansion of the Earth’s radius by a factor of 2: during this period an

outburst of highly developed life forms from underground seas to the surface of Earth would

have taken place.

5. The last section of the chapter compares TGD based view about the evolution of genetic code to

the views of McFadden. This section is a little bit out of date. For instance, the hypothesis that

magnetic body of DNA could induce mutations purposefully is not discussed. This hypothesis

is natural if one believes that magnetic ﬂux tubes connecting bio-molecules play a key role in

bio-catalysis. This idea is discussed in the chapter devoted to protein folding.

A Model for Protein Folding and Bio-catalysis

The model for the evolution of genetic code leads to the idea that the folding of proteins obeys a

folding code inherited from the genetic code. The ﬂux connections between molecules containing dark

matter in macroscopic quantum phase and characterized by two integers are the basic new physics

element of the model.

After some trials one ends up with a general conceptualization of the situation with the identiﬁca-

tion o magnetic ﬂux tubes as correlates of attention at molecular level so that a direct connection with

TGD inspired theory of consciousness emerges at quantitative level. This allows a far reaching gener-

alization of the DNA as topological quantum computer paradigm and makes it much more detailed.

By their asymmetric character hydrogen bonds are excellent candidates for contracted magnetic ﬂux

tubes serving as correlates of attention at molecular level.

One can consider two models. For the ﬁrst model the ﬂux tubes between amino-acids are assumed

to determine the protein folding.

0.5. The contents of the book 19

1. The constant part of free amino-acid containing O − H, O =, and NH

2

would correspond to

the codon XYZ in the sense that the ﬂux tubes would carry the ”color” representing the four

nucleotides in terms of quark pairs. Color inheritance by ﬂux tube reconnection makes this

possible. For the amino-adics inside protein O = and N − H would correspond to Y Z. Also

ﬂux tubes connecting the acceptor atoms of hydrogen bonds are required by the model of DNA

as topological quantum computer. The long ﬂux tubes between O = atoms and their length

reduction in a phase transition reducing Planck constant could be essential in protein-ligand

interaction.

2. The model predicts a code for protein folding: depending on whether also = O − O = ﬂux

tubes are allowed or not, Y = Z or Y = Z

c

condition is satisﬁed by the amino-acids having

N−H−−O = hydrogen bond. For = O−O = bonds Y −Y

c

pairing holds true. If one identiﬁes

hydrogen bond with ﬂux tube (Y (n) = Z(n + k)) the model works badly for both options. If

one assumes only that the presence of a ﬂux tube connecting amino-acids in either direction

(Y (n) = Z(n + k) or Z(n) = Y (n + k)) is a prerequisite for the formation of hydrogen bond,

the model works. Y = Z

c

option predicts the average length of alpha bonds correctly. Y = Z

rule is however favored by the study of alpha helices for four enzymes: the possible average

length of alpha helix is considerably longer than the average length of alpha helix if gene is the

unique gene allowing to satisfy Y = Z rule. The explicit study of alpha helices for four enzymes

demonstrates that the failure to satisfy the condition for the existence of hydrogen bond fails

rarely and at most for two amino-acids (for 2 amino-acids in single case only). For beta sheets

there ar no failures for Y = Z option.

3. The information apparently lost in the many-to-one character of the codon-amino-acid corre-

spondence would code for the folding of the protein and similar amino-acid sequences could give

rise to diﬀerent foldings. Also catalyst action would reduce to eﬀective base pairing and one can

speak about catalyst code. The DNA sequences associated with alpha helices and beta sheets

are completely predictable unless one assumes a quantum counterpart of wobble base pairing

meaning that N−H ﬂux tubes are before hydrogen bonding in quantum superpositions of braid

colors associated with the third nucleotides Z of codons XY Z coding for amino-acid. Only the

latter option works. The outcome is very simple quantitative model for folding and catalyst

action based on minimization of energy and predicting as its solutions alpha helices and beta

strands.

Second model represents a diametrical opposite of the ﬁrst model in the sense in that it assumes

ﬂux tube connections only between amino-acids and water molecules. These ﬂux tubes mediate

an attractive (repulsive) interaction in the case of hydrophily (hydrophoby) due to the behavior of

magnetic (presumably) interaction energy as a function of Planck constant (or integers characterizing

the level of dark matter) assignable to the ﬂux tube. For hydrophoby (hydrophily) the interaction

energy is minimized for long (short) ﬂux tubes. The interaction between amino-acids is induced by this

interaction in a manner analogous to how the interaction between electrons and ions induces secondary

interaction between the members of a Cooper pair. The model explains the basic qualitative aspects

of protein folding and the quantitative model of folding based on amino-acid-amino-acid ﬂux tubes

allows a generalization which is however discussed at numerical level.

Three new physics realizations of the genetic code and the role of dark matter in bio-

systems

TGD inspired quantum biology leads naturally to the idea that several realizations of genetic code

exist. Besides the realizations based on temporal patterns of electromagnetic ﬁelds I have considered

three diﬀerent new physics realizations of the genetic code based the notions of many-sheeted space-

time, magnetic body, and the hierarchy of Planck constants explaining dark matter in TGD framework.

1. The ﬁrst realization - proposed in the model for DNA as topological quantum computer (tqc) -

maps the nucleotides A,G and T,C to dark quarks u,d and their anti-quarks assignable to the

ends of magnetic ﬂux tubes representing braid strands and connecting nucleotides to lipids of

cell membrane.

20 LIST OF FIGURES

2. Second realization was discovered in the model of dark nuclei as strings of dark baryons. Dark

baryons realize codons in terms of quantum entanglement and without decomposition to letters.

Dark baryons are strings of 3 quarks connected by two color ﬂux tubes. The neutral states of

the dark baryon predicted by the model are in 1-1 correspondence with DNA, RNA, aminoacids.

Candidates for the counterparts of tRNA anticodons are also obtained if one accepts that ge-

netic code actually decomposes to 2 steps 64 → 40 → 20 such that there are 40 dark baryon

counterparts for tRNA anticodons. The amazing ﬁnding is that vertebrate genetic code comes

out correctly.

3. The third realization is a physical realization for the divisor code proposed by Khrennikov and

Nilsson. The realization relies on two integers labeling magnetic ﬂux tubes containing dark

matter. The dark magnetic ﬂux tubes assignable to DNA codons and amino-acids could be

labeled by these integers providing a representation of the genetic code consistent with the

divisor code. Also a physical mechanism implying the physical equivalence of the dark baryon

code and divisor code can be imagined.

The basic proposal is that dark baryon counterparts of basic bio-molecules and genetic code were

present from beginning and gave rise to pre-biotic life at the magnetic ﬂux tubes so that the evolution

of biological life meant the development of translation and transcription mechanisms allowing to

transform dark baryon variants of the codons to their chemical variants. These mechanisms would be

still at work inside the living cell and allow the living matter to perform genetic engineering. This

proposal is consistent with recent ﬁndings about large variations of genomes inside organism.

There is a strange experimental ﬁnding giving support for this picture. A water solution containing

human cells infected by bacteria is sterilized by a ﬁltering procedure and healthy cells are added to

the ﬁltrate. Within few weeks the infected cells re-appear. A possible explanation is that dark baryon

variant of the bacterial genome realized as nano-sized particles remains in the solution despite the

ﬁltering.

The codes are discussed from the point of view of DNA as tqc hypothesis and the model for protein

folding and bio-catalysis. The basic selection rules of bio-catalysis could be based on the two integers

assignable to the dark magnetic ﬂux tubes. Only bio-molecules whose dark magnetic bodies contain a

layer characterized by same integers can be connected by dark magnetic ﬂux tubes. The reconnection

of the dark magnetic ﬂux tubes selecting the bio-molecules participating the catalytic reaction and

the contraction of these ﬂux tubes induced by a phase transition reducing Planck constant and forcing

the bio-molecules near to each other would represent basic mechanisms of bio-catalysis.

0.5.3 Part III: Number theoretical models for genetic code and its evolu-

tion

The original hope was that genetic code could be understood in terms of number theoretic notion. This

led to several mathematical models for the genetic code and its evolution. These models reproduced

the code with a suitable choice of free parameters but failed to predict it whereas physics based

approach led to the completely unexpected realization that genetic code could be understood at the

level of elementary particle physics as something completely universal with chemical realization being

only one particular representations of the code (see the chapter ”The Notion of Wave-Genome and

DNA as Topological Quantum Computer”). Also the chemical evolution could be understood on basis

of physics based arguments. Hence this part might be argued to be somewhat obsolete but since the

physical picture does not explicitly exclude number theoretic explanations I have decided to keep it.

Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically?

The number of DNA triplets is 64. This inspires the idea that DNA sequence could be interpreted

as an expansion of an integer using 64 as the base. Hence given DNA triplet would represent some

integer in ¦0,1....,63¦ (sequences of I Ching symbols give a beautiful realization of these sequences).

The observation which puts bells ringing is that the number of primes smaller than 64 is 18.

Together with 0, and 1 this makes 20: the number of aminoacids!

1. Questions

The ﬁnding just described stimulates a whole series of questions.

0.5. The contents of the book 21

Do aminoacids correspond to integers in the set S = ¦primes < 64¦ ∪ ¦0, 1¦. Does aminoacid

sequence have an interpretation as a representation as a sequence of integers consisting of 0, 1 and

products of primes p = 2, ..., 61? Does the aminoacid representing 0 have an interpretation as kind

of period separating from each other structural units analogous to genes representing integers in the

sequence so that we would quite literally consists of sequences of integers? Do 0 and 1 have some

special biological properties, say the property of being biologically inert both at the level of DNA and

aminoacids?

Does genetic code mediate a map from integers 0,...,63 to set S such that 0 and 1 are mapped

to 0 and 1? If so then three integers 2 ≤ n ≤ 63 must correspond to stopping sign codons rather

than primes. What stopping sign codon property means at the level of integers? How the map from

integers 2,...,61 to the primes p = 2, ..., 61 is determined?

2. The chain of arguments leading to a number theoretical model for the genetic code

The following chain of arguments induced to large part by concrete numerical experimentation

leads to a model providing a partial answer to many of these questions.

1. The partitions of any positive integer n can be interpreted in terms of number theoretical many

boson states. The partitions for which a given integer appears at most once have interpretation

in terms of fermion states. These states could be identiﬁed as bosonic and fermionic states of

Super Virasoro representation with given conformal weight n.

2. The generalization of Shannon entropy by replacing logarithms of probabilities with the loga-

rithms of p-adic norms of probabilities allows to have systems with negative entropy and thus

positive negentropy. The natural requirement is that n corresponds to such prime p ≤ 61 that the

negentropy assigned to n is maximal in some number theoretic thermodynamics. The resulting

correspondence n →p(n) would naturally determine the genetic code.

3. One can assign to the bosonic and fermionic partitions a number theoretic thermodynamics

deﬁned by a Hamiltonian. Purely bosonic and fermionic thermodynamics are deﬁned by cor-

responding partition functions Z

B

and Z

F

whereas supersymmetric option is deﬁned by the

product Z

B

Z

F

.

4. The simplest option is that Hamiltonian depends only on the number r of the integers in the

partition. The dynamics would be in a well deﬁned sense local and would not depend on the

sizes of summands at all. The thermodynamical states would be degenerate with degeneracy

factors given by total numbers d

I

(n, r) of partitions of type I = B, F. The invariants known as

rank and crank deﬁne alternative candidates for basic building blocks of Hamiltonian.

5. Ordinary exponential thermodynamics based on, say e

−H/T

= q

r−1

0

, q

0

a rational number,

produces typically unrealistic genetic codes for which most integers are mapped to small primes

p ≤ 11 and many primes are not coded at all. The idea that realistic code could result at some

critical temperature fails also.

6. Quantum criticality and fractality of TGD Universe inspire the idea that the criticality is an

inherent property of Hamiltonian rather than only thermodynamical state. Hence Hamiltonian

can depend only weakly on the character of the partition so that all partitions contribute with

almost equal weights to the partition function.

Fractality is achieved if Boltzmann factors are given by e

−H/T

= (r + r

0

)

n

0

so that H(r) =

log(r+r

0

) serves as Hamiltonian and n

0

corresponds to the inverse temperature. The super-symmetric

variant of this Hamiltonian yields the most realistic candidates for the genetic code and one might

hope that a number theoretically small perturbation not changing the divisors p ≤ 61 of partition

function but aﬀecting the probabilities could give correct degeneracies. Numerical experimentation

suggests however that this might not be the case and that simple analytic form of Hamiltonian is too

much to hope for.

Numerical experimentation suggests however that this might not be the case and that simple

analytic form of Hamiltonian is too much to hope for. A simple argument however shows that e

−H/T

=

f(r) could be in quantum critical case be deduced from the genetic code by ﬁxing the 62 values of

f(r) so that the desired 62 correspondences n → p(n) result. The idea about almost universality of

22 LIST OF FIGURES

the genetic code would be replaced with the idea that quantum criticality allows to engineer a genetic

code maximizing the total negentropy associated with DNA triplet-aminoacid pair.

A natural guess is that the map of codons to integers is given as a small deformation of the map

induced by the map of DNA codons to integers induced by the identiﬁcation of nucleotides with 4-digits

0,1,2, 3 (this identiﬁcation depends on whether ﬁrst, second, or third nucleotide is in question). This

map predicts approximate p(n) = p(n + 1) symmetry having also a number theoretical justiﬁcation.

One can deduce codon-integer and aminoacid-prime correspondences and at (at least) two Boltzmann

weight distributions f(n) consistent with the genetic code and Negentropy Maximization Principle

constrained by the degeneracies of the genetic code.

Uniﬁcation of Four Approaches to the Genetic Code

A proposal unifying four approaches to genetic code is discussed.

The ﬁrst approach is introduced by Pitk¨anen and is geometric: genetic code is interpreted as

an imbedding of the aminoacid space to DNA space possessing a ﬁber bundle like structure with

DNAs coding for a given aminoacid forming a discrete ﬁber with a varying number of points. Also

Khrennikov has proposed an analogous approach based on the identiﬁcation of DNAs coding for a

given aminoacid as an orbit a discrete ﬂow deﬁned by iteration of a map of DNA space to itself.

Second approach starts from the 5-adic approach of Dragovich and Dragovich. Codons are labelled

by 5-adic integers n which have no non-vanishing 5-digits so that the n is in the range [31, 124]. The

number of primes in the range [31, 124] is 20. This suggests the labelling of aminoacids by these

primes. This inspires an additional condition on the geometric code: if possible, one of the integers n

projected to p equals to p(n). This condition fails only for the primes 53,79,101,103 for which some

of 5-digits vanishing in 5-ary expansion.

The third approach is based on the generalization of the basic idea of the so called divisor code

proposed by Khrennikov and Nilsson. The requirement is that the number of factors for integer n

labelling one of DNAs, call it n

d

coding for a given aminoacid is the total number of codons coding for

the aminoacid, its degeneracy. Therefore a given aminoacid labelled by prime p with no non-vanishing

5-digits is coded by DNAs labelled by p itself and by n

d

. A group theoretic and physical interpretation

for the origin of the divisor code is proposed.

The fourth approach is a modiﬁcation of the earlier 4-adic number theoretic thermodynamics

approach of Pitk¨anen.

1. 5-adic thermodynamics involving a maximization of number theoretic negentropy N

p

(n) =

−S

p

(n) > 0(!) as a function of p-adic prime p labelling aminoacids assigns a unique prime

to the codon. If no prime in the range divides S

p

, the codon is identiﬁed as a stopping codon.

2. The number theoretic thermodynamics is assigned with the partitions P of the integer n

2)

determined by the ﬁrst two letters of the codon (16 integers belonging to the range [6, 24]). The

integer valued number theoretic Hamiltonian h(P) ∈ Z

25

appearing in the Boltzmann weight

5

h(P)/T

5

is assumed to depend on the number r of summands for the partition only. h(r) is

assumed to be tailored by evolution so that it reproduces the code.

3. The eﬀect of the third nucleotide is described in terms of 5-adic temperature T

5

= 1/n,

n ∈ [0, 24]: the variation of T

5

explains the existence of variants of genetic code and its tempo-

ral variation the observed context sensitivity of the codon-aminoacid correspondence for some

variants of the code.

A numerical calculation scanning over N ∼ 10

30

candidates for h(r) allows only 11 Hamiltonians

and with single additional symmetry inspired condition there are 2 solutions which diﬀer only for 5

largest values of r. Due to the limited computational resources available only 24 percent of the available

candidates have been scanned and the naive expectation is that the total number of Hamiltonians is

about about 45 unless one poses additional conditions.

Bibliography

Online books about TGD

[1] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Topological Geometrodynamics: Overview.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdview/tgdview.html.

[2] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Physics as Inﬁnite-Dimensional Geometry.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdgeom/tgdgeom.html.

[3] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html.

[4] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum TGD.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html.

[5] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD as a Generalized Number Theory.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html.

[6] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html.

[7] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and Fringe Physics.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//freenergy/freenergy.html.

Online books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness

and quantum biology

[8] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Self-Organizing Quantum Systems.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html.

[9] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Hardware of Living Matter.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html.

[10] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html.

[11] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html.

[12] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and EEG.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html.

[13] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//hologram/hologram.html.

[14] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Magnetospheric Consciousness.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/magnconsc.html.

[15] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/mathconsc.html.

23

24 BIBLIOGRAPHY

References to the chapters of books

[C6] The chapter Was von Neumann Right After All of [4].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html#vNeumann.

[D6] The chapter TGD and Astrophysics of [3].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html#astro.

[E1] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: p-Adicization Program of [5].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visiona.

[E2] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: Quaternions, Octonions, and their Hyper

Counterparts of [5].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visionb.

[E3] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: Inﬁnite Primes of [5].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visionc.

[E9] The chapter Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe of [5].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#tqc.

[H2] The chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle of [10].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html#nmpc.

[I1] The chapter Quantum Theory of Self-Organization of [8].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html#selforgac.

[J6] The chapter Coherent Dark Matter and Bio-Systems as Macroscopic Quantum Systems of [9].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#darkbio.

[L1] The chapter Genes and Memes of [11].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genememec.

[L2] The chapter Many-Sheeted DNA of [11].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genecodec.

[M3] The chapter Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs of [12].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html#eegdark.

Articles related to TGD

[16] Pitk¨anen, M. (1983) International Journal of Theor. Phys. ,22, 575.

Mathematics related references

[17] Eguchi, T., Gilkey, B., Hanson, J. (1980): Phys. Rep. 66, 6.

[18] Hawking, S.,W. and Pope, C., N. (1978): Generalized Spin Structures in Quantum Gravity.

Physics Letters Vol 73 B, no 1.

[19] Gibbons, G., W., Pope, C., N. (1977): CP

2

as gravitational instanton. Commun. Math. Phys.

55, 53.

[20] Pope, C., N. (1980): Eigenfunctions and Spin

c

Structures on CP

2

. D.A.M.T.P. preprint.

[21] Eisenhart (1964): Riemannian Geometry. Princeton University Press.

[22] Spivak, M. (1970): Diﬀerential Geometry I,II,III,IV. Publish or Perish. Boston.

[23] Milnor, J. (1965): Topology form Diﬀerential Point of View. The University Press of Virginia.

[24] E. C. Zeeman (ed.)(1977), Catastrophe Theory, Addison-Wessley Publishing Company.

[25] Wallace (1968): Diﬀerential Topology. W. A. Benjamin, New York.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 25

References related to physics anomalies

[26] D. Da Roacha and L. Nottale (2003), Gravitational Structure Formation in Scale Relativity,

astro-ph/0310036.

Part I

SOME PHYSICAL AND

MATHEMATICAL

BACKGROUND

27

Chapter 1

About the New Physics Behind

Qualia

1.1 Introduction

As the title expresses, this chapter was originally about the new physics behind qualia. The model of

qualia indeed involves a lot of new physics: many-sheeted space-time; massless extremals; exotic Super

Virasoro representations associated with discrete qualia; magnetic and cyclotron phase transitions

associated with quantum critical quantum spin glass phases of exotic super conductors at cellular

space-time sheets; classical color and electro-weak gauge ﬁelds in macroscopic length scales, to name

the most important ingredients. Gradually the chapter however expanded so that it touches practically

all new physics possibly relevant to TGD inspired quantum biology. Various physical mechanisms are

discussed in exploratory spirit rather than restricting the consideration to those ideas which seem to

be the ﬁnal word about quantum biology or qualia just at this moment.

1.1.1 Living matter and dark matter

Dark matter is identiﬁed as a macroscopic quantum phase with large . Also living matter would

involve in in an essential manner matter with a large value of and hence dark, and form conformally

conﬁned (in the sense that the net conformal weight of the state is real) blobs behaving like single units

with extremely quantal properties, including free will and intentional action in time scales familiar to

us. Dark matter would be responsible for the mysterious vital force.

Any system for which some interaction becomes so strong that perturbation theory does not work,

gives rise to this kind of system in a phase transition in which increases to not lose perturbativity

gives rise to this kind of ”super-quantal” matter. In this sense emergence corresponds to strong

coupling. One must however remember that emergence is actually much more and involves the notion

of quantum jump. Dark matter made possible by dynamical is necessary for macroscopic and

macro-temporal quantum coherence and is thus prerequisite for emergence.

Physically large means a larger unit for quantum numbers and this requires that single particle

states form larger particle like units. This kind of collective states with weak mutual interactions are

of course very natural in strongly interacting systems. At the level of quantum jumps quantum jumps

integrate eﬀectively to single quantum jump and longer moments of consciousness result. Conformal

conﬁnement guarantees all this. Entire hierarchy of size scales for conformally conﬁned blobs is

predicted corresponding to values of related to Beraha numbers [E9, C2] but there would be only

single value corresponding to very large for given values of system parameters (gravitational masses,

charges,...). The larger the value of the longer the characteristic time scale of consciousness and of

a typical life cycle.

The notion of ﬁeld body means that dark matter at the magnetic ﬂux tubes would serve as

an intentional agent using biological body as a motor instrument and sensory receptor. Dark matter

would be the miraculous substance that living systems are ﬁghting for, and perhaps the most important

substance in metabolic cycle.

29

30 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

1.1.2 Macroscopic quantum phases in many-sheeted space-time

The crucial empirical ingredient turned out to be the observations about the eﬀects of oscillating ELF

electromagnetic ﬁelds on central nervous system, endocrine system and immune system made after

sixties [34, 42, 43, 34]. The largest eﬀects are obtained at odd multiples of cyclotron frequencies of

various biologically important ions like Ca

++

in Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Also amplitude modulation

of RF and MW ﬁelds by these frequencies has eﬀects. This leads to a surprising conclusion in violent

conﬂict with standard physics view about world. Magnetically conﬁned states of ions in Earth’s

magnetic ﬁeld having minimal size of order cell size and energy scale of order 10

−14

eV would be

in question if ordinary quantum theory would be the ﬁnal word. Dark matter hierarchy with the

spectrum of Planck constants given by (k) = λ

k

0

, λ · 2

11

, resolves the paradox [M3]. For k = 4

level of the dark matter hierarchy the energies E(k) = (k)ω of ELF photons are above thermal

threshold for f ≥ 1 Hz.

The notion of many-sheeted ionic equilibrium brings in in the mechanism with which supra-currents

at the magnetic ﬂux tubes control the matter at atomic space-time sheets. The strange anomalies

challenging the notions of ionic channels and pumps [67] provide support for the resulting general

vision.

1.1.3 Mind like space-time sheets as massless extremals

Mind like space-time sheets are the geometric correlates of selves. So called massless extremals (MEs)

[26] provide ideal and unique candidates for mind like space-time sheets. MEs give rise to hologram like

cognitive representations. The assumption that they serve as Josephson junctions allows to understand

the amplitude windows associated with the interaction of ELF em ﬁelds with brain tissue. The

properties of MEs inspire the hypothesis that they give rise to an inﬁnite hierarchy of electromagnetic

life forms living in symbiosis with each other and bio-matter. EEG can be interpreted as associated

with ELF MEs which is one important level in this hierarchy responsible for the cultural aspects of

consciousness.

Our mental images propagating in neural circuits should correspond to microwave (MW) MEs

with wavelengths below .3 meters. The communications between quantum antennae associated with

ELF and RF MEs provides an elegant model for the formation and recall of long term memories and

realize hologrammic cognitive representations. Self hierarchy has as a particular dynamical correlate

the hierarchy of Josephson currents modulated by Josephson currents modulated by... having magnetic

transition frequencies as their basic frequencies. Josephson currents ﬂow along join along boundaries

bonds connecting space-time sheets belonging at various levels of the hierarchy (’biofeedback’).

1.1.4 Classical color and electro-weak ﬁelds in macroscopic length scales

One can say that the basic physics of standard model without symmetry breaking and color magnetic

conﬁnement is realized at classical level on cellular space-time sheets. Classical Z

0

ﬁelds, W ﬁelds

and gluon ﬁelds unavoidably accompany non-orthogonal electric and magnetic ﬁelds. The proper

interpretation of this prediction is in terms of a p-adic and dark fractal hierarchies of standard model

physics with scaled down mass scales making possible long range weak and color interactions in

arbitrarily long length scales.

This prediction forces to modify even the model of nuclei [F8]. Nucleons carry exotic color and

form nuclear strings consisting of color bonds with exotic quark q and antiquark q at their ends. These

exotic quarks correspond to k = 127 level of dark matter hierarchy. Also dark variants of ordinary

quarks with size of about atom are possible. It is also possible to have ud and ud type color bonds

which carry em and weak charge and this means exotic nuclear ionization. Tetraneutron [69, 70] would

represent one particular example of this kind of exotically ionized nucleus [F8]. Exotic nuclear physics

would have also implications for the ordinary condensed matter physics and could be involved with

the very low compressibility of liquid phase and the anomalous behavior of water [F10].

Exotic ionization is the key element in the quantum model for the control action of the magnetic

body on biological body. Exotic ionization induces dark plasma oscillations which in turn generate via

classical em ﬁelds ordinary ohmic currents at the level of the ordinary matter. Nerve pulse patterns

[M2] and Ca

2+

waves [K6, K5] would represent examples of physiological correlates of this quantum

control.

Introduction 31

1.1.5 p-Adic-to-real transitions as transformation of intentions to actions

Hearing and cognition are very closely related: one could even argue that we think using language. The

view that p-adic physics is physics of intention and cognition leads to the vision that the transformation

of thoughts to actions and sensory inputs to thoughts correspond to real–p-adic phase transitions for

space-time sheets. For a long time the question how p-adic space-time sheets relate to the real ones

lacked a precise answer, and therefore also the question what the transformation of p-adic space-time

sheet to real ones really means. The advances in the understanding the precise relationship between

p-adic and real space-time sheets discussed in [E1] led however to a deﬁnite progress in this respect

[H8].

The transformation of p-adic space-time sheets to real ones must respect the conservation of

quantum numbers: this requires that the real system either receives or sends energy when the p-adic-

to-real transitions realizing the intention occurs. If p-adic ME is transformed to a negative energy ME

in the process, real system must make a transition to a higher energy state. This kind of transitions

cannot occur spontaneously so that the outcome is a precisely targeted realization of intention. The

additional bonus is that buy now-let others pay mechanism makes possible extreme ﬂexibility. There

are reasons to expect that the energies involves cannot be too high however.

The model of intentional action as a quantum transition for which the probabilities for various

intention-action pairs should in principle be deducible from S-matrix is discussed in [E1] using the

vision about physics as a generalized number theory as a guide line. This model leads to fresh insights

about the construction of the ordinary S-matrix and essentially the same kind of general expressions

for S-matrix elements result as in the case of ordinary scattering.

This picture provides conceptual tools making it possible to discuss the questions what the no-

tion of p-adic cognitive neutrino pair could mean and whether it makes sense to speak about the

transformation of p-adic cognitive neutrino pairs to a real cognitive neutrino pairs.

1.1.6 Exotic super-Virasoro representations

A further piece of new physics of qualia are super-canonical and super-conformal algebras associated

with the light-like M

4

+

projections of the light-like boundaries MEs. p-Adic considerations suggest

that L

0

= 0 condition might be replaced by a weaker condition L

0

mod p

n

= 0 in the p-adic context.

The interpretation would be in terms of continuous scaling invariance broken to discrete scalings by

powers of p: the analogy with lattice systems of condensed matter is obvious. The general condition

a

L

0

mod p = 1, a positive integer, stating invariance under scalings is by Fermat’s little theorem

satisﬁed L

0

mod p = 0 and would state that these scalings act like translations by multiples of

lattice vector in lattice.

p · 2

k

would guarantee approximately the conditions for a = 2. For Mersenne primes, which are

in an exceptional role physically, these conditions are satisﬁed in excellent approximation. The so

called Gaussian Mersennes allow also to satisfy these conditions in somewhat more general sense and,

rather remarkably, there are four Gaussian Mersennes in the length scale range between cell membrane

thickness and cell size.

The model for how local p-adic physics codes for the p-adic fractality of the real physics and

for intentional action as a quantum jump transforming p-adic space-time sheet to a real one leads

to a rather detailed view about the p-adic fractals possibly giving rise to exotic Super Virasoro

representations [E1, H8].

The degeneracy of states for exotic representations (number of states with same L

0

) is enormous

for the physically interesting values of p-adic prime p. This means that these states provide huge

negentropy resources. Thus exotic super-canonical representations be interpreted as quantum level

articulation for the statement that TGD Universe is quantum critical quantum spin glass. Exotic

super-canonical representations clearly provide an excellent candidate for an inﬁnite hierarchy of life

forms. These life forms would come in two classes.

1. The representatives of the ﬁrst class labelled by three integers (k, m, n) if one assumes that

physically interesting primes correspond to p · 2

k

m

, k prime and m are integers: n is the power

appearing in L

0

∝ p

n

.

2. The representatives of the second class are labelled by the integers k L

0

∝ 2

k

, such that 2

k

−1

is Mersenne prime or (1 +i)

k

−1 is Gaussian Mersenne.

32 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

It is tempting to assume that it is these life forms emerge already in elementary particle length

scales and become increasingly complex when the p-adic length scale increases. Life could perhaps

be regarded as a symbiosis of these life forms with super-conducting magnetic ﬂux tubes and ordi-

nary matter at atomic space-time sheets. These life forms (’mind’) interact with each other, super-

conducting magnetic ﬂux tubes and ordinary matter via the classical gauge ﬁelds associated with

MEs. A natural hypothesis is that the quantum phase transitions of the macroscopic quantum phases

for the particles of the exotic super-canonical representations formed in classical ﬁelds of MEs (mind

like space-time sheets) give rise to some (but not all) qualia.

1.2 Dark matter and living matter

In the sequel general ideas about the role of dark matter in condensed matter physics are described.

1.2.1 Quantum criticality, hierarchy of dark matters, and dynamical

Quantum criticality is the basic characteristic of TGD Universe and quantum critical superconductors

provide an excellent test bed to develop the ideas related to quantum criticality into a more concrete

form.

Quantization of Planck constants and the generalization of the notion of imbedding space

The recent geometric interpretation for the quantization of Planck constants is based on Jones inclu-

sions of hyper-ﬁnite factors of type II

1

[C3].

1. Diﬀerent values of Planck constant correspond to imbedding space metrics involving scalings of

M

4

resp. CP

2

parts of the metric deduced from the requirement that distances scale as (M

4

)

resp. (M

4

). Denoting the Planck constants by (M

4

) = n

a

0

and (CP

2

) = n

b

0

, one has that

covariant metric of M

4

is proportional to n

2

b

and covariant metric of CP

2

to n

2

a

. In K¨ahler action

only the eﬀective Planck constant

eff

/

0

= (M

4

)/(CP

2

) appears and by quantum classical

correspondence same is true for Sch¨odinger equation. Elementary particle mass spectrum is also

invariant. Same applies to gravitational constant. The alternative assumption that M

4

Planck

constant is proportional to n

b

would imply invariance of Schr¨odinger equation but would not

allow to explain Bohr quantization of planetary orbits and would to certain degree trivialize the

theory.

2. M

4

and CP

2

Planck constants do not fully characterize a given sector M

4

±

CP

2

. Rather,

the scaling factors of Planck constant given by the integer n characterizing the quantum phase

q = exp(iπ/n) corresponds to the order of the maximal cyclic subgroup for the group G ⊂ SU(2)

characterizing the Jones inclusion ^ ⊂ ´ of hyper-ﬁnite factors realized as subalgebras of the

Cliﬀord algebra of the ”world of the classical worlds”. This means that subfactor ^ gives rise

to G-invariant conﬁguration space spinors having interpretation as G-invariant fermionic states.

3. G

b

⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SU(3) deﬁnes a covering of M

4

+

by CP

2

points and G

a

⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SL(2, C)

covering of CP

2

by M

4

+

points with ﬁxed points deﬁning orbifold singularities. Diﬀerent sectors

are glued together along CP

2

if G

b

is same for them and along M

4

+

if G

a

is same for them. The

degrees of freedom lost by G-invariance in fermionic degrees of freedom are gained back since the

discrete degrees of freedom provided by covering allow many-particle states formed from single

particle states realized in G group algebra. Among other things these many-particle states make

possible the notion of N-atom.

4. Phases with diﬀerent values of scalings of M

4

and CP

2

Planck constants behave like dark

matter with respect to each other in the sense that they do not have direct interactions except at

criticality corresponding to a leakage between diﬀerent sectors of imbedding space glued together

along M

4

or CP

2

factors. In large (M

4

) phases various quantum time and length scales are

scaled up which means macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence. In particular,

quantum energies associated with classical frequencies are scaled up by a factor n

a

/n

b

which is

of special relevance for cyclotron energies and phonon energies (superconductivity). For large

(CP

2

) the value of

eff

is small: this leads to interesting physics: in particular the binding

energy scale of hydrogen atom increases by the factor n

b

/n

2

a

.

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 33

A further generalization of the notion of imbedding space?

The original idea was that the proposed modiﬁcation of the imbedding space could explain naturally

phenomena like quantum Hall eﬀect involving fractionization of quantum numbers like spin and charge.

This does not however seem to be the case. G

a

G

b

implies just the opposite if these quantum numbers

are assigned with the symmetries of the imbedding space. For instance, quantization unit for orbital

angular momentum becomes n

a

where Z

n

a

is the maximal cyclic subgroup of G

a

.

One can however imagine of obtaining fractionization at the level of imbedding space for space-

time sheets, which are analogous to multi-sheeted Riemann surfaces (say Riemann surfaces associated

with z

1/n

since the rotation by 2π understood as a homotopy of M

4

lifted to the space-time sheet

is a non-closed curve. Continuity requirement indeed allows fractionization of the orbital quantum

numbers and color in this kind of situation.

1. Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible

The observation above stimulates the question whether it might be possible in some sense to replace

H or its factors by their multiple coverings.

1. This is certainly not possible for M

4

, CP

2

, or H since their fundamental groups are trivial.

On the other hand, the ﬁxing of quantization axes implies a selection of the sub-space H

4

=

M

2

S

2

⊂ M

4

CP

2

, where S

2

is a geodesic sphere of CP

2

.

ˆ

M

4

= M

4

`M

2

and

ˆ

CP

2

= CP

2

`S

2

have fundamental group Z since the codimension of the excluded sub-manifold is equal to two

and homotopically the situation is like that for a punctured plane. The exclusion of these sub-

manifolds deﬁned by the choice of quantization axes could naturally give rise to the desired

situation.

2. Zero energy ontology forces to modify this picture somewhat. In zero energy ontology causal

diamonds (CDs) deﬁned as the intersections of future and past directed light-cones are loci for

zero energy states containing positive and negative energy parts of state at the two light-cone

boundaries. The location of CD in M

4

is arbitrary but p-adic length scale hypothesis suggests

that the temporal distances between tips of CD come as powers of 2 using CP

2

size as unit.

Thus M

4

is replaces by CD and

ˆ

M

4

is replaced with

ˆ

CD deﬁned in obvious manner.

3. H

4

represents a straight cosmic string inside CD. Quantum ﬁeld theory phase corresponds to

Jones inclusions with Jones index ´ : ^ < 4. Stringy phase would by previous arguments

correspond to ´: ^ = 4. Also these Jones inclusions are labeled by ﬁnite subgroups of SO(3)

and thus by Z

n

identiﬁed as a maximal Abelian subgroup.

One can argue that cosmic strings are not allowed in QFT phase. This would encourage the

replacement

ˆ

CD

ˆ

CP

2

implying that surfaces in CD S

2

and (M

2

∩ CD) CP

2

are not

allowed. In particular, cosmic strings and CP

2

type extremals with M

4

projection in M

2

and

thus light-like geodesic without zitterwebegung essential for massivation are forbidden. This

brings in mind instability of Higgs=0 phase.

4. The covering spaces in question would correspond to the Cartesian products

ˆ

CD

n

a

ˆ

CP

2n

b

of the covering spaces of

ˆ

CD and

ˆ

CP

2

by Z

n

a

and Z

n

b

with fundamental group is Z

n

a

Z

n

b

.

One can also consider extension by replacing M

2

∩ CD and S

2

with its orbit under G

a

(say

tedrahedral, octahedral, or icosahedral group). The resulting space will be denoted by

ˆ

CD

ˆ

G

a

resp.

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

G

b

.

5. One expects the discrete subgroups of SU(2) emerge naturally in this framework if one allows

the action of these groups on the singular sub-manifolds M

2

∩CD or S

2

. This would replace the

singular manifold with a set of its rotated copies in the case that the subgroups have genuinely

3-dimensional action (the subgroups which corresponds to exceptional groups in the ADE corre-

spondence). For instance, in the case of M

2

∩CD the quantization axes for angular momentum

would be replaced by the set of quantization axes going through the vertices of tedrahedron, oc-

tahedron, or icosahedron. This would bring non-commutative homotopy groups into the picture

in a natural manner.

6. Also the orbifolds

ˆ

CD/G

a

ˆ

CP

2

/G

b

can be allowed as also the spaces

ˆ

CD/G

a

(

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

G

b

)

and (

ˆ

CD

ˆ

G

a

)

ˆ

CP

2

/G

b

. Hence the previous framework would generalize considerably by the

allowance of both coset spaces and covering spaces.

34 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

There are several non-trivial questions related to the details of the gluing procedure and phase

transition as motion of partonic 2-surface from one sector of the imbedding space to another one.

1. How the gluing of copies of imbedding space at (M

2

∩ CD) CP

2

takes place? It would seem

that the covariant metric of M

4

factor proportional to

2

must be discontinuous at the singular

manifold since only in this manner the idea about diﬀerent scaling factor of M

4

metric can make

sense. This is consistent with the identical vanishing of Chern-Simons action in M

2

S

2

.

2. One might worry whether the phase transition changing Planck constant means an instantaneous

change of the size of partonic 2-surface in CD degrees of freedom. This is not the case. Light-

likeness in (M

2

∩CD) S

2

makes sense only for surfaces X

1

D

2

⊂ (M

2

∩CD) S

2

, where X

1

is light-like geodesic. The requirement that the partonic 2-surface X

2

moving from one sector

of H to another one is light-like at (M

2

∩CD) S

2

irrespective of the value of Planck constant

requires that X

2

has single point of (M

2

∩ CD) as M

2

projection. Hence no sudden change of

the size X

2

occurs.

3. A natural question is whether the phase transition changing the value of Planck constant can

occur purely classically or whether it is analogous to quantum tunneling. Classical non-vacuum

extremals of Chern-Simons action have two-dimensional CP

2

projection to homologically non-

trivial geodesic sphere S

2

I

. The deformation of the entire S

2

I

to homologically trivial geodesic

sphere S

2

II

is not possible so that only combinations of partonic 2-surfaces with vanishing total

homology charge (K¨ahler magnetic charge) can in principle move from sector to another one,

and this process involves fusion of these 2-surfaces such that CP

2

projection becomes single

homologically trivial 2-surface. A piece of a non-trivial geodesic sphere S

2

I

of CP

2

can be

deformed to that of S

2

II

using 2-dimensional homotopy ﬂattening the piece of S

2

to curve. If this

homotopy cannot be chosen to be light-like, the phase transitions changing Planck constant take

place only via quantum tunnelling. Obviously the notions of light-like homotopies (cobordisms)

and classical light-like homotopies (cobordisms) are very relevant for the understanding of phase

transitions changing Planck constant.

2. Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones inclusions?

What could be the interpretation of these two kinds of spaces?

1. Jones inclusions appear in two varieties corresponding to ´ : ^ < 4 and ´ : ^ = 4 and one

can assign a hierarchy of subgroups of SU(2) with both of them. In particular, their maximal

Abelian subgroups Z

n

label these inclusions. The interpretation of Z

n

as invariance group is

natural for ´ : ^ < 4 and it naturally corresponds to the coset spaces. For ´ : ^ = 4 the

interpretation of Z

n

has remained open. Obviously the interpretation of Z

n

as the homology

group deﬁning covering would be natural.

2. ´ : ^ = 4 should correspond to the allowance of cosmic strings and other analogous objects.

Does the introduction of the covering spaces bring in cosmic strings in some controlled manner?

Formally the subgroup of SU(2) deﬁning the inclusion is SU(2) would mean that states are

SU(2) singlets which is something non-physical. For covering spaces one would however obtain

the degrees of freedom associated with the discrete ﬁber and the degrees of freedom in question

would not disappear completely and would be characterized by the discrete subgroup of SU(2).

For anyons the non-trivial homotopy of plane brings in non-trivial connection with a ﬂat cur-

vature and the non-trivial dynamics of topological QFTs. Also now one might expect similar

non-trivial contribution to appear in the spinor connection of

ˆ

CD

ˆ

G

a

and

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

G

b

. In confor-

mal ﬁeld theory models non-trivial monodromy would correspond to the presence of punctures

in plane.

3. For factor spaces the unit for quantum numbers like orbital angular momentum is multiplied

by n

a

resp. n

b

and for coverings it is divided by this number. These two kind of spaces are

in a well deﬁned sense obtained by multiplying and dividing the factors of

ˆ

H by G

a

resp. G

b

and multiplication and division are expected to relate to Jones inclusions with ´: ^ < 4 and

´: ^ = 4, which both are labeled by a subset of discrete subgroups of SU(2).

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 35

4. The discrete subgroups of SU(2) with ﬁxed quantization axes possess a well deﬁned multipli-

cation with product deﬁned as the group generated by forming all possible products of group

elements as elements of SU(2). This product is commutative and all elements are idempotent

and thus analogous to projectors. Trivial group G

1

, two-element group G

2

consisting of reﬂec-

tion and identity, the cyclic groups Z

p

, p prime, and tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral

groups are the generators of this algebra.

By commutativity one can regard this algebra as an 11-dimensional module having natural numbers

as coeﬃcients (”rig”). The trivial group G

1

, two-element group G

2

¡ generated by reﬂection, and

tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral groups deﬁne 5 generating elements for this algebra. The

products of groups other than trivial group deﬁne 10 units for this algebra so that there are 11 units

altogether. The groups Z

p

generate a structure analogous to natural numbers acting as analog of

coeﬃcients of this structure. Clearly, one has eﬀectively 11-dimensional commutative algebra in 1-1

correspondence with the 11-dimensional ”half-lattice” N

11

(N denotes natural numbers). Leaving

away reﬂections, one obtains N

7

. The projector representation suggests a connection with Jones

inclusions. An interesting question concerns the possible Jones inclusions assignable to the subgroups

containing inﬁnitely manner elements. Reader has of course already asked whether dimensions 11,

7 and their diﬀerence 4 might relate somehow to the mathematical structures of M-theory with 7

compactiﬁed dimensions. One could introduce generalized conﬁguration space spinor ﬁelds in the

conﬁguration space labelled by sectors of H with given quantization axes. By introducing Fourier

transform in N

11

one would formally obtain an inﬁnite-component ﬁeld in 11-D space.

The question how do the Planck constants associated with factors and coverings relate is far from

trivial and I have considered several options.

1. If one assumes that

2

(X), X = M

4

, CP

2

corresponds to the scaling of the covariant metric

tensor g

ij

and performs an over-all scaling of metric allowed by Weyl invariance of K¨ahler action

by dividing metric with

2

(CP

2

), one obtains r

2

≡

2

/

2

0

2

(M

4

)/

2

(CP

2

). This puts M

4

and

CP

2

in a very symmetric role and allows much more ﬂexibility in the identiﬁcation of symmetries

associated with large Planck constant phases.

2. Algebraist would argue that Planck constant must deﬁne a homomorphism respecting multipli-

cation and division (when possible) by G

i

. This requires r(X) = (X)

0

= n for covering and

r(X) = 1/n for factor space or vice versa. This gives two options.

3. Option I: r(X) = n for covering and r(X) = 1/n for factor space gives r ≡ /

0

= r(M

4

)/r(CP

2

).

This gives r = n

a

/n

b

for

ˆ

H/G

a

G

b

option and r = n

b

/n

a

for

ˆ

H

ˆ

times(G

a

G

b

) option with

obvious formulas for hybrid cases.

4. Option II: r(X) = 1/n for covering and r(X) = n for factor space gives r = r(CP

2

)/r(M

4

).

This gives r = n

b

/n

a

for

ˆ

H/G

a

G

b

option and r = n

a

/n

b

for

ˆ

H

ˆ

times(G

a

G

b

) option with

obvious formulas for the hybrid cases.

5. At quantum level the fractionization would come from the modiﬁcation of fermionic anti-

commutation (bosonic commutation) relations involving at the right hand side so that particle

number becomes a multiple of 1/n or n. If one postulates that the total number states is invari-

ant in the transition, the increase in the number of sheets is compensated by the increase of the

fundamental phase space volume proportional to . This would give r(X) →r(X)/n for factor

space and r(X) →nr(X) for the covering space to compensate the n-fold reduction/increase of

states. This would favor Option II.

6. The second manner to distinguish between these two options is to apply the theory to concrete

physical situations. Since G

a

and G

b

act as symmetries in CD and CP

2

degrees of freedom, one

might of being able to distinguish between the two options if it is possible to distinguish between

the action of G as symmetry of quantum states associated with covering and factor space. Also

the quantization of the orbital spin quantum number at single particle level as multiples of n

can be distinguished from that in multiples of 1/n.

3. A simple model of fractional quantum Hall eﬀect

36 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

The generalization of the imbedding space suggests that it could possible to understand fractional

quantum Hall eﬀect [34] at the level of basic quantum TGD. This section represents the ﬁrst rough

model of QHE constructed for a couple of years ago is discussed. Needless to emphasize, the model

represents only the basic idea and involves ad hoc assumption about charge fractionization.

Recall that the formula for the quantized Hall conductance is given by

σ = ν

e

2

h

,

ν =

n

m

. (1.2.1)

Series of fractions in ν = 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, 4/9, 5/11, 6/13, 7/15..., 2/3, 3/5, 4/7, 5/9, 6/11, 7/13..., 5/3, 8/5, 11/7, 14/9...4/3, 7/5, 10/7, 13/9...,

1/5, 2/9, 3/13..., 2/7, 3/11..., 1/7.... with odd denominator have been observed as are also ν = 1/2 and

ν = 5/2 states with even denominator [34].

The model of Laughlin [34] cannot explain all aspects of FQHE. The best existing model proposed

originally by Jain is based on composite fermions resulting as bound states of electron and even number

of magnetic ﬂux quanta [35]. Electrons remain integer charged but due to the eﬀective magnetic ﬁeld

electrons appear to have fractional charges. Composite fermion picture predicts all the observed

fractions and also their relative intensities and the order in which they appear as the quality of sample

improves.

The generalization of the notion of imbedding space suggests the possibility to interpret these

states in terms of fractionized charge, spin, and electron number. There are four combinations of

covering and factors spaces of CP

2

and three of them can lead to the increase of Planck constant.

Besides this there are two options for the formula of Planck constant so that which the very meager

theoretical background one can make only guesses. On the following just for fun consideration option

I is considered although the conservation of number of states in the phase transition changing favors

option II.

1. The easiest manner to understand the observed fractions is by assuming that both M

4

and CP

2

correspond to covering spaces so that both spin and electric charge and fermion number are

fractionized. This means that e in electronic charge density is replaced with fractional charge.

Quantized magnetic ﬂux is proportional to e and the question is whether also here fractional

charge appears. Assume that this does not occur.

2. With this assumption the expression for the Planck constant becomes for Option II as r =

/

0

= n

a

/n

b

and charge and spin units are equal to 1/n

b

and 1/n

a

respectively. This gives

ν = nn

a

/n

b

. The values m = 2, 3, 5, 7, .. are observed. Planck constant can have arbitrarily

large values. There are general arguments stating that also spin is fractionized in FQHE.

3. The appearance of ν = 5/2 has been observed [36]. The fractionized charge is e/4 in this case.

Since n

i

> 3 holds true if coverings are correlates for Jones inclusions, this requires to n

b

= 4

and n

a

= 10. n

b

predicting a correct fractionization of charge. The alternative option would

be n

b

= 2 that also Z

2

would appear as the fundamental group of the covering space. Filling

fraction 1/2 corresponds in the composite fermion model and also experimentally to the limit

of zero magnetic ﬁeld [35]. n

b

= 2 is however inconsistent with the observed fractionization of

electric charge and with the vision inspired by Jones inclusions.

4. A possible problematic aspect of the TGD based model is the experimental absence of even values

of n

b

except n

b

= 2 (Laughlin’s model predicts only odd values of n). A possible explanation is

that by some symmetry condition possibly related to fermionic statistics (as in Laughlin model)

n

a

/n

b

must reduce to a rational with an odd denominator for n

b

> 2. In other words, one has

n

a

∝ 2

r

, where 2

r

the largest power of 2 divisor of n

b

.

5. Large values of n

a

emerge as B increases. This can be understood from ﬂux quantization. One

has e

BdS = n(M

4

) = nn

a

0

. By using actual fractional charge e

F

= e/n

b

in the ﬂux factor

would give e

F

BdS = n(n

a

/n

b

)

0

= n. The interpretation is that each of the n

a

sheets

contributes one unit to the ﬂux for e. Note that the value of magnetic ﬁeld in given sheet is not

aﬀected so that the build-up of multiple covering seems to keep magnetic ﬁeld strength below

critical value.

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 37

6. The understanding of the thermal stability is not trivial. The original FQHE was observed in

80 mK temperature corresponding roughly to a thermal energy of T ∼ 10

−5

eV. For graphene

the eﬀect is observed at room temperature. Cyclotron energy for electron is (from f

e

= 6

10

5

Hz at B = .2 Gauss) of order thermal energy at room temperature in a magnetic ﬁeld

varying in the range 1-10 Tesla. This raises the question why the original FQHE requires

so low temperature. The magnetic energy of a ﬂux tube of length L is by ﬂux quantization

roughly e

2

B

2

S ∼ E

c

(e)m

e

L (

0

= c = 1) and exceeds cyclotron roughly by a factor L/L

e

, L

e

electron Compton length so that thermal stability of magnetic ﬂux quanta is not the explanation.

A possible explanation is that since FQHE involves several values of Planck constant, it is

quantum critical phenomenon and is characterized by a critical temperature. The diﬀerences of

the energies associated with the phase with ordinary Planck constant and phases with diﬀerent

Planck constant would characterize the transition temperature.

As already noticed, it is possible to imagine several other options and the identiﬁcation of charge

unit is rather ad hoc. Therefore this model can be taken only as a warm-up exercise. In [C4] Quantum

Hall eﬀect and charge fractionization are discussed in detail and one ends up with a rather detailed

view about the delicacies of the K¨ahler structure of generalized imbedding space.

Preferred values of Planck constants

Number theoretic considerations favor the hypothesis that the integers corresponding to Fermat

polygons constructible using only ruler and compass and given as products n

F

= 2

k

¸

s

F

s

, where

F

s

= 2

2

s

+ 1 are distinct Fermat primes, are favored. The reason would be that quantum phase

q = exp(iπ/n) is in this case expressible using only iterated square root operation by starting from

rationals. The known Fermat primes correspond to s = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 so that the hypothesis is very

strong and predicts that p-adic length scales have satellite length scales given as multiples of n

F

of

fundamental p-adic length scale. n

F

= 2

11

corresponds in TGD framework to a fundamental constant

expressible as a combination of K¨ahler coupling strength, CP

2

radius and Planck length appearing in

the expression for the tension of cosmic strings, and the powers of 2

11

seem to be especially favored

as values of n

a

in living matter [M3].

How Planck constants are visible in K¨ahler action?

(M

4

) and (CP

2

) appear in the commutation and anticommutation relations of various supercon-

formal algebras. Only the ratio of M

4

and CP

2

Planck constants appears in K¨ahler action and is due

to the fact that the M

4

and CP

2

metrics of the imbedding space sector with given values of Planck

constants are proportional to the corresponding Planck constants [C3]. This implies that K¨ahler

function codes for radiative corrections to the classical action, which makes possible to consider the

possibility that higher order radiative corrections to functional integral vanish as one might expect

at quantum criticality. For a given p-adic length scale space-time sheets with all allowed values of

Planck constants are possible. Hence the spectrum of quantum critical ﬂuctuations could in the ideal

case correspond to the spectrum of coding for the scaled up values of Compton lengths and other

quantal lengths and times. If so, large phases could be crucial for understanding of quantum critical

superconductors, in particular high T

c

superconductors.

Phase transitions changing the level in dark matter hierarchy

The identiﬁcation of the precise criterion characterizing dark matter phase is far from obvious. TGD

actually suggests an inﬁnite number of phases which are dark relative to each other in some sense

and can transform to each other only via a phase transition which might be called de-coherence or its

reversal and which should be also characterized precisely.

A possible solution of the problem comes from the general construction recipe for S-matrix. Funda-

mental vertices correspond to partonic 2-surfaces representing intersections of incoming and outgoing

light-like partonic 3-surfaces.

1. If the characterization of the interaction vertices involves all points of partonic 2-surfaces, they

must correspond to deﬁnite value of Planck constant and more precisely, deﬁnite groups G

a

and G

b

characterizing dark matter hierarchy. Particles of diﬀerent phases could not appear

38 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

in the same vertex and a phase transition changing the particles to each other analogous to a

de-coherence would be necessary.

2. If transition amplitudes involve only a discrete set of common orbifold points of 2-surface be-

longing to diﬀerent sectors then the phase transition between relatively dark matters can be

described in terms of S-matrix. It seems that this option is the correct one. In fact, also propa-

gators are essential for the interactions of visible and dark matter and since virtual elementary

particles correspond at space-time level CP

2

type extremals with 4-dimensional CP

2

projection,

they cannot leak between diﬀerent sectors of imbedding space and therefore cannot mediate

interactions between diﬀerent levels of the dark matter hierarchy. This would suggest that the

direct interactions between dark and ordinary matter are very weak.

If the matrix elements for real-real partonic transitions involve all or at least a circle of the

partonic 2-surface as stringy considerations suggest [C3], then one would have clear distinction

between quantum phase transitions and ordinary quantum transitions. Of course, the fact

that the points which correspond to zero of Riemann Zeta form only a small subset of points

common to real partonic 2-surface and corresponding p-adic 2-surface, implies that the rate

for phase transition is in general small. On the other hand, for the non-diagonal S-matrix

elements for ordinary transitions would become very small by almost randomness caused by

strong ﬂuctuations and the rate for phase transition could begin to dominate.

Transition to large phase and failure of perturbation theory

A further idea is that the transition to large phase occurs when perturbation theory based on

the expansion in terms of gauge coupling constant ceases to converge: Mother Nature would take

care of the problems of theoretician. The transition to large phase obviously reduces gauge coupling

strength α so that higher orders in perturbation theory are reduced whereas the lowest order ”classical”

predictions remain unchanged. A possible quantitative formulation of the criterion is that maximal

2-particle gauge interaction strength parameterized as Q

1

Q

2

α satisﬁes the condition Q

1

Q

2

α · 1.

A justiﬁcation for this picture would be that in non-perturbative phase large quantum ﬂuctuations

are present (as functional integral formalism suggests). At space-time level this would mean that

space-time sheet is near to a non-deterministic vacuum extremal. At parton level this would mean

that partonic surface contains large number of CP

2

orbifold points so that S-matrix elements for the

phase transition becomes large. At certain critical value of coupling constant strength one expects

that the transition amplitude for phase transition becomes very large.

1.2.2 From naive formulas to conceptualization

I have spent a considerable amount of time on various sidetracks in attempts to understand what

the quantization of Planck constant does really mean. As usual, the understanding has emerged by

unconscious processing rather than by a direct attack.

Naive approach based on formulas

The whole business started from the naive generalization of various formulas for quantized energies

by replacing Planck constant with is scaled value. It seems that this approach does not lead to wrong

predictions, and is indeed fully supported by the basic applications of the theory. Mention only the

quantization of cyclotron energies crucial for the biological applications, the quantization of hydrogen

atom, etc... The necessity for conceptualization emerges when one asks what else the theory predicts

besides the simple zoomed up versions of various systems.

The geometric view about the quantization of Planck constant

After the naive approach based on simple substitutions came the attempt to conceptualize by visualiz-

ing geometrically what dark atoms could look like, and the description in terms of N(G

a

)N(G

b

)-fold

covering H →H/G

a

G

b

emerged.

Especially confusing was the question whether one should assign Planck constant to particles or to

their interactions or both. It is now clear that one can assign Planck constant to both the ”personal”

ﬁeld bodies assignable to particles and to their interactions (”relative” or interaction ﬁeld bodies), and

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 39

that each interaction can correspond to both kinds of ﬁeld bodies. Planck constant for the relative

ﬁeld bodies depends on the quantum numbers of both particles as it does in the case of gravitation.

The Planck constant assignable to the particle’s ”personal” ﬁeld body makes possible generalizations

like the notion of N-atom.

Each sheet of the ”personal” ﬁeld body corresponds to one particular Compton length character-

izing one particular interaction and electromagnetic interaction would deﬁne the ordinary Compton

length. The original picture was that topological condensation of CP

2

type vacuum extremal occurs

at space-time sheet with size of Compton length identiﬁed usually with particle. In the new picture

this space-time sheet can be identiﬁed as electromagnetic ﬁeld body.

Elementary particles have light-like partonic 3-surfaces as space-time correlates. If these 3-surfaces

are fully quantum critical, they belong to the intersection of all spaces H/G

a

G

b

with ﬁxed quanti-

zation axes. This space is just the 4-D subspace M

2

S

2

⊂ M

4

CP

2

, where S

2

is geodesic sphere

of CP

2

. Partonic 2-surfaces are in general non-critical and one can assign to them a deﬁnite value of

Planck constant.

There are two geodesic spheres in CP

2

. Which one should choose or are both possible?

1. For the homologically non-trivial one corresponding to cosmic strings, the isometry group is

SU(2) ⊂ SU(3). The homologically trivial one S

2

corresponds to vacuum extremals and has

isometry group SO(3) ⊂ SU(3). The natural question is which one should choose. At quantum

criticality the value of Planck constant is undetermined. The vacuum extremal would be a

natural choice from the point of view of quantum criticality since in this case the value of

Planck constant does not matter at all and one would obtain a direct connection with the

vacuum degeneracy.

One can of course ask whether all surfaces M

2

Y

2

, Y

2

Lagrangian sub-manifold of CP

2

deﬁning

vacuum sectors of the theory should be allowed. The answer seems to be ”No” since in the generic

case SO(3) does not act as H-isometries of Y

2

. If one allows these sub-manifolds or even sub-

manifolds of form M

4

Y

2

to appear as intersection of fractally scaled up variants, one must

replace Cartan algebra as algebra associated with SO(3) subgroup of canonical transformations

of CP

2

mapping Y

2

to itself (if this kind of algebra exists).

2. The choice of the homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere as a quantum critical sub-manifold

would conform with the previous guess that ´ : ^ = 4 corresponds to cosmic strings. It is

however questionable whether the ill-deﬁnedness of the Planck constant is consistent with the

non-vacuum extremal property of cosmic strings unless one assumes that for partonic 3-surfaces

X

3

⊂ M

2

S

2

the eﬀective degrees of freedom reduce to mere topological ones.

Fractionization of quantum numbers and the hierarchy of Planck constants

The original generalization of the notion of imbedding space to a union of the factor spaces

ˆ

H/G

a

G

b

discussed in the section ”General ideas about dark matter” does not allow charge fractionization

whereas the covering spaces

ˆ

H

ˆ

(G

a

G

b

) allow a fractionization in a natural manner. Also hybrid

cases are obtained corresponding (

ˆ

M

4

ˆ

G

a

) (

ˆ

CP

2

/G

b

) and (

ˆ

M

4

/G

a

) (

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

G

b

).

The simplest assumption is that Planck constant is a homomorphism from the lattice like structure

of groups with product of groups deﬁned to be the group generated by the groups. This does not ﬁx

the formula for the Planck constants completely since one can consider replacing the right hand side

of the formula for by its inverse and only physical input can ﬁx the formula completely.

1.

ˆ

H/G

a

G

b

option

The safest and indeed natural assumption motivated by Jones inclusions is that physical states in

sector H/G

a

G

b

are G

a

G

b

invariant meaning a discrete analog of color conﬁnement. This alone

excludes fractionization and actually implies just the opposite of it.

1. For states with vanishing fermionic quantum numbers G

a

G

b

invariance means that wave

functions live in the base space H/G

a

G

b

. For instance, L

z

would be a multiple of n

a

deﬁning

the order of maximal cyclic subgroup of G

a

. Analogous conclusion would hold true for color

quantum numbers.

40 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

2. Just as in the case of ordinary spin fermionic quantum numbers (spin, electro-weak spin) nec-

essarily correspond to the covering group of the isometry group since a state with a half-odd

integer spin does not remain invariant under the subgroups of the rotation group. In particular,

states with odd fermion number cannot be G

a

G

b

invariant. For even fermion numbers it is

possible to have many-particle states for which individual particles transform non-trivially under

orbital G

a

G

b

if total G

a

G

b

quantum numbers in spin like degrees of freedom compensate

for the orbital quantum numbers (for instance, total spin is multiple of n

a

). Hence the group

algebra of G

a

G

b

would characterize the states in orbital degrees of freedom as indeed assumed.

The earlier picture would be correct apart from the lacking assumption about overall G

a

G

b

invariance.

3. The construction of these states could be carried out just like the construction of ordinary G

a

G

b

invariant states in H so that the mathematical treatment of the situation involves no mystics

elements. Since G

a

G

b

is actually assigned with a sector M

4

±

CP

2

with ﬁxed quantization

axes and preferred point of H, one has center of mass degrees of freedom for the position of tip

of M

4

±

and a preferred point of CP

2

. This gives new degrees of freedom and one would have

a rich spectrum of N-electrons, N-nucleons, N-atoms, etc.... behaving eﬀectively as elementary

particles. For example, one interesting question is whether 2-electrons could be interpreted as

Cooper pairs of particular kind This would require either s

z

= 0, l

z

= 0 or s

z

= 1, l

z

= mn

a

−1,

m = 0, 1, 2... For instance, for n

a

= 3 (the minimal value of n

a

) one could have s

z

= l, l

z

= 2

with J

z

= 3. One can also ask whether some high spin nuclei could correspond to N-nuclei.

4. This picture is quite predictive. For instance, in the case of gravitational interactions it would

mean that the spin angular momentum of an astrophysical system is a multiple of ”personal”

gravitational Planck constant GM

2

/v

0

. The value of v

0

could be deduced from this condition

and is expected to be a negative power of 2. In the same manner the relative angular momentum

of planet-Sun system would be a multiple of GMm/v

0

using the gravitational Planck constant

as a unit. This is a strong prediction but reduces to the Bohr quantization rule for circular

orbits.

2.

ˆ

H

ˆ

(G

a

G

b

) option

For this option the units of orbital angular momentum and color hyper charge and isospin are

naturally scaled down by the factor n

i

. In the case of spin and electro-weak spin this kind of scaling

would require a covering group of Abelian Cartan group. Since the ﬁrst homotopy group of SU(2)

vanishes there are no coverings of SU(2) in the ordinary sense of the word but quantum version of

SU(2) is an excellent candidate for the counterpart of the covering. Also quantum variants of other

Lie groups are highly suggestive on basis of ADE correspondence.

There does not seem to be any absolute need for assuming G

a

G

b

singletness. If so, there would

be asymmetry between coverings and factor spaces bringing in mind conﬁned and de-conﬁned phases.

Since coverings resp. factor spaces are labelled by N

11

-valued lattice momenta resp. their negatives,

this asymmetry would be analogous to time reversal asymmetry. Note however that all components

of lattice momenta are either positive or negative and that this ﬁts nicely with the interpretation of

p-adic integers as naturals and ”super-naturals”. An intriguing question is whether there might be

some connection with M-theory and its 4-D compactiﬁcations (dropping reﬂection group one obtains

7-D lattice).

3. Implications of the new picture

This picture has several important implications.

1. There is a symmetry between CP

2

and M

4

so that for a given value of Planck constant one

obtains factor space with divisor group G

a

G

b

and covering space with homotopy group G

b

G

a

.

For large values of Planck constant the large Z

n

symmetry acts in M

4

factor resp. CP

2

factor

for these two options. Therefore the large Z

n

symmetry in M

4

degrees of freedom, which can

be challenged in some of the applications, could be replaced with large Z

n

symmetry in CP

2

degrees of freedom emerging rather naturally.

2. For a large value of Planck constant it is possible to obtain a relatively small dark matter

symmetry group in M

4

factor and also the small genuinely 3-dimensional symmetry groups

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 41

(tedrahedral, octahedral, icosahedral groups) can act in M

4

factor as symmetries of dark matter.

Hence the groups appearing as symmetries of molecular physics (aromatic rings, DNA,...) could

be identiﬁed as symmetries of dark electron pairs. These symmetries appear also in longer

length scales (snow ﬂakes and even astrophysical structures). In earlier picture one had to

assume symmetry breaking at the level of visible matter.

3. The notion of N-atom generalizes. The original model predicted large electronic charges suggest-

ing instability plus large Z

n

symmetry in M

4

degrees of freedom (identiﬁed as a symmetry of

ﬁeld body). For instance, in the case of DNA double helix this kind of large rotational symme-

try is questionable. Same applies to astrophysical systems with a gigantic value of gravitational

Planck constant. The change of the roles of M

4

and CP

2

and charge fractionization would

resolve these problems. This would provide a support for the idea that the electronic or pro-

tonic hot spots of catalyst and substrate correspond to fractional charges summing up to a unit

charge. This framework could provide a proper realization for the original vision that symbolic

level of dynamics and sex emerge already at the molecular level with sequences of catalyst sites

representing ”words” and their conjugates (opposite molecular sexes).

1.2.3 Dark atoms and dark cyclotron states

The development of the notion of dark atom involves many side tracks which make me blush. The

ﬁrst naive guess was that dark atom would be obtained by simply replacing Planck constant with

its scaled counterpart in the basic formulas and interpreting the results geometrically. After some

obligatory twists and turns it became clear that this assumption is indeed the most plausible one.

The main source of confusion has been the lack of precise view about what the hierarchy of Planck

constants means at the level of imbedding space at space-time.

The assumptions of the model of dark atom

Let us brieﬂy summarize the basic assumptions of the model.

1. The quantized values of eﬀective Planck constant appearing in Schr¨odinger equation are in the set

eff

/

0

∈ ¦n

a

/n

b

, n

b

/n

a

, n

a

n

b

, 1/(n

a

n

b

) corresponding to the sectors

ˆ

H/G

a

G

b

,

ˆ

H

ˆ

(G

a

G

b

),

ˆ

M

4

/G

a

(

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

)G

b

, and (

ˆ

M

4

ˆ

G

a

)

ˆ

CP

2

/G

b

. Note that one can consider the replacement of

the right hand side of the formula for Planck constant by its inverse, and at this stage one must

just keep mind open for the options.

2. In the case of covering spaces the units of quantum numbers are replaced by 1/n

a

and 1/n

b

,

n

i

the order of maximal cyclic subgroup. Both fermion number, spin, color, and electro-weak

quantum numbers can fractionize. For factor spaces units are inverses of these and in this case

states are G

a

G

b

singlets: hence N-atoms with dark electrons in general involve many-electron

states with even number of electrons. Simplest situation corresponds to spin singlet electron

pair and one cannot exclude the possibility that valence electrons are dark electrons.

3. It is assumed that the quantum critical sub-manifolds M

2

S

2

correspond to homologically

trivial geodesic sphere. Note that although quantum critical parton orbits are vacuum extremals,

induced electric and Z

0

ﬁelds are non-vanishing in general. This is a very important point

since it makes possible electric and magnetic ﬂuxes between diﬀerent sectors of the generalized

imbedding space H. For instance, nucleus and electrons can belong to diﬀerent sectors of H.

A helpful visualization is provided by a book with pages glued together along M

2

S

2

. Both

electric and magnetic ﬂux are assumed to be conserved as it ﬂows from a sector to another one:

therefore dark electron in the covering experiences the electric charge of nucleus as scaled down

by a factor 1/N(G

b

) giving the number of sectors.

4. In the case of factor spaces 3-surface is invariant under G

i

so that one has N(G

i

) strict copies

of the particle: G

i

invariance selects states with l

z

= nn

a

and forces many electron states in

order to satisfy quantization conditions in the case of spin. Here one can consider the possibility

that single particle states transform according to irreducible representations of G

i

although the

entire state is G

i

invariant.

42 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

5. In the case of covering spaces there is no need to assume that partonic 3-surface consists of

N(G

i

) identical copies. In this case the states are naturally classiﬁed by the representations

of G

a

G

b

identiﬁable as elements of the corresponding group algebra. Apparently one has a

modiﬁed statistics since N(G

a

) N(G

b

) states correspond to the same state in the ordinary

sense of the word. It can happen that the action of G

i

in H has some isotropy subgroup. In

fact, the action of D

2n

in M

2

and S

2

reduces to the action of the corresponding cyclic group Z

n

so that has N(G

i

) = n

i

.

6. One can consider quite a number of variants for the dark atom. Even nucleus could be dark

(either fractionally charged or N-nucleus with charge N(G

b

)). Second interesting possibility is

atom with ordinary nucleus and dark electrons. It is also possible that only valence electrons

are dark and correspond to one of the allowed varieties.

Thermal stability

The energy scale of hydrogen atom is proportional to 1/

2

. Depending on the sector of H and on

the values of n

a

and n

b

the scale of energy can increase or be reduced. Also charge fractionization

in case of covering spaces of

ˆ

CP

2

reduces the energy scale. By the conservation of electric ﬂux this

takes place for both proton and electron so that the energy scale receives a factor 1/N(G

b

)

2

. For large

values of Planck constant the energy scale is reduced and thermal stability poses upper limit on the

value of Planck constant if dark matter is assumed to be in thermal equilibrium with ordinary matter.

The following table lists the four possible options.

I II III IV

ˆ

H

ˆ

G

a

G

b

ˆ

H/(G

a

G

b

) (

ˆ

H/G

a

)

ˆ

G

b

(

ˆ

H/G

b

)

ˆ

G

a

One can also consider two options for the formula of Planck constant.

1. For /

0

= n

a

/n

b

in case of option I and G

b

= Z

n

thermal stability condition boils down to the

condition

I : Z ≥

n

3

b

n

a

x ,

II : Z ≥

n

a

n

b

x ,

III : Z ≥ n

a

n

3

b

x ,

IV : Z ≥

1

n

a

n

b

x .

x ≡

E

th

E

1

. (1.2.2)

Here E

th

denotes thermal energy. Here E

th

denotes thermal energy. Note that option III

maximizes Planck constant for given G

a

G

b

and is therefore especially interesting. Option IV

minimizes in turn minimizes it.

By replacing the formula for Planck constant with its inverse (/

0

= n

b

/n

a

for option I) one

obtains the conditions

I : Z ≥ n

2

b

n

a

x ,

II : Z ≥

n

b

n

a

x ,

III : Z ≥

n

2

b

n

a

x ,

IV : Z ≥ n

a

n

b

x .

x ≡

E

th

E

1

. (1.2.3)

Recall that the preferred values of n

a

and n

b

correspond to the number theoretically simple

quantum phases exp(i2π/n

i

) expressible using only square root function and rational functions

applied on rationals. n

i

are given as products 2

k

¸

i

F

i

, where F

i

are distinct Fermat primes.

2. The original proposal for the hierarchy of Planck constants coming as /

0

= λ = 2

11k

does not

allow stable hydrogen atom at room temperature. This is not a problem since this hierarchy is

associated with cyclotron energies.

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 43

3. For option I with n

a

= 1 and n

b

∈ ¦3, 5, 6, 12¦ one would have Z ≥ z ∈ ¦1, 6, 10, 81¦. Carbon

atom would satisfy the condition fors (n

b

= 5, n

a

= 1) and (n

b

= 6, n

a

= 2).

4. For option II with n

b

= 1 one obtains Z ≥ n

a

for E

th

∼ E

1

. What is intriguing that aromatic

carbon 5- and 6-cycles, which are abundant in biology and correspond to factor space option,

would satisfy this condition for E

th

∼ E

1

. For n > 6-cycles the condition would not be satisﬁed.

Could this condition state something non-trivial about pre-biotic evolution at high temperatures?

5. For option III with n

b

= 3 meaning charge fractionization and n

a

-fold cyclic symmetry one

obtains Z ≥ n

a

1.3 at room temperature. For n

b

= 3 5-cycles with /

0

= 15 and 6-cycles

with /

0

= 18 would be stable below room temperature but not higher cycles. This estimate

is of course very rough since the energy scale E

1

for possibly dark delocalized free electron pairs

appearing in n-cycles need not be exactly equal to E

1

.

6. If one replaces the right hand side by its inverse in the expression of Planck constant the factor

space option would favor the thermal stability for large values of n

a

and n-cycles with large n

so that this option does not look reasonable.

Is the fractionization of principal quantum number possible?

One can also consider the fractionization n → n/n

b

of the principal quantum number of hydrogen

analogous to that occurring for angular momentum. If one assumes that fractionization occurs only

for isometry charges this option is excluded. This argument might quite well be enough to exclude

this kind of fractionization.

Since s-wave states correspond to orbits which represent radial motion between two extremes,

one could consider the possibility of periodic radial orbits which run to maximal radius, back to the

maximum radius at the opposite side and close after N

b

loops of this kind, where N

b

is the order of

maximal cyclic subgroup of G

b

. This would be direct a counterpart for a rotational orbit which closes

only after N

b

full 2π rotations.

One can consider the occurrence of this phenomenon also in the case of ordinary imbedding space.

At least inn this case the interpretation in terms of a transition to chaos might be appropriate. In case

of generalized imbedding space one could speak about transition to chaos by period N

b

-folding and

suggest fractionization of the radial quantum number to n/N

b

. Similar fractionization could makes

sense for all orbits which are not precisely circular. This fractionization would increase the energy

scale by a factor n

2

b

.

In empty space fractional diagonal quantum number would mean that ordinary hydrogen atom

wave functions diverge at spatial inﬁnity. This kind of scaling is consistent with ﬁniteness inside dark

sector if the copies of sheet fuse together at at 3-surface belonging to the quantum critical manifold

M

2

S

2

.

Possible experimental implications

An interesting possibility is the formation of stable hydrogen bonds as a fusion of N-hydrogen atoms

with N −k and k electrons to give rise to a full shell of electrons possessing an exceptional stability.

1. In the case of factor space the state would be analogous to full Fermi sea or full atomic or nuclear

shells. The large value of electric charge might make the state unstable. The resulting state

would be invariant under G

a

G

b

.

2. For covering space option the total quantum numbers for the resulting state would be those of

electron. The degeneracy of states is N(G

a

) N(G

b

)-fold corresponding to the group algebra of

G

a

G

b

. This would mean that the full shell for states with given energy E

n

would have total

energy n

a

n

b

E

n

.

Consider next the possible experimental implications of N-atom concept.

1. Valence electrons could transform to dark electrons in one of the four possible senses.

i) For covering space option fractal electrons could result. Fractal electron and its conjugate

would combine to form a particle with quantum numbers of electrons but with larger mass.

44 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

Catalytic sites are one possible candidate for fractal electrons and catalyst activity could be

understood as a strong tendency of fractal electron and its conjugate to fuse to form an ordinary

electron. The anomalously high mass would be the tell-tale signature of these exotic electrons.

The eﬀective mass of electron in condensed matter is known to vary in wide limits and to exceed

electron mass even by a factor of order hundred: is this really a mere standard physics eﬀect?

ii) For factor space option full electron shells would be the most stable states and would have

have rather high fermion number but vanishing spin. Spin singlet electron pairs would deﬁne

stable G

a

G

b

singlets. These states might behave like Cooper pairs.

iii) If the value of Planck constant is smaller than its standard value, the molecular bonds

containing dark electrons could be stable at anomalously high temperatures. Note that the

dependence of the bond energy on Planck constant need not be non-perturbative as it is for

atoms. For instance, a naive application of the formulas for vibrational and rotational energies

assuming that the parameters of Hamiltonian (such as vibrational energy scale) do not depend

on Planck constant would suggest that large Planck constant implies thermal stability in this

kind of situations.

iv) Both fermionic a (Na

+

, K

+

, Cl

−

) and bosonic (Ca

++

, Mg

++

) ions are very important in

biology. Optimist would interpret this as a support for the plasmoids as predecessors of biological

life. These ions are formed in some manner and the simplest manner would be transformation

of valence electrons to dark electrons and subsequence delocalization.

2. The recently discovered evidence [124] that Sun has a solid surface consisting mostly of calcium-

ferrite is inconsistent with the fact that photosphere has temperature 5800 K (iron melts at 1811

K and calcium-aluminium ferrite in the range 1670-1720 K at normal pressure). Metallic bonds

responsible for the solid state are due to the interaction of delocalized conduction electrons with

metal atoms. If the valence electrons giving rise to conduction bands have a reduced value

of Planck constant, the energy scale of the valence bands would become higher and raise the

melting temperature. The reduction of Planck constant seems necessary by the non-perturbative

dependence of atomic binding energies on .

3. The claims of Mills [46] about the scaling up of the binding energy of the hydrogen ground state

by a square k

2

(k = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10) of an integer in plasma state are a challenge for the theory.

The simplest explanation is that the Planck constant is reduced by factor 1/k.

Before I had realized that

eff

satisﬁes the formula

eff

/

0

= n

a

/n

b

, the presence of k = 2 state in

spectrum was a diﬃcult problem and I ended up with the idea that the quantum variant of Laguerre

polynomials associated with quantized radial motion could explain n = 1/2 and also other fractional

states. Later it will be found that this approach indeed predicts these quantum numbers approxi-

mately! This raises the question whether these states might appear as metastable intermediate states

for hydrogen atom in the phase having

eff

/

0

= 1 and n

a

= n

b

> 1. These states would be unstable

against the phase transition leading to n

b

> kn

a

, k = 2, 3, .....

Living matter could perhaps be understood in terms of quantum deformations of the ordinary

matter, which would be characterized by the quantum phases q = exp(i2π/N). Hence quantum

groups, which have for long time suspected to have signiﬁcance in elementary particle physics, might

explain the mystery of living matter and predict an entire hierarchy of new forms of matter.

As demonstrated in [L7], the notion of N-atom leads to an elegant model for the lock and key mech-

anism of bio-catalysis as well as the understanding of the DNA replication based on the spontaneous

decay and completion of fermionic N < N(G)-particles to N = N(G)-particles. Optimal candidates

for the N-particles are N-hydrogen atoms associated with bio-molecules appearing as letters in the

”pieces of text” labelling the molecules. Lock and key would correspond to conjugate names in the

sense that N

1

and N

2

for the letters in the name and its conjugate satisfy N

1

+N

2

= N = N(G): as

the molecules combine, a full fermion shell represented is formed.

What about cyclotron states?

Dark cyclotron states have scaled spectrum E

n

= (n

a

/n

b

)E

n

and for large values of n

a

one can have

energies above thermal threshold. The crucial observation is that the ﬂux of ordinary magnetic ﬁeld

cannot divide into N(G) dark ﬂuxes since magnetic ﬂuxes necessarily vanish at orbifold surfaces.

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 45

Hence dark magnetic ﬁeld would carry total ﬂux which is N(G) times higher than the ﬂux of ordinary

magnetic ﬁeld of same intensity. Fermionic analogs of Bose-Einstein condensates are possible so that

each cyclotron energy E

n

= n

0

ω would be replaced with spectrum extending from (n

a

/n

b

)E

n

to

(n

a

/n

b

)N(G

b

)E

n

in case of fractionization.

1.2.4 Dark matter and mind: general ideas

Dark matter is identiﬁed as a macroscopic quantum phase with large for which particles have

complex conformal weights.

The sum of the imaginary parts of conformal weights assumed for number theoretical reasons to

be expressible as sums of imaginary parts for the zeros of Riemann Zeta would deﬁne a new conserved

quantum number, ”scaling momentum” [C1]. The conjugation of the complex conformal weight would

distinguish between quantum states and their phase conjugates. This point is important since phase

conjugate photons represent negative energy signals propagating into geometric past, assumed to be

distinguishable from positive energy signals propagating into geometric future, play a key role in TGD

based biology: this distinction cannot be made in QFT context.

Living matter could be matter with a large value of and hence dark, and form conformally

conﬁned blobs behaving like single units with extremely quantal properties, including free will and

intentional action in time scales familiar to us. Dark matter would be responsible for the mysterious

vital force.

Any system for which some interaction becomes so strong that perturbation theory does not work,

could give rise to this kind of system in a phase transition in which increases to not lose perturbativity

gives rise to this kind of ”super-quantal” matter. In this sense emergence would corresponds to strong

coupling. The interpretation would be that strong ﬂuctuations at strong coupling give rise to a large

number of orbifold points so that the S-matrix elements to a phase with larger Planck constant become

large. Dark matter made possible by dynamical is necessary for macroscopic and macro-temporal

quantum coherence and is thus prerequisite for emergence.

Physically large means a larger unit for quantum numbers and this requires that single particle

states form larger particle like units. This kind of collective states with weak mutual interactions are

of course very natural in strongly interacting systems. The N sheets of M

4

±

, where N is the order

of group G

b

involved with the Jones inclusion in question. Each partonic 2-surface appears as N

geometrically identical copies which can however carry diﬀerent fermionic quantum numbers. Hence

the N-fold space-time sheet carry up to N G

b

invariant partons with identical quantum numbers so

that an eﬀective breaking of Fermi statistics becomes possible.

One implication would be the notion of N-atom, which at the level of quantum jumps quantum

jumps integrate eﬀectively to single quantum jump and longer moments of consciousness result. Entire

hierarchy of size scales for matter blobs is predicted corresponding to values of . The larger the value

of the longer the characteristic time scale of consciousness and of a typical life cycle.

In RHIC color glass condensate resembles incompressible liquid. Liquids might be liquids because

they contain some dark matter at magnetic/Z

0

magnetic ﬂux tubes (darkness follows from the large

value of ). Incompressibility of liquid could correspond to maximal density of ﬂux tubes and to the

fact that magnetic ﬁelds have no sources. In accordance with the previous ideas already water could

be living and conscious system in some primitive sense.

The notion of ﬁeld body in turn means that dark matter at the magnetic ﬂux tubes would serve

as an intentional agent using biological body as a motor instrument and sensory receptor. Dark

matter would be the miraculous substance that living systems are ﬁghting for, and perhaps the most

important substance in metabolic cycle.

Hierarchy of dark matters and hierarchy of minds

The notion of dark matter is only relative concept in the sense that dark matter is invisible from the

point of view of the ordinary matter. One can imagine an entire hierarchy of dark matter structures

corresponding to the hierarchy of space-time sheets for which p-adic length scales diﬀer by a factor

1/v

0

∼ 2

11

. The BE condensates of N

cr

ordinary matter particles would serve as dynamical units for

”doubly dark matter” invisible to the dark matter. The above discussed criticality criterion can be

applied at all levels of the hierarchy to determine the value of the dynamical interaction strength for

which BE condensates of BE condensates are formed.

46 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

This hierarchy would give rise to a hierarchy of the values of

n

/ coming as powers of v

−n

0

as

well as a hierarchy of wavelengths with same energy coming as powers or v

n

0

. For zero point kinetic

energies proportional to

2

this hierarchy would come in powers of v

−2n

0

, for magnetic interaction

energies proportional to the hierarchy would come in powers v

−n

0

whereas for atomics energy levels

the hierarchy would come in powers of v

2n

0

(assuming that this hierarchy makes sense).

The most interesting new physics would emerge from the interaction between length scales dif-

fering by powers of v

0

made possible by the decay of BE condensates of dark photons to ordinary

photons having wavelength shorter by a factor ∼ v

0

. This interaction could provide the royal road to

the quantitative understanding how living matter manages to build up extremely complex coherent

interactions between diﬀerent length and time scales.

In the time domain dark matter hierarchy could allow to understand how moments of consciousness

organize to a hierarchy with respect to the time scales of moment of consciousness coming as 2

11k

multiples of CP

2

time scale. Even human life span could be seen as single moment of consciousness

at k = 14

th

level of the dark matter hierarchy whereas single day in human life would correspond to

k = 12.

Realization of intentional action and hierarchy of dark matters

How long length scales are able to control the dynamics in short length scales so that the extremely

complex process extending down to atomic length scales realizing my intention to write this word is

possible. This question has remained without a convincing answer in the recent day biology and there

strong objections against the idea that this process is planned and initiated at neuronal level.

I have proposed a concrete mechanism for the realization of intentional action in terms of time

mirror mechanism involving the emission of negative energy photons and proceeding as a cascade in a

reversed direction of geometric time from long to short length scales [K1]. This cascade would induce

as a reaction analogous processes proceeding in the normal direction of geometric time as a response

and would correspond to the neural correlates of intentional action in very general sense of the word.

The counterparts for the negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past would be phase

conjugate (negative energy) laser beams identiﬁable as Bose-Einstein condensates of dark photons.

In the time reﬂection these beams would transform to positive energy dark matter photons eventu-

ally decaying to ordinary photons. The space-time correlate would be MEs decaying into MEs and

eventually to CP

2

type extremals representing ordinary photons.

The realization of intentional action as desires of boss expressed to lower level boss would naturally

represented the decay of the phase conjugate dark laser beam to lower level laser beams decaying to

lower level laser beams decaying to... . This would represent the desire for action whereas the time

reﬂection at some level would represent the realization desire as stepwise decay to lower level laser

beams and eventually to ordinary photons. The strong quantitative prediction would be that these

levels correspond to a length and time scale hierarchies coming in powers of 1/v

0

∼ 2

11

.

Wave-length hierarchy, coherent metabolism, and proton-electron mass ratio

The fact that a given wavelength length corresponds to energies related to each other by a scaling

with powers of v

0

provides a mechanism allowing to transfer energy from long to short long scales by a

de-coherence occurring either in the standard or reversed direction of geometric time. De-coherence in

the reversed direction of time would be associated with mysterious looking processes like self-assembly

allowing thus an interpretation as a normal decay process in reversed time direction.

It is perhaps not an accident that the value of v

0

· 4.6 10

−4

is not too far from the ratio of

m

e

/m

p

· 5.3 10

−4

giving the ratio of zero point kinetic energies of proton and electron for a given

space-time sheet. Proton mass ratio m

p

/m

e

= 1836.15267261 corresponds in good approximation to

n = 2

2

3

3

17 = 1836. This integer is of form n = 9n

F

. This co-incidence could in principle make

possible a metabolic mechanism in which dark protons and ordinary electrons co-operate in the sense

that dark protons generate dark photon BE condensates with wave length λ transforming to ordinary

photons with wavelength v

0

λ absorbed by ordinary electrons.

Some examples are in order to illustrate these ideas.

1. As already found, in the case of dark atoms the scaling of binding energies as 1/

2

allows the

coupling of ∼ 9 cm scale of brain hemisphere with the length scale ∼ 50 µm of large neuron.

N

cr

≤ 137 ordinary IR photons would be emitted in single burst and interacting with neuron.

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 47

2. For a non-relativistic particle in a box of size L the energy scale is given by E

1

=

2

π

2

/2mL

2

so

that the visible photons emitted would have energy scaled up by a factor (

s

/)

2

· 410

6

. The

collective dropping of N

cr

dark protons to larger space-time sheet would liberate a laser beam

of dark photons with energy equal to the liberated zero point kinetic energy. For instance, for

the p-adic length scale L(k = 159 = 3 53) · .63 µm this process would generate laser beam of

IR dark photons with energy ∼ .5 eV also generated by the dropping of ordinary protons from

k = 137 atomic space-time sheet. There would thus be an interaction between dark protons in

cell length scale and ordinary protons in atomic length scale. For instance, the dropping of dark

protons in cell length scale could induce driving of protons back to the atomic space-time sheet

essential for the metabolism [K6]. Similar argument applies to electrons with the scale of the

zero point kinetic energy about 1 keV.

3. If the energy spectrum associated with the conformational degrees of freedom of proteins, which

corresponds roughly to a frequency scale of 10 GHz remains also invariant in the phase transition

to dark protein state, coherent emissions of dark photons with microwave wave lengths would

generate ordinary infrared photons. For instance, metabolic energy quanta of ∼ .5 eV could

result from macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensates of 58 GHz dark photons resulting from the

oscillations in the conformational degrees of freedom of dark proteins. A second option is that

the conformal energies are scaled by

s

/ (ω would remain invariant). In this case these coherent

excitations would generate ordinary photons with energy of about 1 keV able to drive electrons

back to the atomic k = 137 space-time sheet.

4. Since magnetic ﬂux tubes have a profound role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness, it is

interesting to look also for the behavior of eﬀective magnetic transition energies in the phase

transition to the dark matter phase. This transition increases the scale of the magnetic interac-

tion energy so that anomalously large magnetic spin splitting

s

eB/m in the external magnetic

ﬁeld could serve as a signature of dark atoms. The dark transition energies relate by a factor

s

/ to the ordinary magnetic transition energies.

For instance, in the magnetic ﬁeld B

end

= 2B

E

/5 = .2 Gauss, where B

E

= .5 Gauss is the

nominal value of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld, explaining the eﬀects of ELF em ﬁelds on vertebrate

brain, dark electron cyclotron frequency is 6 10

5

Hz and corresponds to ordinary microwave photon

with frequency ∼ 1.2 GHz and wavelength λ · 25 cm. For proton the cyclotron frequency of 300

Hz would correspond to energy of ordinary photon with frequency of 6 10

5

Hz and could induce

electronic cyclotron transitions and spin ﬂips in turn generating for instance magneto-static waves.

It is easy to imagine a few step dark matter hierarchy connecting EEG frequencies of dark matter

with frequencies of visible light for ordinary photons. This kind of hierarchy would give considerable

concreteness for the notion of magnetic body having size scale of Earth.

A connection with bio-photons

The biologically active radiation at UV energies was ﬁrst discovered by Russian researcher Gurwitz

using a very elegant experimental arrangement [55]. Gurwitz christened this radiation mitogenetic

radiation since it was especially intense during the division of cell.

A direct proof for the biological activity of mitogenetic radiation consisted of a simple experiment

in which either quartz or glass plate was put between two samples. The ﬁrst sample contained already

growing onion roots whereas the second sample contained roots which did not yet grow. In the case of

quartz plate no stimulation of growth occurred unlike for glass plate. Since quartz is not transparent

to UV light whereas the ordinary glass is, the conclusion was that the stimulation of growth is due to

UV light.

The phenomenon was condemned by skeptics as a pseudo science and only the modern detection

technologies demonstrated its existence [45], and mitogenetic radiation became also known as bio-

photons (the TGD based model for bio-photons is discussed in [K6]). Bio-photons form a relatively

featureless continuum at visible wavelengths continuing also to UV energies, and are believed to be

generated by DNA or at least to couple with DNA. The emission of bio-photons is most intense

from biologically active organisms and the irradiation by UV light induces an emission of mitogenetic

radiation by a some kind of ampliﬁcation mechanism. It has been suggested that bio-photons represent

some kind of leakage of a coherent light emitted by living matter.

48 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

According to Russian researcher V. M. Injushin [56], mitochondrios emit red light at wavelengths

620 nm and 680 nm corresponding to energies 2 eV and 1.82 eV. According to the same source, the

nucleus of cell sends UV light at wavelengths 190, 280 and 330 nm corresponding to the energies

6.5, 4.4 and 3.8 eV. The interpretation as a kind of leakage of coherent light would conform with the

identiﬁcation in terms of BE condensates of dark photons with

s

/ · 2

11

emitted at wavelengths

varying in the range .3 −1.25 mm and decaying to photons with energies visible and UV range. For

instance, 1.82 eV radiation corresponds to a dark photon wave length of 1.4 mm for v

0

(eff) = 2

−11

. A

bio-control of ordinary bio-matter at sub-cellular level performed by dark matter from the millimeter

length scale could be in question. This proposal conforms with the fact that 1 mm deﬁnes the scale

of the blobs of neurons serving as structural units in cortex.

The analysis of Kirlian photographs has shown that the pattern of visible light emitted by various

body parts, for instance ear, code information about other body parts [57]. These bio-holograms for

which a general model is discussed in [29] could be realized as dark photon laser beams.

In phantom DNA eﬀect [52] a chamber containing DNA is irradiated with a visible laser light and

the DNA generates as a response coherent visible radiation at same wavelength. Strangely enough,

the chamber continues to emit weak laser light even after the removal of DNA. This eﬀect could be

due to the decay of a dark photon BE condensate remaining in the chamber. Also the ﬁndings of Peter

Gariaev [39] about the eﬀects of visible laser light on DNA, in particular the stimulated emission of

radio waves in kHz-MHz frequency range might also relate to dark photons somehow.

A connection with the scaling law of homeopathy

The value of the parameter 1/v

0

· 2083 is essentially the ratio of CP

2

radius and Planck length

scale (as also the ratio of Compton lengths of electron and proton) and rather near to 2

11

= 2048.

Interestingly, much larger number 2 10

11

· 3 2

36

appears in the simplest form for what I have

christened the scaling law of homeopathy [K5]. This rule has been proposed on basis of experimental

ﬁndings [47] but has no convincing theoretical justiﬁcation. The scaling law of homeopathy states

that high frequency em radiation transforms to a low frequency radiation and vice versa preferably

with the frequency ratio f

high

/f

low

· 2 10

11

.

The proposed hierarchy of dark matter and ensuing hierarchy of dark laser beams decaying into

lower level beams might provide a deeper explanation for the scaling law of homeopathy. The factor

2 10

11

is with 3 per cent accuracy equal to the integer n

F

= 3 2

36

· 2.06 10

11

characterizing

ruler and compass quantum phase. Hence the interpretation in terms of a phase transition leading

from a phase with a large value of Planck constant = n

F

0

to ordinary phase is possible.

In [K5] I have discussed some mechanisms for the transformation of high energy photons to low

energy photons consistent with the rule and proposed a generalization of the rule based on p-adic length

scale hypothesis. For instance, high energy visible photons of frequency f could induce an excitation of

the receiving system having same frequency, propagating with velocity β = v/c · 10

−11

/2, and having

wave length equal λ

0

= f/v = λ/β. This excitation would in turn couple to photons of wavelength

λ

0

and frequency f

0

= βf.

1.2.5 Dark matter hierarchy, sensory representations, and motor action

Dark matter hierarchy allows to develop a detailed model for how magnetic bodies use biological bodies

as sensory receptors and motor instruments [M3] leading among other things to a generalization of

the notion of genome.

For ordinary quantum mechanics photons at EEG frequencies correspond to ridiculously small

energies. Dark matter hierarchy is accompanied by a hierarchy of EEGs and its generalizations with

the scalings of frequencies predicted to come in powers of λ · 2

11

[M3]. For k

em

= 4 the energies of

EEG photons are above thermal threshold at room temperature for f ≥ 1 Hz, and 5 Hz frequency

corresponds to 86 meV energy.

The fact that arbitrarily small frequencies can correspond to energies above thermal threshold at

higher levels of dark matter hierarchy implies that photons with arbitrarily low frequencies can have

sizable physical eﬀects on matter. This conforms with the ﬁndings about the eﬀects of ELF em ﬁelds

on living matter [M3], and these eﬀects allow to develop a rather detailed model for EEG and identify

the parts of EEG correlating with communications of sensory data to the magnetic body and with

quantum control performed by the magnetic body [M3].

1.2. Dark matter and living matter 49

Bose-Einstein condensates at magnetic ﬂux quanta in astrophysical length scales

The new model for the topological condensation at magnetic ﬂux quanta of Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld

is based on the dark matter hierarchy with levels characterized by the value of (k

em

) = λ

k

em

0

,

λ · 2

11

.

1. There are several levels of dynamics. In topological condensation the internal dynamics of ions

is unaﬀected and has the ordinary value. The formation of Cooper pairs involves dynamics

at k

em

= 1 level of dark matter hierarchy. Also the dynamics of ionic Cooper pairs remains

unaﬀected in the topological condensation to magnetic ﬂux quanta obeying k

em

> 1 dynamics.

2. Cyclotron energies scale as as λ

k

em

so that for a suﬃciently high value of k thermal stability of

cyclotron states at room temperature is achieved. Spin interaction energy µ B ∝ S B scales as

1/ since four-momentum and angular momentum are by Poincare symmetry invariant under

the scaling of (the highly non-trivial implications of the invariance of angular momentum

are discussed in [C2]). Hence spin interaction energy has the ordinary value. Unless thermal

isolation is assumed, spin degrees of freedom are thermalized, and only cyclotron degrees of

freedom can be quantum coherent. This is a testable prediction distinguishing between the new

and old model.

3. If the ﬂux quanta of Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld correspond to k

em

= 4 level of dark matter hierarchy,

cyclotron energies E = (/2π)ZeB/Am

p

are scaled up by a factor λ

4

· 2

44

from their ordinary

values and are above thermal energy at room temperature for A ≤ 233Z, where Z is the charge

of the ion. Even for Z = 1 this includes all stable nuclei. Bose-Einstein condensates of bosonic

ions are thus possible at room temperatures at Earth’s surface. Cooper pairs of fermionic ions

are possible only for A ≤ 4 leaving in practice only protons into consideration. Also bosonic

molecular ions can suﬀer BE condensation.

Fractal hierarchy of magnetic ﬂux sheets

The notion of magnetic body is central in the TGD inspired theory of living matter. Every system

possesses magnetic body and there are strong reasons to believe that the magnetic body associated

with human body is of order Earth size and that there could be hierarchy of these bodies with even

much larger sizes. Therefore the question arises what distinguishes between the magnetic bodies of

Earth and human body. The quantization of magnetic ﬂux suggests an answer to this question.

There are several manners to achieve quantization of magnetic ﬂux with dynamical . From

the point of view of EEG and ZEG especially interesting are ﬂux ﬂux sheets which have thickness

L(169)/λ = L(151) = 2.5 nm carrying magnetic ﬁeld having strength of Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. These

ﬂux sheets have thickness of DNA double strand and total transversal length L(169 + 5 22) =

L(257) = 1.6 10

8

km from ﬂux quantization at k

em

= 4 level of dark matter hierarchy necessary in

order that the energies associated with cyclotron frequencies are above thermal threshold. Strongly

folded ﬂux sheets of this thickness might be associated with living matter and connect their DNAs to

single coherent structure.

Suppose that the magnetic ﬂux ﬂows in head to tail direction so that the magnetic ﬂux arrives to

the human body through a layer of cortical neurons. Assume that the ﬂux sheets traverse through

the uppermost layer of neurons and also lower layers and that DNA of each neuronal nuclei deﬁne a

transversal sections organized along ﬂux sheet like text lines of a book page. The total length of DNA

in single human cell is about one meter. It seem that single brain cannot provide the needed total

length of DNA if DNA dominates the contribution: this if of course not at all necessarily. Even for

k

em

< 4 levels magnetic ﬂux sheets could traverse nuclei belonging to diﬀerent organisms.

This leads to the notion of super- and hyper genes. Super genes consist of genes in diﬀerent cell

nuclei arranged to threads along magnetic ﬂux sheets like text lines on the page of book whereas hyper

genes traverse through genomes of diﬀerent organisms. Super and hyper genes provide an enormous

representative capacity and together with the dark matter hierarchy allows to resolve the paradox

created by the observation that human genome does not diﬀer appreciably in size from that of wheat.

50 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

Charge entanglement as a tool of generalized motor action

The charge entanglement by W MEs is an essentially new element in the model for generalized

motor actions by magnetic body. Also the telepathic sharing of mental images could rely on charge

entanglement. The notion was originally applied in the model of nerve pulse generation [M2]. Neutral

MEs would in turn be related to communications and memory. The reduction of charge entanglement

can induce a quantum jump to a state in which local Bose-Einstein condensates become exotically

ionized with certain probability depending on the intensity of W ﬁeld. Bose-Einstein condensates

deﬁne pixels of generalized motor maps.

Exotic ionization induces dark plasma oscillations in turn generating various physiological re-

sponses such as Ca

++

, Mg

++

waves, and nerve pulse patterns giving rise to the motor action as

an asymptotic self-organization pattern. Plasma oscillation patterns utilize typically dark microwave

photons as metabolic energy. Field code is the correspondence between the spatio-temporal pattern

of plasma oscillations and generalized motor action and the number theoretical model for genetic code

[L9] generalizes to this context.

Overview about quantum control and coordination

The following general overview about quantum communication and control emerges in this framework.

1. Cyclotron frequencies relate to the control of the biological body by the magnetic body and

could be assigned with the magnetic ﬂux sheets going through DNA since it is genome where

protein synthesis is initiated and is thus the optimal intermediate step in the cellular control.

2. One of the basic functions of cell membranes is to perceive the chemical environment using

various kinds of receptors as sensors. Neurons have specialized to receive symbolic representa-

tions of the sensory data of primary sensory organs about the situation in the external world.

Receptor proteins would communicate cell level sensory input to the magnetic body via MEs

parallel to magnetic ﬂux tubes connecting them to the magnetic body. We ourselves would be in

an abstract sense fractally scaled up counterparts of receptor proteins and associated with dark

matter iono-lito Josephson junction connecting the parts of magnetosphere below litosphere and

above magnetosphere.

3. This picture would explain why the temperature of brain must be in the narrow range 36-37 K to

guarantee optimal functionality of the organism. If interior superconductivity is lost, magnetic

body receives sensory data but is paralyzed since its desires cannot be realized. If boundary

superconductivity is lost, magnetic body can move but is blind.

4. In the length scales below the weak length scale L

w

also charged weak bosons behave as massless

particles and the exchange of virtual W bosons makes possible a nonlocal charge transfer. Dark

quark-antiquark pairs associated with the color bonds of the atomic nuclei can become charged

via the emission of dark W boson and thus produce and exotic ion. The same can happen at the

higher levels of dark matter hierarchy. This provides a nonlocal quantal mechanism inducing or

changing electromagnetic polarization in turn inducing ordinary charge ﬂows and thus making

possible quantum control.

5. Massless extremals (MEs, topological light rays) serve as correlates for dark bosons. Besides

neutral massless extremals (em and Z

0

MEs) TGD predicts also charged massless extremals

obtained from their neutral counterparts by a mere color rotation (color and weak quantum

numbers are not totally independent in TGD framework). The interpretation of the charged

MEs has remained open hitherto. Charged W MEs (hierarchy of WEGs!) could induce long

length scale charge entanglement of Bose-Einstein condensates by inducing exotic ionization of

ionic nuclei. State function reduction could lead to a state containing a Bose-Einstein condensate

in exotically ionized state.

In this manner the dark charge inside neuron and thus by Faraday’s law also membrane potential

could be aﬀected by magnetic body. The generation of nerve pulse could rely on the reduction of

the resting potential below the critical value by this kind of mechanism inducing charge transfer

between cell interior and exterior. The mechanism might apply even in the scale of magnetic

body and make possible the control of central nervous system. Also remote mental interactions,

in particular telekinesis, might rely on this mechanism.

1.3. MEs and mes 51

Summarizing, charged massless extremals could be seen as correlates for nonlocal quantum control

by aﬀecting charge equilibria whereas neutral MEs would serve as correlates for coordination and

communication. Color charged MEs could also induce color charge polarization and ﬂows of color

charges and thus generate visual color qualia by the capacitor mechanism discussed in [K3].

1.3 MEs and mes

The development of the model for the detailed identiﬁcation of the sensory qualia and brain led to

a general vision about the evolution of consciousness and information processing in brain. In this

section various properties of MEs are summarized.

1.3.1 Massless extremals

Massless extremals (MEs) are an extremely general solution set of ﬁeld equations associated with

K¨ahler action [B1] and representing various gauge – and gravitational ﬁelds [26]. Being scale invariant,

MEs come in all size scales. The geometry has axial symmetry in the sense that CP

2

coordinates

are arbitrary functions of two variables constructed from Minkowski coordinates: light-like coordinate

t − z and arbitrary function of the coordinates of the plane orthogonal to the z-axis deﬁning the

direction of propagation. The polarization of the electromagnetic ﬁeld depends on the point of the

plane but is temporally constant. MEs represent waves propagating with velocity of light in single

direction so that there is no dispersion: preservation of the pulse shape makes MEs ideal for classical

communications.

Electric and magnetic parts of various gauge ﬁelds are orthogonal to each other and to the direction

of propagation. Classical gauge ﬁeld is sum of a free part plus part having as its source light-like

vacuum current. The time dependence of the vacuum current is arbitrary, this is only possible by its

light-likeness. This makes it possible to code all kinds of physical information to the time dependence

of the vacuum current. MEs can have ﬁnite spatial size and in this case they are classical counterparts

of virtual photons exchanged between charged particles and represent classical communication between

material space-time sheets. MEs carry gravitational waves and also classical Z

0

ﬁelds propagating

with light velocity.

MEs can also carry constant electric ﬁeld. In this case either vacuum charges or actual charges

near the boundaries of ME contain deﬁne the sources of this ﬁeld. This situation can be also achieved

if MEs form double-sheeted structures and wormhole contacts serve as eﬀectively sources of the ﬁeld.

TGD allows the possibility that the two sheets have opposite time orientations and therefore also

opposite classical energies. More generally, the exchange of two or more MEs between material space-

time sheets can be such that no net momentum exchange occurs so that the absolute minimum of

K¨ahler action only in a ﬁnite region of space-time and gives rise to new degenerate absolute minimum

of K¨ahler action since ME has vanishing action. This kind of structures are obvious candidates for

cognitive structures since classical nondeterminism is localized in a ﬁnite space-time volume. The

Universe should be full of MEs with all possible sizes since they have vanishing action: addition

of ME with ﬁnite time duration yields new absolute minimum of K¨ahler action since K¨ahler action

does not change in this operation. This suggests that MEs should be of crucial importance in TGD

Universe.

MEs serve as receiving and sending quantum antennae [26]. Light-like vacuum current generates

coherent light. Also coherent gravitons are generated. MEs serve also as templates for BE con-

densation of photons and gravitons with momenta parallel to the light-like vacuum current. Linear

structures, say DNA and micro-tubules, are natural but not the only candidates for structures ac-

companied by MEs. Since MEs are massless, they carry maximal possible momentum. This makes

exchange of ME ideal mechanism for locomotion. The possibility of negative energy MEs is especially

fascinating since it suggests ’buy now, pay later’ mechanism of energy production: perhaps living

matter uses MEs to generate coherent motions [I4, I5].

Massless extremals as general solutions of ﬁeld equations

Let k = (k

0

, k

3

, 0, 0) be a light like vector of M

4

and u = u(m

1

, m

2

) arbitrary function of the

Minkowski coordinates m

1

and m

2

in the plane orthogonal to the direction of the 3-vector (k

3

, 0, 0)

associated with k. The surfaces deﬁned by the map

52 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

s

k

= f

k

(k m, u) , (1.3.1)

where f

k

and u are arbitrary functions deﬁne massless extremals. They describe the propagation of

massless ﬁelds in the direction of k: the ﬁelds are periodic with a period λ = 2π/k so that only k and

its integer multiples are possible wave vectors. The polarization associated with various induced gauge

ﬁelds depends on the position in (m

1

, m

2

)-plane and is in the direction of the gradient of u. Field

equations involve tensor contractions of the energy momentum tensor and gauge current but these are

proportional to kk and k respectively and vanish by the light-likeness of k. Linear superposition holds

true only in a restricted sense since both the propagation direction and the polarization direction in

each (m

1

, m

2

) = const plane is ﬁxed.

What is remarkable that these solutions are not solutions of the ordinary Maxwell equations in

vacuum: K¨ahler current density J

K

is in general non-vanishing(!) and proportional to the light like

four-momentum k. As a consequence, also a light-like electromagnetic current is in general (but not

necessarily) present. The interpretation of the em current J as charged elementary particle current is

impossible and the correct interpretation as a vacuum current associated with the induced gauge ﬁelds.

The ﬁnite length of the micro-tubule plus the requirement that the total vacuum charge vanishes,

implies that the Fourier decompositions of the massless ﬁelds contain only integer multiples of the

basic four-momentum k. The direct detection of the light-like vacuum current inside a micro-tubule

would provide strong support for TGD.

The physical importance of these extremals is suggested by the fact they are in certain sense

elementary particle like objects: in fact, the original interpretation was as a model for the exterior

space-time of a topologically condensed massless particle. The solution set is also very general involving

several arbitrary functions. Although the minimization of the K¨ahler action favors the formation of

K¨ahler electric ﬁelds, massless extremals might well appear as space-time sheets of the eﬀective space-

time. These space-time sheets should not contain ordinary charges since their presence implies a

transition to the Maxwell phase described in an excellent approximation by the ordinary Maxwell

electrodynamics. The fact that vacuum em current and vacuum Einstein tensor do not in general

vanish, could mean that massless extremals serve as sources of coherent photons and gravitons.

Massless extremals can also reduce to vacuum extremals of the K¨ahler action in the case that

the CP

2

projection is, in general two-dimensional, Legendre manifold of CP

2

. These extremals are

however not gravitational vacua.

Generalization of the solution ansatz deﬁning MEs

The solution ansatz for MEs has developed gradually to an increasingly general form and the following

formulation is the most general one achieved hitherto. Rather remarkably, it rather closely resembles

the solution ansatz for the CP

2

type extremals and has direct interpretation in terms of geometric

optics. Equally remarkable is that the latest generalization based on the introduction of the local

light-cone coordinates was inspired by quantum holography principle.

The solution ansatz for MEs has developed gradually to an increasingly general form and the

following formulation is the most general one achieved hitherto. Rather remarkably, it rather closely

resembles the solution ansatz for the CP

2

type extremals and has direct interpretation in terms of

geometric optics. Equally remarkable is that the latest generalization based on the introduction of

the local light-cone coordinates was inspired by quantum holography principle.

1. Local light-cone coordinates

The solution involves a decomposition of M

4

+

tangent space localizing the decomposition of Minkowski

space to an orthogonal direct sum M

2

⊕E

2

deﬁned by light-like wave vector and polarization vector

orthogonal to it. This decomposition deﬁnes what might be called local light-cone coordinates.

1. Denote by m

i

the linear Minkowski coordinates of M

4

. Let (S

+

, S

−

, E

1

, E

2

) denote local coo-

ordinates of M

4

+

deﬁning a local decomposition of the tangent space M

4

of M

4

+

into a direct

orthogonal sum M

4

= M

2

⊕ E

2

of spaces M

2

and E

2

. This decomposition has interpreta-

tion in terms of the longitudinal and transversal degrees of freedom deﬁned by local light-like

four-velocities v

±

= ∇S

±

and polarization vectors

i

= ∇E

i

assignable to light ray.

1.3. MEs and mes 53

2. In accordance with this physical picture, S

+

and S

−

deﬁne light-like curves and thus satisfy the

equation:

(∇S

±

)

2

= 0 .

The gradients of S

±

are obviously analogous to local light like velocities v = (1, v) and ˜ v =

(1, −v). These equations are also obtained in geometric optics from Hamilton Jacobi equation by

replacing photon’s four-velocity with the gradient ∇S: this is consistent with the interpretation

of MEs as Bohr orbits of em ﬁeld.

3. With these assumptions the coordinates (S

±

, E

i

) deﬁne local light-cone coordinates with the

metric element having the form

ds

2

= g

S

+

S

−

dS

+

dS

−

+g

11

dE

2

1

+g

22

dE

2

2

.

Conformal transformations of M

4

+

leave the general form of this decomposition invariant. The

task is to ﬁnd all possible local light-cone coordinates deﬁning one-parameter families 2-surfaces

deﬁned by the condition S

i

= constant, i = + or = −, dual to each other and expanding with

light velocity.

2. A conformally invariant family of local light-cone coordinates

The simplest solutions to the equations deﬁning local light-cone coordinates are of form S

±

= k m

giving as a special case S

±

= m

0

±m

3

. For more general solutions of from

S

±

= m

0

±f(m

1

, m

2

, m

3

) , (∇

3

f)

2

= 1 ,

where f is an otherwise arbitrary function, this relationship reads as

S

+

+S

−

= 2m

0

.

This condition deﬁnes a natural rest frame. One can integrate f from its initial data at some two-

dimensional f = constant surface and solution describes curvilinear light rays emanating from this

surface and orthogonal to it. The ﬂow velocity ﬁeld v = ∇f is irrotational so that closed ﬂow lines

are not possible in a connected region of space and the condition v

2

= 1 excludes also closed ﬂow line

conﬁguration with singularity at origin such as v = 1/ρ rotational ﬂow around axis.

One can identify E

2

as a local tangent space spanned by polarization vectors and orthogonal to

the ﬂow lines of the velocity ﬁeld v = ∇f(m

1

, m

2

, m

3

). Since the metric tensor of any 3-dimensional

space allows always diagonalization in suitable coordinates, one can always ﬁnd coordinates (E

1

, E

2

)

such that (f, E

1

, E

2

) form orthogonal coordinates for m

0

= constant hyperplane. Obviously one can

select the coordinates E

1

and E

2

in inﬁnitely many manners.

3. Closer inspection of the conditions deﬁning local light-cone coordinates

Whether the conformal transforms of the local light-cone coordinates ¦S

±

= m

0

±f(m

1

, m

2

, m

3

), E

i

¦

deﬁne the only possible compositions M

2

⊕E

2

with the required properties, remains an open question.

The best that one might hope is that any function S

+

deﬁning a family of light-like curves deﬁnes a

local decomposition M

4

= M

2

⊕E

2

with required properties.

1. Suppose that S

+

and S

−

deﬁne light-like vector ﬁelds which are not orthogonal (proportional to

each other). Suppose that the polarization vector ﬁelds

i

= ∇E

i

tangential to local E

2

satisfy

the conditions

i

∇S

+

= 0. One can formally integrate the functions E

i

from these condition

sonce the initial values of E

i

are given at m

0

= constant slice.

2. The solution to the condition ∇S

+

i

= 0 is determined only modulo the replacement

i

→ˆ

i

=

i

+k∇S

+

,

where k is any function. With the choice

54 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

k = −

∇E

i

∇S

−

∇S

+

∇S

−

one can satisfy also the condition ˆ

i

∇S

−

= 0.

3. The requirement that also ˆ

i

is gradient is satisﬁed if the integrability condition

k = k(S

+

)

is satisﬁed: in this case ˆ

i

is obtained by a gauge transformation from

i

. The integrability

condition can be regarded as an additional, and obviously very strong, condition for S

−

once

S

+

and E

i

are known.

4. The problem boils down to that of ﬁnding local momentum and polarization directions deﬁned

by the functions S

+

, S

−

and E

1

and E

2

satisfying the orthogonality and integrability conditions

(∇S

+

)

2

= (∇S

−

)

2

= 0 , ∇S

+

∇S

−

= 0 ,

∇S

+

∇E

i

= 0 ,

∇E

i

·∇S

−

∇S

+

·∇S

−

= k

i

(S

+

) .

The number of intebrability conditions is 3+3 (all derivatives of k

i

except the one with respect

to S

+

vanish): thus it seems that there are not much hopes of ﬁnding a solution unless some

discrete symmetry relating S

+

and S

−

eliminates the integrability conditions altogether.

A generalization of the spatial reﬂection f →−f working for the separable Hamilton Jacobi function

S

±

= m

0

±f ansatz could relate S

+

and S

−

to each other and trivialize the integrability conditions.

The symmetry transformation of M

4

+

must perform the permutation S

+

↔ S

−

, preserve the light-

likeness property, map E

2

to E

2

, and multiply the inner products between M

2

and E

2

vectors by a

mere conformal factor. This encourages the conjecture that all solutions are obtained by conformal

transformations from the solutions S

±

= m

0

±f.

4. General solution ansatz for MEs for given choice of local light-cone coordinates

Consider now the general solution ansatz assuming that a local wave-vector-polarization decom-

position of M

4

+

tangent space has been found.

1. Let E(S

+

, E

1

, E

2

) be an arbitrary function of its arguments: the gradient ∇E deﬁnes at each

point of E

2

an S

+

-dependent (and thus time dependent) polarization direction orthogonal to

the direction of local wave vector deﬁned by ∇S

+

. Polarization vector depends on E

2

position

only.

2. The most general MEs correspond to the solution family of the ﬁeld equations having the general

form

s

k

= f

k

(S

+

, E) ,

where s

k

denotes CP

2

coordinates and f

k

is an arbitrary function of S

+

and E. The solution

represents a wave propagating with light velocity and having deﬁnite S

+

dependent polarization

in the direction of ∇E. By replacing S

+

with S

−

one obtains a dual solution. Field equations

are satisﬁed because energy momentum tensor and K¨ahler current are light-like so that all tensor

contractions involved with the ﬁeld equations vanish: the orthogonality of M

2

and E

2

is essential

for the light-likeness of energy momentum tensor and K¨ahler current.

3. The simplest solutions of the form S

±

= m

0

± m

3

, (E

1

, E

2

) = (m

1

, m

2

) and correspond to a

cylindrical MEs representing waves propagating in the direction of the cylinder axis with light

velocity and having polarization which depends on point (E

1

, E

2

) and S

+

(and thus time). For

these solutions four-momentum is light-like: for more general solutions this cannot be the case.

Polarization is in general case time dependent so that both linearly and circularly polarized

waves are possible. If m

3

varies in a ﬁnite range of length L, then ’free’ solution represents

geometrically a cylinder of length L moving with a light velocity. Of course, ends could be also

anchored to the emitting or absorbing space-time surfaces.

1.3. MEs and mes 55

4. For the general solution the cylinder is replaced by a three-dimensional family of light like

curves and in this case the rectilinear motion of the ends of the cylinder is replaced with a

curvilinear motion with light velocity unless the ends are anchored to emitting/absorbing space-

time surfaces. The non-rotational character of the velocity ﬂow suggests that the freely moving

particle like 3-surface deﬁned by ME cannot remain in a inﬁnite spatial volume. The most

general ansatz for MEs should be useful in the intermediate and nearby regions of a radiating

object whereas in the far away region radiation solution is excepted to decompose to cylindrical

ray like MEs for which the function f(m

1

, m

2

, m

2

) is a linear linear function of m

i

.

1.3.2 About the electro-weak and color ﬁelds associated with massless ex-

tremals

Space-time sheets carrying em ﬁelds carry usually also Z

0

and W ﬁelds and it is not possible to speak

about em or Z

0

type MEs. It is however possible to speak about neutral and W MEs. The CP

2

projection of ME is 2-dimensional and in a special case it reduces to a geodesic sphere. There are two

kinds of geodesic spheres in CP

2

.

1. For space-time sheets for which CP

2

projection is r = ∞ homologically non-trivial geodesic

sphere of CP

2

one has

γ = (

3

4

−

sin

2

(θ

W

)

2

)Z

0

·

5Z

0

8

.

The induced W ﬁelds vanish in this case and they vanish also for all geodesic sphere obtained

by SU(3) rotation.

2. For homologically trivial geodesic sphere a standard representative is obtained by using for the

phase angles of standard complex CP

2

coordinates constant values. In this case induced em, Z

0

,

and K¨ahler ﬁelds vanish but induced W ﬁelds are non-vanishing. This holds also for surfaces

obtained by color rotation. Hence one can say that for non-vacuum extremals with 2-D CP

2

projection color rotations and weak symmetries commute.

The MEs corresponding to these two geodesic spheres could be called neutral and W MEs and

they carry color ﬁelds for which the color group SU(3) reduces to some of its U(1) subgroups. Quite

generally, the holonomy algebra of color group is Abelian since the induced color ﬁeld is of the form

g

A

αβ

∝ H

A

J

αβ

, where H

A

denotes color Hamiltonian. Neutral MEs are excellent candidates for

mediating EEG type communications from the biological body to the magnetic body whereas charge

entanglement induced by W MEs would be ideal for the realization of motor actions of the magnetic

body.

MEs are excellent candidates for the space-time correlates of laser beams. Dark matter hierarchy

implies that also MEs can be classiﬁed by the level of the dark matter hierarchy involved. A very

general argument leads to the conclusion that dark space-time sheets, in particular MEs, at the k

th

level of the dark matter hierarchy correspond to space-time sheets deﬁning λ

k

-fold coverings of M

4

(recall that one has (k) = λ

k

0

and λ · 2

11

) [C2, M3]. k = 0 MEs would correspond to the ordinary

laser light.

1.3.3 MEs as absorbing and emitting quantum antennae

How massless extremals generate coherent states of photons?

ME:s can be in ’dormant’ or active state according to whether the em current associated with the ME

is vanishing or not. In active state ME:s generate Bose Einstein condensate type state for ordinary

photons. This means in TGD context the emission of (topological) vapour phase photons (CP

2

type

extremals), which can condense on other condensate levels. ME:s generate gravitonic BE condensate

and the possible biological role of this condensate will be discussed later.

Assuming that the coupling of quantized photon ﬁeld to the massless extremal is given by regarding

the massless extremal as a classical background ﬁeld one obtains QED with a light like source J

α

:

56 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

D

β

F

αβ

= eJ

α

,

J

α

= Jk

α

. (1.3.2)

The system is equivalent with an inﬁnite number of harmonic oscillators each driven by a harmonic

external force and a basic exercise in the quantum mechanics shows that the solutions of the ﬁeld

equations give the new oscillator operators as sums of free oscillator operators plus c-number term,

which is essentially the Fourier component of the light like current in the direction of the polarization.

In the limit that ME has inﬁnite duration and is a cylindrical structure of ﬁnite length L (that is

micro-tubule) one has for J ∝ sin(k

z

(t −z))

a

†

(p) → a

†

(p) +g(p) ,

g(p) =

¸

n

δ(p

0

, k

0

n

)K(p, k

n

)J(k

z

n

, p

T

) ,

K(p, k) = (p) k

1

i(p

z

−k

z

)

(exp(ip

z

L) −1) ,

k

n

= nk

0

=

n2π

L

(1, 1, 0, 0) . (1.3.3)

Here p denotes the momentum of the photon and k the 4-momentum associated with the Fourier

component of a light-like current. (p) denotes the polarization of the photon. J(k

z

n

, p

T

) is essentially

the 3-dimensional Fourier transform of the scalar function J. The infrared behavior of J(k

z

, p

T

) as a

function of the transversal momentum p

T

can be deduced from the fact that the transverse dimension

of the micro-tubule is small (about 25 nm) as compared to 1/p

T

so that the Fourier component is in

good approximation independent of p

T

.

For the frequencies present in the Fourier decomposition of the massless extremal, the ordinary

oscillator vacuum is transformed to a coherent state in the corresponding Fourier mode of the quantized

photon ﬁeld. The essential point is that the wave vectors of the radiation ﬁeld and massless extremal

are nonorthogonal. The radiation pattern resembles the ordinary antenna pattern associated with

an oscillating current J(t) = exp(iωt) in that the intensity of radiation vanishes at angles θ = π/2

and θ = 0. For J ∝ sin(k

z

(z − t)) [K[

2

has maxima for θ = 48.6 degrees and 131.4 degrees. For an

ordinary dipole with J = sin(ωt), ω = 2π/L the radiation pattern is concentrated at angles θ ≥ 40

degrees with maximum and 69.3 degrees and 110.7 degrees.

A more complicated situation corresponds to a group of several massless extremals (say micro-

tubules). If massless extremals are parallel and have same length the previous expression generalizes

with superposition of terms

g(p) →

¸

n

exp(iφ

n

)exp(ip

z

z

n

)exp(ip

T

x

T

)g

n

(p) . (1.3.4)

The phase φ

n

is the phase diﬀerence between n:th light like current with respect to some reference

current. If the positions of micro-tubules and/or phases of the individual light like currents are suitably

chosen then various terms interfere constructively and macroscopic quantum coherence is obtained

at resonant frequencies. Suﬃce it so say that the needed timing is extremely accurate: less than

10

−12

seconds! Since p

z

is small rather larger transversal distances are allowed by the requirement of

constructive interference. In a more general situation also the orientations of micro-tubules can vary

in certain limits. Note that light-like energy momentum generates also gravitonic BE condensates at

preferred frequencies.

Massless extremal is accompanied by a Bose-Einstein condensate of parallel photons

The interaction Lagrangian describing the interaction of photon ﬁeld with the light-like vacuum cur-

rent does not couple to the photons collinear with the vacuum current (light-like wave vector has

vanishing length squared). Therefore the ground states of the system are degenerate since one can

1.3. MEs and mes 57

add to any coherent state generated by the vacuum current any number of photons collinear with the

vacuum current and topologically condensed inside the massless extremal. This means Bose-Einstein

condensation in collinear degrees of freedom.

Collinear Bose-Einstein condensates of photons are crucial for the model of the quantum correlates

of the sensory qualia. Sensory quale is characterized partially by the BE condensate of photons

associated with the massless extremal parallel to the axon. The existence of the BE condensate makes

possible induced emission. For instance, Josephson currents generate photons with frequencies which

are multiples of the Josephson frequency. If the potential diﬀerence in Josephson junction equals to

a multiple of the cyclotron frequency of some super conducting ion, the current ﬂows resonantly in

the sense that Josephson current serves as a harmonic perturbation generating quantum jumps and

gives rise to a large dissipative current and also quantum jumps in either super conductor. Since the

emission rate for photons by the current is proportional to N

2

, where N is the number of photons

already in the state, the presence of the BE condensate of photons with this frequency ampliﬁes the

emission rate. This kind of resonance mechanism is assumed in the model of sensory experience since

it elegantly explains why given neuron corresponds to single quale. Since the potential diﬀerence over

the Josephson junction can correspond to only single cyclotron frequency, the dominance of single

quale is unavoidable even when all macroscopic quantum phases are present.

The existing BE condensate increases the probability of topological condensation of coherent pho-

tons generated by other massless extremals to the massless extremal. This mechanism could provide

inter-neuronal communication mechanism and realize the metaphor about brain as a society of neu-

trons, the notion of neuronal window idea and also give a more precise content to the music metaphor.

In particular, neurons far away from each other could communicate using wavelengths in a narrow

wave length range by this mechanism.

The wave vectors of the photons are multiples of k = π/L. This means that the length of the

massless extremal correlates with the maximal allowed wavelength. For ELF photons associated with

EEG frequencies of order 10 Hz the length of massless extremal is of order Earth’s circumference.

This suggests that more general massless extremals with a topology of torus instead of linear topology

could characterize the topological ﬁeld quanta of ELF ﬁelds. It is however impossible to say, whether

the ﬁeld equations allow more general solutions resembling massless extremals.

1.3.4 Quantum holography and quantum information theory

Sokolov and collaborators [17] have proposed a model of quantum holographic teleportation in which

the classical photocurrents from the sender to receiver take the role of a dynamical hologram. The

connection with MEs is obvious.

1. MEs are carriers of classical light-like vacuum currents (one of the basic diﬀerences between

TGD and Maxwell theory). This suggests that MEs could be interpreted also as classical holo-

grams, which are dynamical as in quantum information theory. Light-like current would be like

a dynamical (four-dimensional) diﬀraction grating. Light-like vacuum currents and vacuum Ein-

stein tensor generate also coherent states of photons and gravitons and MEs serve as templates

for the topological condensation of photons and gravitons to the Bose-Einstein condensate of

photons collinear with ME. The Bose-Einstein condensation of collinear photons and their gen-

eralizations to colored conﬁguration space photons should aﬀect the vacuum current by adding

to the reference current what might be called evoked response. This condensation process could

generate conscious experience and higher level qualia. Thus it would seem that MEs have a

triple role as receiving and sending quantum antennae as well as classical holograms.

2. The proposal of [17] generalizes to the case of MEs provided one can device a method of coding

quantum states of photon ﬁeld to the vacuum currents. The high eﬃciency photodetector matrix

is in which each pixel gives rise to a photocurrent [17], is replaced with ME or set of parallel MEs.

The neural window hypothesis [H4] states that neuronal axons are accompanied by parallel MEs

carrying information between sensory organs and brain and various parts of brain. This is only

a less standard manner to say that ME represents classical dynamical hologram. The possibility

of local light-cone coordinates allows also MEs which deﬁne curved deformations of the simplest

cylindrical MEs.

58 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

The concrete realization of holographic teleportation proposed in [17] brings strongly in mind

the architecture of the visual pathways. Thus one can wonder whether brain is perfoming in-

ternal teleportation of photonic quantum states with spike patterns being directly coded to the

pattern of the vacuum currents ﬂowing along MEs. If spike patterns code the dynamical holo-

gram, a surprisingly close relationship with Pribram’s views about hologrammic brain results.

Nerve pulse patterns could be seen as specifying the necessary classical aspects of the quantum

teleportation (in TGD classical physics is essential part of quantum physics, rather than some

eﬀective theory).

3. Vacuum current at a 3-dimensional time-like section of ME as a function function of time deﬁnes

a dynamical 3-dimensional hologram. This is consistent with the fact that our visual experience

is two-dimensional: the information is always about outer boundaries of the objects of the

perceptive ﬁeld. The values of the vacuum current at a given point are non-deterministic which

means that vacuum current is ideal for coding information. Classical data also propagate without

dispersion with light velocity obeying the laws of geometric optics and MEs imply channelling

so that MEs are taylor-made for classical information transfer.

4. Space-time sheets can have both positive and negative time orientations and the sign of energy

depends on time orientation in TGD framework. This means that classical communication can

occur both in the direction of the geometric future and past: this is essential for the classical

model of the long term memories as a question communicated to the geometric past followed by

answer. The dynamical nature of the holograms means that there is no need to combine 2- or

3-dimensional holograms associated with several moments of geometric time to single hologram.

To remember is to perceive an object located in the geometric past. Of course, fractality might

make possible temporally scaled down versions of the geometric past but the principle would

remain the same.

5. Quantum hologram view suggests that the super-canonical representations at the light-like

boundaries of MEs characterized by gigantic almost-degeneracies are the real carriers of bi-

ological information. According to the general theory of qualia [K3] this information would

become conscious since elementary qualia would correspond to quantum jumps for which incre-

ments of the quantum numbers correspond to the quantum numbers labelling super-canonical

generators in the complement of Cartan algebra. In this view super-conducting magnetic ﬂux

tubes could perhaps be seen as intermediate level in the control circuitry controlled by MEs and

controlling atomic level.

6. This picture leaves open whether there is a level controlling the thicknesses of the magnetic

ﬂux tubes and thus also magnetic transition frequency scales, and what this level might be.

The entrainment of the endogenous frequencies to exogenous frequencies [K5] explains water

memory and the eﬀects of homeopathic remedies [47] and could make possible also endogenous

NMR spectroscopy and chemical senses. The key to the puzzle might be a purely mathematical

problem: how the boundary conditions at the boundaries of the magnetic ﬂux tubes can be

satisﬁed? It might be that the induced metric must become degenerate at the boundaries (

√

g =

0) implying a degeneracy of the induced metric at the boundary of the magnetic space-time sheet.

This need not however mean that the M

4

+

projection of the boundary is a light-like surface:

the projection could well be completely static. This supports the view that the boundaries

do not carry super-canonical representations, which are associated with the imbedding space

projection of the boundary rather than the boundary itself. One can imagine that ME with

the same transversal section as magnetic ﬂux tube is glued to the magnetic ﬂux tube along

this section: this kind of gluing results in a singular 4-surface analogous to the vertex region

of Feynmann diagram and somekind of smoothing-out procedure is needed. The smoothed-out

vertex region would make possible for ME to control magnetic ﬂux tube thickness by varying

its own transversal thickness.

MEs as quantum holograms in the sense of quantum gravitation

Quantum holography principle naturally generalizes to an approximate principle expected to hold true

also in non-cosmological length and time scales.

1.3. MEs and mes 59

1. The most general ansatz for MEs (inspired by the quantum holographic thinking) relies on

the introduction of the notion of local light-cone coordinates S

+

, S

−

, E

1

, E

2

. The gradients

∇S

+

and ∇S

−

deﬁne two light-like directions just like Hamilton Jacobi functions deﬁne the

direction of propagation of wave in geometric optics. The two polarization vectori ﬁelds ∇E

1

and ∇E

2

are orthogonal to the direction of propagation deﬁned by either S

+

or S

−

. Since

also E

1

and E

2

can be chosen to be orthogonal, the metric of M

4

+

can be written locally as

ds

2

= g

+−

dS

+

dS

−

+g

11

dE

2

1

+g

22

dE

2

2

. In the earlier ansatz S

+

and S

−

where restricted to the

variables k m and

˜

k m, where k and

˜

k correspond to light-like momentum and its mirror image

and m denotes linear M

4

coordinates: these MEs describe cylindrical structures with constant

direction of wave propagation expected to be most important in regions faraway from the source

of radiation.

2. Boundary conditions are satisﬁed if the 3-dimensional boundaries of MEs have one light-like di-

rection (S

+

or S

−

is constant). This means that the boundary of ME has metric dimension d = 2

and is characterized by an inﬁnite-dimensional super-canonical and super-conformal symmetries

just like the boundary of the imbedding space M

4

+

CP

2

: The boundaries are like moments for

mini big bangs (in TGD based fractal cosmology big bang is actually replaced with what might

be called a silent whisper ampliﬁed to not necessarily so big bang). Quantum holography would

mean that eﬀectively 2-dimensional conformal ﬁeld theory at the boundary of M

4

+

region deter-

mined by ME determines what happens in the interior at QFT limit when space-time surface is

not regarded as a dynamical object.

3. These observations inspire the conjecture that boundary conditions for M

4

like space-time sheets

ﬁxed by the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action quite generally require that space-time

boundaries correspond to light-like 3-surfaces with metric dimension equal to d = 2. Quantum

holography principle would state that the dynamics related to the metric of the conﬁguration

space, that is genuine quantum gravitation, would reduce to the boundaries of space-time sheets.

The dynamics in zero modes and quaternion conformal degrees of freedom crucial for elementary

particle physics would not however allow this kind of reduction. This would be consistent with

the fractality which is expected to be a basic characteristic of the quantum critical Universe

predicted by TGD. The approximate super-canonical and conformal symmetries would be asso-

ciated with the light-like boundaries of the space-time sheets. Super-canonical invariance would

be broken only by quantum gravitational eﬀects at the level of the conﬁguration space by the

fact that the boundaries of space-time surfaces are actually dynamical rather than ﬁxed. The

cosmological light-cone boundary would be however non-dynamical and this would guarantee

the exactness of the cosmological super-canonical invariance.

More concrete view about MEs as holograms

Sokolov and collaborators [17] have proposed a model of quantum holographic teleportation in which

the classical photocurrents from the sender to receiver take the role of a dynamical hologram. The

connection with MEs is obvious.

1. MEs are carriers of classical light-like vacuum currents (one of the basic diﬀerences between

TGD and Maxwell theory). This suggests that MEs could be interpreted also as classical holo-

grams, which are dynamical as in quantum information theory. Light-like current would be like

a dynamical (four-dimensional) diﬀraction grating. Light-like vacuum currents and vacuum Ein-

stein tensor generate also coherent states of photons and gravitons and MEs serve as templates

for the topological condensation of photons and gravitons to the Bose-Einstein condensate of

photons collinear with ME. The Bose-Einstein condensation of collinear photons and their gen-

eralizations to colored conﬁguration space photons should aﬀect the vacuum current by adding

to the reference current what might be called evoked response. This condensation process could

generate conscious experience and higher level qualia. Thus it would seem that MEs have a

triple role as receiving and sending quantum antennae as well as classical holograms.

2. The proposal of [17] generalizes to the case of MEs provided one can device a method of coding

quantum states of photon ﬁeld to the vacuum currents. The high eﬃciency photodetector matrix

is in which each pixel gives rise to a photocurrent [17], is replaced with ME or set of parallel MEs.

60 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

The neural window hypothesis [H4] states that neuronal axons are accompanied by parallel MEs

carrying information between sensory organs and brain and various parts of brain. This is only

a less standard manner to say that ME represents classical dynamical hologram. The possibility

of local light-cone coordinates allows also MEs which deﬁne curved deformations of the simplest

cylindrical MEs.

The concrete realization of holographic teleportation proposed in [17] brings strongly in mind

the architecture of the visual pathways. Thus one can wonder whether brain is perfoming in-

ternal teleportation of photonic quantum states with spike patterns being directly coded to the

pattern of the vacuum currents ﬂowing along MEs. If spike patterns code the dynamical holo-

gram, a surprisingly close relationship with Pribram’s views about hologrammic brain results.

Nerve pulse patterns could be seen as specifying the necessary classical aspects of the quantum

teleportation (in TGD classical physics is essential part of quantum physics, rather than some

eﬀective theory).

3. Vacuum current at a 3-dimensional time-like section of ME as a function function of time deﬁnes

a dynamical 3-dimensional hologram. This is consistent with the fact that our visual experience

is two-dimensional: the information is always about outer boundaries of the objects of the

perceptive ﬁeld. The values of the vacuum current at a given point are non-deterministic which

means that vacuum current is ideal for coding information. Classical data also propagate without

dispersion with light velocity obeying the laws of geometric optics and MEs imply channelling

so that MEs are taylor-made for classical information transfer.

4. Space-time sheets can have both positive and negative time orientations and the sign of energy

depends on time orientation in TGD framework. This means that classical communication can

occur both in the direction of the geometric future and past: this is essential for the classical

model of the long term memories as a question commmunicated to the geometric past followed

by answe. The dynamical nature of the holograms means that there is no need to combine 2- or

3-dimensional holograms associated with several moments of geometric time to single hologram.

To remember is to perceive an object located in the geometric past. Of course, fractality might

make possible temporally scaled down versions of the geometric past but the principle would

remain the same.

5. Quantum hologram view suggests that the super-canonical representations at the light-like

boundaries of MEs characterized by gigantic almost-degeneracies are the real carriers of bi-

ological information. According to the general theory of qualia [K3] this information would

become conscious since elementary qualia would correspond to quantum jumps for which incre-

ments of the quantum numbers correspond to the quantum numbers labelling super-canonical

generators in the complement of Cartan algebra. In this view super-conducting magnetic ﬂux

tubes could perhaps be seen as intermediate level in the control circuitry controlled by MEs and

controlling atomic level.

6. This picture leaves open whether there is a level controlling the thicknesses of the magnetic ﬂux

tubes and thus also magnetic transition frequency scales, and what this level might be. The

entrainment of the endogenous frequencies to exogenous frequencies explains water memory

and the eﬀects of homeopathic remedies [47], and could make possible also endogenous NMR

spectroscopy and chemical senses. The key to the puzzle might be a purely mathematical

problem: how the boundary conditions at the boundaries of the magnetic ﬂux tubes can be

satisﬁed? It might be that the induced metric must become degenerate at the boundaries (

√

g =

0) implying a degeneracy of the induced metric at the boundary of the magnetic space-time sheet.

This need not however mean that the M

4

+

projection of the boundary is a light-like surface:

the projection could well be completely static. This supports the view that the boundaries

do not carry super-canonical representations, which are associated with the imbedding space

projection of the boundary rather than the boundary itself. One can imagine that ME with

the same transversal section as magnetic ﬂux tube is glued to the magnetic ﬂux tube along

this section: this kind of gluing results in a singular 4-surface analogous to the vertex region

of Feynmann diagram and somekind of smoothing-out procedure is needed. The smoothed-out

vertex region would make possible for ME to control magnetic ﬂux tube thickness by varying

its own transversal thickness.

1.3. MEs and mes 61

MEs and super-canonical and super-conformal symmetries

TGD predicts two kinds of super-conformal symmetries [E2]. Quaternion conformal symmetries corre-

spond to the gauge symmetries of fundamental interactions. Cosmological super-canonical symmetries

act on the boundary of light-cone and are cosmological symmetries.

The non-determinism of K¨ahler action however implies that the light-like M

4

+

projections of light-

like boundaries of MEs take the role of the boundary of future light-cone as quantum holograms and

super-canonical symmetry becomes ordinary macroscopic symmetry. Thus there is a fractal hierarchy

of quantum holograms inside quantum holograms. One can identify the light-like boundaries of MEs

as geometric correlates for selves. Also space-like selves are very probably needed and magnetic ﬂux

tube structures could represent them. Indeed, the non-determinism of CP

2

type extremals represent-

ing elementary particles (their M

4

+

projections are random light-like curves) makes it impossible to

characterize the quantum state completely by the data on the light-like boundaries of MEs.

MEs are natural carriers of super-canonical representations obtained by multiplying ordinary phys-

ical states by conﬁguration space Hamiltonians (functions of CP

2

coordinates and coordinates E

1

, E

2

and S

+

or S

−

which can obviously be arranged into irreducible representations of the color group

SU(3)) and deﬁne an excellent candidate for a hierarchy of higher level life forms. The intuitive

belief that quantum gravitation is crucial for higher level consciousness can be indeed justiﬁed in this

framework: the ’worlds about worlds’ aspect of higher level consciousness is what requires genuine

quantum gravitational states.

The boundary of ME having one light-like direction gives rise to conformal quantum hologram

representing quantum correlation functions for quantum ﬁeld theory deﬁned in the interior of ME.

This 3-dimensional dynamical quantum hologram should code for conscious information about external

world. This information could be determined by coherent light and gravitons scattered from the outer

boundaries of other space-time sheets and could provide a quantum representation for the geometry

of the boundaries of the other space-time sheets.

Super-canonical degrees of freedom makes MEs ideal candidates for the correlates of higher level

consciousness.

1. The states of super-canonical representations have gigantic almost-degeneracies broken only by

non-commutativity of super-canonical and Poincare symmetries which means huge information

storage capacities. Super-canonical representations can be realized in real context using Bose

Einstein condensates of massless elementary particles on MEs. Super-canonical representations

correspond to genuine quantum gravitational eﬀects since wave functionals in the space of three-

surfaces are involved: space-time ceases to be a passive arena of quantum dynamics. In fact,

canonical transformations of CP

2

are approximate symmetries of the theory broken only by

classical gravitation. The notion of ’conﬁguration space photon’ having nontrivial dependence

on conﬁguration space degrees of freedom characterized by Hamiltonian suggests strongly itself

and seems to be crucial for understanding of the visual colors.

2. Super-canonical representations have universal transition frequency spectrum given as multiples

of the fundamental frequency determined by the length of ME. If one assumes that MEs have

lengths given by p-adic length scale hypothesis, fundamental frequencies turn out to correspond

to important resonance frequencies in EEG.

For these reasons super-canonical representations are ideal candidates for an inﬁnite hierarchy of life

forms associated with MEs. The great vision is that MEs and magnetic super-conductors associated

with the magnetic ﬂux tube structures form a fractal hierarchy interacting with the ordinary bio-

matter via the classical gauge ﬁelds associated with MEs [K3, M3, M4, M5].

The standard manner to see the evolution of organism is as an initial value problem with data

given at time=constant space-like section of Minkowski space. This view is deﬁnitely wrong in TGD

framework, where the classical non-determinism of K¨ahler action is absolutely essential for the un-

derstanding of bio-systems and consciousness. Rather, one should see the problem as a boundary

value problem with data given at light-like surfaces bounding MEs analogous to light-cone boundary

identiﬁable as the moment of big bang. This view conforms nicely with the active intentional aspects

of the biological evolution: system can decide what it will be and life is more like a narrative with

deﬁnite goals than random Brownian zigzag curve. The life cycle of the organism is speciﬁed by posing

some requirements which it must satisfy in the form of boundary conditions and organism does it best

to satisfy them.

62 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

Mechanism for generation of conﬁguration space photons

The super-canonical representations should have some interaction mechanism with ordinary matter,

if they are to be important for life. In particular, a mechanism making MEs to emit and absorb

conﬁguration space photons coupling to em charge, should exist. There are good reasons to expect

that direct couplings between exotic super-canonical states and ordinary elementary particles are

very weak. The quantum number L

0

= n deﬁned by the Virasoro generator L

0

= zd/dz (complex

scaling) acting eﬀectively as Hamiltonian in string diagrams is conserved in vertices. For matter

representations massless ground states correspond have scaling quantum number n = n

0

, where n

0

deﬁnes the negative value of the vacuum weight. It must be emphasized that for super-canonical

representations L

0

does not seem to allow the interpretation as mass squared operator as in the case

of quaternion conformal representations. The vertices in which L

0

= O(p

k

) state emits ordinary

particle correspond to np

k

↔(np

k

−m

0

) +(m

0

). The intermediate state is with L

0

= np

k

−m

0

is has

ultralarge scaling quantum number so that the amplitude is suppressed by a huge propagator factor.

The processes involving only L

0

= O(p

k

) states are however not suppressed.

The interaction of the exotic super-canonical states with the classical gauge ﬁelds associated with

MEs provides a unique mechanism of ’matter-mind interaction’. The vanishing of the vacuum weight

of Super Virasoro is very much analogous to the vanishing of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

in ordinary gauge theories. Indeed, the exotic super-canonical representations have unbroken gauge

symmetries, which means that electro-weak and color interactions occur like in symmetry-nonbroken

unconﬁned gauge theory. The presence of long range classical color and electro-weak gauge ﬁelds

implying unbroken symmetries at classical level is important part of the story.

MEs have already at the space-time level symmetries supporting the view that super-canonical

algebra acts as isometry algebra of the conﬁguration space.

First, canonical transformations of E

2

CP

2

, where E

2

is plane orthogonal to the light-like wave

vector k associated with ME, are symmetries of MEs. Also canonical transformations made local with

respect to the light-like coordinate u and coordinate variable v orthogonal to u are also symmetries.

Secondly, arbitrary dependence on the variable u is equivalent with the invariance with respect to

hypercomplex analytic transformations

x +ey →f(x +ey) ,

e

2

= 1 .

where f is arbitrary function. These transformations obey Lie-algebra which is essentially identical

with the Virasoro algebra spanned by the inﬁnitesimal holomorphic transformations.

The general interaction Hamiltonian for this interaction can be guessed by recognizing the following

facts.

1. Interaction Hamiltonian should have the general current-vector potential form

H

int

=

¸

D

G

A

µ

(D)J

Aµ

(x[D)

√

g

4

d

4

x ,

where sum is over the representations D of color group deﬁned by color Hamiltonians and

where G

A

(D) represents analog of the classical gluon ﬁeld associated with a particular color

representation. In the case of color octet representation G

A

µ

(”8”) represents classical gluon ﬁeld

and is simply the projection of the Killing vector ﬁeld of the color isometry to the space-time

surface. The obvious generalization is that also in general case the vector ﬁeld deﬁned by the

color transformation deﬁnes the classical gluon ﬁeld. J

Aµ

(x[D) is the local current deﬁned as

the superposition of canonical generators continued to a function of space-time coordinates.

2. The construction of a local current deﬁned on entire space-time surface having super canonical

generator as conserved charge is highly nontrivial task. It should be based on the observation

that for ME there is a unique decomposition of M

4

tangent space to M

4

= M

2

E

2

such

that E

2

is space-like plane orthogonal to the light-like wave vector k associated with ME. Let u

denote the coordinate

u = k m .

1.3. MEs and mes 63

The task is to continue the canonical generator localized with respect to the radial coordinate of

the light-cone boundary to a function in entire M

4

+

. A possible manner to do this is to multiply

the generator by a plane wave

exp(i2πf(u −u

0

)) ,

where u denotes the restriction of the coordinate u to the light-cone boundary

u

0

= u

|δM

4

+

.

The task is to ﬁx the physical identiﬁcation of the ME frequency. It turns out that interpretation

as energy is the most plausible identiﬁcation.

It might well be that only classical color ﬁelds deﬁne interaction vertices leading to the generation

of conﬁguration space photons. If this is the case the octet representation for conﬁguration space

photons would have a unique role. This would explain why visual colors, which can be identiﬁed

as counterparts of the charged Hamiltonians associated with conﬁguration space photons, are in a

special role. Furthermore, MEs have always 2-dimensional CP

2

projection and carry classical color

ﬁelds and currents restricted to U(1) sub-algebra of color algebra, which need not be however color

neutral. This implies that only particular conﬁguration space photon and its conjugate are emitted

and that only single color is created by the BE condensation of conﬁguration space photons generated

by a particular ME on other MEs.

1.3.5 MEs and quantum control

MEs and classical de-coherence

TGD approach inspires the idea that classical de-coherence corresponds to the decomposition of a

space-time sheet carrying superposition of em ﬁelds to separate space-time sheets carrying the em

ﬁelds appearing in the superposition. Since em ﬁelds live at diﬀerent space-time sheets, interference

eﬀects are indeed absent which means de-coherence. A more precise and rather far reaching form of

this hypothesis is that classical em ﬁeld is unstable against decomposition to MEs. This mechanism

allows to understand what might happen when amplitude modulated em ﬁeld acts with living matter

in the experiments of Blackman [34].

The extreme nonlinearity of the dynamics of absolute miminization of K¨ahler action implies that

ELF modulated radio frequency ﬁeld induces also em ﬁeld component with modulating ELF frequency.

If classical de-coherence generates MEs then classical amplitude modulated em ﬁelds leads to the

generation of a large number of MEs at various frequencies and directions of wave vector. For instance,

modulation frequency and carrier frequency could correspond to diﬀerent MEs glued to each other

by ’wormhole contacts’. Classical de-coherence and geometrically realized Fourier analysis would

be the geometric and classical counterparts for ﬁeld quantization reﬂecting the fact that absolute

minimization of K¨ahler action implies that space-time surfaces are analogous to Bohr orbits.

MEs and conscious holograms

The notion of conscious hologram is much more practical than the concept of quantum gravitational

hologram and generalizes the notion of ordinary hologram by fusing it with the notion of self [29].

Universe is an extremely complex fractal Feynmann diagram with lines replaced by 4-dimensional

space-time sheets and MEs are particular kinds of lines analogous to photon lines. These lines are

like laser beams, which interfere in the vertices of the Feynmann diagram: vertices correspond to

material space-time sheets, atoms, molecules, ..., cells, ... The 3-D hologram vision corresponds at

the level of conscious hologram stereo consciousness resulting when the mental images associated with

diﬀerent points of the hologram fuse to single mental image by quantum entanglement involving also

the sharing of mental images.

An important piece of the picture is fact that MEs appear as pairs of high frequency and low

frequency MEs. The low frequency MEs serve as correlates for remote quantum entanglement, now

between diﬀerent parts of brain. High frequency MEs travel like massless particles along the bridges

deﬁned by the low frequency MEs and serve as bridges between diﬀerent space-time sheets at the

64 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

receiving end. This induces a leakage of ions between diﬀerent space-time sheets, breaking of super-

conductivity and dissipative self-organization: this process which is analogous to the formation of

hologram, is responsible for homeostasis and metabolism and gives rise to many-sheeted ionic ﬂow

equilibrium. Also many-sheeted lasers acting in a very wide range of frequencies become possible.

The frequencies correspond to diﬀerences for the energies of ions at the space-time sheets involved.

MEs parallel to axons can also act as Josephson junctions connecting space-time sheets which can

correspond to diﬀerent p-adic primes.

Phase conjugate laser beams have as their counterpart negative energy MEs and negative energy

photons resulting in time reversal. The time reversal for the dissipation induced by super current

leakage seems also to be a key mechanism of bio-control. This leads to the working hypothesis that

negative energy MEs are responsible for motor control whereas positive energy MEs are involved with

perception and cognition: motor action is time reversed sensory perception in appropriate p-adic

time scale. Among other things negative energy MEs make possible emission of negative energies

making possible buy now-pay later (or let others pay) mechanism and thus extreme ﬂexibility of

energy economy.

Many-sheeted ionic ﬂow equilibrium controlled by MEs

A crucial empirical ingredient supporting the view about a hierarchy of magnetic super-conductors

are the puzzling observations of cell biology (for a summary see the ﬁrst chapter of [67]) challenging

the association of ionic channels and pumps to cell membrane. The paradoxes disappear if cell and

its exterior are assumed to be in a many-sheeted ionic ﬂow equilibrium with ionic currents ﬂowing

from super-conducting space-time sheets to atomic space-time sheets and back, so that the densities of

ions at atomic space-time sheets are controlled by the the very small densities and quantized currents

of dark ions at super-conducting magnetic ﬂux tube space-time sheets and coding the information

about homeostasis of bio-matter [J3]. Also a reason why for liquid crystal and electret properties of

bio-matter emerges and one can understand the function of electric circuitry associated with body

[47].

In this picture ionic channels and pumps would play the role of sensors detecting the concentrations

of various ions and membrane voltages. The dominant part of the ionic currents would ﬂow between cell

interior and exterior as (possibly dark) supra currents and would dissipate very little. The dominant

part of the metabolic energy would be used to build-up of dark EEG with photon energies above

thermal threshold. Also negative dark W MEs responsible for motor actions would suck metabolic

energy.

W MEs connecting magnetic body and biological body can induce charge entanglement by super-

position of pairs of exotically ionized states with opposite exotic charges. State function reduction

then selects either of the resulting states. Exotic ionization generates dark plasma oscillations which

induce by Faraday law electric ﬁelds at the space-time sheets of the ordinary matter. The resulting

ohmic currents in turn realize the control action on the ordinary matter (nerve pulse patterns, Ca

2+

waves, etc...).

Neutral MEs can induce supra currents in super-conducting magnetic circuits by magnetic in-

duction mechanism, serve as Josephson junctions between magnetic ﬂux tubes, and induce magnetic

quantum phase transitions. MEs can generate reference waves or their phase conjugates (time rever-

sals) acting on lower level MEs serving as dynamical holograms. The induced coherent light pattern

and its phase conjugate could act as a control command and its time reversed version. Conjugate

reference waves provide an extremely simple mechanism of healing by time reversal allowing the living

matter to ﬁght against second law.

MEs could ”read” DNA strand to the light-like vacuum current by moving along it and thus

code DNA strand/conjugate strand to a hologram or its phase conjugate in turn acting as a control

command or its time reversal. ELF MEs could do the same at the level of axons: instead of DNA

sequences nerve pulse patterns would be read now. Thus living matter could be regarded as a symbiosis

in which MEs control super-conducting magnetic ﬂux tubes controlling ordinary matter at atomic

space-time sheets via many-sheeted ionic ﬂow equilibrium. DNA would represent the ROM of this

system.

What makes this so interesting is that MEs are at the highest level of quantum control in the TGD

based view about bio-system as a symbiosis in which MEs control super-conducting magnetic ﬂux tubes

controlling ordinary matter at atomic space-time sheets via many-sheeted ionic ﬂow equilibrium. The

1.3. MEs and mes 65

coherent light pattern emitted by ME resulting from the interaction of ME with the reference wave

(its phase conjugate) could act as a control command (time reversed control command) inducing

process (time reversed process). Conjugate reference waves would thus provide an incredibly simple

and general mechanism of healing by time reversal allowing the living matter to ﬁght against second

law. This would be like a general initiating a war by just nodding or shaking his head.

The formation of the phase conjugates could occur completely routinely and explain also why DNA

appears in double strands. ME could read DNA strand to the pulse pattern of the light-like vacuum

current by moving along the strand and thus code DNA strand (conjugate strand) to a hologram (its

phase conjugate) in turn acting as a control command (its time reversal). ELF MEs could do the same

at the level of axons: instead of DNA sequences nerve pulse patterns would be read now. DNA would

clearly represent the ROM of this system. The coding of proteins would thus not be the only function

related to DNA: DNA would be for the cell society what the ﬁrst written laws were for human society,

and the presence of the conjugate strand would make possible a systematic self repair at the cellular

level by time reversal. More detailed considerations along these lines, in particular some empirical

evidence for the hologrammic realization of the genetic code in terms of light-like vacuum currents,

are represented in [H8].

MEs as Josephson junctions?

MEs can induce Josephson junctions between bio-structures. Since the electric ﬁeld of ME is orthog-

onal to the direction of the propagation of vacuum current, the Josephson junction with potential

diﬀerence is formed most naturally when super conductors are joined by join along boundaries bonds

to ME in the direction of the electric ﬁeld associated with ME. MEs can in principle be arbitrary thin

so that the thickness of Josephson junction can be much smaller than the dominating wavelength of

ME.

ME electric ﬁeld can contain also constant component. In this case is however ME is necessary

double sheeted since constant electric ﬁeld is created by wormhole throats on boundaries of ME serving

as eﬀective charges. These MEs could give rise to the Josephson junctions with constant potential

diﬀerence. An attractive hypothesis is that these ME pairs have opposite time orientations so that

total energy of ME pair can vanish and can be created from vacuum without any energy cost. Clearly,

these structures are cognitive in the strong sense of the word.

This coding of the transversal potential diﬀerence associated with ME pair to Josephson frequency

is expected to be fundamental information coding mechanism in living matter. ME pair can contain

also oscillating electric ﬁeld over Josephson junction at magnetic or some other transition frequency

so that MEs are ideal for control purposes.

MEs and the interaction of the classical em ﬁelds with bio-matter

MEs acting as Josephson junctions and containing oscillating em ﬁeld at ELF frequency give rise to a

harmonic perturbation inducing quantum jumps of the magnetic states of ions and explains the eﬀect

of ELF em ﬁelds on bio-matter. Also the presence of the mysterious intensity windows [43, 34, 44]

can be understood. Josephson current paradigm allows to understand this eﬀect if RF or MW MEs

associated with the external ﬁeld act as Josephson junctions.

1. The external electric ﬁeld oscillating with frequency ω (now radio frequency) deﬁnes slowly

varying potential diﬀerence over Josephson junction of length d acting as Josephson junction

provided that the condition

ω <ω

J

(max) = ZeV = ZeEd

holds true. This gives

d

ω

ZeE

.

For E ∼ .1 V/m and ω ∼ GHz which are typical values used in experiments [34], this condition

gives d 10

−6

meters which is satisﬁed if Josephson junctions have size not smaller than cell

length scale.

66 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

2. For ﬁxed length of Josephson junction amplitude window results if the maximal Josephson

frequency ω

J

(max) is slightly above some transition frequency since in this case the stationary

maxima and minima of amplitude lead to long lasting resonant excitation of quantum transitions.

Denoting the relative width of the resonance by ∆ω/ω = P, the ratio of the time spent in

resonance at Ω

J

(max) to the time spent oﬀ resonance at Ω

J

is of order

t(max)

t

∼

1 −

Ω

2

J

Ω

2

J

(max)

1

√

P

.

For a narrow resonance width this ratio can be very large so that amplitude window results for

ﬁxed value of d.

3. Amplitude window results if there is a correlation between the thickness of ME and transversal

electric ﬁeld so that ω

J

(max) = ZeEd(E) satisﬁes resonance condition for some values of E

only, if any. In absence of this correlation Josephson junctions must have discrete spectrum of

eﬀective lengths for amplitude window to result.

4. For electric ﬁelds in the range .1 V/m the frequencies ω

J

are above GHz for d larger than

3 10

−5

meters and correspond to the frequencies for the conformational dynamics of proteins.

There are obviously a large number of frequencies of this kind and several intensity windows.

EM ﬁelds with these strengths should have special eﬀects on living matter: it could be even

that some kind of feature recognition process involving self-organization occurs at these ﬁeld

strengths. Note that the minimal size of Josephson junctions corresponds to the p-adic length

scale L(173) · 1.6 10

−5

meters characterizing structures next to cells in the p-adic length

scale hierarchy.

The interaction of MEs with super-conducting magnetic ﬂux tubes

The interaction of brain with MEs could mean that the super-conducting magnetic ﬂuxtube circuitry

associated with brain eﬀectively acts as magnetometer somewhat in the same way as SQUID magne-

tometer measures the magnetic ﬁelds generated by brain. The resulting conceptual framework makes

it easier to develop a quantum level model for the generation of nerve pulse and for the interaction of

MEs and bio-super-conductors in terms of Josephson currents and super currents and relying on the

notion of stochastic resonance.

Brain could measure the magnetic ﬁelds of MEs by using a mechanism which is very much like

the mechanism of SQUID based magnetometers [18] used to measure the magnetic ﬁelds induced by

brain.

1. A large collecting circuit in which the magnetic ﬁeld of ME generates a compensating current

by the quantization of the magnetic ﬂux might be involved.

2. The ampliﬁcation of this ﬁeld could be achieved if the circuit contains a part which is spiral like

and contains large number of loops in a small area.

3. In the core region the current ﬂowing in the loop gives rise to an ampliﬁed magnetic ﬁeld which in

turn can penetrate into a super-conductor in form of ﬂux tubes and in multiples of ﬂux quantum.

By counting the number of ﬂux quanta one obtains rough measure for the magnetic ﬁeld. In

the case of brain the quantized magnetic ﬂux would directly aﬀect the state of neurons and the

model for the generation of nerve pulse speciﬁes this interaction. This eﬀect on neurons would

be long lasting as compared with the short-lasting action induced by the nerve pulse patterns.

4. The deviation of the ﬂux of the ampliﬁed magnetic ﬁeld from an integer number of ﬂux quanta

could be measured by a neuronal counterpart of SQUID, which basically consists of a closed loop

decomposing to two parts which are joined together by insulator so that current rapidly dissipates

to a minimum value forced by the ﬂux quantization. The current in SQUID serves as a measure

for very weak magnetic ﬁelds of MEs. The non-linear dynamics of SQUID allows also stochastic

resonance allowing to amplify very weak periodic signals. This measurement mechanism might

be interpreted as a mechanism of interaction between super-conducting magnetic ﬂux tubes and

neuronal circuits inducing also an interaction between MEs and neuronal circuits. One might

1.3. MEs and mes 67

guess that nerve pulse generation might involve this kind of mechanism: stochastic resonance

seems to be indeed involved but not in this manner.

The collecting circuits for the neuronal SQUIDs could be of order body size or even larger. In

[K3] I have proposed the notion of magnetic circulation analogous to blood circulation to be a basic

control system in bio-systems. This circulation could be seen also as a collecting circuitry for magnetic

ﬂux ampliﬁed in brain, where amplifying and SQUID type components of the circuitry are located.

Amplifying and SQUID type parts of the circuitry might be also located in other organs like heart:

perhaps even muscles contain amplifying circuits and neuronal SQUIDs. One cannot exclude the

possibility of much larger collecting circuits making possible the control of the organism by the higher

levels of self hierarchy.

The spiral loops used in SQUIDs to amplify the magnetic ﬁeld bring in mind the spiral structures

associated with the self-organizing excitable media [49]. I have proposed in [I4, I5] that spiral structures

might in TGD framework correspond to magnetic or Z

0

magnetic ﬂux tubes which enter along the

ﬁrst space-time sheet to the vertex of the spiral structure, ﬂow to the second space-time sheet, and

return along the spiral loop. These spiral loops could be also ionic em or Z

0

super-conductors. This

kind of spiral loop might perhaps serve as an ampliﬁer of the magnetic ﬂux generated by the super

current ﬂowing along the loop.

Very general empirical inputs [67] in dramatic conﬂict with the standard vision about what home-

ostasis between cell interior and exterior means, lead naturally to a model in which the interaction of

MEs with neuron occurs via magnetic induction mechanism leading also to the generation of nerve

pulses. The notion of ﬂow equilibrium in the many-sheeted space-time is essentially involved. The

mechanism can also involve stochastic resonance as a means of transforming the oscillatory motion of

the gravitational pendulum serving as an analog system to a rotational motion. The necessary noise

could correspond to the noisy part of the super current perhaps induced by the incoming nerve pulses.

Genetic code and color?

It is gradually becoming clear that the possibility of classical color gauge ﬁelds, the center of mass color

degrees of freedom of space-time sheets analogous to rigid body degrees of freedom, and conﬁguration

space color might have deep implications for the understanding of living matter and consciousness.

Colored MEs, or what what might be called conﬁguration space photons, are one possible candidate

for colored particles involved with the realization of color vision. They might be also an essential

element of bio-control using the analogs of laser beams and there phase conjugates to represent control

commands and their time reversals. This raises the question whether color might relate somehow with

the realization of genetic code. The following speculations are just ﬁrst speculations but might help

to open gates of imagination.

1. Minimal translation of the genetic code to holograms

Conﬁguration space photons represent genuinely quantum gravitational states, state functionals in

the ’world of worlds’, and thus they should correspond to highest level of self hierarchy and perform

quantum control. Since color and polarization represented as angular momentum component in di-

rection of ME characterize conﬁguration space dependence, they could play a fundamental role in the

control mechanism and control commands represented by quantum holograms should be characterized

by a collection of these quantum numbers. In particular, genetic code might be expressible in terms

of these basic quantum numbers.

There is a thought provoking connection with the TGD based model of genetic code predicting

entire hierarchy of genetic codes.

1. At the ﬁrst interesting level one has 4 nucleotides corresponding to 2

2

= 4 mutually consistent

statements in the set of 7 = 2

3

−1 statements coded by 3 bits and one statement thrown away.

2. DNA triplets correspond to the subset of 2

6

= 64 mutually consistent statements of 2

7

−1 = 127

statements coded by 7 bits with one statement thrown away. At the next level one has 2

127

−1

statements and the number of the mutually consistent statements is 2

126

= 2

6×21

. It is not an

accident that 126 decomposes into the product of numbers 6 and 21, where 21 is the number of

diﬀerent aminoacids with stopping sign counted formally as an aminoacid.

68 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

What makes the bell ringing is the appearance of the number 6 = 3 + 3 primary colors and their

conjugates. Could the number of nucleotides in the DNA triplet and its conjugate somehow correspond

to the 3 primary colors and their complementary colors somehow? Note that also the 2-dimensional

conﬁguration spin is involved, and has two symmetry-related values J and −J (conﬁguration space

spin should be responsible for polarization sense). How could this correspondence be consistent with

the idea about MEs generating coherent states of conﬁguration space photons having conﬁguration

space color and spin and acting as control commands?

Consider ﬁrst a minimal model in which, somewhat disappointingly, color is not necessarily needed.

1. The proposal of Gariaev and collaborators that DNA can be eﬀectively regarded as a static

sequence of laser mirrors [52] suggests a concrete guess for the coding of genes to sequences of

MEs. In TGD framework laser mirrors could correspond to transversal MEs associated with

DNA nucleotides. The requirement that two orthogonal polarizations are possible, implies that

there must be a pair of mutually orthogonal MEs associated with each nucleotide and orthogonal

to the DNA strand.

2. Conﬁguration space spin of ME, which is 2-dimensional spin, is either J or −J so that 22 = 4

spin combinations (±J, ±J) are possible for the pair of MEs. The four nucleotides A,C,T,G

naturally code for these spin conﬁgurations and the reversal of spin orientations corresponds

naturally to the conjugations A ↔T, C ↔G conjugations. Clearly, this model does not require

color.

2. How color could emerge in the translation of the genetic code to holograms?

Color does not code for anything in the minimal model of the genetic code, and one could realize

the genetic code using non-colored conﬁguration space photons having only polarization degree of

freedom or even ordinary polarized coherent light. There are some motivations for color however.

Each hologrammic command should have time reversed version giving rise to the phase conjugate

command. Color and spin conjugation is a very natural manner to represent this operation. The

conjugate hologram is naturally associated with the conjugate DNA strand. This observation allows

to considerably generalize the model by only requiring that MEs correspond to any of the six basic

colors and that complementary nucleotides correspond to conjugate colors. This option raises the

possibility that DNA code words, genes or some other sub-units of DNA strands could deﬁne color

singlets. This would obviously provide a very elegant manner to decompose genetic text to subunits.

A more general, and perhaps more plausible, manner to decompose genetic text to subunits is as

tensor products of unentangled and irreducible color representations.

This option however allows the possibility that genetic codewords are self conjugate. What if one

excludes this possibility? It is possible to exclude the possibility of self conjugate commands by using

3+3 decomposition of color algebra corresponding to colors and complementary colors. The pairs of

MEs associated with the subsequent nucleotides could be assumed to correspond to, say, (red, blue,

white) in this order so that the conjugate strand corresponds to (green, yellow, black). In fact, the

ordering of the colors is not essential since spin states of MEs code for the information. At quantum

level the requirement that three colors are diﬀerent would boil down to the requirement that there is

complete asymmetry with respect to the permutations of the colors of three parallel MEs. Note that

in this case the color quantum numbers of the DNA strand or its complementary strand cannot sum

up to zero.

Note that the three diﬀerent colors for the subsequent nucleotides might make possible that the

corresponding control commands act on diﬀerent MEs, which could be MEs associated with DNA

itself.

3. Color conﬁnement and bio-control

If color is really there, it must have some crucially important function besides making it possible

to deﬁne time reversals of the control commands and decomposition of DNA to unentangle linguistic

subunits. A good guess is that color conﬁnement is involved with this function very intimately. Color

conﬁnement in the length scale of DNA MEs requires color neutrality in this length scale. DNA strand

and its conjugate, even triplet and its conjugate, can give rise to a color singlet state but this is not

possible if only the MEs associated with DNA strand are activated. In this case color conﬁnement

requires that somewhere else another colored state is activated so that the resulting overall state is

1.3. MEs and mes 69

color singlet. Thus long range correlations in the length scale of MEs perhaps crucial for biological

self organization are unavoidable.

The work of Gariaev and collaborators is based on eﬀects associated with visible laser light interact-

ing with DNA. This encourages to think that the lengths of DNA MEs should be of order E−7−E−6

meters. This conforms with the idea that genes should directly control the functioning of the cell or

at least the cell nucleus. Note that genes might be regarded as longitudinally color entangled portions

of DNA acting. Conﬁguration space color entanglement in length scale of chromosome and nucleus

could obviously be possible. If this picture is correct, color conﬁnement would be much more, that an

eternal nuisance of elementary particle theorist.

4. Also memetic codewords could be coded to holograms

One can imagine also the translation of the memetic code to a sequence of orthogonal ME pairs.

The 621 = 126 bits for the maximal number of mutually consistent statements of the memetic code

decompose into a sequence of 21 6-bit sequences interpreted as statements consisting of 21 words.

Each 6-bit sequence consisting of three 2-bit units in turn is in one-one correspondence with a DNA

triplet. Each 2-bit unit would code for the conﬁguration space spins ±J for a a pair of orthogonal

MEs possibly forming an antisymmetrized triplet of the basic colors. The duration of the memetic

codeword corresponds to the secondary p-adic time scale T

2

(M

127

) = .1 seconds so that by Uncertainty

Principle memetic code could imply long range color correlations in the length scale of Earth. ELF

MEs propagating in phase with the nerve pulse sequence (this is essential and explains why ELF MEs

must scan the cortex!) could translate the memetic codewords represented by the sequences of the

cognitive neutrino pairs to quantum holograms.

1.3.6 Experimental evidence for MEs

There is indeed evidence for the presence of MEs in bio-system. In CASYS’2000 conference Peter

Marcer reviewed the work done by him in collaboration with Russian group [52] led by Peter Gariaev

providing experimental evidence for the hypothesis that DNA acts as a receiving and sending quantum

antenna. What was observed that irradiation of DNA with visible laser light induced emission of co-

herent light with both visible and radio frequencies. The emitted radiation was also modulated in time

scale of about .01 seconds. The modulation could be due to propagation of soliton sequences prop-

agating along Josephson junction formed by the strands of DNA or due to nonpropagating spatially

constant Josephson current: both cases are mathematically equivalent with gravitational pendulum.

Phantom DNA eﬀect [53] has explanation in terms of mind like space-time sheets identiﬁable as MEs.

The experiments of Russian group replicated the observations of Poponin.

With inspiration coming from the experimental results, Gariaev has also suggested that DNA

is accompanied by a sequence of some kind of laser mirrors. TGD suggests their interpretation as

MEs [52]. The assumption that each nucleotide is accompanied by an orthogonal pair of MEs (two

orthogonal polarizations) allows a holographic realization of the genetic code. Four nucleotides are

mapped to four pairs of values of the conﬁguration spin ±J in the simplest realization [K3]. Color

degrees of freedom would bring in the long term correlations forced by color conﬁnement in the length

scale of DNA ME, which should be of order of wavelength of visible light, and thus forcing structures

of this size to behave like coherent units.

The bio-photons of Popp [45] could correspond to coherent photons generated by MEs. Home-

opathy could also have explanation in terms of MEs coding relevant frequency information to MEs

about medicine, whose eﬀect is also based on MEs [J5]. MEs would simply mimic the medicine. There

are well documented eﬀects related to the ability of water to absorb and transmit frequencies [59].

The ability of water to absorb and transmit frequencies could rely on the generation of mind like

space-time sheets, most naturally MEs, oscillating with the same frequency as stimulus. Water would

form cognitive representation for the stimulus, mimic it, in terms of light-like vacuum current giving

rise to classical em or Z

0

ﬁeld providing nonlike hologram like representation for the stimulus.

MEs are predicted to form a scale invariant family and quite recent cosmological data provides

support for MEs in cosmological(!) length scales [19]. An intense beam of photons with energies of

roughly 100 proton masses from a blazar at distance of about 10

8

light years have been observed.

Blazar is so called gamma ray burster producing extremely intense energy ﬂuxes in form of two jets.

How these jets are produced is mystery of its own in standard physics. In TGD these jets correspond to

the ends of cosmic string decaying like a cosmic ﬁrecracker into ordinary matter giving rise to galaxies.

70 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

What makes observation ’impossible’ is that photons with these energies should never reach Earth

but lose their energy via scattering with cosmic microwaves background. Somehow these photons are

however able to defy laws of standard physics. One TGD based model for phenomenon is very simple:

photons are Bose-Einstein condensed on and travel, not along material space-time sheet were energy

would be rapidly lost, but along ’massless extremal’ (ME) of cosmic size scale. Cosmic laser beam is

in question. One can also consider the possibility that the light-like vacuum current associated with

cosmic ME generates the observed photons.

The general model for quantum control and coordination relies crucially on the existence of a

hierarchy of superconductors associated with the self hierarchy (self deﬁned as a quantum system

able to avoid bound state entanglement with environment) controlling the ionic densities at atomic

space-time sheets via many-sheeted ionic ﬂow equilibrium and being quantum controlled with the

mediation of the fractal hierarchy of MEs.

1.4 Bio-systems as superconductors

TGD Universe provides also the hardware for the realization of bio-system, in particular brain, as a

macroscopic quantum system involving various kinds of super conductors. The essential elements are

quantum criticality, spin glass analogy and generalization of the space-time concept and TGD based

gauge ﬁeld concept.

1.4.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity

The many-sheeted space-time concept provides a very general mechanism of superconductivity based

on the ’dropping’ of charged particles from atomic space-time sheets to larger space-time sheets.

The ﬁrst guess was that larger space-time sheets are very dry, cool and silent so that the necessary

conditions for the formation of high T

c

macroscopic quantum phases are met.

The possibility of large quantum coherent phases makes however the assumption about thermal

isolation between space-time sheets un-necessary. At larger space-time sheet the interactions of the

charged particles with classical em ﬁelds generated by various wormhole contacts feeding gauge ﬂuxes

to and from the space-time sheet in question give rise to the necessary gap energy. The simplest

model for Cooper pair is space-time sheet containing charged particles having attractive Coulombic

interaction with the quarks and antiquarks associated with the throats of the wormhole contacts.

A crucial element is quantum criticality predicting that superconductivity appears at the ﬂuctuat-

ing boundaries of competing ordinary and large phases for nuclei. This assumption predicts several

anomalous phenomena such as cold fusion and nuclear transmutations. Also high T

c

superﬂuidity of

bosonic atoms dropped to space-time sheets of electronic Cooper pairs becomes possible besides ionic

super conductivity. Even dark neutrino superconductivity can be considered below the weak length

scale of scaled down weak bosons.

Magnetic and Z

0

magnetic ﬂux tubes and walls are especially interesting candidates for supra

current carries. In this case the Cooper pairs must have spin one and this is indeed possible for

wormholy Cooper pairs. The fact that the critical magnetic (Z

0

magnetic) ﬁelds can be very weak

or large values of is in accordance with the idea that various almost topological quantum numbers

characterizing induced magnetic ﬁelds provide a storage mechanism of bio-information.

This mechanism is extremely general and works for electrons, protons, ions and even charged

molecules so that an entire zoo of high T

c

bio-superconductors and super-ﬂuids is predicted. All

atoms and ions can be regarded as completely ionized Z

0

ions and also Z

0

superconductors (or super

ﬂuids) are predicted.

1. The experimental data about the eﬀects of ELF em ﬁelds at cyclotron frequencies of various ions

in Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld on bio-systems [33] provide support for this scenario. Most remarkably,

the cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions correspond to the important frequencies

of EEG and the time scale of nerve pulse corresponds to n = 3 multiple of proton cyclotron

frequency so that a direct quantitative contact with brain consciousness results.

2. Electronic super conductors are of type II with defect regions being typically cylindrical: DNA

sequences, proteins, microtubules,... could provide examples of the defect regions. One ends up

also with a model of high T

c

super conductors in which the interaction of the electrons with

1.4. Bio-systems as superconductors 71

wormhole BE condensate gives rise to Cooper pairs. The model explains elegantly the basic

peculiar features of the high T

c

superconductors.

3. Long ranged Z

0

force due to anomalous weak isospin of nuclei [F8, F10] and Z

0

charged worm-

holes make possible also Z

0

ionic superconductivity and even dark neutrino super conductivity.

For instance, Z

0

ionic superconductivity is crucial in the model for the quantum correlate of

hearing: audible frequencies are mapped to Z

0

cyclotron frequencies. Dark neutrino super con-

ductors are of type I in the interesting length scale range and defect regions are stripe like.

Besides cell and endoplasma membranes, epithelial sheets consisting of two cell layers and some

larger structures in cortex could correspond to regions of this kind and the interpretation as a

physical realization of cognitive hierarchy suggests itself.

1.4.2 Superconductivity at magnetic ﬂux quanta in astrophysical length

scales

Magnetic ﬂux tubes of endogenous magnetic ﬁeld B

end

= 2B

E

/5 = .2 Gauss, where B

E

= .5 Gauss is

the nominal value of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld, are crucial for the TGD based model of superconduc-

tivity. Since the models of auroras assume that the magnetic ﬂux lines act eﬀectively as conducting

wires, the natural hypothesis is that superconductivity is an astrophysical phenomenon. This leads to

a model of auroras explaining the latest ﬁndings and providing further insights to the superconduc-

tivity and the manner how it breaks down. Critical temperature can be identiﬁed as the temperature

at which the join along boundaries bonds making possible the leakage of the supra currents to the

non-superconducting space-time sheets become possible and can be gigantic as compared to the tem-

perature at the superconducting space-time sheets if space-time sheets are thermally isolated. On

the other hand, the possibility of large phases in principle makes possible arbitrarily high critical

temperatures in a given length scale.

p-Adic length scale hierarchy and the hierarchy of dark matters labelled by values of suggest

the existence of an entire hierarchy of super conducting space-time sheets giving rise to a hierarchy

of cognitive representations (abstractions about abstractions about...). The possibility of complex

conformal weights expressible in terms of zeros of Riemann Zeta such that the net conformal weight

is real, and the hierarchy of algebraic extensions of p-adic number ﬁelds suggest the existence of

additional hierarchies.

1.4.3 Fractal hierarchy of EEGs and ZEGs

There are three contributions to EEG besides neural noise: Schumann frequencies, cyclotron frequen-

cies, and the frequencies associated with Josephson junctions determined by the sum of the constant

voltage and voltage perturbation determined by the superposition of cyclotron frequencies. Cyclotron

contribution can be interpreted as a control signal from a magnetic body in question labelled by k

d

and aﬀects both the ions at the ﬂux sheets traversing DNA and the Josephson junction. The coherent

state of photons generated by Josephson current corresponds to a reaction to this signal received by

the magnetic body as a feedback. Schumann frequencies can be assigned to the control by magnetic

body of Earth and correlate with the collective aspects of consciousness.

The analysis of the Josephson current [M3] leads to the conclusion that the frequencies in the

coherent state of photons are in general sums and diﬀerences of Josephson frequency and harmonics

of cyclotron frequencies. For small amplitudes this implies that alpha band to which the cyclotron

frequencies most biologically important bosonic ions corresponds has as satellites theta and beta bands.

Higher harmonics correspond to gamma and higher bands having also satellites. For large amplitudes

EEG becomes chaotic which is indeed the property of beta band during say intense concentration or

anxiety. The ﬁndings of Nunez [38] about narrow 1-2 Hz wide bands at 3,5,7 Hz and 13,15,17 Hz

conﬁrm with the prediction of satellite bands and ﬁx the Josephson frequency to 5 Hz. This picture

explains the general characteristics of EEG in wake-up state qualitatively and quantitatively.

In order to understand the characteristics during various stages of deep sleep one must assume that

the cyclotron frequency scale of ions is scaled down by a factor of 1/2. One explanation is that right

resp. left brain hemisphere corresponds to Z = 2 resp. Z = 1 quantization condition Z

BdS = n

for the magnetic ﬂux. Z = 2 case allows only doubly charged bosonic ions at magnetic ﬂux sheets.

Z = 1 case also also singly charged ions be their bosons or fermions and for this option magnetic ﬁeld

72 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

is scaled down by a factor of 1/2. The alternative explanation is that during sleep only Bose-Einstein

condensates of singly charged exotic ions resulting when color bond inside nucleus becomes charged

are present. This reduces the scale of cyclotron frequencies by a factor 1/2 and leaves only theta and

delta bands. During stage 4 sleep only only DNA cyclotron frequencies in delta band are around 1

Hz and just above the thermal threshold are predicted to be present. For k

d

= 3 and magnetic ﬁeld

scaled up by λ and ﬂux tube area scaled down by λ

−2

DNA frequencies are scaled up to kHz for Z = 2

ﬂux quantization and might deﬁne neuronal synchronization frequencies.

The generalization of the model for EEG hierarchy to the case of ZEG is straightforward and

cyclotron frequency spectrum is essentially the same [M3]. Z

0

ions are obtained when nuclear color

bonds become charged and the combination of ordinary and exotic ionization can produce also em

neutral Z

0

ions. Any atom, almost always boson, has an exotically charged counterpart with same

statistics so that very rich spectrum of Bose-Einstein condensates results.

1.4.4 TGD assigns 10 Hz biorhythm to electron as an intrinsic frequency

scale

p-Adic coupling constant evolution and origins of p-adic length scale hypothesis have remained for a

long time poorly understood. The progress made in the understanding of the S-matrix of the theory

(or rather, its generalization M-matrix) [C3] has however changed the situation. The unexpected

prediction is that zero energy ontology assigns to elementary particles macroscopic times scales. In

particular, the time scale assignable to electron correspond to the fundamental biorhythm of 10 Hz.

M-matrix and coupling constant evolution

The ﬁnal breakthrough in the understanding of p-adic coupling constant evolution came through the

understanding of S-matrix, or actually M-matrix deﬁning entanglement coeﬃcients between positive

and negative energy parts of zero energy states in zero energy ontology [C3]. M-matrix has interpreta-

tion as a ”complex square root” of density matrix and thus provides a uniﬁcation of thermodynamics

and quantum theory. S-matrix is analogous to the phase of Schr¨odinger amplitude multiplying positive

and real square root of density matrix analogous to modulus of Schr¨odinger amplitude.

The notion of ﬁnite measurement resolution realized in terms of inclusions of von Neumann al-

gebras allows to demonstrate that the irreducible components of M-matrix are unique and possesses

huge symmetries in the sense that the hermitian elements of included factor ^ ⊂ ´ deﬁning the

measurement resolution act as symmetries of M-matrix, which suggests a connection with integrable

quantum ﬁeld theories.

It is also possible to understand coupling constant evolution as a discretized evolution associated

with time scales T

n

, which come as octaves of a fundamental time scale: T

n

= 2

n

T

0

. Number theoretic

universality requires that renormalized coupling constants are rational or at most algebraic numbers

and this is achieved by this discretization since the logarithms of discretized mass scale appearing in

the expressions of renormalized coupling constants reduce to the form log(2

n

) = nlog(2) and with

a proper choice of the coeﬃcient of logarithm log(2) dependence disappears so that rational number

results.

p-Adic coupling constant evolution

Could the time scale hierarchy T

n

= 2

n

T

0

deﬁning hierarchy of measurement resolutions in time

variable induce p-adic coupling constant evolution and explain why p-adic length scales correspond to

L

p

∝

√

pR, p · 2

k

, R CP

2

length scale? This looks attractive but there is a problem. p-Adic length

scales come as powers of

√

2 rather than 2 and the strongly favored values of k are primes and thus

odd so that n = k/2 would be half odd integer. This problem can be solved.

1. The observation that the distance traveled by a Brownian particle during time t satisﬁes r

2

= Dt

suggests a solution to the problem. p-Adic thermodynamics applies because the partonic 3-

surfaces X

2

are as 2-D dynamical systems random apart from light-likeness of their orbit. For

CP

2

type vacuum extremals the situation reduces to that for a one-dimensional random light-like

curve in M

4

. The orbits of Brownian particle would now correspond to light-like geodesics γ

3

at

X

3

. The projection of γ

3

to a time=constant section X

2

⊂ X

3

would deﬁne the 2-D path γ

2

of

1.4. Bio-systems as superconductors 73

the Brownian particle. The M

4

distance r between the end points of γ

2

would be given r

2

= Dt.

The favored values of t would correspond to T

n

= 2

n

T

0

(the full light-like geodesic). p-Adic

length scales would result as L

2

(k) = DT(k) = D2

k

T

0

for D = R

2

/T

0

. Since only CP

2

scale is

available as a fundamental scale, one would have T

0

= R and D = R and L

2

(k) = T(k)R.

2. p-Adic primes near powers of 2 would be in preferred position. p-Adic time scale would not relate

to the p-adic length scale via T

p

= L

p

/c as assumed implicitly earlier but via T

p

= L

2

p

/R

0

=

√

pL

p

, which corresponds to secondary p-adic length scale. For instance, in the case of electron

with p = M

127

one would have T

127

= .1 second which deﬁnes a fundamental biological rhythm.

Neutrinos with mass around .1 eV would correspond to L(169) · 5 µm (size of a small cell) and

T(169) · 1. 10

4

years. A deep connection between elementary particle physics and biology

becomes highly suggestive.

3. In the proposed picture the p-adic prime p · 2

k

would characterize the thermodynamics of the

random motion of light-like geodesics of X

3

so that p-adic prime p would indeed be an inherent

property of X

3

.

4. The fundamental role of 2-adicity suggests that the fundamental coupling constant evolution

and p-adic mass calculations could be formulated also in terms of 2-adic thermodynamics. With

a suitable deﬁnition of the canonical identiﬁcation used to map 2-adic mass squared values to

real numbers this is possible, and the diﬀerences between 2-adic and p-adic thermodynamics

are extremely small for large values of for p · 2

k

. 2-adic temperature must be chosen to be

T

2

= 1/k whereas p-adic temperature is T

p

= 1 for fermions. If the canonical identiﬁcation is

deﬁned as

¸

n≥0

b

n

2

n

→

¸

m≥1

2

−m+1

¸

(k−1)m≤n<km

b

n

2

n

.

It maps all 2-adic integers n < 2

k

to themselves and the predictions are essentially same as for

p-adic thermodynamics. For large values of p · 2

k

2-adic real thermodynamics with T

R

= 1/k

gives essentially the same results as the 2-adic one in the lowest order so that the interpretation

in terms of eﬀective 2-adic/p-adic topology is possible.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis and biology

The basic implication of zero energy ontology is the formula T(k) · 2

k/2

L(k)/c = L(2, k)/c. This

would be the analog of E = hf in quantum mechanics and together hierarchy of Planck constants

would imply direct connection between elementary particle physics and macroscopic physics. Espe-

cially important this connection would be in macroscopic quantum systems, say for Bose Einstein

condensates of Cooper pairs, whose signature the rhythms with T(k) as period would be. The pres-

ence of this kind of rhythms might even allow to deduce the existence of Bose-Einstein condensates

of hitherto unknown particles.

1. For electron one has T(k) = .1 seconds which deﬁnes the fundamental f

e

= 10 Hz bio-rhythm

appearing as a peak frequency in alpha band. This could be seen as a direct evidence for a Bose-

Einstein condensate of Cooper pairs of high T

c

super-conductivity. That transition to ”creative”

states of mind involving transition to resonance in alpha band might be seen as evidence for

formation of large BE condensates of electron Cooper pairs.

2. TGD based model for atomic nucleus [F9] predicts that nucleons are connected by ﬂux tubes

having at their ends light quarks and anti-quarks with masses not too far from electron mass.

The corresponding p-adic frequencies f

q

= 2

k

f

e

could serve as a biological signature of exotic

quarks connecting nucleons to nuclear strings . k

q

= 118 suggested by nuclear string model

would give f

q

= 2

18

f

e

= 26.2 Hz. Schumann resonances are around 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and

33.8 Hz and f

q

is not too far from 27.3 Hz Schumann resonance and the cyclotron frequency

f

c

(

11

B

+

) = 27.3 Hz for B = .2 Gauss explaining the eﬀects of ELF em ﬁelds on vertebrate

brain.

74 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

3. For a given T(k) the harmonics of the fundamental frequency f = 1/T(k) are predicted as special

time scales. Also resonance like phenomena might present. In the case of cyclotron frequencies

they would favor values of magnetic ﬁeld for which the resonance condition is achieved. The

magnetic ﬁeld which in case of electron gives cyclotron frequency equal to 10 Hz is B

e

· 3.03 nT.

For ion with charge Z and mass number A the magnetic ﬁeld would be B

I

=

A

Z

(m

p

/m

e

)B

e

. The

B = .2 Gauss magnetic ﬁeld explaining the ﬁndings about eﬀects of ELF em ﬁelds on vertebrate

brain is near to B

I

for ions with f

c

alpha band. Hence the value of B could be understood in

terms of resonance with electronic B-E condensate.

4. The hierarchy of Planck constants predicts additional time scales T(k). The prediction depends

on the strength of the additional assumptions made. One could have scales of form nT(k)/m

with m labeling the levels of hierarchy. m = 1 would give integers multiples of T(k). Integers n

could correspond to ruler and compass integers expressible as products of ﬁrst powers of Fermat

primes and power of 2. There are only four known Fermat primes so that one has n = 2

n

¸

i

F

i

,

F

i

∈ ¦3, 5, 17, 257, 2

16

+1¦. In the ﬁrst approximation only 3- and 5- and 17-multiples of 2-adic

length scales would result besides 2-adic length scales. In more general case products m

1

m

2

and

ratios m

1

/m

2

of ruler and compass integers and their inverses 1/m

1

m

2

and m

2

m

1

are possible.

5. Mersenne primes are expected to deﬁne the most important fundamental p-adic time scales.

The list of real and Gaussian (complex) Mersennes M

n

possibly relevant for biology is given by

n=89, 107, 113

∗

, 127, 151

∗

,157

∗

, 163

∗

, 167

∗

(’

∗

’ tells that Gaussian Mersenne is in question).

n 89 107 113 127

f/Hz 2.7 10

12

1.0 10

7

1.6 10

5

10

n 151 157 163 167

T 19.4 d 3.40 y 218.0 y 3.49 10

3

y

(1.4.1)

1.5 Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and

plasmoids as primitive life forms

In the following the evidence for many-sheeted space-time will be discussed.

1.5.1 Evidence for many-sheeted space-time

The dropping of particle to a larger space-time sheet liberates energy which is the diﬀerence of the

energies of the particle at two space-time sheets. If the interaction energy of the particle with the

matter at space-time sheet can be neglected the energy is just the diﬀerence of zero point kinetic

energies. This energy depends on the details of the geometry of the space-time sheet. Assuming

p-adic length scale hypothesis the general formula for the zero point kinetic energy can be written as

E(k) = x E

0

(k) , E

0

(k) =

3

2

π

2

mL

2

(k)

.

Here x is a numerical factor taking into account the geometry of the space-time sheet and equals to

x = 1 for cubic geometry.

The liberated zero point kinetic energy in the case that the particle drops to a space-time sheet

labelled by k

f

= k + ∆k with same value of x is

∆E(k, ∆k) = x E

0

(k) (1 −2

−∆k

) .

The transitions are seen as discrete lines for some resolution ∆k ≤ ∆k

max

. At the limit k → ∞

transitions give rise to a quasicontinuous band. The photon energy for k → ∞ transition is same as

the energy from k −1 →k transition, which brings in additional option to the model building.

For a proton dropping from the atomic space-time sheet k = 137 to very large space-time sheet

(∆k → ∞) one has ∆E(k) = E(k) ∼ x .5 eV. Since the ratio of electron and proton masses is

m

p

/m

e

· .94 2

11

, the dropping of electron from space-time sheet k

e

= k

p

+ 11 liberates zero point

kinetic energy which is by is by a factor .9196 smaller. For k

p

= 137 one would have k

e

= 148.

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 75

This energy corresponds to the metabolic energy currency of living systems and the idea is that the

diﬀerences of zero point kinetic energies deﬁne universal metabolic energy currencies present already

in the metabolism of pre-biotic systems. In the following ﬁt electron’s zero point kinetic energy will be

taken to be E

0

(148) = .5 eV so that for proton the zero point kinetic energy would be E

0

(137) = .544

eV.

The hypothesis predicts the existence of anomalous lines in the spectrum of infrared photons.

Also fractally scaled up and scaled down variants of these lines obtained by scaling by powers of 2 are

predicted. The wavelength corresponding to .5 eV photon would be λ = 2.48 µm. These lines should

be detectable both in laboratory and astrophysical systems and might even serve as a signature for

a primitive metabolism. One can also consider dropping of Cooper pairs in which case zero point

kinetic energy is scaled down by a factor of 1/2.

Interestingly, the spectrum of diﬀuse interstellar medium exhibits three poorly understood struc-

tures [28]: Unidentiﬁed Infrared Bands (UIBs), Diﬀuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) [29], and Extended

Red Emission (ERE) [30] allowing an interpretation in terms of dropping of protons or electrons

(or their Cooper pairs) to larger space-time sheets. The model also suggests the interpretation of

bio-photons in terms of generalizes EREs.

Unidentiﬁed Infrared Bands

Unidentiﬁed infrared bands (UIBs) contain strong bands at λ = 3.3, 6.2, 11.3 microns [28]. The best

ﬁt for the values of k and ∆k assuming dropping of either electron or proton are given by the following

table. The last row of the table gives the ratio of predicted photon energy to the energy characterizing

the band and assuming x = 1 and E

0

(148, e) = .5 eV. Discrepancies are below 8 per cent. Also the

dropping of protonic Cooper pair from k = 137 space-time sheet could reproduce the line ∆E = .2

eV. The ﬁt is quite satisfactory although there is of course the uncertainty related to the geometric

parameter x.

λ/nm E/.5eV k ∆k ∆E(k, ∆k)/E p/e

3300 .7515 137 ∼ ∞ 1.002 e

6200 .4000 138 3 1.067 e

11300 .2195 139 3 0.878 p

11300 .2195 139+11=150 3 1.076 e

Table 1. Table gives the best ﬁt for UIBs assuming that they result from dropping of proton or

electron to a larger space-time sheet and one has E

0

(148, e) = .5 eV. The fourth column the table

gives the ratio of predicted photon energy to the energy characterizing the band and assuming x = 1.

e/p tells whether electron or proton is in question.

According to [28], UIBs are detected along a large number of interstellar sight-lines covering a

wide range of excitation conditions. Recent laboratory IR spectra of neutral and positively charged

poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been successfully used by Allamandola [23] to model

the observed UIBs. It is believed that PAHs are produced in reactions involving photosynthesis and

are regarded as predecessors of biotic life [22]. This would conform with the presence of metabolic

energy quanta.

DNA sugar backbone, some aminoacids, and various hallucinogens involve 5- and 6-cycles and

the proposal is that these cycles involve free electron pairs, which possess Planck constant = n

0

,

n = 5, 6. These free electron pairs would explain the anomalous conductivity of DNA and would be

an essential characteristic of living matter. The emergence of n = 5, 6 levels could be seen as the ﬁrst

step in the pre-biotic evolution.

Diﬀuse Interstellar Bands

There are diﬀuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at wavelengths 578.0 and 579.7 nanometers and also at

628.4, 661.4 and 443.0 nm. The 443.0 nm DIB is particularly broad at about 1.2 nm across - typical

intrinsic stellar absorption features are 0.1 nm [28]. The following table proposes a possible identiﬁ-

cation of these lines in terms of diﬀerences of zero point kinetic energies. Also now the best ﬁt has

errors below 7 per cent.

76 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

λ/nm E/.5eV k ∆k ∆E(k, ∆k)/E p/e

628.4 3.947 135 = 3

3

5 ∼ ∞ 0.987 p

661.4 3.750 135 + 11 = 2 73 3 0.985 e

443.0 5.598 134 = 2 67 2 0.933 p

578.0 4.291 135 + 11 = 2 73 ∼ ∞ 0.986 e

579.7 4.278 135 + 11 = 2 73 ∼ ∞ 0.984 e

Table 2. Table gives the best ﬁt for DIBs assuming that they result from dropping of proton or

electron to a larger space-time sheet. Notations are same as in the previous table.

The peak wavelengths in chlorophyll and photosynthesis are around 650 nm and 450 nm and would

correspond to second and third row of the table.

The Extended Red Emission

The Extended Red Emission (ERE) [28, 30] is a broad unstructured emission band with width about

80 nm and located between 540 and 900 nm. The large variety of peak wavelength of the band is

its characteristic feature. In majority of cases the peak is observed in the range 650-750 nm but

also the range 610-750 nm appears. ERE has been observed in a wide variety of dusty astronomical

environments. The necessary conditions for its appearance is illumination by UV photons with energies

E ≥ 7.25 eV from source with T ≥ 10

4

K. The position of the peak depends on the distance from the

source [30].

According to [28] the current interpretation attributes ERE to a luminescence originating from

some dust component of the ISM, powered by UV/visible photons. Various carbonaceous compounds

seem to provide a good ﬁt to the observational constraints. However, the real nature of ERE is still

unknown since most candidates seem to be unable to simultaneously match the spectral distribution

of ERE and the required photon conversion eﬃciency.

1. Consider ﬁrst the band 650-750 nm appearing in the majority of cases. The most natural

interpretation is that the lower end of the band corresponds to the zero point kinetic energy of

electron at k = 135+11 = 146 = 273 space-time sheet. This would mean that the lines would

accumulate near 650 nm and obey the period doubling formula

λ(k) −λ(∞)

λ(∞)

=

2

−k

1 −2

−k

.

By the estimate of Table 2 the lower end should correspond to λ = 628.4 nm with a correction

factor x < 1 reducing the zero point kinetic energy. The reduction would be smaller than 4 per

cent. ∆k = 3 transition would correspond to 744 nm quite near to the upper end of the band.

For ∆k = 2 transition one has λ = 867 nm not to far from the upper end 900 nm. ∆k = 1

corresponds to 1.3 µm.

2. For proton with k = 135 = 146 the energy band would shift by the factor 2

11

m

e

/m

p

· 1.0874

giving the range (598,690) nm.

3. The variation for the position of the peak can be understood if the charged particles at the

smaller space-time sheet can have excess energy liberated in the dropping to the larger space-

time sheet. This excess energy would determine the position of the lower end of the band in the

range (540, 650) nm.

4. One should also understand the role of UV photons with energy larger than 7.25 eV. For proton

the energy would be 8.76 eV. For proton the energy would be 8.76 eV. UV photon with energy

E ≥ 8 eV could kick electrons from large space-time sheets to k = 144 = 146−4 space-time sheet

where they have zero point kinetic energy of 8 eV plus possible additional energy (for proton

the energy would be 8.76 eV). One possibility is that these electrons drop ﬁrst to k = 145

by the emission of ∼ 4 eV UV photon and then to k = 144 by the emission ∼ 2 eV photon

corresponding to 650 nm line. The further dropping to larger space-time sheets would produce

besides this line also the lines with longer wavelengths in the band.

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 77

The energy of UV photons brings in mind the bond energy 7.36 eV of N

2

molecule and the

possibility of metabolic mechanism using UV light as metabolic energy and based on the disso-

ciation of N

2

followed by re-association liberating metabolic energy kicking protons or electrons

to a smaller space-time sheet. For the k → k + 3 transition of electron the energy would be 7

eV which suggests that this transition deﬁnes important metabolic energy quantum for living

interstellar dust using dissociation and its reversal as basic metabolic mechanism.

1.5.2 Laboratory evidence for plasmoids as life forms

From dust to dust

The article From Plasma crystals and helical structures towards inorganic living matter of Tsytovich

et al in August issue of New Journal of Physics provides new empirical support for plasmoids as living

life forms. The results of article suggest that interstellar dust could behave like living matter in some

respects: it could even have variant of genetic code. This is a really shattering ﬁnding and with single

blow destroys the standard dogma about life as something purely chemical. It should also give also

some headaches for those inﬂuental colleagues who have decided that it is necessary to accept the

anthropic principle. Here is little popularization of the result.

SCIENTISTS have discovered that inorganic material can take on the characteristics of living

organisms in space, a development that could transform views of alien life.

An international panel from the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Max Planck institute in Ger-

many and the University of Sydney found that galactic dust could form spontaneously into helixes and

double helixes and that the inorganic creations had memory and the power to reproduce themselves.

A similar rethinking of prospective alien life is being undertaken by the National Research Council,

an advisory body to the US government. It says Nasa should start a search for what it describes as

weird life - organisms that lack DNA or other molecules found in life on Earth.

The new research, to be published this week in the New Journal of Physics, found nonorganic

dust, when held in the form of plasma in zero gravity, formed the helical structures found in DNA.

The particles are held together by electromagnetic forces that the scientists say could contain a code

comparable to the genetic information held in organic matter. It appeared that this code could be

transferred to the next generation.

Professor Greg Morﬁll, of the Max Planck institute of extra-terrestrial physics, said: Going by our

current narrow deﬁnitions of what life is, it qualiﬁes.

The question now is to see if it can evolve to become intelligent. Its a little bit like science ﬁction

at the moment. The potential level of complexity we are looking at is of an amoeba or a plant.

I do not believe that the systems we are talking about are life as we know it. We need to deﬁne the

criteria for what we think of as life much more clearly.

It may be that science is starting to study territory already explored by science ﬁction. The televi-

sion series The X-Files, for example, has featured life in the form of a silicon-based parasitic spore.

The Max Planck experiments were conducted in zero gravity conditions in Germany and on the

International Space Station 200 miles above earth.

The ﬁndings have provoked speculation that the helix could be a common structure that underpins

all life, organic and nonorganic.

To sum up the essentials, plasma phase is involved and the dust life is able to construct analogs

of DNA double helices and this has been achieved also in laboratory. ”From dust to dust” seems to

have a very deep side meaning!

Here is a more quantitative summary of the results reported in [111].

1. The scale of the dust balls seems to be few micrometers. It is essential that the system is open

in the sense that there is both metabolic energy feed and continual feed of plasma to negatively

charged dust particles to preserve their charges. Authors speak about eﬀective ”gravitational”

instability as a mechanism leading to the formation of the helices and identify eﬀective gravi-

tational coupling (the formula contains a trivial typo) as a function of charge and mass of the

particle plus dimensionless parameter characterizing the modiﬁcation of Debye model implied

by the fact that dust particles are not electrically closed systems. Authors give a long list of

life-like properties possessed by the helical structures.

78 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

2. Helical structures are generated spontaneously and possess negative charges. The repulsion

of the helical structures transforms to attraction at some critical distance interval due to the

fact that the large electrostatic self energy depends on the distance between helices and this

makes possible double helices (authors speak about over-screening in the formal model). Similar

mechanism might work also in the case of ordinary DNA double helices whose stability is poorly

understood since also in this case the large negative charge could be preserved by continual feed

of charge.

3. The twist angle of the helix makes bifurcations as a function of radius of helix and the values of

twist angle could deﬁne the letters of genetic code. Also a mechanism for how the twist angle is

communicated to neighboring helix is proposed. Also dust vortices are observed and might be

those which one can occasionally observe during hot summer days.

4. Authors do not mention magnetic ﬁelds but my guess is that the helical structures reﬂect directly

the geometry of the helical magnetic ﬂux tubes, and that dark electron pairs with large Planck

constant at these tubes might be the quantal aspect of the system. These currents might relate

closely to the plasma current, which charges the dust particles. Also DNA, which is insulator, is

known to be able to act as conductor, and here the free electron pairs associated with aromatic

rings having = n hbar

0

, n = 5 or 6, could make conduction possible since their Compton

size would be n-fold.

Elephant trunks in astrophysics

TGD Universe is fractal and this means that the visible structures are formed around magnetic ﬂux

quanta containing dark matter with large hbar appear in all length scales and have geometric patterns

reﬂecting the exact discrete symmetries of dark matter acting as rotational symmetries of the ﬁeld

body and at the level of visible matter giving rise to broken symmetries typical for molecular structures.

The helical structures found from the rings of some planets could be one example of fractal life.

For some time ago I learned about ”elephant trunks” found by Hubble (I am grateful for Miika

V¨ais¨al¨a telling about the trunks and for giving references to the papers about the ﬁnding). They

appear in very wide range of length scales: at least from 1000 au to 1 pc. They are found in close

connection with molecular clouds and HII regions excite by one or more young hot stars (a ”metabolic

connection” with the above mentioned unidentiﬁed bands and lines and PAHs present only if there is

also UV source present does not look like a bad guess). In general the trunks are

Another important ﬁnding supporting TGD view about Universe which might be seen as a fractally

scaled variant of above helices. pointing like ﬁngers to the hot stars. Here is abstract of the paper by

P. Carlquist, G. F. Gahm, and H. Kristen [32].

Using the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope we have observed a large number of elephant trunks in

several regions. Here, we present a small selection of this material consisting of a few large, well-

developed trunks, and some smaller ones. We ﬁnd that: (i) the well-developed trunks are made up of

dark ﬁlaments and knots which show evidence of twisted structures, (ii) the trunks are connected with

essentially two ﬁlamentary legs running in V-shape, and (iii) all trunks have the maximum extinction

in their heads. We advance a theory of twisted elephant trunks which is based on the presence of

magnetic ﬂux ropes in molecular clouds where hot OB stars are formed. If the rope contains a local

condensation it may adopt a V-shape as the region around the hot stars expands. If, in addition, the

magnetic ﬁeld in the rope is suﬃciently twisted, the rope may form a double helix at the apex of the V.

The double helix is identiﬁed with the twisted elephant trunks. In order to illustrate the mechanisms

behind the double helix we have constructed a mechanical analogy model of the magnetic ﬂux rope in

which the rope has been replaced by a bundle of elastic strings loaded by a weight. Experiments with

the model clearly show that part of the bundle will transform into a double helix when the twist of

the bundle is suﬃciently large. We have also worked out a simple theoretical model of a mass-loaded

magnetic ﬂux rope. Numerical calculations show that a double helix will indeed form when the twist of

the rope exceeds a certain critical limit. Numerical model calculations are applied to both the analogy

model experiments and one of the well-developed elephant trunks. On the basis of our model we also

suggest a new interpretation of the so called EGGs.

The double helix mechanism is quite general, and should be active also in other suitable envi-

ronments. One such environment may be the shell of supernova remnants. Another example is the

expanding bubble outlined by the North Celestial Pole Loop.

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 79

For fractally thinking physicist consisting mostly of dark matter with large Planck constant this

does not leave many options: life and even intelligent life is everywhere and in all length scales.

This provides also a new view about Fermi paradox: see the article [16], which summarizes also the

essentials of TGD, TGD based ontology, and TGD based quantum biology.

1.5.3 Universal metabolic quanta

Universal energy quanta might have rather interesting implications. For instance, irradiation of cells

could provide a direct metabolic mechanism when the normal metabolic machinery fails. The universal

metabolic quanta should have also played a key role during pre-biotic evolution when chemical storage

mechanism were absent or primitive so that energy metabolism relied on direct absorption of photons.

Direct support for universal metabolic energy quanta

There is direct support for the notion of universal energy quanta. The ﬁrst support comes from the

eﬀect of low-power laser light on living matter. More than 30 years ago a method known with various

names such as low-power laser therapy, biostimulation, or photobiomodulation emerged [61] and has

now a wide range of applications. The treatment can apply both non-coherent (light emitting diodes)

or coherent (laser light). In the case of of non-coherent light the method applies thin structures with

thickness smaller than coherence length of light so that there is no diﬀerence between non-coherent and

laser light. Laser light applies to situation when both the thickness of the surface layer and structure

itself in range 1 mm- 1 cm and shorter than coherence length. Often the irradiation is applied to

wounds and sites of injuries, acupuncture points, and muscle trigger points. The method involves

several parameters such as wavelength in the range 400-900 nm (IR and near IR light), output power

(10 100 mW), continuous wave and pulsed operation modes, and pulse parameters.

1. What is known?

The article of Karu [61] gives a good summary about what is known.

1. The action spectrum characterizes the maxima of the biological response as a function of wave-

length. Action spectrum is essentially universal. For near IR and IR light the maxima of spectra

are at 620, 680, 760, 820-830 nm. The spectrum continues also to visible light [61] but I do not

have access these data.

2. The action can induce both physiological and morphological changes in non-pigmental cells via

absorption in mitochondria. HeNe laser (λ = 632.8 nm) can alter the ﬁring pattern of nerves

and can mimic the eﬀect of peripheral stimulation of a behavioral reﬂex.

2. Biochemical approach

In [61] the biochemical approach to the situation is discussed.

1. In standard biochemistry based approach the natural hypothesis is that the maxima corre-

spond to some molecular absorption lines and the task is to identify the photo acceptor. The

primary acceptor in IR-to red spectral region is believed to be the terminal enzyme of the res-

piratory chain cytochrome c oxidase located in mitochondrion but this is just an assumption.In

the violet-to-blue spectral region ﬂavoproteins (e.g. NADHdehydrogenace in the beginning of

respiratory chain) are among the photo acceptors as terminal oxidases. It is known that also

non-mitochondrial enhancement of cellular metabolism exist, which does not ﬁt well with the

vision about mitochondria as power plants of cell. It is believed that electronic excitation occurs

and somehow leads to the biological eﬀect.

2. The natural assumption in biochemistry framework is that the stimulation increases the eﬀec-

tiveness of cellular metabolism by making the utilization of oxygen more eﬀective. The eﬀect

of the light would occur at the control level and induce secondary reactions (cellular signaling

cascades or photo signal transduction and ampliﬁcation) aﬀecting eventually the gene expression.

3. Three diﬀerent regulation pathways have been suggested [61]. Since small changes in ATP level

can alter cellular metabolism signiﬁcantly, the obvious idea is that photoacceptor controls the

80 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

level of intracellular ATP. In starving cells this looks especially attractive hypothesis. In many

cases however the role of redox homeostasis is however believed to be more important than that

of ATP. The second and third pathways would indeed aﬀect cellular redox potential shifting it

to more oxidized direction. The mechanism of regulation is however not understood. Hence one

can say that there is no experimental proof or disproof for the standard approach.

3. TGD inspired approach

In TGD framework the ﬁrst guess is that irradiation pumps directly metabolic energy to the system

by kicking particles to smaller space-time sheets. This kind of direct energy feed would be natural

when the cell is starving or injured so that its control mechanisms responsible for the utilization

of oxygen are not working properly. For Bose-Einstein condensate of photons this eﬀect would be

especially strong being proportional to N

2

rather than N, where N is photon number. The eﬀect

would also appear coherently in a region whose size is dictated by coherence length when the target

is thick enough.

There is a simple killer test for the proposal. The predicted energies are universal in the approx-

imation that the interactions of protons (or electrons) kicked to the smaller space-time sheets with

other particles can be neglected. The precise scale of metabolic energy quanta can be ﬁxed by using

the nominal value of metabolic energy quantum .5 eV in case of proton. This predicts the following

spectrum of universal energy quanta for proton and electron

∆E

k,n

(p) = E

0

(k, p) (1 −2

−n

) ,

E

0

(k, p) = E

0

(137, p)2

137−k

· 2

137−k

.5 eV .

∆E

k,n

(e) = E

0

(k, e) (1 −2

−n

) ,

E

0

(k, e) =

m

p

2

11

m

e

E

0

(137, p)2

148−k

· 2

148−k

.4 eV .

k characterizes the p-adic length scale and the transition corresponds to the kicking of charged particle

from space-time sheet having k

1

= k +n to k = n.

The shortest wavelength 630 nm is rather close to the wavelength of HeNe laser and corresponds

to red light with E

0

= 2.00 eV. Thus one would have k = 135 in the case of proton which corresponds

to roughly one of atomic radius for ordinary value of . For electron one would have k = 150 which

corresponds to L(151)/

√

2: L(151) = 10 nm corresponds to cell membrane thickness. The following

table gives the energies of photons for action spectrum and predicted values in the case of proton,

which provides a better ﬁt to the data.

n 2 3 4 5

λ/nm 825 760 680 620

E

exp

/eV 1.50 1.63 1.82 2.00

E

pred

/eV 1.50 1.75 1.88 1.94

E

pred

/E

exp

1.00 1.07 1.02 0.97

(1.5.1)

The largest error is 7 per cent and occurs for n = 3 transition. Other errors are below 3 per cent.

Note that also in experiments of Gariaev [39, 52] laser light consisting of 2 eV photons was used: in

this case the induced radio wave photons - possibly dark photons with energy 2 eV - had positive

eﬀect on growth of potatoes.

Possible explanation for the eﬀect of IR light on brain

The exposure of brain to IR light at wavelength of 1072 nm is known to improve learning performance

and give kick start to cognitive function [60]. The simplest explanation is that this light reloads the

metabolic energy batteries of neurons by kicking electrons or protons or their Cooper pairs to larger

space-time sheets. The wavelength in question is roughly one half of the wavelength associated with

metabolic energy quantum with average energy .5 eV (2480 µm) assignable to the dropping of proton

to a very large space-time sheet from k=137 space-time sheet or of electron from k=137+11= 148

space-time sheet. This if the electron and proton are approximated to be free particles. Energy band

is in question since both the particles can have additional interaction energy.

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 81

For the kicking of electron from very large space-time sheet to k = 147 space-time sheet the wave

length would be below 1240 nm which is more than 10 per cent longer than 1072 nm. This would

suggest that the ﬁnal state electron is in excited state. The surplus energy is consistent with the

width about 100 nm for the UIBs. This identiﬁcation - if correct - would support the view that

metabolic energy quanta are universal and have preceded the evolution of the biochemical machinery

associated with metabolism and that the loading of metabolic energy batteries at the fundamental

level correspond to the kicking of charged particles to smaller space-time sheets.

Connection between laser induced healing, acupuncture, and association of DC currents

with the healing of wounds

The ﬁndings of Robert Becker (the book ”Electromagnetism and Life” by Becker and Marino can be

found from web [47]) meant a breakthrough in the development of bioelectromagnetics. One aspect

of bioelectromagnetic phenomena was the discovery of Becker that DC currents and voltages play a

pivotal role in various regeneration processes. Why this is the case is still poorly understood and

Becker’s book is a treasure trove for anyone ready to challenge existing dogmas. The general vision

guiding Becker can be summarized by a citation from the introduction of the book.

Growth eﬀects include the alteration of bone growth by electromagnetic energy, the restoration of

partial limb regeneration in mammals by small direct currents, the inhibition of growth of implanted

tumors by currents and ﬁelds, the eﬀect upon cephalocaudal axis development in the regenerating

ﬂatworm in a polarity-dependent fashion by applied direct currents, and the production of morphological

alterations in embryonic development by manipulation of the electrochemical species present in the

environment. This partial list illustrates the great variety of known bioelectromagnetic phenomena.

The reported biological eﬀects involve basic functions of living material that are under remarkably

precise control by mechanisms which have, to date, escaped description in terms of solution biochem-

istry. This suggests that bioelectromagnetic phenomena are fundamental attributes of living things

ones that must have been present in the ﬁrst living things. The traditional approach to biogenesis pos-

tulates that life began in an aqueous environment, with the development of complex molecules and their

subsequent sequestration from the environment by membranous structures. The solid-state approach

proposes an origin in complex crystalline structures that possess such properties as semiconductivity,

photoconductivity, and piezoelectricity. All of the reported eﬀects of electromagnetic forces seem to

lend support to the latter hypothesis.

1. Observations relating to CNS

The following more quantitative ﬁndings, many of them due to Becker, are of special interest as

one tries to understand the role of DC currents in TGD framework.

1. CNS and the rest of perineural tissue (tissue surrounding neurons including also glial cells) form

a dipole like structure with neural system in positive potential and perineural tissue in negative

potential. There is also an electric ﬁeld along neuron in the direction of nerve pulse propagation

(dendrites correspond to - and axon to +) (note that motor nerves and sensory nerves form a

closed loop). Also microtubules within axon carry electric ﬁeld and these ﬁelds are probably

closely related by the many-sheeted variants of Gauss’s and Faraday’s laws implying that voltages

along two diﬀerent space-time sheets in contact at two points are same in a static situation.

2. A longitudinal potential along front to back in brain with frontal lobes in negative potential

with respect to occipital lobes and with magnitude of few mV was discovered. The strength

of the electric ﬁeld correlates with the level of consciousness. As the potential becomes weaker

and changes sign, consciousness is lost. Libet and Gerard observed traveling waves of potentials

across the cortical layers (with speeds of about 6 m/s: TGD inspired model of nerve pulse

predicts this kind of waves [M2]). Propagating potentials were discovered also in glial cells. The

interpretation was in terms of electrical currents.

3. It was found that brain injury generated positive polarization so that the neurons ceased to

function in an area much larger than the area of injury. Negative shifts of neuronal potentials

were associated with incoming sensory stimuli and motor activity whereas sleep was associated

with a positive shift. Very small voltages and currents could modulate the ﬁring of neurons

without aﬀecting the resting potential. The ”generating” potentials in sensory receptors inducing

82 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

nerve pulse were found to be graded and non-propagating and the sign of the generating potential

correlated with sensory input (say increase/reduction of pressure). Standard wisdom about cell

membrane has diﬃculties in explaining these ﬁndings.

4. The natural hypothesis was that these electric ﬁelds are accompanied by DC currents. There

are several experimental demonstrations for this. For instance, the deﬂection of assumed DC

currents by external magnetic ﬁeld (Hall eﬀect) was shown to lead to a loss of consciousness.

2. Observations relating to regeneration

The second class of experiments used artiﬁcial electrical currents to enhance regeneration of body

parts. These currents are nowadays used in clinical practice to induce healing or retard tumor growth.

Note that tissue regeneration is a genuine regeneration of an entire part of organism rather than mere

simple cell replication. Salamander limb generation is one of the most studied examples. Spontaneous

regeneration becomes rare at higher evolutionary levels and for humans it occurs spontaneously only

in the fractures of long bones.

1. An interesting series of experiments on Planaria, a species of simple ﬂatworm with a primitive

nervous system and simple head-to-tail axis of organization, was carried out. Electrical mea-

surements indicated a simple head-tail dipole ﬁeld. The animal had remarkable regenerative

powers; it could be cut transversely into a number of segments, all of which would regenerate

a new total organism. The original head-tail axis was preserved in each regenerate, with that

portion nearest the original head end becoming the head of the new organism. The hypothesis

was that the original head-tail electrical vector persisted in the cut segments and provided the

morphological information for the regenerate. The prediction was that the reversal of the elec-

trical gradient by exposing the cut surface to an external current source of proper orientation

should produce some reversal of the head-tail gradient in the regenerate. While performing the

experiment it was found found that as the current levels were increased the ﬁrst response was to

form a head at each end of the regenerating segment. With still further increases in the current

the expected reversal of the head-tail gradient did occur, indicating that the electrical gradient

which naturally existed in these animals was capable of transmitting morphological information.

2. Tissue regeneration occurs only if some minimum amount of neural tissue is present suggesting

that CNS plays a role in the process although the usual neural activity is absent. The repeated

needling of the stump had positive eﬀect on regeneration and the DC current was found to be

proportional to innervation. Hence needling seems to stimulate innervation or at least inducing

formation of DC currents. Something like this might occur also in the case of acupuncture.

3. Regeneration involves de-diﬀerentiation of cells to form a blastema from which the regenerated

tissue is formed. Quite early it was learned that carcinogens induce de-diﬀerentiation of cells

because of their steric properties and by making electron transfer possible and that denervation

induces tumor formation. From these ﬁndings Becker concluded that the formation of blastema

could be a relatively simple process analogous to tumor growth whereas the regeneration proper

is a complex self-organization process during which the control by signals from CNS are necessary

and possibly realized in terms of potential waves.

4. Regeneration is possible in salamander but not in frog. This motivated Becker and collaborators

to compare these situations. In an amputated leg of both salamander and frog the original

negative potential of or order -1 mV went ﬁrst positive value of order +10 mV. In frog it

returned smoothly to its original value without regeneration. In salamander it returned during

three days to the original base line and then went to a much higher negative value around -20 mV

(resting potential is around -70 mV) followed by a return to the original value as regeneration

had occurred. Thus the large negative potential is necessary for the regeneration and responsible

for the formation of blastema. Furthermore, artiﬁcial electron current induced regeneration also

in the case of frog and in even in the denervated situation. Thus the ﬂow of electrons to the

stump is necessary for the formation of blastema and the diﬀerence between salamander and

frog is that frog is not able to provide the needed electronic current although positive potential

is present.

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 83

5. It was also learned that a so called neural epidermic junction (NEJ) formed in the healing process

of salamander stump was responsible for the regeneration in the presence of nervation. The con-

clusion was that the DC voltage and electronic current relevant for regeneration can be assigned

the interface between CNS and tissue rather than with the entire nerve and regeneration seems

to be a local process, perhaps a feed of metabolic energy driving self-organization. Furthermore,

NEJ seems to make possible the ﬂow of electrons from CNS to the stump.

6. The red blood cells of animals other than mammals are complete and possess thus nuclei.

Becker and collaborators observed that also red blood cells dediﬀerentiated to form blastema.

Being normally in a quiescent state, they are ideal for studying de-diﬀerentiation. It was found

that electric current acted as a trigger at the level of cell membrane inducing de-diﬀerentiation

reﬂected as an increased amount of mRNA serving as signal for gene expression. Also pulsed

magnetic ﬁeld was found to trigger the de-diﬀerentiation, perhaps via induced electric ﬁeld. By

the way, the role of the cell membrane ﬁts nicely with the view about DNA-cell membrane

system as topological quantum computer with magnetic ﬂux tubes connecting DNA and cell

membrane serving as braids.

7. The experiments of Becker and collaborators support the identiﬁcation of the charge carriers of

DC currents responsible for the formation of large negative potential of stump as electrons. The

test was based on the diﬀerent temperature dependence of electronic and protonic conductivities.

Electronic conductivity increases with temperature and protonic conductivity decreases and an

increase was observed. In TGD based model also super-conducting charge carriers are possible

and this ﬁnding does not tell anything about them.

3. A TGD based model for the situation

On basis of these observations one can try to develop a uniﬁed view about the eﬀects of laser

light, acupuncture, and DC currents. It is perhaps appropriate to start with the following - somewhat

leading - questions inspired by a strong background prejudice that the healing process - with control

signals from CNS included - utilizes the loading of many-sheeted metabolic batteries by supra currents

as a basic mechanism. In the case of control signals the energy would go to the ”moving of the control

knob”.

1. Becker assigns to the system involved with DC currents an eﬀective semiconductor property.

Could the eﬀective semiconductor property be due the fact that the transfer of charge carriers

to a smaller space-time sheet by ﬁrst accelerating them in electric ﬁeld is analogous to the

transfer of electrons between conduction bands in semiconductor junction? If so, semiconductor

property would be a direct signature of the realization of the metabolic energy quanta as zero

point kinetic energies.

2. Supra currents ﬂowing along magnetic ﬂux tubes would make possible dissipation free loading of

metabolic energy batteries. This even when oscillating Josephson currents are in question since

the transformation to ohmic currents in semiconductor junction makes possible energy transfer

only during second half of oscillation period. Could this be a completely general mechanism

applying in various states of regeneration process. This might be the case. In quantal situation

the metabolic energy quanta have very precise values as indeed required. For ohmic currents

at room temperature the thermal energies are considerably higher than those corresponding to

the voltage involved so that they seem to be excluded. The temperature at magnetic ﬂux tubes

should be however lower than the physiological temperature by a factor of order 10

−2

at least

for the voltage of -1 mV. This would suggest high T

c

super-conductivity is only eﬀective at the

magnetic ﬂux tubes involved. The ﬁnding that nerve pulse involves a slight cooling of the axonal

membrane proposed in the TGD based model of nerve pulse [M2] to be caused by a convective

cooling due the return ﬂow of ionic Josephson currents would conform with this picture.

3. What meridians are and what kind of currents ﬂow along them? Could these currents be supra

currents making possible dissipation-free energy transfer in the healthy situation? Does the

negative potential of order -1 mV make possible ﬂow of protonic supra currents and loading

of metabolic batteries by kicking protons to smaller space-time sheets? Could electronic supra

currents in opposite direct induce similar loading of metabolic batteries? Could these tow

miniature metabolisms realize control signals (protons) and feedback (electrons)?

84 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

The model answering these questions relies on following picture. Consider ﬁrst meridians.

1. The direct feed of metabolic energy as universal metabolic currencies realized as a transfer of

charge carriers to smaller space-time sheets is assumed to underly all the phenomena involving

healing aspect. Meridian system would make possible a lossless metabolic energy feed - transfer

of ”Chi” - besides the transfer of chemically stored energy via blood ﬂow. The metabolic energy

currencies involved are very small as compared to .5 eV and might be responsible only for

”turning control knobs”. The correlation of the level of consciousness with the overall strength

of DC electric ﬁelds would reduce to the level of remote metabolic energy transfer.

2. The model should explain why meridians have not been observed. Dark currents along magnetic

ﬂux tubes are ideal for the energy transfer. If the length of the superconducting ”wire” is long

in the scale deﬁned by the appropriate quantum scale proportional to , classical picture makes

sense and charge carriers can be said to accelerate and gain energy ZeV . For large values

of an oscillating Josephson current would be in question. The semiconductor like structure

at the end of meridian -possibly realized in terms of pair of space-time sheets with diﬀerent

sizes- makes possible a net transfer of metabolic energy even in this case as pulses at each

half period of oscillation. The transfer of energy with minimal dissipation would thus explain

why semiconductor like property is needed and why acupuncture points have high value of

conductivity. The identiﬁcation of meridians as invisible magnetic ﬂux tubes carrying dark

matter would explain the failure to observe them: one further direct demonstration for the

presence of dark matter in biological systems.

3. In the case of regeneration process NEJs would be accompanied by a scaled down version of

meridian with magnetic ﬂux tubes mediating the electronic Josephson current during blastema

generation and protonic supra current during the regeneration proper. Space-time sheets of

proton resp. electron correspond to k

p

and k

e

= k

p

+ 11. In a static situation many-sheeted

Gauss law in static situation would guarantee that voltages over NJE are same.

4. One can of course worry about the smallness of electrostatic energies ZeV as compared to the

thermal energy. Zero point kinetic energy could correspond also to the magnetic energy of the

charged particle. For suﬃciently large values of Planck constant magnetic energy scale is higher

than the thermal energy and the function of voltage could be only to drive the charged particles

along the ﬂux tubes to the target: and perhaps act as a control knob with electrostatic energy

compensating for the small lacking energy. Suppose for deﬁniteness magnetic ﬁeld strength of

B = .2 Gauss explaining the eﬀects of ELF em ﬁelds on brain and appearing in the model of

EEG. Assume that charged particle is in minimum energy state with cyclotron quantum number

n = 1 and spin direction giving negative interaction energy between spin and magnetic ﬁeld so

that the energy is (g−2)eB/2m

p

. Assume that the favored values of hbar correspond to number

theoretically simple ones expressible as a product of distinct Fermat primes and power of 2. In

the case of proton with g · 2.7927 the standard metabolic energy quantum E

0

= .5 eV would

require roughly /

0

= 17 2

34

. For electron g −2 · α/π · .002328 gives /

0

= 5 17 2

30

.

Consider next NEJs and semiconductor like behavior and charging of metabolic batteries.

1. Since NEJ seems resembles cell membrane in some respects, the wisdom gained from the model

of cell membrane and DNA as tqc can be used. The model for nerve pulse and the model for

DNA as topological quantum computer suggest that dark ionic currents ﬂowing along magnetic

ﬂux tubes characterized by a large value of Planck constant are involved with both meridians

and NJEs and might even dominate. Magnetic ﬂux tubes act as Josephson junctions generating

oscillatory supra currents of ions and electrons. For large values of also meridians are short

in the relevant dark length scale and act as Josephson junctions carrying oscillatory Josephson

currents.

2. The ﬁndings of Becker suggest that acu points correspond to sensory receptors which are nor-

mally in a negative potential. The model for the eﬀects of laser light favors (but only slightly)

the assumption that in a healthy situation it is protons arriving along magnetic ﬂux tubes which

are kicked to the smaller space-time sheets and that negative charge density at acu point attracts

protons to the acu point. Electrons could of course ﬂow in reverse direction along their own

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 85

magnetic ﬂux tubes and be kicked to the smaller space-time sheets at the positive end of the

circuit. In the case of brain, protonic end would correspond to the frontal lobes and electronic

end to the occipital lobes. This kind of structure could appear as fractally scaled variants. For

instance, glial cells and neurons could form this kind of pair with neurons in negative potential

and glial cells in positive potential as suggested by the fact that neuronal damage generates

positive local potential.

3. Classically the charge carriers would gain energy E = ZeV as they travel along the magnetic

ﬂux tube to NJE. If this energy is higher than the metabolic energy quantum involved, it allows

the transfer of charge carrier to a smaller space-time sheet so that metabolic resources are

regenerated. Several metabolic quanta could be involved and the value of V (t) would determine,

which quantum is activated. The reduction of the V below critical value would lead to a

starvation of the cell or at least to the failure of control signals to ”turn the control knob”.

This should relate to various symptoms like pain at acupuncture points. In a situation requiring

acupuncture the voltage along ﬂux tubes would be so small that the transfer of protons to the

smaller space-time sheets becomes impossible. As a consequence, the positive charge carriers

would accumulate to the acu point and cause a further reduction of the voltage. Acupuncture

needle would create a ”wound” stimulating large positive potential and the situation would be

very much like in regeneration process and de-diﬀerentiation induced by acupuncture could be

understood.

Many questions remain to be answered.

1. What causes the de-diﬀerentiation of the cells? The mere charging of metabolic energy batteries

perhaps? If so then the amount of metabolic energy- ”chi”- possessed by cell would serve as

a measure for the biological age of cell and meridian system feeding ”chi” identiﬁed as dark

metabolic energy would serve as a rejuvenating agent also with respect to gene expression. Or

does the electric ﬁeld deﬁne an external energy feed to a self-organizing system and create

an electromagnetic environment similar to that prevailing during morphogenesis inducing a

transition of cells to a dediﬀerentiated state? Or could DNA as tqc allow to understand the

modiﬁcation of gene expression as being due to the necessity to use tqc programs appropriate

for regeneration? Or should cells and wounded body part be seen as intentional agents doing

their best to survive rather than as passive parts of biochemical system?

2. Acupuncture and DC current generation are known to induce generation of endorphins. Do

endorphins contribute to welfare by reducing the pain or do they give a conscious expression for

the fact that situation has improved as a result of recharging of the metabolic energy batteries?

3. Could the continual charging of metabolic energy batteries by DC currents occur also in the

case of cell membrane? The metabolic energy quantum would be around .07 eV in this case and

correspond to p-adic length scale k = 140 for proton (the quantum is roughly a fraction 1/8 of

the fundamental metabolic energy quantum .5 eV corresponding to k = 137).

Gene activation by electrostatic ﬁelds?

The basic question concerns the method of activation. The discovery of chemists Guido Ebner and

Guido Schuerch [45, 46, 64] raises the hope that these ideas might be more than over-active imagination

and their work also provides a concrete proposal for the activation mechanism. These ﬁndings are

brieﬂy described in the article of Hardmuth Mueller [64] who proposes quite diﬀerent explanation for

the strange ﬁndings. Ebner and Schuerch studied the eﬀect of electrostatic ﬁelds on the growth and

morphogenesis of various organisms. Germ, seeds, or eggs were placed between conducting plates

creating an electric ﬁeld in the range .5-2 kV/m: note that the Earth’s electric ﬁeld is in the range

.1 −4 kV/m and of the same order of magnitude.

The outcome was rather surprising and in the year 1989 their employer Ciba Geigy (now Novaris)

applied for a patent ”Method of enhanced ﬁsh breeding” [45] for what is called Ciba Geigy eﬀect.

The researchers describe how ﬁshes (trouts) develop and grow much better, if their eggs have been

conditioned in an electrostatic ﬁeld. The researchers report [45, 46] that also the morphology of the

ﬁshes was altered to what seems to represent an ancient evolutionary form: this was not mentioned

in the patent.

86 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

The chemists founded their own Institute of Pharmaceutical Research near Basel, where Guido

Ebner applied for another very detailed patent, which was never granted (it is not diﬃcult to guess the

reasons why!). In the patent he describes the eﬀect of electrostatic ﬁelds on several life forms (cress,

wheat, corn, fern, micro-organisms, bacteria) in their early stage of development. A clear change in

the morphogenesis was observed. For instance, in one example fern had all sort of leaves in single

plant apparently providing a series of snapshots about the evolution of the plant. The evolutionary

age of the ﬁrst leaf appeared to be about 300 million years whereas the last grown-up leaf looked close

to its recent form.

If one takes these ﬁnding seriously, one must consider the possibility that the exposure to an

electrostatic ﬁeld can activate passive genes and change the gene expression so that older morpholo-

gies are expressed. The activation of not yet existing morphologies is probably more diﬃcult since

strong consistency conditions must be satisﬁed (activation of program requires activation of a proper

hardware). This would suggest that genome is a kind of archive containing also older genomes even

potential genomes or that topological quantum computer programs [L5] determine the morphology

to certain extent and that external conditions such as electric ﬁeld determine the self-organization

patters characterizing these programs.

It is known that the developing embryo has an electric ﬁeld along the head-tail axis and that

this ﬁeld plays an important role in the control of growth. These ﬁelds are much weaker than the

ﬁelds used in the experiment. p-Adic length scale hierarchy however predicts an entire hierarchy of

electric ﬁelds and living matter is indeed known to be full of electret structures. The strength of the

electric ﬁeld in some p-adic length scale related to DNA might somehow serve as the selector of the

evolutionary age. The recapitulation of phylogeny during the ontogeny could mean a gradual shift

of the activated part of the memone, perhaps assignable to tqc programs, and be controlled by the

gradually evolving electric ﬁeld strength.

The ﬁnding that led Ebner to his discovery was that it was possible to ”wake up” ancient bacteria

by an exposure to an electrostatic ﬁeld. The interpretation would be in terms of loading of metabolic

batteries. This would also suggest that in the case of primitive life forms like bacteria the electric ﬁeld

of Earth has served as metabolic energy source whereas in higher life forms endogenous electric ﬁelds

have taken the role of Earth’s electric ﬁeld.

Could UV photons have some metabolic role?

The correlation between UV photons and ERE brings in mind the vision that high temperature

plasmoids are primitive life-forms possibly having universal metabolic energy quanta in UV range.

One can imagine that the development of chemical energy storage mechanisms has made it possible to

use visible light from Sun as a source of metabolic energy and get rid of UV quanta having disastrous

biological eﬀects. Ozone layer shields out most of UV light and also air absorbs the UV light below

wavelength 200 nm, which justiﬁes the term vacuum UV (VUV) for this range.

∆k 1 2 ≥ 3 ∞

∆E(144, ∆k)/eV 4 6 ≥ 7 8

λ/nm 310(UVB) 207(UVB) ≤ 177 (VUV) 155 (VUV)

Table 3. The lines corresponding to the dropping of electron from k = 144 space time sheet

deﬁning a candidate for UV light inducing generation of ERE in the interstellar dust.

From Table 3 one ﬁnds that ∆k > 2 electronic transitions cascading to 8 eV (155 nm) by period

doubling) belong to vacuum UV (VUV) absorbed by air. The lines 310 nm and 207 nm corresponding

to ∆k = 1 and ∆k = 2 could however deﬁne frequency windows since these lines need not correspond

to any atomic or molecular electronic transitions.

In the solar photosphere the temperature is about 5800 K, roughly half of the minimum temper-

ature 10

4

K needed to generate the UV radiation inducing ERE in interstellar dust. Solar corona

however has temperature of about 10

6

K, which corresponds to a thermal energy of order 100 eV

and the UV radiation from corona at above mentioned discrete frequencies resulting in dropping of

electrons could serve as a metabolic energy source for pre-biotics in the interstellar space. This raises

obvious questions. Should the stellar sources inducing ERE possess also corona? Could 4 eV and 6 eV

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 87

UV photons from the solar corona serve as a source of metabolic energy for some primitive organisms

like blue algae?

A simple model for the metabolism of plasmoids

Extended Red Emissions (EREs) are associated with the interstellar dust in presence of UV light

with energies above 7.25 eV and source with temperature not below 10

4

K (maximum of wave length

distribution of black body radiation corresponds to the energy 4.97 eV at this temperature). This

suggests that plasmoids using UV photons as metabolic energy are involved.

1. Since the bond energies of molecules vary in few eV range and their formation typically liberates

photons in UV range, the natural hypothesis is that the metabolic cycle is based on the formation

of some molecule liberating UV photon kicking electron/proton to a smaller space-time sheet.

UV photons from energy source would in turn induce dissociation of the molecule and thus

drive the process. The process as a whole would involve several p-adic length scales and several

metabolic currencies.

2. This situation is of course encountered also in the ordinary biology but with highly developed

sharing of labor. Biosphere would burn hydrocarbons in animal cells with carbon dioxide as the

eventual outcome. Carbon dioxide would in turn be used by plants to regenerate the hydrocar-

bons. Note that in the recent day technology the loop is open: hydrocarbons are burned but

there is no process regenerating them: perhaps photons with large Planck constant might some

day used to regenerate the fuel and give rise to ”living” and perhaps tidier technology.

3. It is believed that complex organic molecules like amino-acids can form in the interstellar dust

and the spontaneous formation of aminoacids is known to be possible in the interstellar ice under

UV radiation. Hence at least N

2

and perhaps also CO can be expected to be present. The table

below gives dissociation energies of some simple molecules.

Molecule H

2

O

2

N

2

CO NO

E

D

/eV 4.48 5.08 7.37 11.11 5.2

i) N

2

has bond energy 7.37 eV is slightly above the UV threshold 7.26 eV for ERE, which

strongly suggests that N

2

is one of the molecules involved with the metabolism of interstellar

plasmoids.

ii) If ice is present then carbon monoxide CO would be an excellent candidate for a metabolic

molecule since its bond energy is as high as 11.11 eV. The exceptionally large bond energy would

naturally relate to the fact that carbon and oxygen are the key molecules of life.

Anomalous light phenomena as plasmoids

TGD suggests that anomalous light phenomena (ALPs, or light balls, or UFOs depending on one’s

tastes and assumptions) are identiﬁable as plasmoids behaving as primitive life forms. In the conference

held in R¨oros Bj¨orn Gitle-Hauge told about the determination of the spectrum of visible light emitted

by some light balls observed in Hessdalen [25] (”Hessdalen phenomenon” is the term used).

1. The spectrum is a band in the interval 500-600 nm whereas the typical ERE [30] is concentrated

in the interval 650-750 nm. The peak is in the interval 540-900 nm, the width of the band is

also now 100 nm, and there are no sharp peaks. Therefore the interpretation as ERE can be

considered.

2. Because Hessdalen is an old mining district, authors propose that the light ball could consist

of burning dust containing some metals. Author proposes that the burning of Titanium and

Scandium (encountered only in Scandinavia) might provide the energy for the light ball. Sc

reacts vigorously with acids and air (burning in oxygen gives Sc

2

O

3

as end product). Ti burns

in oxygen and is the only element that burns in nitrogen. Ti is used in ﬁreworks since it produces

spectacular ﬁres.

88 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

Author notices that the emission lines of N

+

, Al

++

, resp. Sc

+

at 528.02 nm, 528.2 nm, resp.

528.576 nm might contribute to the band. This might be the case but the explanation of the

band solely in terms of molecular transitions is not favored by its smoothness.

3. The bond energies of TiO and TiN are 6.9 eV and 5.23 eV so that the radiation resulting in

their formation is in UV range and could provide part of the metabolic energy. I do not know

about bond energy of Scandium oxide.

4. TiO

2

is known to catalyze photolysis in the presence of UV light [28, 27], which in turn is

basic step in photosynthesis [74], the basic step of which in TGD Universe would be the kicking

of electrons/protons to smaller space-time sheets. Therefore the UV photons liberated in the

formation of molecules containing Ti could catalyze photosynthesis like process.

1.5.4 Life as a symbiosis of plasmoids and biological life

If evolution has discovered something it usually keeps it so that plasmoids and UV metabolism should

be still there. This suggests that plasmoids are still in ionosphere. What could this mean? There also

also other questions and I am grateful for Sampo Vesterinen for some of them. The key questions are

perhaps the following ones. Do plasmoids and biological life forms live in symbiosis in some sense? If

this is the case, what plasmoids can give to us and what we can give to plasmoids?

1. Magnetic bodies as quantum plasmoids and plasmoids in magnetosphere

One must make clear what one means with plasmoid. One can consider a plasma made of ordi-

nary visible matter and also large quantum plasma at magnetic bodies in a form of Bose-Einstein

condensates of charged particles. The symbiosis of plasmoids and biomatter could correspond to the

symbiosis of magnetic body and biological body.

One can imagine also the possibility that visible matter plasmoids and bio-matter are in symbiosis

via the mediation of magnetic bodies. Note that DNA strands are negatively charged so that there is

a resemblance with a plasma like state. One aspect of symbiosis would be that magnetic body would

feed charged particles to DNA.

2. Some basic facts about magnetosphere

Magnetosphere would be a natural environment for plasmoid population. If one restricts plasmoids

to to visible matter, then ionosphere, plasma sphere and plasma sheet are the most interesting objects

of interest.

1. The temperature in the highest F layer of the ionosphere (extending from 150 km to 1500

km depending on source) is about 1200-1300 K: the photon energy is about .6-.65 eV at the

maximum wavelength of thermal distribution. Hence F layer plasmoids might receive metabolic

energy in the form of .5 eV metabolic energy quanta via thermal photons. Self-organization

occurs in transition layers and especially interesting is the transition region 85-300 km from

mesosphere to ionosphere at which temperature increases 300 K to about 1200 K.

2. Inner magnetosphere is a toruslike structure whose extension varies between 4R

E

(day side) and

8R

E

(night side) and shielded from solar wind. In the inner magnetosphere the typical density

is about 1 ion per cubic centimeter. Inner magnetosphere is bounded by a transition layer of

thickness of ∼ R (magneto-pause). In this region the density of the ions drops rapidly.

Inner magnetosphere contains plasma sphere whose radius varies in the range 2R

E

− 4R

E

at

day side and 2R

E

− 6R

E

at night side. Plasma has a ionospheric origin. The density of the

cold plasma consisting mainly of protons sphere varies in the range 10 −10

3

ions/cm

3

, whereas

the temperature is ∼ 5 10

3

K, which corresponds to metabolic energy quantum of .5 eV. Note

however that the energy of photon at maximum of thermal distribution is about 2.5 eV which

suggests 2 eV metabolic quantum.

The cold, dense plasma of plasma sphere is frozen around magnetic ﬂux lines which co-rotate

with Earth. In TGD framework this means that ﬂux tubes co-rotate and thus change shape.

In the equitorial plane the density of the plasma sphere drops sharply down to ∼ 1 ion/cm

3

at r = 4R. This transition region is known as a plasma pause. During magnetic storms the

outer radius decreases since the pressure of the solar wind compresses the plasma sphere. The

1.5. Many-sheeted space-time, universal metabolic quanta, and plasmoids as primitive

life forms 89

day-night variation of the shape of the plasma sphere is rather small. Within this region the

magnetic ﬁeld has in a reasonable approximation dipole shape with radiation belts forming an

exception.

The surface temperature of Sun is 6 10

3

K. This temperature is roughly half of the minimum

temperature 10

4

K needed for EREs from interstellar dust [30]. This corresponds to photon

energy of 3 eV at the maximum of thermal distribution and cannot induce dissociation of N

2

and other simple diatomic molecules. There is also solar corona but its temperature is about

10

6

K (10

2

eV) so that the ﬂux of thermal photons at UV energies is very low.

Taking seriously the ﬁnding that T ≥ 10

4

K for source is necessary for EREs, one might ask

whether the plasmoids at the day side are able to receive enough metabolic energy from UV

radiation of Sun. If course, there is is no need to assume that dissociation of N

2

molecules is key

element in metabolic mechanism. The temperatures in both F layer and plasma sphere allow

kicking of protons and electrons to smaller space-time sheets and this might save the situation.

Hence metabolism is not a problem for the plasmoids except perhaps during night-time when

the plasma cools down somewhat.

3. The plasma sheet [29, N1] at the night side of Earth dark is the most prominent feature of the

outer magnetosphere. It has a thickness about Earth radius R

E

and extends beyond Moon’s

orbit (with radius 10

3

R

E

). The average densities of charged particles are very low and same

order of magnitude as in plasma sphere: about .4-2 per cm

3

for both protons and electrons and

correlates with solar wind density.

The temperature is very high: the thermal energy of electrons is in keV range and ionic temper-

atures are even higher. The high temperature is due to the leakage of matter from solar wind.

Note that up to the distance d ∼ 10

2

R

E

equator region of outer magnetosphere at the night

side of Earth experiences a continual solar eclipse so that this region does not receive radiation

energy from Sun: the high temperature of plasma sheet solves this metabolic problem.

The presence of keV photons would destroy molecules at plasma sheet and induce a high degree

of ionization so that plasmoid life must be based on ions and electrons. The energy needed to

kick an electron to an atomic space-time sheet is about keV from m

e

/m

p

∼ 2

−11

: hence the

dropping of electrons from atomic space-time sheets would be the natural metabolic mechanism

for plasmoid life at plasma sheet.

One of the original motivations for the plasmoid hypothesis was the strange ﬁnding that plasma

sheet at the equator at the dark side of Earth is highly self-organized structure and the velocity

distributions of electrons present patterns like ”ﬂowers”, ”eyes”, ”butterﬂies” [N1].

3. What plasmoids could give to us and what we could give to plasmoids?

An attractive general motivation for the symbiosis would be that magnetic bodies would give us

ability to think and we would give them ability to sense.

1. The model of cognitive representations relies on the intersections of magnetic bodies with corre-

sponding p-adic space-time sheets possessing literally inﬁnite size in the real sense. The larger

the magnetic body, the better the representations. Magnetic bodies could thus provide us with

cognitive representations and an interesting question is whether and how this relates to the

strange self-organization patterns at plasma sheet.

2. We could provide for magnetic bodies sensory input and serve as their motor instruments. These

magnetic bodies might be also associated with plasma sheet and the plasmoids of ionosphere and

plasma sphere and could also use plasmoids of visible matter as sensory receptors and perhaps

even primitive motor instruments.

One can imagine also more concrete motivations for the symbiosis.

1. Plasmoids in the day-side ionosphere could shield biosphere from UV light by ”eating” the in-

coming UV light. Magnetic bodies could also feed negative electronic charge from the plasmoids

of magnetosphere to DNA double strands.

90 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

2. Plasmoids are not in a need of metabolic energy unless it happens that the temperature in F

layer cools too much during night time from T ∼ 0.12 eV. One might imagine that plasmoids

suck metabolic energy from the biosphere during sleep (say brains which remain active): this

would be a possible explanation for why we sleep. One can even imagine that during sleep

magnetospheric collective levels of consciousness take command and life forms in the biosphere

entangle to form kind of stereo consciousness providing a collective view what is to be human,

member of species, or a part of biosphere.

4. About the interpretation of bio-photons?

Also the wave lengths of bio-photons are in the range of visible photons. Their spectrum is

claimed to be featureless, which would suggest that identiﬁcation in terms of photons resulting in

dropping of electrons and protons to larger space-time sheets might not make sense. The variation of

the geometric shape of space-time sheets, the possibility of surplus energy, and the clustering of the

transition lines around the lower end of wave length spectrum might however give rise to eﬀectively

featureless spectrum.

Suppose that bio-photons correspond to superposition of ERE bands and thus reﬂect the presence

of UV energy feed. Unless biological body is not able to generate the needed UV photons, they must

arrive from Sun. Bio-photons or their dark counterparts with much longer wavelengths could indeed

live at the ﬂux quanta of the magnetic bodies and observed visible bio-photons could represent some

kind of leakage.

5. Gariaev’s experiments

Gariaev’s experiments [39] involved the irradiation of DNA using visible laser light with photon

energy 1.9595 eV. The irradiation induced emission of radio waves with same polarization with fre-

quencies above kHz. Radio waves induced growth of potatoes. A possible interpretation is that 2 eV

photons kicked electrons to a smaller space-time sheet and thus gave metabolic energy to DNA. The

radio waves possibly resulting in the dropping of electrons back to the larger space-time sheets could

have consisted of dark photons with same or smaller energy and could have been used as a metabolic

energy by the potatoes. That the dropping can occur to several space-time sheets would explain why

several radio wave frequencies were observed. The prediction would be sum of period doubling spectra

discussed earlier since sequences of droppings are possible. The radio-wave signal would result from

the de-coherence of dark radio-wave photons to a bundle of ordinary radio-wave photons.

6. Earth’s interior as a living system?

For years ago I developed in detail the working hypothesis that entire magnetosphere is a living

system. Even Earth’s interior (and also solar surface) could contain plasmoid life [L7, N1]. The

temperature below the mantle of Earth does not diﬀer too much from the surface temperature of

Sun and metabolic energy could come from the radioactive decays from the interior of Earth. There

would be UV shielding by Earth: UV light has energies above 3.1 eV whereas the temperature at

the mantle-core boundary is 4300 K which corresponds to energy 2.2 eV energy at the maximum of

thermal distribution. Metabolic energy quantum of 2 eV would be highly suggestive and might be

directly used to kick protons and electrons to smaller space-time sheet.

The metabolism would not probably involve energy quantum of .5 eV. Magnetic ﬂux tubes could

also mediate metabolic energy from the biosphere and possibly also ionosphere and the plasmoid life

in question could be at an evolutionary level not tolerating UV light and involve molecules in essential

manner.

1.6 Exotic color and electro-weak interactions

The ﬁnding of a correct interpretation of long ranged electro-weak and color gauge ﬁelds predicted by

classical TGD has been the basic stumbling block for the development of the understanding of TGD

Universe and it took about 27 years before the time was ripe to see that TGD predicts entire fractal

hierarchy of scaled down copies of standard model physics so that TGD Universe can be seen as a

kind of inversion of Mandelbrot fractal for which each new bird eye of view reveals new structures

assignable to higher levels in the hierarchy of consciousness.

1.6. Exotic color and electro-weak interactions 91

1.6.1 Long range classical weak and color gauge ﬁelds as correlates for

dark massless weak bosons

Long ranged electro-weak gauge ﬁelds are unavoidably present when the dimension D of the CP

2

projection of the space-time sheet is larger than 2. Classical color gauge ﬁelds are non-vanishing for

all non-vacuum extremals. This poses deep interpretational problems. If ordinary quarks and leptons

are assumed to carry weak charges feeded to larger space-time sheets within electro-weak length scale,

large hadronic, nuclear, and atomic parity breaking eﬀects, large contributions of the classical Z

0

force to Rutherford scattering, and strong isotopic eﬀects, are expected. If weak charges are screened

within electro-weak length scale, the question about the interpretation of long ranged classical weak

ﬁelds remains.

Various interpretations for the long ranged classical electro-weak ﬁelds

During years I have discussed several solutions to the problems listed above.

Option I: The trivial solution of the constraints is that Z

0

charges are neutralized at electro-weak

length scale. The problem is that this option leaves open the interpretation of classical long ranged

electro-weak gauge ﬁelds unavoidably present in all length scales when the dimension for the CP

2

projection of the space-time surface satisﬁes D > 2.

Option II: Second option involves several variants but the basic assumption is that nuclei or even

quarks feed their Z

0

charges to a space-time sheet with size of order neutrino Compton length. The

large parity breaking eﬀects in hadronic, atomic, and nuclear length scales is not the only diﬃculty.

The scattering of electrons, neutrons and protons in the classical long range Z

0

force contributes to the

Rutherford cross section and it is very diﬃcult to see how neutrino screening could make these eﬀects

small enough. Strong isotopic eﬀects in condensed matter due to the classical Z

0

interaction energy

are expected. It is far from clear whether all these constraints can be satisﬁed by any assumptions

about the structure of topological condensate.

Option III: During 2005 (27 years after the birth of TGD!) third option solving the problems

emerged based on the progress in the understanding of the basic mathematics behind TGD.

In ordinary phase the Z

0

charges of elementary particles are indeed neutralized in intermediate

boson length scale so that the problems related to the parity breaking, the large contributions of

classical Z

0

force to Rutherford scattering, and large isotopic eﬀects in condensed matter, trivialize.

Classical electro-weak gauge ﬁelds in macroscopic length scales are identiﬁed as space-time corre-

lates for the gauge ﬁelds created by dark matter, which corresponds to a macroscopically quantum

coherent phase for which elementary particles possess complex conformal weights such that the net

conformal weight of the system is real.

In this phase U(2)

ew

symmetry is not broken below the scaled up weak scale except for fermions

so that gauge bosons are massless below this length scale whereas fermion masses are essentially the

same as for ordinary matter. By charge screening gauge bosons look massive in length scales much

longer than the relevant p-adic length scale. The large parity breaking eﬀects in living matter (chiral

selection for bio-molecules) support the view that dark matter is what makes living matter living.

Classical color gauge ﬁelds

Classical long ranged color gauge ﬁelds always present for non-vacuum extremals are interpreted as

space-time correlates of gluon ﬁelds associated with dark copies of hadron physics. It seems that

this picture is indeed what TGD predicts. A very special feature of classical color ﬁelds is that the

holonomy group is Abelian. This follows directly from the expression g

A

αβ

∝ H

A

J

αβ

of induced gluon

ﬁelds in terms of Hamiltonians H

A

of color isometries and induced K¨ahler form J

αβ

. This means that

classical color magnetic and electric ﬂuxes reduce to the analogs of ordinary magnetic ﬂuxes appearing

in the construction of conﬁguration space geometry [B2, B3].

By a local color rotation the color ﬁeld can be rotated to a ﬁxed direction so that genuinely Abelian

ﬁeld would be in question apart from the possible presence of gauge singularities making impossible

a global selection of color direction. These singularities could be present since K¨ahler form deﬁnes

a magnetic monopole ﬁeld. An interesting question inspired by quantum classical correspondence is

what the Abelian holonomy tells about the sources of color gauge ﬁelds and color conﬁnement.

92 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

For instance, could Abelian holonomy mean that colored gluons (and presumably also other col-

ored particles) do not propagate in the p-adic length scale considered? Color neutral gluons would

propagate but since also their sources must be color neutral, they should have vanishing net color

electric ﬂuxes. This form of conﬁnement would allow those states of color multiplets which have

vanishing color charges and obviously symmetry breaking down to U(1) U(1) would be in question.

This would serve as a signal for monopole conﬁnement which would not exclude higher multipoles for

the Abelian color ﬁelds. This kind of ﬁelds appear in the the TGD based model for nuclei as nuclear

strings bound together by color ﬂux tubes [F8]. In the sequel the model for nuclear color force is

brieﬂy discussed in order to give an idea about how the dark color forces might act also in longer

length scales.

1.6.2 Dark color force as a space-time correlate for the strong nuclear

force?

Color conﬁnement suggests a basic application of the basic criteria for the transition to large phase.

The obvious guess is that valence quarks are dark [J6, F10]. Dark matter phase for quarks does not

change the lowest order classical strong interaction cross sections but reduces dramatically higher

order perturbative corrections and resolves the problems created by the large value of QCD coupling

strength in the hadronic phase.

The challenge is to understand the strong binding solely in terms of dark QCD with large value

of reducing color coupling strength of valence quarks to v

0

· 2

−11

. The best manner to introduce

the basic ideas is as a series of not so frequently asked questions and answers.

Rubber band model of strong nuclear force as starting point

The ﬁrst question is what is the vision for nuclear strong interaction that one can start from. The

sticky toﬀee model of Chris Illert [72] is based on the paradox created by the fact alpha particles

can tunnel from the nucleus but that the reversal of this process in nuclear collisions does not occur.

Illert proposes a classical model for the tunnelling of alpha particles from nucleus based on dynamical

electromagnetic charge. Illert is forced to assume that virtual pions inside nuclei have considerably

larger size than predicted by QCD and the model. Strikingly, the model favors fractional alpha particle

charges at the nuclear surface. The TGD based interpretation would be based on the identiﬁcation of

the rubber bands of Illert as long color bonds having exotic light quark and anti-quark at their ends

and connecting escaping alpha particle to the mother nucleus. The challenge is to give meaning to

the attribute ”exotic”.

How the darkness of valence quarks can be consistent with the known sizes of nuclei?

The assumption about darkness of valence quarks in the sense of of large (

s

= /v

0

) is very natural

if one takes the basic criterion for darkness seriously. The obvious question is how the dark color force

can bind the nucleons to nuclei of ordinary size if the strength of color force is v

0

and color sizes of

valence quarks are about L(129)?

It seems also obvious that L(107) in some sense deﬁnes the size for nucleons, and somehow this

should be consistent with scaled up size L(k

eff

= 129) implied by the valence quarks with large .

The proposal of [J6, F10] inspired by RHIC ﬁndings [67] is that valence quarks are dark in the sense of

having large value of and thus correspond to k

eff

= 129 whereas sea quarks correspond to ordinary

value for and give rise to the QCD size ∼ L(107) of nucleon.

If one assumes that the typical distances between sea quark space-time sheets of nucleons is ob-

tained by scaling down the size scale of valence quarks, the size scale of nuclei comes out correctly.

Valence quarks and exotic quarks cannot be identical

The hypothesis is that nucleons contain or there are associated with them pairs of exotic quarks and

ﬂux tubes of color ﬁeld bodies of size ∼ L(129) connecting the exotic quark and anti-quark in separate

nuclei. Nucleons would be structures with the size of ordinary nucleus formed as densely packed

structures of size L(129) identiﬁable as the size of color magnetic body.

1.6. Exotic color and electro-weak interactions 93

The masses of exotic quarks must be however small so that they must diﬀer from valence quarks.

The simplest possibility is that exotic quarks are not dark but p-adically scaled down versions of sea

quarks with ordinary value of having k = 127 so that masses are scaled down by a factor 2

−10

.

Energetic considerations favor the option that exotic quarks associate with nucleons via the k

eff

=

111 space-time sheets containing nucleons and dark quarks. Encouragingly, the assumption that

nucleons topologically condense at the weak k

eff

= 111 space-time sheet of size L(111) · 10

−14

m

of exotic quarks predicts essentially correctly the mass number of the highest known super-massive

nucleus. Neutron halos are outside this radius and can be understood in terms color Coulombic

binding by dark gluons. Tetraneutron can be identiﬁed as alpha particle containing two negatively

charged color bonds.

What determines the binding energy per nucleon?

The binding energies per nucleon for A ≥ 4 to not vary too much from 7 MeV but the lighter nuclei

have anomalously small binding energies. The color bond deﬁned by a color magnetic ﬂux tube

of length ∼ L(k = 127) or ∼ L(k

eff

= 129) connecting exotic quark and anti-quark in separate

nucleons with scaled down masses m

q

(dark) ∼ xm

q

, with x = 2

−10

for option for k = 127, is a good

candidate in this respect. Color magnetic spin-spin interaction would give the dominant contribution

to the interaction energy as in the case of hadrons. This interaction energy is expected to depend

on exotic quark pair only. The large zero point kinetic energy of light nuclei topologically condensed

at k

eff

= 111 space-time sheet having possible identiﬁcation as the dark variant of k = 89 weak

space-time sheet explains why the binding energies of D and

3

He are anomalously small.

What can one assume about the color bonds?

Can one allow only quark anti-quark type color bonds? Can one allow the bonds to be also electro-

magnetically charged as the earlier model for tetra-neutron suggests (tetra-neutron would be alpha

particle containing two negatively charged color bonds so that the problems with the Fermi statistics

are circumvented). Can one apply Fermi statistics simultaneously to exotic quarks and anti-quarks

and dark valence quarks?

Option I: Assume that exotic and dark valence quarks are identical in the sense of Fermi statis-

tics. This assumption sounds somewhat non-convincing but is favored by p-adic mass calculations

supporting the view that the p-adic mass scale of hadronic quarks can vary. If this hypothesis holds

true at least eﬀectively, very few color bonds from a given nucleon are allowed by statistics and there

are good reasons to argue that nucleons are arranged to highly tangled string like structures ﬁlling

nuclear volume with two nucleons being connected by color bonds having of length of order L(129).

The organization into closed strings is also favored by the conservation of magnetic ﬂux.

The notion of nuclear string is strongly supported by the resulting model explaining the nuclear

binding energies per nucleon. It is essential that nucleons form what might be called nuclear strings

rather than more general tangles. Attractive p-p and n-n bonds must correspond to colored ρ

0

type

bonds with spin one and attractive p-n type bonds to color singlet pion type bonds. The quantitative

estimates for the spin-spin interaction energy of the lightest nuclei lead to more precise estimates

for the lengths of color bonds. The resulting net color quantum numbers must be compensated by

dark gluon condensate, the existence of which is suggested by RHIC experiments [67]. This option is

strongly favored by the estimate of nuclear binding energies.

Option II: If Fermi statistics is not assumed to apply in the proposed manner, then color magnetic

ﬂux tubes bonds between any pair of nucleons are possible. The identiﬁcation of color isospin as

strong isospin still eﬀective removes color degree of freedom. As many as 8 color tubes can leave the

nucleus if exotic quarks and anti-quarks are in the same orbital state and a cubic lattice like structure

would become possible. This picture would be consistent with the idea that in ordinary ﬁeld theory all

particle pairs contribute to the interaction energy. The large scale of the magnetic ﬂux tubes would

suggest that the contributions cannot depend much on particle pair. The behavior of the binding

energies favors strongly the idea of nuclear string and reduces this option to the ﬁrst one.

What is the origin of strong force and strong isospin?

Here the answer is motivated by the geometry of CP

2

allowing to identify the holonomy group of

electro-weak spinor connection as U(2) subgroup of color group. Strong isospin group SU(2) is iden-

94 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

tiﬁed as subgroup of isotropy group U(2) for space-time surfaces in a sub-theory deﬁned by M

4

S

2

,

S

2

a homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere of CP

2

and second factor of U(1) U(1) subgroup

of the holonomies for the induced Abelian gauge ﬁelds corresponds to strong isospin component I

3

.

The extremely tight correlations between various classical ﬁelds lead to the hypothesis that the strong

isospin identiﬁable as color isospin I

3

of exotic quarks at the ends of color bonds attached to a given

nucleon is identical with the weak isospin of the nucleon. Note that this does not require that exotic

and valence quarks are identical particles in the sense of Fermi statistics.

Does the model explain the strong spin orbit coupling (L S force)? This force can be identiﬁed

as an eﬀect due to the motion of fermion string containing the eﬀectively color charged nucleons in

the color magnetic ﬁeld v E induced by the motion of string in the color electric ﬁeld at the dark

k = 107 space-time sheet.

How the phenomenological shell model with harmonic oscillator potential emerges?

Nucleus can be seen as a collection of of long color magnetic ﬂux tubes glued to nucleons with the

mediation of exotic quarks and anti-quarks. If nuclei form closed string, as one expects in the case of

Fermi statistics constraint, also this string deﬁnes a closed string or possibly a collection of linked and

knotted closed strings. If Fermi statistics constraint is not applied, the nuclear strings form a more

complex knotted and linked tangle. The stringy space-time sheets would be the color magnetic ﬂux

tubes connecting exotic quarks belonging to diﬀerent nucleons.

The color bonds between the nucleons are indeed strings connecting them and the averaged in-

teraction between neighboring nucleons in the nuclear string gives in the lowest order approximation

3-D harmonic oscillator potential although strings have D = 2 transversal degrees of freedom. Even

in the case that nucleons for nuclear strings and thus have only two bonds to neighbors the average

force around equilibrium position is expected to be a harmonic force in a good approximation. The

nuclear wave functions ﬁx the restrictions of stringy wave functionals to the positions of nucleons at

the nuclear strings. Using M-theory language, nucleons would represent branes connected by color

magnetic ﬂux tubes representing strings whose ends co-move with branes.

Which nuclei are the most stable ones and what is the origin of magic numbers?

P = N closed strings correspond to energy minima and their deformations obtained by adding or

subtracting nucleons in general correspond to smaller binding energy per nucleon. Thus the observed

strong correlation between P and N ﬁnds a natural explanation unlike in the harmonic oscillator model.

For large values of A the generation of dark gluon condensate and corresponding color Coulombic

binding energy favors the surplus of neutrons and the generation of neutron halos. The model explains

also the spectrum of light nuclei, in particular the absence of pp, nn, ppp, and nnn nuclei.

In the standard framework spin-orbit coupling explains the magic nuclei and color Coulombic

force gives rise to this kind of force in the same manner as in atomic physics context. Besides the

standard magic numbers there are also non-standard ones (such as Z, N = 6, 12) if the maximum of

binding energy is taken as a deﬁnition of magic, there are also other magic numbers than the standard

ones. Hence can consider also alternative explanations for magic numbers. The geometric view about

nucleus suggests that the ﬁve Platonic regular solids might deﬁned favor nuclear conﬁgurations and

it indeed turns that they explain non-standard magic numbers for light nuclei.

New magic nuclei might be obtained by linking strings representing doubly magic nuclei. An

entire hierarchy of linkings becomes possible and could explain the new magic numbers 14, 16, 30, 32

discovered for neutrons [68]. Linking of the nuclear strings could be rather stable by Pauli Exclusion

Principle. For instance,

16

O would corresponds to linked

4

He and

12

C nuclei. Higher magic numbers

28, 50, ... allow partitions to sums of lower magic numbers which encourages to consider the geometric

interpretation as linked nuclei. p-Adic length scale hypothesis in turn suggest the existence of magic

numbers coming as powers of 2

3

.

1.6.3 How brain could deduce the position and velocity of an object of

perceptive ﬁeld?

The basic degrees of freedom for mind like space-time sheets can be regarded as parameters specifying

color quantization axes and spin quantization axis. The parameters characterizing the choices of

1.6. Exotic color and electro-weak interactions 95

the color quantization axes deﬁne 3+3-dimensional symplectic ﬂag-manifold F

3

= SU(3)/U(1)

U(1) whereas the parameters ﬁxing spin-quantization axes deﬁne two-dimensional ﬂag-manifold F

2

=

SU(1)/U(1) = S

2

, which is identical to two-sphere and whose point characterizes some orientation

vector. A mathematically attractive identiﬁcation of the ﬂag manifold F

3

is as a representation for

the possible positions and velocities of an object of the perceptive ﬁeld whereas F

2

could represent

some orientation, say ear-to-ear orientation axis. This identiﬁcation, if correct, provides additional

support for the uniqueness of the choice of the imbedding space H = M

4

+

CP

2

. Amazingly, the

model of honeybee dance by Barbara Shipman leads to the identiﬁcation of the ﬂag manifold F

3

as a

fundamental mathematical structure associated with the cognition of the honeybee.

Without a good physical justiﬁcation this kind of identiﬁcation is however ad hoc. Fortunately, the

following argument makes it possible to understand why F

3

should code the position and the velocity

of the objects of the perceptive ﬁeld.

1. The time development by quantum self-organization is expected to lead to well deﬁned asymp-

totic values of (P, Q) coordinates during each wake-up period of the mind like space-time sheet

representing object of the perceptive ﬁeld and in self-state.

2. The crucial observation is that classical em and Z

0

ﬁelds are accompanied by classical color

ﬁelds in TGD. Color rotations rotate the color ﬁeld in color space whereas induced K¨ahler form

remains unchanged. Most importantly: classical em and Z

0

ﬁelds do not remain invariant under

color rotations as they would remain in standard model. This leads to the idea that diﬀerent

(P, Q) values obtained by color rotations of cognitive and neuronal space-time sheets correspond

to slightly diﬀerent membrane potentials and that it is the dependence of the membrane potential

on the position and velocity of the object of the perceptive ﬁeld, which leads to (P, Q) coding.

3. An observation not directly related to (P, Q) coding is that classical em and color ﬁelds induce

tiny color polarization at quark level leading to color polarization of nuclei: this color polarization

could provide the quantum correlate for the color quale. The representation of color in this

manner however requires that (P, Q) are same for all neurons in the perceptive ﬁeld so that the

coding of positions and velocities and color are mutually exclusive. Positions and velocities and

color are indeed represented by diﬀerent regions of cortex.

4. Color rotation induces motion in F

3

rotating color quantization axes and leaving the induced

K¨ahler ﬁeld invariant so that absolute minima of K¨ahler action are mapped to absolute minima

and zero modes are not changed. Classical Z

0

and em ﬁelds are however not invariant under

color rotations. How classical em and Z

0

depend on K¨ahler form becomes clear from the the

following formulas:

γ = 3J −

1

2

sin

2

θ

W

Z

0

,

Z

0

= 2J + 4e

0

∧ e

3

,

J = 2(e

0

∧ e

3

+e

1

∧ e

2

) . (1.6.1)

Here J denotes K¨ahler form invariant under color rotations and e

k

denote vierbein vectors of

CP

2

. e

0

∧e

3

denotes the part of Z

0

, which is not invariant under color rotations. From these for-

mulas it is evident that classical photon ﬁeld is not in general invariant since it is a superposition

of the induced K¨ahler ﬁeld and classical Z

0

ﬁeld and reduces to induced K¨ahler ﬁeld only when

the Weinberg angle vanishes: the physical value of the Weinberg angle is about sin

2

(θ

W

) = 1/4.

This means that various points (P, Q) of (3+3)-dimensional F

3

indeed correspond to diﬀerent

classical Z

0

ﬁelds and classical em ﬁelds.

5. There is however an important exception to this picture. If CP

2

projection belongs to geodesic

sphere S

2

, the ﬁeld equations reduces to those for X

4

⊂ M

4

S

2

. For space-time sheets for

which CP

2

projection is r = ∞ homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere of CP

2

one has

γ = (

3

4

−

sin

2

(θ

W

)

2

)Z

0

·

5Z

0

8

96 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

as the explicit study of r = ∞ geodesic sphere shows (see the appendix of the book). The

induced W ﬁelds vanish in this case and they vanish also for all geodesic spheres obtained by

SU(3) rotation. There are excellent reasons to believe that also the relationship between Z

0

and γ is SU(3) invariant so that there would be no mixing between em and Z

0

ﬁelds. For

homologically trivial geodesic spheres γ and Z

0

vanish and only W ﬁelds are non-vanishing.

This kind of MEs would naturally correspond to W MEs.

For D > 2-dimensional CP

2

projection the situation changes. MEs have always 2-D CP

2

projection ﬁeld equations and ﬁeld equations are satisﬁed without assuming that CP

2

projection

is a geodesic sphere and in this case one can hope of getting mixing of γ and Z

0

also in this

case perhaps characterizable in terms of the value of the Weinberg angle. Also W ﬁelds can be

present in this case.

6. Assuming that the values of (P, Q) coordinates are the same for the neuronal group representing

an object of the perceptive ﬁeld and the mind like space-time sheet associated with it (this

could be forced by the wormhole contacts), (P, Q) coding for the positions and velocities for the

objects of the perceptive ﬁeld follows if these observables are coded into the properties of the

classical Z

0

ﬁeld associated with the neuronal membrane. This seems plausible since a change of

the classical Z

0

ﬁeld implies a change of the classical em ﬁeld if the induced K¨ahler ﬁeld remains

invariant (as is natural). Thus the problem of understanding (P, Q) coding for position and

velocity reduces to the problem of understanding why the position and velocity should aﬀect

some natural em ﬁeld associated with cell membrane. Obviously membrane resting potential is

an excellent candidate for this em ﬁeld.

7. The dependence of the value of the membrane resting potential for the representation of an

object of the perceptive ﬁeld on the the position and velocity of the object is natural. For

instance, it is advantageous for the neurons representing object near to the observer to be

nearer to the criticality for ﬁring. Thus the membrane potential must be reduced by a suitable

color rotation and eﬀective code position of the object to Q coordinates. Also, when the object

moves towards/away from the observer, the resting potential should be reduced/increased and

this means that velocity is coded to P value (note that there is inﬁnite number of canonical

coordinates at use). From these correlations it is quite plausible that (P, Q) coding could be

a result of natural selection. Of course, the coding of position and velocity to (P, Q) values

need not be one-to-one. For instance, simple organisms are sensitive for velocity only and some

organisms experience world as 2-dimensional.

1.6.4 Boolean mind and dark neutrinos

The unavoidable prediction of classical TGD is the presence of long ranged classical electro-weak ﬁelds

in all long scales and the only reasonable interpretation is in terms of dark matter hierarchy suggesting

the existence of light copies of ordinary elementary particles in all length scales coupling to ordinary

matter only via gravitation. Even more, the length scale range 10 nm-2.5 µm contains four Gaussian

Mersennes possibly assignable to fractally scaled down copies of electro-weak physics.

One ends up with a rather concrete quantum model for Boolean mind based on neutrinos by

1. combining the concept of association sequence as 3-surface which is a union of space-like 3-surface

with time-like separations with the fermionic realization of Boolean algebra ;

2. requiring that fermionic states exist only in a ﬁnite time interval deﬁned by the duration of the

mind-like space-time sheets;

3. assuming that time-like entanglement is possible for many-fermion states. A rigorous deﬁni-

tion of time like entanglement in terms of so called Connes tensor product is discussed in [C2].

According to this identiﬁcation time-like entanglement at given level of cognitive hierarchy repre-

sents the S-matrix at lower level of hierarchy as entanglement coeﬃcients so that states at higher

level can represent dynamics at the lower level. This highly restricted form of entanglement is

in accordance with the very restricted failure of classical determinism.

Ordinary fermions cannot reside on mind-like space-time sheets unless they are created as pairs

with vanishing total quantum numbers (in particular energy!) such that the quantum numbers of

1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 97

fermion and anti-fermion at space-time sheets of opposite time orientation compensate each other.

Dark neutrinos are however exceptional since their interaction energy [F8, F10] is negative and it is

possible to create pairs with vanishing net energy such that both members are at space-time sheet of

positive time orientation.

Dark neutrinos are an ideal tool of cognition since they do not couple to electromagnetic interac-

tions and, having couplings only to dark weak bosons, dissipate extremely weakly. The creation of

cognitive neutrino pairs by the splitting of a wormhole contact connecting two space-time sheets is

indeed possible and provides a possible realization for thinking system. Wormhole contact itself can

be regarded as a neutrino-antineutrino pair bound assignable to the causal horizons of the wormhole

contact. Logical statement and its negation correspond naturally to Fock sates of dark antineutrinos

(resp. dark neutrinos).

Quantum classical correspondence suggests that it is localization in zero modes, in fact the con-

scious selection between degenerate absolute minima of K¨ahler action, which selects beween various

conﬁgurations of the classical Z

0

ﬁeld. If the pattern of cognitive neutrino pairs is ﬁxed by the classi-

cal Z

0

ﬁeld, the premises and conclusions of the logical deductions would be represented in terms of

cognitive neutrinos. This assumption is also in accordance with the hypothesis that the exponent of

the K¨ ahler action provides a measure for the cognitive resources of 3-surface deﬁned as the number

of degenerate absolute minima of K¨ahler action associated with the 3-surface [H7].

From this it is still a long way to precise models and one can make only educated guesses.

1. Cognitive neutrino pairs could reside in the defect regions of neutrino super conductor which

is super-conductor of type I having complicated stripe like defect regions near criticality. TGD

based model for the interaction of dark neutrinos with condensed matter predicts that the

thickness of the defect regions is of order 10

−8

meters. Hence cell membranes are excellent

candidates for the defect regions. The model for the generation of cognitive neutrino pairs as

zero energy states favors this option very strongly.

2. Also chromosomes (having same thickness as cell membranes) could be identiﬁed as defect regions

of dark neutrino super conductor. Very simple model for the abstraction process as a hierarchy

of Boolean statements about Boolean statements about... starting from two basic statements

explains the basic numbers of the genetic code (see the chapter [H7]). It is diﬃcult to believe

that this could be mere accident. Cognitive neutrino pairs indeed allow to construct a model of

a many-sheeted DNA realizing gene level Boolean mind and possibly explaining the mystery of

introns [20].

Of course, conscious Boolean mind at gene level need not have anything to do with our logical

mind, and probably does not. If it has, new forms of gene expression are necessary. The model for

abstraction process however predicts entire hierarchy of ”genetic codes”, and the level next to the

level realizing genetic code might correspond to what might be called memetic code realized in terms

of the cognitive neutrino pairs associated with the cell membrane in accordance with the option 1)

and leads up to a concrete model for memetic code relating temporal sequences of cognitive neutrino

pairs associated with axons to cognitive experiences [L1].

1.7 The relationship between p-adic and real physics

p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and intentionality are the most exotic new physics involved

with TGD and only heuristic ideas about the relationship of real and p-adic physics exist. The

interpretation of the p-adic as physics of cognition and the vision about reduction of physics to

rational physics continuable algebraically to various extensions of rationals and p-adic number ﬁelds

is an attractive general framework allowing to understand how p-adic fractality could emerge in real

physics. In this section it will be found that this vision provides a concrete tool in principle allowing to

construct global solutions of ﬁeld equations by reducing long length scale real physics to short length

scale p-adic physics. Also p-adic length scale hypothesis can be understood and the notion of multi-p

p-fractality can be formulated in precise sense in this framework. This vision leads also to a concrete

quantum model for how intentions are transformed to actions and the S-matrix for the process has

the same general form as the ordinary S-matrix.

98 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

1.7.1 p-Adic physics and the construction of solutions of ﬁeld equations

The number theoretic vision about physics relies on the idea that physics or, rather what we can

know about it, is basically rational number based. One interpretation would be that space-time

surfaces, the induced spinors at space-time surfaces, conﬁguration space spinor ﬁelds, S-matrix, etc...,

can be obtained by algebraically continuing their values in a discrete subset of rational variant of the

geometric structure considered to appropriate completion of rationals (real or p-adic). The existence

of the algebraic continuation poses very strong additional constraints on physics but has not provided

any practical means to solve quantum TGD.

In the following it is however demonstrated that this view leads to a very powerful iterative method

of constructing global solutions of classical ﬁeld equations from local data and at the same time gives

justiﬁcation for the notion of p-adic fractality, which has provided very successful approach not only

to elementary particle physics but also physics at longer scales. The basic idea is that mere p-adic

continuity and smoothness imply fractal long range correlations between rational points which are

very close p-adically but far from each other in the real sense and vice versa.

The emergence of a rational cutoﬀ

For a given p-adic continuation only a subset of rational points is acceptable since the simultaneous

requirements of real and p-adic continuity can be satisﬁed only if one introduces ultraviolet cutoﬀ

length scale. This means that the distances between subset of rational points ﬁxing the dynamics of

the quantities involved are above some cutoﬀ length scale, which is expected to depend on the p-adic

number ﬁeld R

p

as well as a particular solution of ﬁeld equations. The continued quantities coincide

only in this subset of rationals but not in shorter length scales.

The presence of the rational cutoﬀ implies that the dynamics at short scales becomes eﬀectively

discrete. Reality is however not discrete: discreteness and rationality only characterize the inherent

limitations of our knowledge about reality. This conforms with the fact that our numerical calculations

are always discrete and involve ﬁnite set of points.

The intersection points of various p-adic continuations with real space-time surface should code for

all actual information that a particular p-adic physics can give about real physics in classical sense.

There are reasons to believe that real space-time sheets are in the general case characterized by integers

n decomposing into products of powers of primes p

i

. One can expect that for p

i

-adic continuations

the sets of intersection points are especially large and that these p-adic space-time surfaces can be

said to provide a good discrete cognitive mimicry of the real space-time surface.

Adelic formula represents real number as product of inverse of its p-adic norms. This raises the

hope that taken together these intersections could allow to determine the real surface and thus classical

physics to a high degree. This idea generalizes to quantum context too.

The actual construction of the algebraic continuation from a subset of rational points is of course

something which cannot be done in practice and this is not even necessary since much more elegant

approach is possible.

Hierarchy of algebraic physics

One of the basic hypothesis of quantum TGD is that it is possible to deﬁne exponent of K¨ahler action

in terms of fermionic determinants associated with the modiﬁed Dirac operator derivable from a Dirac

action related super-symmetrically to the K¨ahler action.

If this is true, a very elegant manner to deﬁne hierarchy of physics in various algebraic extensions

of rational numbers and p-adic numbers becomes possible. The observation is that the continuation

to various p-adic numbers ﬁelds and their extensions for the fermionic determinant can be simply

done by allowing only the eigenvalues which belong to the extension of rationals involved and solve

ﬁeld equations for the resulting K¨ahler function. Hence a hierarchy of fermionic determinants results.

The value of the dynamical Planck constant characterizes in this approach the scale factor of the M

4

metric in various number theoretical variants of the imbedding space H = M

4

CP

2

glued together

along subsets of rational points of H. The values of are determined from the requirement of quantum

criticality [C2] meaning that K¨ahler coupling strength is analogous to critical temperature.

In this approach there is no need to restrict the imbedding space points to the algebraic extension

of rationals and to try to formulate the counterparts of ﬁeld equations in these discrete imbedding

spaces.

1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 99

p-Adic short range physics codes for long range real physics and vice versa

One should be able to construct global solutions of ﬁeld equations numerically or by engineering them

from the large repertoire of known exact solutions [D1]. This challenge looks formidable since the

ﬁeld equations are extremely non-linear and the failure of the strict non-determinism seems to make

even in principle the construction of global solutions impossible as a boundary value problem or initial

value problem.

The hope is that short distance physics might somehow code for long distance physics. If this

kind of coding is possible at all, p-adicity should be crucial for achieving it. This suggests that one

must articulate the question more precisely by characterizing what we mean with the phrases ”short

distance” and ”long distance”. The notion of short distance in p-adic physics is completely diﬀerent

from that in real physics, where rationals very close to each other can be arbitrary far away in the

real sense, and vice versa. Could it be that in the statement ”Short length scale physics codes for long

length scale physics” the attribute ”short”/”long” could refer to p-adic/real norm, real/p-adic norm,

or both depending on the situation?

The point is that rational imbedding space points very near to each other in the real sense are

in general at arbitrarily large distances in p-adic sense and vice versa. This observation leads to an

elegant method of constructing solutions of ﬁeld equations.

1. Select a rational point of the imbedding space and solve ﬁeld equations in the real sense in an

arbitrary small neighborhood U of this point. This can be done with an arbitrary accuracy by

choosing U to be suﬃciently small. It is possible to solve the linearized ﬁeld equations or use a

piece of an exact solution going through the point in question.

2. Select a subset of rational points in U and interpret them as points of p-adic imbedding space and

space-time surface. In the p-adic sense these points are in general at arbitrary large distances

from each and real continuity and smoothness alone imply p-adic long range correlations. Solve

now p-adic ﬁeld equations in p-adically small neighborhoods of these points. Again the accuracy

can be arbitrarily high if the neighborhoods are choose small enough. The use of exact solutions

of course allows to overcome the numerical restrictions.

3. Restrict the solutions in these small p-adic neighborhoods to rational points and interpret these

points as real points having arbitrarily large distances. p-Adic smoothness and continuity alone

imply fractal long range correlations between rational points which are arbitrary distant in the

real sense. Return to 1) and continue the loop indeﬁnitely.

In this manner one obtains even in numerical approach more and more small neighborhoods rep-

resenting almost exact p-adic and real solutions and the process can be continued indeﬁnitely.

Some comments about the construction are in order.

1. Essentially two diﬀerent ﬁeld equations are in question: real ﬁeld equations ﬁx the local behavior

of the real solutions and p-adic ﬁeld equations ﬁx the long range behavior of real solutions.

Real/p-adic global behavior is transformed to local p-adic/real behavior. This might be the

deepest reason why for the hierarchy of p-adic physics.

2. The failure of the strict determinism for the dynamics dictated by K¨ahler action and p-adic

non-determinism due to the existence of p-adic pseudo constants give good hopes that the

construction indeed makes it possible to glue together the (not necessarily) small pieces of

space-time surfaces inside which solutions are very precise or exact.

3. Although the full solution might be impossible to achieve, the predicted long range correlations

implied by the p-adic fractality at the real space-time surface are a testable prediction for which

p-adic mass calculations and applications of TGD to biology provide support.

4. It is also possible to generalize the procedure by changing the value of p at some rational points

and in this manner construct real space-time sheets characterized by diﬀerent p-adic primes.

5. One can consider also the possibility that several p-adic solutions are constructed at given ratio-

nal point and the rational points associated with p-adic space-time sheets labelled by p

1

, ...., p

n

belong to the real surface. This would mean that real surface would be multi-p p-adic fractal.

100 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

I have earlier suggested that even elementary particles are indeed characterized by integers and that

only particles for which the integers have common prime factors interact by exchanging particles

characterized by common prime factors. In particular, the primes p = 2, 3, ....., 23 would be common to

the known elementary particles and appear in the expression of the gravitational constant. Multi-p p-

fractality leads also to an explanation for the weakness of the gravitational constant. The construction

recipe for the solutions would give a concrete meaning for these heuristic proposals.

This approach is not restricted to space-time dynamics but is expected to apply also at the level

of say S-matrix and all mathematical object having physical relevance. For instance, p-adic four-

momenta appear as parameters of S-matrix elements. p-Adic four-momenta very near to each other

p-adically restricted to rational momenta deﬁne real momenta which are not close to each other and

the mere p-adic continuity and smoothness imply fractal long range correlations in the real momentum

space and vice versa.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis

Approximate p

1

-adicity implies also approximate p

2

-adicity of the space-time surface for primes p · p

k

1

.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis indeed states that primes p · 2

k

are favored and this might be due to

simultaneous p · 2

k

- and 2-adicity. The long range fractal correlations in real space-time implied by

2-adicity would indeed resemble those implied by p · 2

k

and both p · 2

k

-adic and 2-adic space-time

sheets have larger number of common points with the real space-time sheet.

If the scaling factor λ of appearing in the dark matter hierarchy is in good approximation λ = 2

11

also dark matter hierarchy comes into play in a resonant manner and dark space-time sheets at various

levels of the hierarchy tend to have many intersection points with each other.

There is however a problem involved with the understanding of the origin of the p-adic length

scale hypothesis if the correspondence via common rationals is assumed.

1. The mass calculations based on p-adic thermodynamics for Virasoro generator L

0

predict that

mass squared is proportional to 1/p and Uncertainty Principle implies that L

p

is proportional

to

√

p rather than p, which looks more natural if common rationals deﬁne the correspondence

between real and p-adic physics.

2. It would seem that length d

p

· pR, R or order CP

2

length, in the induced space-time metric must

correspond to a length L

p

·

√

pR in M

4

. This could be understood if space-like geodesic lines

at real space-time sheet obeying eﬀective p-adic topology are like orbits of a particle performing

Brownian motion so that the space-like geodesic connecting points with M

4

distance r

M

4 has a

length r

X

4 ∝ r

2

M

4

. Geodesic random walk with randomness associated with the motion in CP

2

degrees of freedom could be in question. The eﬀective p-adic topology indeed induces a strong

local wiggling in CP

2

degrees of freedom so that r

X

4 increases and can depend non-linearly on

r

M

4.

3. If the size of the space-time sheet associated with the particle has size d

p

∼ pR in the induced

metric, the corresponding M

4

size would be about L

p

∝

√

pR and p-adic length scale hypothesis

results.

4. The strongly non-perturbative and chaotic behavior r

X

4 ∝ r

2

M

4

is assumed to continue only up

to L

p

. At longer length scales the space-time distance d

p

associated with L

p

becomes the unit

of space-time distance and geodesic distance r

X

4 is in a good approximation given by

r

X

4 =

r

M

4

L

p

d

p

∝

√

p r

M

4 , (1.7.1)

and is thus linear in M

4

distance r

M

4.

1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 101

Does cognition automatically solve real ﬁeld equations in long length scales?

In TGD inspired theory of consciousness p-adic space-time sheets are identiﬁed as space-time correlates

of cognition. Therefore our thoughts would have literally inﬁnite size in the real topology if p-adics

and reals correspond to each other via common rationals (also other correspondence based on the

separate canonical identiﬁcation of integers m and n in q = m/n with p-adic numbers).

The cognitive solution of ﬁeld equations in very small p-adic region would solve ﬁeld equations

in real sense in a discrete point set in very long real length scales. This would allow to understand

why the notions of Universe and inﬁnity are a natural part of our conscious experience although our

sensory input is about an inﬁnitesimally small region in the scale of universe.

The idea about Universe performing mimicry at all possible levels is one of the basic ideas of TGD

inspired theory of consciousness. Universe could indeed understand and represent the long length scale

real dynamics using local p-adic physics. The challenge would be to make quantum jumps generating

p-adic surfaces having large number of common points with the real space-time surface. We are used

to call this activity theorizing and the progress of science towards smaller real length scales means

progress towards longer length scales in p-adic sense. Also real physics can represent p-adic physics:

written language and computer represent examples of this mimicry.

1.7.2 A more detailed view about how local p-adic physics codes for p-adic

fractal long range correlations of the real physics

The vision described earlier gives only a rough heuristic view about how the local p-adic physics could

code for the p-adic fractality of long range real physics. There are highly non-trivial details related to

the treatment of M

4

and CP

2

coordinates and to the mapping of p-adic H-coordinates to their real

counterparts and vice versa.

How real and p-adic space-time regions are glued together?

The ﬁrst task is to visualize how real and p-adic space-time regions relate to each other. It is convenient

to start with the extension of real axis to contain also p-adic points. For ﬁnite rationals q = m/n, m

and n have ﬁnite power expansions in powers of p and one can always write q = p

k

r/s such that r

and s are not divisible by p and thus have pinary expansion of in powers of p as x = x

0

+

¸

N

1

x

n

p

n

,

x

i

∈ ¦0, p¦, x

0

= 0.

One can always express p-adic number as x = p

n

y where y has p-adic norm 1 and has expansion in

non-negative powers of p. When x is rational but not integer the expansion contains inﬁnite number

of terms but is periodic. If the expansion is inﬁnite and non-periodic, one can speak about strictly

p-adic number having inﬁnite value as a real number.

In the same manner real number x can be written as x = p

n

y, where y is either rational or has

inﬁnite non-periodic expansion y = r

0

+

¸

n>0

r

n

p

−n

in negative powers of p. As a p-adic number y

is inﬁnite. In this case one can speak about strictly real numbers.

This gives a visual idea about what the solution of ﬁeld equations locally in various number ﬁelds

could mean and how these solutions are glued together along common rationals. In the following I

shall be somewhat sloppy and treat the rational points of the imbedding space as if they were points

of real axis in order to avoid clumsy formulas.

1. The p-adic variants of ﬁeld equations can be solved in the strictly p-adic realm and by p-adic

smoothness these solutions are well deﬁned also in as subset of rational points. The strictly

p-adic points in a neighborhood of a given rational point correspond as real points to inﬁnitely

distant points of M

4

. The possibility of p-adic pseudo constants means that for rational points

of M

4

having suﬃciently large p-adic norm, the values of CP

2

coordinates or induced spinor

ﬁelds can be chosen more or less freely.

2. One can solve the p-adic ﬁeld equations in any p-adic neighborhood U

n

(q) = ¦x = q +p

n

y¦ of a

rational point q of M

4

, where y has a unit p-adic norm and select the values of ﬁelds at diﬀerent

points q

1

and q

2

freely as long as the spheres U

n

(q

1

) and U

n

(q

2

) are disjoint (these spheres are

either identical or disjoint by p-adic ultra-metricity).

The points in the p-adic continuum part of these solutions are at an inﬁnite distance from q in

M

4

. The points which are well-deﬁned in real sense form a discrete subset of rational points of

102 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

M

4

. The p-adic space-time surface constructed in this manner deﬁnes a discrete fractal hierarchy

of rational space-time points besides the original points inside the p-adic spheres. In real sense

the rational points have ﬁnite distances and could belong to disjoint real space-time sheets.

The failure of the strict non-determinism for the ﬁeld equations in the real sense gives hopes

for gluing these sheets partially together (say in particle reactions with particles represented as

3-surfaces).

3. All rational points q of the p-adic space-time sheet can be interpreted as real rational points and

one can solve the ﬁeld equations in the real sense in the neighborhoods U

n

(q) = ¦x = q +p

n

y¦

corresponding to real numbers in the the range p

n

≤ x ≤ p

n+1

. Real smoothness and continuity

ﬁx the solutions at ﬁnite rational points inside U

n

(q) and by the phenomenon of p-adic pseudo

constants these values can be consistent with p-adic ﬁeld equations. Obviously one can can

continue the construction process indeﬁnitely.

p-Adic scalings act only in M

4

degrees of freedom

p-Adic fractality suggests that ﬁnite real space-time sheets around points x +p

n

, x = 0, are obtained

as by just scaling of the M

4

coordinates having origin at x = 0 by p

n

of the solution deﬁned in a

neighborhood of x and leaving CP

2

coordinates as such. The known extremals of K¨ahler action indeed

allow M

4

scalings as dynamical symmetries.

One can understand why no scaling should appear in CP

2

degrees of freedom. CP

2

is complex

projective space for which points can be regarded as complex planes and for these p-adic scalings act

trivially. It is worth of emphasizing that here could lie a further deep number theoretic reason for

why the space S in H = M

4

S must be a projective space.

What p-adic fractality for real space-time surfaces really means?

The identiﬁcation of p-adic and real M

4

coordinates of rational points as such is crucial for p-adic

fractality. On the other hand, the identiﬁcation rational real and p-adic CP

2

coordinates as such

would not be consistent with the idea that p-adic smoothness and continuity imply p-adic fractality

manifested as long range correlations for real space-time sheets

The point is that p-adic fractality is not stable against small p-adic deformations of CP

2

coordinates

as function of M

4

coordinates for solutions representable as maps M

4

→CP

2

. Indeed, if the rational

valued p-adic CP

2

coordinates are mapped as such to real coordinates, the addition of large power

p

n

to CP

2

coordinate implies small modiﬁcation in p-adic sense but large change in the real sense so

that correlations of CP

2

at p-adically scaled M

4

points would be completely lost.

The situation changes if the map of p-adic CP

2

coordinates to real ones is continuous so that

p-adically small deformations of the p-adic space-time points are mapped to small real deformations

of the real space-time points.

1. Canonical identiﬁcation I : x =

¸

x

n

p

n

→

¸

x

n

p

−n

satisﬁes continuity constraint but does not

map rationals to rationals.

2. The modiﬁcation of the canonical identiﬁcation given by

I(q = p

k

r

s

) = p

k

I(r)

I(s)

(1.7.2)

is uniquely deﬁned for rational points, maps rationals to rationals, has a symmetry under

exchange of target and domain. This map reduces to a direct identiﬁcation of rationals for

0 ≤ r < p and 0 ≤ s < p.

3. The form of this map is not general coordinate invariant nor invariant under color isometries.

The natural requirement is that the map should respect the symmetries of CP

2

maximally.

Therefore the complex coordinates transforming linearly under U(2) subgroup of SU(3) deﬁning

the projective coordinates of CP

2

are a natural choice. The map in question would map the real

components of complex coordinates to their p-adic variants and vice versa. The residual U(2)

1.7. The relationship between p-adic and real physics 103

symmetries correspond to rational unitary 2 2-matrices for which matrix elements are of form

U

ij

= p

k

r/s, r < p, s < p. It would seem that these transformations must form a ﬁnite subgroup

if they deﬁne a subgroup at all. In case of U(1) Pythagorean phases deﬁne rational phases but

suﬃciently high powers fail to satisfy the conditions r < p, s < p. Also algebraic extensions of

p-adic numbers can be considered.

4. The possibility of pseudo constant allows to modify canonical identiﬁcation further so that it

reduces to the direct identiﬁcation of real and p-adic rationals if the highest powers of p in

r and s (q = p

n

r/s) are not higher than p

N

. Write x =

¸

n≥0

x

n

p

n

= x

N)

+ p

N+1

y with

x

N)

=

¸

N

n=0

x

n

p

n

, x

0

= 0, y

0

= 0, and deﬁne I

N

(x) = x

N)

+ p

N+1

I(y). For q = p

n

r/s

deﬁne I

N

(q) = p

n

I

N

(r)/I

N

(s). This map reduces to the direct identiﬁcation of real and p-adic

rationals for y = 0.

5. There is no need to introduce the imaginary unit explicitly. In case of spinors imaginary unit

can be represented by the antisymmetric 2 2-matrix

ij

satisfying

12

= 1. As a matter fact,

the introduction of imaginary unit as number would lead to problems since for p mod 4 = 3

imaginary unit should be introduced as an algebraic extension and CP

2

in this sense would be

an algebraic extension of RP

2

. The fact that the algebraic extension of p-adic numbers by

√

−1

is equivalent with an extension introducing

√

p −1 supports the view that algebraic imaginary

unit has nothing to do with the geometric imaginary unit deﬁned by K¨ahler form of CP

2

. For

p mod 4 = 1

√

−1 exists as a p-adic number but is inﬁnite as a real number so that the notion

of ﬁnite complex rational would not make sense.

Preferred CP

2

coordinates as a space-time correlate for the selection of quantization axis

Complex CP

2

coordinates are ﬁxed only apart from the choice of the quantization directions of color

isospin and hyper charge axis in SU(3) Lie algebra. Hence the selection of quantization axes seems

to emerge at the level of the generalized space-time geometry as quantum classical correspondence

indeed requires.

In a well-deﬁned sense the choice of the quantization axis and a special coordinate system implies

the breaking of color symmetry and general coordinate invariance. This breaking is induced by the

presence of p-adic space-time sheets identiﬁed as correlates for cognition and intentionality. One could

perhaps say that the cognition aﬀects real physics via the imbedding space points shared by real and

p-adic space-time sheets and that these common points deﬁne discrete coordinatization of the real

space-time surface analogous to discretization resulting in any numerical computation.

Relationship between real and p-adic induced spinor ﬁelds

Besides imbedding space coordinates also induced spinor ﬁelds are fundamental variables in TGD.

The free second quantized induced spinor ﬁelds deﬁne the fermionic oscillator operators in terms of

which the gamma matrices giving rise to spinor structure of the ”world of classical worlds” can be

expressed.

p-Adic fractal long range correlations must hold true also for the induced spinor ﬁelds and they are

in exactly the same role as CP

2

coordinates so that the variant of canonical identiﬁcation mapping

rationals to rationals should map the real and imaginary parts of of real induced spinor ﬁelds to

their p-adic counterparts and vice versa at the rational space-time points common to p-adic and real

space-time sheets.

Could quantum jumps transforming intentions to actions really occur?

The idea that intentional action corresponds to a quantum jump in which p-adic space-time sheet is

transformed to a real one traversing through rational points common to p-adic and real space-time

sheet is consistent with the conservation laws since the sign of the conserved inertial energy can be

also negative in TGD framework and the density of inertial energy vanishes in cosmological length

scales [D5]. Also the non-diagonal transitions p

1

→p

2

are in principle possible and would correspond

to intersections of p-adic space-time sheets having a common subset of rational points. Kind of phase

transitions changing the character of intention or cognition would be in question.

1. Realization of intention as a scattering process

104 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

The ﬁrst question concerns the interpretation of this process and possibility to ﬁnd some familiar

counterpart for it in quantum ﬁeld theory framework. The general framework of quantum TGD

suggests that the points common to real and p-adic space-time sheets could perhaps be regarded as

arguments of an n-point function determining the transition amplitudes for p-adic to real transition

or p

1

→ p

2

-adic transitions. The scattering event transforming an p-adic surface (inﬁnitely distant

real surface in real M

4

) to a real ﬁnite sized surface (inﬁnitely distant p-adic surface in p-adic M

4

)

would be in question.

2. Could S-matrix for realizations of intentions have the same general form as the ordinary S-

matrix?

One might hope that the realization of intention as a number theoretic scattering process could be

characterized by an S-matrix, which one might hope of being unitary in some sense. These S-matrix

elements could be interpreted at fundamental level as probability amplitudes between intentions to

prepare a deﬁne initial state and the state resulting in the process.

Super-conformal invariance is a basic symmetry of quantum TGD which suggests that the S-

matrix in question should be constructible in terms of n-point functions of a conformal ﬁeld theory

restricted to a subset of rational points shared by real and p-adic space-time surfaces or their causal

determinants. According to the general vision discussed in [C1], the construction of n-point functions

eﬀectively reduces to that at 2-dimensional sections of light-like causal determinants of space-time

surfaces identiﬁed as partonic space-time sheets.

The idea that physics in various number ﬁelds results by algebraic continuation of rational physics

serves as a valuable guideline and suggests that the form of the S-matrices between diﬀerent number

ﬁelds (call them non-diagonal S-matrices) could be essentially the same as that of diagonal S-matrices.

If this picture is correct then the basic diﬀerences to ordinary real S-matrix would be following.

1. Intentional action could transform p-adic space-time surface to a real one only if the exponent

of K¨ahler function for both is rational valued (or belongs to algebraic extension of rationals).

2. The points appearing as arguments of n-point function associated with the non-diagonal S-

matrix are a subset of rational points of imbedding space whereas in the real case, where the

integration over these points is well deﬁned, all values of arguments can be allowed. Thus the

diﬀerence between ordinary S-matrix and more general S-matrices would be that a continuous

Fourier transform of n-point function in space-time domain is not possible in the latter case.

The inherent nature of cognition would be that it favors localization in the position space.

3. Objection and its resolution

Exponent of K¨ahler function is the key piece of the conﬁguration space spinor ﬁeld. There is a

strong counter argument against the existence of the K¨ahler function in the p-adic context. The basic

problem is that the deﬁnite integral deﬁning the K¨ahler action is not p-adically well-deﬁned except in

the special cases when it can be done algebraically. Algebraic integration is however very tricky and

numerically completely unstable.

The deﬁnition of the exponent of K¨ahler function in terms of Dirac determinants or, perhaps

equivalently, as a result of normal ordering of the modiﬁed Dirac action for second quantized induced

spinors might however lead to an elegant resolution of this problem. This approach is discussed in

detail in [B4, D1]. The idea is that Dirac determinant can be deﬁned as a product of eigenvalues of

the modiﬁed Dirac operator and one ends up to a hierarchy of theories based on the restriction of

the eigenvalues to various algebraic extensions of rationals identiﬁed as a hierarchy associated with

corresponding algebraic extensions of p-adic numbers. This hierarchy corresponds to a hierarchy of

theories (and also physics!) based on varying values of K¨ahler coupling constant and Planck constant.

The elegance of this approach is that no discretization at space-time level would be needed: everything

reduces to the generalized eigenvalue spectrum of the modiﬁed Dirac operator.

4. A more detailed view

Consider the proposed approach in more detail.

1. Fermionic oscillator operators are assigned with the generalized eigenvectors of the modiﬁed

Dirac operator deﬁned at the light-like causal determinants:

1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 105

Ψ =

¸

n

Ψ

n

b

n

,

DΨ

n

= Γ

α

D

α

Ψ

n

= λ

n

OΨ

n

, O ≡ n

α

Γ

α

. (1.7.3)

Here Γ

α

= T

αk

Γ

k

denote so called modiﬁed gamma matrices expressible in terms of the energy

momentum current T

αk

assignable to K¨ahler action [B4]. The replacement of the ordinary

gamma matrices with modiﬁed ones is forced by the requirement that the super-symmetries of

the modiﬁed Dirac action are consistent with the property of being an extremal of K¨ahler action.

n

α

is a light like vector assignable to the light-like causal determinant and O = n

α

Γ

α

must be

rational and have the same value at real and p-adic side at rational points. The integer n labels

the eigenvalues λ

n

of the modiﬁed Dirac operator, and b

n

corresponds to the corresponding

fermionic oscillator operator.

2. The condition that the p-adic and real variants Ψ if the Ψ are identical at common rational points

of real and p-adic space-time surface (the same applies to 4-surfaces corresponding to diﬀerent

p-adic number ﬁelds) poses a strong constraint on the algebraic continuation from rationals to

p-adics and gives hopes of deriving implications of this approach.

3. Ordinary fermionic anti-commutation relations do not refer speciﬁcally to any number ﬁeld.

Super Virasoro (anti-)commutation relations involve only rationals. This suggest that fermionic

Fock space spanned by the oscillator operators b

n

is universal and same for reals and p-adic

numbers and can be regarded as rational. Same would apply to Super Virasoro representations.

Also the possibility to interpret conﬁguration space spinor ﬁelds as quantum superpositions of

Boolean statements supports this kind of universality. This gives good hopes that the contri-

bution of the inner produces between Fock states to the S-matrix elements are number ﬁeld

independent.

4. Dirac determinant can be deﬁned as the product of the eigenvalues λ

n

restricted to a given

algebraic extension of rationals. The solutions of the modiﬁed Dirac equation correspond to

vanishing eigen values and deﬁne zero modes generating conformal super-symmetries and are

not of course included.

5. Only those operators b

n

for which λ

n

belongs to the algebraic extension of rationals in question

are used to construct physical states for a given algebraic extension of rationals. This might

mean an enormous simpliﬁcation of the formalism in accordance with the fact that conﬁguration

space Cliﬀord algebra corresponds as a von Neumann algebra to a hyper-ﬁnite factor of type

II

1

for which ﬁnite truncations by deﬁnition allow excellent approximations [C2]. One can even

ask whether this hierarchy of algebraic extensions of rationals could in fact deﬁne a hierarchy of

ﬁnite-dimensional Cliﬀord algebras. If so then the general theory of hyper-ﬁnite factors of type

II

1

would provide an extremely powerful tool.

1.8 Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra

The unique feature of the Super Virasoro algebra is that it allows a fractal hierarchy of sub-algebras

and one obtains hierarchy of exotic representations in p-adic sector. One must however assume that

Super Virasoro gauge conditions allow arbitrary values of the super-canonical scaling quantum number

L

0

is non-vanishing. L

0

= 0 condition would be replaced by L

0

mod p

n

= 0 condition in the p-adic

context so that conformal invariance would become approximate in p-adic sense. The alternative

interpretation would be as fractality in the sense that scalings would leave the states almost invariant.

One could however argue that exotic Super Virasoro representations can make sense only in the

purely p-adic sense and the assumption that mass values values M

2

∝ p

n

, which are gigantic in

real sense, can be mapped by the canonical identiﬁcation to M

2

∝ p

−n

is highly counter intuitive

and has no physical basis. Also in p-adic mass calculations the canonical identiﬁcation is applied

only to ﬁx the real probabilities as canonical images of the p-adic probabilities. Essentially the

same predictions would result by using a real statistical ensemble deﬁned by the real counterparts

106 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

of the p-adic probabilities since the three lowest powers of p determine the outcome in an excellent

approximation (that is only the states with M

2

∝ n, n ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦ are included).

The idea that the states L

0

mod p

n

= 0 are light in some well-deﬁned physical sense is however too

beautiful to be given up immediately, and an analogy with condensed matter lattice systems comes in

rescue. For a one-dimensional lattice with lattice constant a only a discrete sub-group of translations

acts as symmetries and momentum cutoﬀ emerges via the condition p ≡ p+n/a. Although the large

momenta p = n/a are still real, they correspond to the motion of the entire lattice.

By replacing the lattice obtained by translations with a lattice obtained by scalings one would

obtain a highly analogous situation. More concretely, suppose that L

0

act as inﬁnitesimal scaling of

the imbedding space coordinates of the space-time surface. The action is almost trivial if the space-

time surface has a fractal structure in the sense of being approximately invariant under the scaling of

the points of M

4

by powers of p. Let a be a positive integer replacing e as the base of exponential

so that a

mL

0

deﬁnes an exponentiated scaling. The condition a

mL

0

mod p = 1 states that the state

remains invariant under this scaling and corresponds to the invariance of lattice state under translation

by a multiple ma of the lattice vector. By Fermat’s little theorem this condition is satisﬁed if one has

L

0

mod p

n

= 0.

One can consider also the 2-based exponential of L

0

giving 2

mL

0

mod p = 0. p-Adic length scale

hypothesis in its most general form stating p · 2

m

, m a positive integer, provides an approximate

solution to this condition. Note that the fractal lattice picture suggests that p-adic cognitive codons

corresponds to octaves of the p-adic frequency f(n, k) = /T(n, k). In the case of memetic code this

would mean that the frequency range 10 − 10

3

Hz dictated by the time scale 1 ms of nerve pulse

activity would contain 6 octaves meaning an eﬀective reduction to genetic code with 6 bits. The

prediction would be that the frequencies 10,20,40,80,160,320,640 Hz are in a special role in neural

dynamics.

The idea p-adic local dynamics codes for the p-adic fractality of the long length scale real dynamics

indeed leads to this kind of picture and leads to a concrete quantum model for intentional action

allowing even to show that the S-matrix for intention-to-action transitions has the same general form

as the ordinary S-matrix [E1, H8].

1.8.1 Exotic p-adic representations as representations for which states are

almost p-adic fractals

When the value of L

0

is power of p: L

0

∝ p

n

, n = 1, 2, .., the real counterpart of the scaling quantum

number is extremely small since it is proportional to 1/p

n

in this case. In particular, the scalings

a

L

0

are p-adically very near to identity transformation for any integer by Fermat’s theorem. Fractals

are invariant under scalings and since the states of exotic representations are in good approximation

invariant under the group of scalings one could say that they are fractals modulo O(1/p), perhaps

resulting as asymptotic states of self-organization processes. One can also say that Virasoro condi-

tions are satisﬁed to order O(1/p) and that approximate conformal invariance is realized (L

0

= 0

condition would completely trivialize the super-canonical representations since mass squared operator

is not involved now). Note that the subalgebra of super-canonical algebra with conformal weights

proportional to p

m

emerges naturally as an algebra replacing the entire super-conformal algebra.

One could sharpen the notion of approximate super-conformal representation. The failure of L

0

to

annihilate the states means that L

mp

n can generate zero norm state only in order O(p

n

). Thus only

the generators L

−mp

n, m ≥ 0, but not L

mp

n can annihilate the physical states. Same would hold true

also for the super generators and super-canonical generators. Also multi-p-adic exotic representations

are possible since any integer n =

¸

i

p

k

i

i

deﬁnes a sub-algebra spanned by the generators for which

conformal weights are proportional to n.

The representations of the conformal algebra with a non-vanishing central charge could be in

question. The central charge term in the commutators of the conformal generators, being proportional

to (c/12)(n

3

−n) (c is central charge) is of order O(p

k

) unless p divides 12 (,that is p = 2 or p = 3 holds

true,) or p divides the denominator of c, which is in general rational number. The central extension

term for the anti-commutator of the fermionic super-generators G

n

and G

−n

is

c

12

(2n − 1)(2n + 1)

and is not of order O(p

k

) for n multiple of p

k

.

Semiclassical argument suggests that the lengths of MEs associated with these representations

correspond to p-adic length scales and it turns out that corresponding fundamental frequencies cor-

respond to important EEG frequencies in ELF frequency range. This encourages to think that the

1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 107

exotic representations of super-canonical algebra might of special interest from the point of view of

cognition.

Also quaternion conformal representations allow similar phenomenon and in this case p-adic mass

squared proportional to L

0

has extremely small real counterpart. The mass squared associated with the

corresponding real states is however astrophysical and, in contrast to the original working hypothesis, it

will be assumed that these states are not important for consciousness. There are however indications

supporting the importance of these states in hadron physics: one could perhaps understand non-

perturbative aspects of QCD in terms of exotic p-adic quaternion-conformal representations.

1.8.2 Mersenne primes and Gaussian Mersennes are special

Mersenne primes

One can also consider the milder requirement that the exponent λ = 2

L

0

represents trivial scaling

represented by unit in good approximation for some p-adic topology. Not surprisingly, this is the

case for L

0

= mp

k

since by Fermat’s theorem a

p

mod p = 1 for any integer a, in particular a = 2.

This is also the case for L

0

= mk such that 2

k

mod p = 1 for p prime. This occurs if 2

k

− 1 is

Mersenne prime: in this case one has 2

L

0

= 1 modulo p so that the sizes of the fractal sub-algebras

are exponentially larger than the sizes of L

0

∝ p

n

algebras. Note that all scalings a

L

0

are near to

unity for L

0

= p

n

whereas now only a = 2 gives scalings near unity for Mersenne primes. Perhaps

this extended fractality provides the fundamental explanation for the special importance of Mersenne

primes.

In this case integrated scalings 2

L

0

leave the states almost invariant so that even a stronger form

of the breaking of the exact conformal invariance would be in question in the super-canonical case.

The representation would be deﬁned by the generators for which conformal weights are odd multiples

of n (M

n

= 2

n

−1) and L

−kn

, k > 0 would generate zero norm states only in order O(1/M

n

).

Especially interesting is the hierarchy of primes deﬁned by the so called Combinatorial Hierarchy

resulting from TGD based model for abstraction process. The primes are given by 2, 3, 7 = 2

3

−1, 127 =

2

7

−1, 2

127

−1,..: L

0

= n 127 would correspond to M

127

-adicity crucial for the memetic code.

Gaussian Mersennes are also special

If one allows also Gaussian primes then the notion of Mersenne prime generalizes: Gaussian Mersennes

are of form (1±i)

n

−1. In this case one could replace the scaling operations by scaling combined with

a twist of π/4 around some symmetry axis: 1 + i =

√

2exp(iπ/4) and generalized p-adic fractality

would mean that for certain values of n the exponentiated operation consisting of n basic operations

would be very near to unity.

i) The integers k associated with the lowest Gaussian Mersennes are following: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 19, 29, 47, 73, 79, 113.

k = 113 corresponds to the p-adic length scale associated with the atomic nucleus and muon. Thus all

known charged leptons, rather than only e and τ, as well as nuclear physics length scale, correspond

to Mersenne primes in the generalized sense.

ii) The primes k = 151, 157, 163, 167 deﬁne perhaps the most fundamental biological length scales:

k = 151 corresponds to the thickness of the cell membrane of about ten nanometers and k = 167 to cell

size about 2.56 µm. This observation also suggests that cellular organisms have evolved to their present

form through four basic evolutionary stages. This also encourages to think that

√

2exp(iπ/4) operation

giving rise to logarithmic spirals abundant in living matter is fundamental dynamical symmetry in

bio-matter.

Logarithmic spiral provides the simplest model for biological growth as a repetition of the ba-

sic operation

√

2exp(iπ/4). The naive interpretation would be that growth processes consist of

k = 151, 157, 163, 167 steps involving scaling by

√

2. This however requires the strange looking as-

sumption that growth starts from a structure of size of order CP

2

length. Perhaps this exotic growth

process is associated with pair of MEs or magnetic ﬂux tubes of opposite time orientation and energy

emergenging CP

2

sized region in a mini big bang type process and that the resulting structure serves

as a template for the biological growth.

iii) k = 239, 241, 283, 353, 367, 379, 457 associated with the next Gaussian Mersennes deﬁne astro-

nomical length scales. k = 239 and k = 241 correspond to the p-adic time scales .55 ms and 1.1 ms:

basic time scales associated with nerve pulse transmission are in question. k = 283 corresponds to

the time scale of 38.6 min. An interesting question is whether this period could deﬁne a fundamental

108 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

biological rhythm. The length scale L(353) corresponds to about 2.610

6

light years, roughly the size

scale of galaxies. The length scale L(367) · 3.3 10

8

light years is of same order of magnitude as

the size scale of the large voids containing galaxies on their boundaries (note the analogy with cells).

T(379) · 2.1 10

10

years corresponds to the lower bound for the order of the age of the Universe.

T(457) ∼ 10

22

years deﬁnes a completely superastronomical time and length scale.

Connection with the em realization of genetic code and Gaussian Mersennes?

The considerations above suggest that

√

2exp(iπ/4) might code for a fundamental logarithmic spiral

growth step in some sense. The powers of the phase factor exp(iπ/4) deﬁne 8-element cyclic group

which should be thus fundamental for 2-adic logarithmic spiral growth process in which the diagonal

of square becomes the side of the next square rotated by π/4 with respect to original one.

Perhaps it is worth of noticing that for 3-bit Boolean algebra with one statement excluded the

maximal Boolean algebra corresponds to 2 bits of information, and is naturally associated with the

predecessor of the genetic code in the hierarchy of codes predicted by the TGD based model for

abstraction process. In this case the counterpart of 64 DNA triplets code for 4 statements and the 4

DNA nucleotides themselves might correspond to these ”basic truths”.

Second point perhaps worth of noticing is that the model of electromagnetic realization of the

genetic code discussed in [H8], which was inspired by the observations Cyril Smith [47] about the

coding of arithmetic operations to the sequences of 7 binary electromagnetic pulses, led to a guess for

a 7-bit binary code for binary arithmetic operations of type f = f(f

1

, f

2

) = Xf

1

OY f

2

giving output

frequency as a function of two input frequencies f

1

and f

2

. O codes for the arithmetic operation proper

represented by single bit and the eight operations X and Y acting on the operands are represented

by 3 bits each. Depending on context, O = 0/1 represents either +/− or //.

There are eight diﬀerent operations X (Y ), which suggests an interpretation in terms of 8-element

cyclic group. Perhaps the coding of the growth process might be achieved by this kind of coding. Each

DNA triplet would code this kind of elementary growth process whereas conjugate triplet would code

its time reversal. MEs would read genes to sequences of pulses of light-like vacuum current generating

hologram realized in terms of coherent photons in turn coding the growth program and conjugate

DNA would give rise to time reversed phase conjugate hologram coding for the time reversal of the

growth step.

What remains to be understood is the meaning of the arithmetic operation in the growth process.

The coding of growth process might reduce to coding of the growth of MEs and super-conducting

magnetic ﬂux tubes. If the eight rotations are accompanied by scalings, then multiplication and

division of two growth steps would make sense since also the inverse of growth step makes sense.

What remains however mysterious why DNA triplets would code the growth steps in this manner. An

alternative interpretation is that a growth process of binary structures in question and that arithmetic

operation ± tells something about the second member of the binary structure. For instance, pairs of

mind like space-time sheets might be in question (pairs of spiralling MEs with light-like boundaries

or wormhole magnetic ﬁelds) and ± might tell whether the other space-time sheet has positive or

negative time orientation.

1.8.3 The huge degeneracies of the exotic states make them ideal for rep-

resentational purposes

For a given eigenvalue of L

0

there is degeneracy of states given essentially by the exponent of L

0

. The

states with L

0

= O(p

n

) have enormous degeneracy since the degeneracy of states increases exponen-

tially as function of mass (this in fact leads to Hagedorn temperature). Huge ground state degeneracy

is just what also spin glass analogy suggests and eﬀective information storage and processing requires.

The huge (really!) information processing potential suggests that these states correspond to an in-

ﬁnite hierarchy of life forms. Thus matter or ’ﬂesh’ would correspond to states of super-canonical

algebra with L

0

= 0 whereas the ’spirit’ would correspond to states with L

0

eigenvalue divisible by

p

n

, n = 1, 2, .., p prime and to states with L

0

∝ n, 2

n

−1 Mersenne prime. The identiﬁcation of mind

like space-time sheets as MEs which allow these sub-Super Virasoro representations, means that this

hypothesis is consistent with TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

Thus one can conclude that life forms would be characterized by integer triplets

1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 109

(p, m, n), p prime .

This is a rather far-reaching prediction eﬀectively promising a resolution to the riddle of life as a

quantum physical phenomenon and gives a hint about the predictive and explanatory powers of

geometrization of physics using p-adic numbers.

The Super Virasoro representations in question are associated with the algebra of super-canonical

transformations. There are two kinds of bosonic generators. The generators of ﬁrst kind correspond to

inﬁnitesimal canonical transformations of E

2

CP

2

localized with respect to the light-like coordinate

S

+

of the light-like projection of the light-like boundary of ME. The coordinate lines of S

±

correspond

in geometric optics picture curved light rays. E

2

denotes S

+

= constant (or S

−

= constant) 2-

surface and can be obviously chosen in several manners. If ME is glued along a space-like section to

some matter like 4-surface then this section most naturally corresponds to S

+

= constant section. A

tempting assumption is that sensory experience could be determined by the properties of the quantum

state in this section. The generators of second type correspond to the radial Virasoro algebra (functions

of S

+

coordinate) localized with respect to CP

2

coordinates so that they act as CP

2

-local radial

deformations of the light-like boundary. Fermionic generators are in one-one correspondence with

the bosonic generators and correspond to conﬁguration space gamma matrices. In the case of future

light cone boundary similar algebra generates the isometries of the conﬁguration space of 3-surfaces

[B2, B3].

As noticed super-canonical and super-conformal degrees of freedom do not contribute to mass

squared unlike quaternion conformal degrees of freedom. This means an immense degeneracy of

states with respect to energy broken only by the non-commutativity of Poincare algebra and super-

canonical and super-conformal algebras. It is not at all obvious whether one can assing this degeneracy

to elementary particles or only with the light-like boundaries of MEs.

Any function of E

2

CP

2

coordinates and of the radial coordinate S

+

of the light-like bound-

ary (that is function of the coordinates of light-cone boundary δM

4

+

) deﬁnes Hamiltonian and thus

conﬁguration space isometry. It is convenient to assume that Hamiltonians correspond to CP

2

par-

tial waves with well deﬁned color quantum numbers. In the case of S

2

one could assume angular

momentum eigenstates but this choice is not practical. Generalized Super Virasoro algebra acts as

CP

2

-local conformal symmetries of light-cone boundary which by its metric 2-dimensionality indeed

allows inﬁnite-group of conformal symmetries. The functions of E

2

CP

2

coordinate having no depen-

dence on the light-like coordinate E

+

of the light-cone boundary deﬁne the Hamiltonians of canonical

transformations of E

2

CP

2

. The subset of Hamiltonians with vanishing color and angular momentum

quantum numbers ((I

3

, Y ) and J

z

) correspond to the zero modes in the proposed complexiﬁcation

of the conﬁguration space tangent space [B2, B3]. The group of these canonical transformations di-

vided by the Cartan group of U(1) SU(3) deﬁnes inﬁnite-dimensional ﬂag-manifold parametrizing

all possible choices of quantization axes.

Super generators are expressible in terms of fermionic oscillator operators carrying quantum num-

bers of quarks and leptons. The Super Virasoro representations diﬀer from the standard representa-

tions used in superstring models in that super generators are not Hermitian G

†

r

= G

−r

) and carry

fermion number [C1]. In quaternion confromal case Super generators carry lepton number in the case

of Ramond type representations and quark number in the case of Neveu-Schwartz type representa-

tions. Super-canonical representations are Ramond type representations. Both quaternion conformal

and super canonical representations carry all possible quark/lepton numbers and thus spans what is

very much like the Fock states of second quantized theory with conﬁguration space degrees of freedom

included as additional degrees of freedom and reﬂecting the fact that point like particles are replaces

with 3-D surfaces.

1.8.4 Could one assign life-forms to the exotic Super-Virasoro representa-

tions?

First order life forms associated with elementary particles

Exotic representations are possible also in quaternion-conformal sector. In this case mass squared

operator is of order M

2

= O(p) p-adically so that the real counterpart of the p-adic mass would be

of the order of elementary particle mass. Also now degeneracies of the states are gigantic. Unless

p-adic and real string tensions are diﬀerent, the mass of the corresponding real state is by a factor of

110 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

order p higher (∼ 10

−4

√

p Planck masses!). This can be seen as a strong objection either against

the existence of light real counterparts of the exotic p-adic states or against the applicability of the

canonical identiﬁcation map outside the realm of p-adic thermodynamics.

It is not clear whether super-canonical degeneracy is present for the quaternion conformal repre-

sentations. In fact, it might be that quaternion conformal representations are associated with CP

2

type extremals representing elementary particles and cannot be assigned to the light-like boundaries

of MEs. This would mean that the boundaries of MEs represent completely new form of light-like

matter. Massless states with super-canonical conformal weight L

0

= O(p) are possible and momentum

scale for these states is naturally determined by p. They deﬁne a more promising fractal hierarchy of

life forms.

The lowest quaternion-conformal life form in the hierarchy are states having mass squared M

2

∝

L

0

= O(p) could be called ﬁrst order life

1

. These states have masses which are same order of magnitude

as the masses of elementary particles with same value of p but have nothing to do with the elementary

particles themselves. The extremely weak direct interaction between these these representations and

ordinary elementary particles might mean that these life forms do not aﬀect elementary particle physics

directly. On the other hand, there is intriguing numerical evidence that non-perturbative aspects of

hadron physics might be understood if transition from high energy hadron physics to low energy hadron

physics corresponds to a phase transition replacing ordinary Super Virasoro representations with exotic

Super Virasoro representations (Regge slope and pion mass are predicted with few percent accuracy:

see the chapter [F5]. This result is intriguing and forces to keep mind open for new interpretations

of the p-adicity. Life requires also the presence of macroscopic quantum phases and one cannot

therefore exclude the possibility of hadronic life when macroscopic quantum phases like Bose-Einstein

condensates of pions or of super conducting neutron pairs are possible. Neutron super-conductivity is

indeed believed to be possible in neutron stars.

To generate ﬁrst order life forms in elementary particle length scales one would need MEs with

wavelengths of order elementary particle Compton length. Presumably also temperature should be

in interval around the energy deﬁned by the secondary p-adic length scale. The Darwinian selection

implied by self-organization should select some preferred p-adic primes as winners in the struggle for

survival. Elementary particles are survivers at the lowest level and the ﬁrst guess is that the primes

corresponding to elementary particles provide good candidates for survivers at higher levels. The

p-adic length scale L(169) · 5.1 microns associated with neutrinos is especially interesting as far as

ﬁrst order life is considered and could (actually should, as the model of memetic code suggests) be an

essential aspect of life in cell length scale.

Also the other primary p-adic lengths scales seem to be important for the structure of bio-matter,

which suggests that ﬁrst order life in these length scales is important for the understanding of living

matter.

Higher order life forms in biologically interesting length scales

L

0

= O(p

n

) n ≥ 1, representations of p-adic super-canonical algebra deﬁning ’n:th order life’ are

especially interesting as far as living matter is considered. The reason is that the energy scale for

these excitations is so small that the ’matter-mind interaction’ with low frequency classical ﬁelds

associated with MEs becomes possible. There seems to be no obvious diﬀerence between life forms

with diﬀerent values of n having p-adic length scales L(n, k) of same order of magnitude as far as

degeneracy of states is considered. However, if the negentropy gain in single quantum jump is limited

by log(p) or plog(p) as the simplest scenario suggests [H2]), then ﬁrst order life forms have potential

for more information rich conscious experiences than higher order life forms with roughly the same

p-adic length scale. Also the estimate for the maximal number of primary qualia allows more primary

qualia for ﬁrst order life forms.

What makes the hypothesis so interesting is that the number of interesting-to-us p-adic length

scales associated with the exotic representations is rather small. Especially interesting are the sec-

ondary p-adic length- and time scales deﬁned by Mersenne primes. Mersenne primes M

89

, M

107

and

M

127

deﬁne fundamental p-adic length scale in elementary particle physics and correspond to inter-

mediate gauge bosons, hadrons and electron. M

61

could correspond also to new ultra high energy

1

Note that also Super Virasoro representations associated with ordinary particles allow light excitations with L

0

−

n

0

= O(p).

1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 111

physics. The natural guess is that secondary p-adic length scales, and those associated with Mersenne

primes in particular, are especially important for consciousness and life.

1. Higher order life in nanoscales

The secondary p-adic length associated with M

61

is L(127)/2

3/2

and is slightly below electron

length scale. Besides primary p-adic length scales L(k), k = 127, 131, 137, 139 listed in table below,

also the secondary p-adic length scales L

2

(k) = L(2k), k = 67, 71, 73 and even the tertiary length

scales L

3

(43) = L(129) and L

3

(47) = L(141) could have been important for the evolution of bio-

intelligence. L

2

(67) is .28 Angstroms, L

3

(47) = 3.1 Angstroms, L

2

(71) = 4.4 Angstroms and L

2

(73) =

1.8 nanometers might be crucial for self-organization and intelligence at level of DNA and proteins.

Thus the miracles of biochemical self-organization would not be reducible to standard chemistry but

would involve in absolutely essential manner the symbiosis with higher life forms. The energy scale

involved is in nanometer length scales of order keV and seems quite too high for life: room temperature

which corresponds to 10

−2

eV or at least the energy scale of atomic transitions seems to be the natural

energy scale in protein length scales.

k 127 131 67

2

137 139 71

2

73

2

L(k, n)/10

−10

m .025 .1 .28 .8 1.6 4.5 18.0

Table 1. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life in atomic and

nanolength scales. The length scale L(151) is taken to be the thickness of cell membrane, which is

10

−8

meters in a good approximation.

2. Higher order life forms in subcellular length scales and retina as living creature

First order life forms in subcellular length scales correspond to k = 149, 151, 157, 163, 167 and

169: corresponding p-adic length scales vary in the range of 5 nanometers and 5 micrometers and are

given in the table below. Second order life forms associated with L

2

(79) = L(158) = 113 nanometers,

L

2

(83) = L(166) = 1.8 micrometers as well as third order life form associated with L

3

(53) = L(159) =

160 nanometers could also be important for self-organization and intelligence at subcellular levels. The

energies for the secondary excitations of k = 83 Super Virasoro are in the region of visible light and

an interesting possibility is that that these excitations might be excited when photons are absorbed

by retina and that retina could be regarded as an intelligent conscious living being. This would

also partially explain why our vision is just in this particular wavelength range. To decide whether

interaction between photons and secondary Super Virasoro excitations is strong enough one should

be able to device a model for this interaction.

k 149 151 157 79

2

53

3

163 83

2

167 169

L

p

/10

−8

m .5 1 8 11.3 16 64 181 256 512

Table 2. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life between cell

membrane and cellular length scales.

3. Higher order life in submillimeter length scales

The length scale range between k = 169 and k = 191 contains primary length scales k =

173, 179, 181 given in table below, secondary length scale L

2

(89) = L(178) = 1.1 10

−4

meters,

and tertiary length scale L

3

(59) = L(177) = .8 10

−4

meters. The special importance of Mersenne

primes suggests M

89

second order life have managed to survive and might have meant a breakthrough

in evolution. The size scale of largest neurons, say pyramidal neurons in cortex is indeed of order

L

2

(M

89

). The fact that the lengths of micro-tubuli inside axons have length of order 10

−4

meters

suggests that they are accompanied by MEs corresponding to M

89

. This hypothesis is inspired also

by quantum antenna hypothesis and by the notion that MEs associated with axons serve as neural

windows. The frequency scale associated with M

89

is 3.310

12

Hz and in infrared range. The energies

involved correspond to 10

−12

eV which is the thermal energy associated with the room temperature.

This might explain the crucial importance of temperature for biolife. In too low temperatures sec-

ondary Super Virasoro excitations would be frozen whereas in too high temperatures situation would

be thermalized.

112 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

k 173 59

3

89

2

179 181

L

p

/10

−4

m .2 .8 1.1 1.6 3.2

Table 4. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life between cellular

and submillimeter length scales.

IR radiation is known to be important for odor perception of at least insects [50]: the energies of

k = 89 Super Virasoro are in this energy range. The structure of olfactory receptors also resembles

the structure of the photoreceptors in retina. This would suggest that odor (and possibly also taste)

perception might be regarded basically as IR vision with various odors playing the role of colors. The

large number of diﬀerent odors suggests that the number of diﬀerent ’cones’ is much higher than in

the case of vision. The secondary p-adic length scale associated with M

89

could give rise to secondary

excitations of electro-weak ﬁelds with huge degeneracies. If the size of the ’pixel’ characterizing sensory

experience corresponds to the p-adic length scale of Super Virasoro associated with primary sensory

organ, then one must conclude that also tactile senses could correspond to M

89

or some smaller prime.

Quite generally, vision, olfaction (and possibly also tastes) and tactile senses could thus be related

with the secondary p-adic length scales L

2

(83) and L

2

(89) and/or with the primary length scales

L(169) and L(173) and L(179) =

√

2L

2

(89). Note that the classical gauge ﬁelds associated with MEs

could be used to generate secondary sensory experiences in longer p-adic length scales.

4. Higher order life forms in human length scales

The length scale range relevant to the structures of human brain contains the primary length scales

corresponding to k = 191, 193, 197 and 199 varying in the range of 1-16 cm and are listed in the table

below. The secondary and tertiary length scales L

2

(97) = 2.8 cm, L

3

(67) = .32 meters, L

2

(101) = .45

meters and L

2

(103) = 1.81 meters covers length scale range between brain nuclei and human body

size. The fact that these primes correspond to the p-adic length scales associated with elementary

particles (quarks) suggest that also second order life in these length scales is winner in the ﬁght for

survival. L

2

(97) corresponds to the size scale of brain nuclei which suggests that single pixel now

provides a summary about sensory experience of brain nucleus. For instance, ’amygdalar emotions’

might be in question.

It could be that the mind like space-times sheet with the size of brain and other body parts and

entire body correspond carries exotic representations of k = 67

3

, k = 101

2

and k = 103

2

Super

Virasoro. The hypothesis that these levels correspond to emotions understood as generalized sensory

experiences about the state of body solve the puzzles why emotions are ’single pixel’ emotions and

determined by the state of body. Secondary p-adic length scale should determine the size of the pixel

in the bitmap provided by generalized sensory experience: since the size of pixel is of order human

brain or even body, one could understand why emotions are ’single-pixel’ emotions. Note that ’our

experience’ about these emotions probably does not correspond to this experience but experience

coded to ELF level of self hierarchy. Body length scale would be associated with ’body-consciousness’

quite diﬀerent from our consciousness which corresponds to much higher level of the hierarchy.

k 191 193 97

2

197 199 67

3

101

2

103

2

L

p

/m .01 .02 2.8 .08 .16 .32 .45 1.8

Table 5. p-Adic length scales L(k, n) possibly relevant to consciousness and life at length scales

relevant to human brain and body.

5. Higher order life above body length scale

The primary p-adic length scales k = 211, 223, 227, 229, 233, 239, 241 and 251 between body size

and L

2

(127) (quite near to Earth’s circumference), and also longer p-adic length scales are listed in

the table above. This range contains the secondary length scales k = 107, 113 and k = 127 correspond

to a hierarchy of collective consciousness from the point of view of body (but, as it seems, not from

our point of view!). The reader is encouraged to ﬁnd the tertiary length scales in this range.

1.8. Exotic representations of super-canonical algebra 113

k 211 71

3

107

2

109

2

223

L

p

/m 10 20 28.3 113 640

T

p

/µs 3.3E-2 6.6E-2 9.2E-2 .37 2.1

k 113

2

227 229 233 79

3

L

p

/m 1.8E+3 2.5E + 3 5E + 3 2E + 4 8E+4

T

p

/µs 6.1 8.6 17 69 276

k 239 241 3

5

= 243 83

3

2

5

2

L

p

/m 1.6E + 5 3.2E + 5 6.4E+5 5.1E+6 7.2E+6

T

p

/ms .55 1.1 2.2 17.6 24.9

k 251 127

2

257 131

2

263

L

p

/m E + 7 2.8E+7 8E + 7 44.8 6.4E + 8

T

p

35 ms .1 s .28 s 1.6 s 2.26 s

k 269 271 137

2

277 139

2

L

p

/m 5E + 9 E + 10 2.8E+10 7.7E + 10 11.2E+10

T

p

18.1 s 36.2 s 1.7 min 4.3 min 6.1 min

k 281 283 289 97

3

293

L

p

/m 3.2E+11 6.4E+11 5.2E + 12 1.1E+13 2.1E + 13

T

p

17.3 min 34.6 min 4.6 h 6.3 h 18.5 h

k 149

2

151

2

101

3

307 103

3

L

p

/ld 4.9 19.5 27.6 98.6 197.2

T

p

/d 4.9 19.5 27.6 98.6 197.2

Table 6. p-Adic length and time scales above length scale L(211) = 10 meters possibly relevant to

life and consciousness.

The emergence of Mersenne prime M

107

could perhaps be associated with the emergence of social

groups. Amusingly, M

107

is hadronic length scale and associated with the emergence of color conﬁned

many-quark states, kind of societies also these! More seriously, color conﬁnement should make sense

also for the exotic Super Virasoro representations and might have some counterpart at the level of

consciousness. For M

107

the p-adic length scale is about 29.0 meters, which is between L(211) = 10.2

meters and L(223) = 655 meters. The corresponding frequency scale is 6 MHz. L

2

(113) · 1853

meters is the length scale associated with the next secondary Super Virasoro.

The tertiary length scales L

3

(83) = L(249), L

2

(k = 5

3

= 125) = L(250); secondary length scale

L

2

(127), and the primary p-adic length scales L(251), L

2

(127), L(2

2

8

) = L(256) and L(257) correspond

to the sequence of fundamental Super Virasoro frequencies

f(1, 0)

Hz

∈ ¦56.4, 40, 28.2, 10.0, 5.0, 3.5¦ ,

which are important resonance frequencies of EEG which strongly encouratges the view that exotic

Super Virasoro are involved with our qualia.

M

127

corresponds to Earth size and to frequency of 10 Hz which is in EEG range. Next Mersenne

prime corresponds to a completetely super-astronomical length scale. Uncertainty Principle suggests

that if EEG frequencies stimulate the quantum transitions giving rise to our conscious experiences,

then our mental images should correspond to MEs with k = 127 and 131. k = 131 indeed corresponds

to frequencies above .63 Hz (1.6 seconds) covering delta, theta and alpha frequencies up to 10 Hz

where the range of k = 127 frequencies begins (note however that the diﬀerence of M

127

energies can

be also below 10 Hz). Also the basic rhythms of body (heart beat and respiration) could correspond

to k = 131 time scales.

The next secondary p-adic time scales corresponding to k = 137, 139, 149 and k = 151. T

2

(137) is

are 1 minute 40 seconds, T

2

(139) is 6 minutes 40 seconds, T

2

(149) is 4.2 days roughly, T

2

(151) is 16.8

days roughly. T

2

(157) is roughly 1078.5 days (roughly three years). T

2

(163) is roughly 69024 days

which makes roughly 189 years. These time scales could be important for human life cycle and the

secondary excitations of these Super Virasoros could deﬁne important biological rhythms.

Acknowledgements

114 Chapter 1. About the New Physics Behind Qualia

I want to thank for Daniel Dubois and Peter Marcer for providing the opportunity to participate

CASYS’2000 conference. It was the very enlightening representation of Peter Marcer experimental

data concerning the eﬀects of laser light on DNA which re-stimulated the work with massless extremals

and quantum antenna hypothesis and led to the realization of connection with the spectroscopy of

consciousness. An important stimulus came from Claude Rifat to whom I am also grateful. I want

also to express my gratitude to Gene Johnson for sending all kinds of material as well as enlightening

debates concerning the relation between quantum brain to neuroscientist’s brain.

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D. Downing (2001), Daylight Robber - The importance of sunlight to health, chapter 8. Online

book at

http://www.bio-immuno-development.com/books/daylight/924.htm.

[56] V.M. Inyushin and P.R. Chekorov (1975), Biostimulation through laser radiation and bioplasma,

Alma-Ata, Kazakh SSR.Translated into english in 1976.

[57] M. Shaduri. & G.Tshitshinadze (1999), On the problem of application of Bioenergography in

medicine. Georgian Engineering News 2, 109-112.

See also http://www.bioholography.org/.

[58] D. Yarrow (1990), Spin the tale of the dragon, review article on biomagnetism,

http://www.ratical.org/ratville/RofD2.html.

[59] John Mini (1999), Feet on the ground , head in the clouds, http:/

[60] New research could help to reverse the biological clock for dementia patents,

http://welcome.sunderland.ac.uk/news.asp?id=242.

[61] T. I. Karu (1998), The Science of Low-Power Laser Therapy, Gordon and Breach, Sci. Publ.,

London.

T. I. Karu, Cellular mechanisms of Low-power Laser Therapy (photobiomodulation),

http://www.laserhealthsystems.com/Dr.%20Tiina%20Karu%20Presentation.htm.

[62] R. O. Becker and G. Selden (1990) The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of

Life. William Morrow & Company, Inc., New York.

[63] R. O. Becker and A. A. Marino (1982), Electromagnetism & Life, State University of New York

Press, Albany.

http://www.ortho.lsuhsc.edu/Faculty/Marino/EL/ELTOC.html.

[64] Document about Ciba Geigy eﬀect Ebbner and Schuerch.

http://www.pukshofer.com/Privat_Home/Projekte/Ciba_Geigy/Ciba_Geigy.htm.

[65] Pﬂanzenwachstum durch Elektrofeld, Instructions for the experiment yielding Ciba Geigy eﬀect.

http://www.s-line.de/homepages/keppler/elektrofeld.htm.

[66] A. Waser (2004), The Global Scaling Theory: a Short Summary, http://www.global-scaling.

ch.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 121

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[67] T. Ludham and L. McLerran (2003), What Have We Learned From the Relativistic Heavy Ion

Collider?, Physics Today, October issue.

http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-56/iss-10/p48.html.

[68] B. Dume (2005), ”Magic” numbers remain magic, Physics Web. http://physicsweb.org/

articles/news/9/6/9/1. (Si(14,28) is magic unstable nucleus.)

B. Ray (2005), FSU researchers ﬁnd ’magic’ at the subatomic level,

http://www.fsu.com/pages/2005/07/05/magic_subatomic.html. (Magic Number N=14.)

New Magic Number ”16” Where Nuclei Exist Stably Discovered, http://www.mext.go.jp/

english/news/2000/06/s000606.html.

A. Ozawa et al (2000), Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5493. (Magic number N=16).

A. Ozawa et al (2001), Observation of new proton and neutron magic numbers, http://lbl.

confex.com/lbl/2001/program/abstract_97.htm. (Magic numbers N=16,20,32.)

[69] F. M. Marquez et al (2003), Phys. Rev. C65, 044006.

[70] C.A. Bertulani, V. Zelevinsky (2002), Is the tetra-neutron a bound dineutron-dineutron molecule?,

J.Phys. G29, 2431-2437. arXiv:nucl-th/0212060.

[71] C. L. Kervran (1972),Biological transmutations, and their applications in chemistry, physics,

biology, ecology, medicine, nutrition, agriculture, geology, Swan House Publishing Co.

[72] C. Illert (1993), ALCHEMY TODAY-Platonic Geometries in Nuclear Physics, Volume 1. ISBN

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quantum energy states formed by an exothermic reaction of atomic hydrogen with certain catalysts.

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http://www.thesurfaceofthesun.com/TheSurfaceOfTheSun.pdf.

Chapter 2

Topological Quantum Computation

in TGD Universe

2.1 Introduction

Quantum computation is perhaps one of the most rapidly evolving branches of theoretical physics.

TGD inspired theory of consciousness has led to new insights about quantum computation and in this

chapter I want to discuss these ideas in a more organized manner.

There are three mathematically equivalent approaches to quantum computation [26]: quantum

Turing machines, quantum circuits, and topological quantum computation (TQC). In fact, the real-

ization that TGD Universe seems to be ideal place to perform TQC [27, 28] served as the stimulus

for writing this chapter.

Quite generally, quantum computation allows to solve problems which are NP hard, that is the

time required to solve the problem increases exponentially with the number of variables using classical

computer but only polynomially using quantum computer. The topological realization of the computer

program using so called braids resulting when threads are weaved to 2-dimensional patterns is very

robust so that de-coherence, which is the basic nuisance of quantum computation, ceases to be a

problem. More precisely, the error probability is proportional to exp(−αl), where l is the length scale

characterizing the distance between strands of the braid [28] .

2.1.1 Evolution of basic ideas of quantum computation

The notion of quantum computation goes back to Feynman [23] who demonstrated that some com-

putational tasks boil down to problems of solving quantum evolution of some physical system, say

electrons scattering from each other. Many of these computations are NP hard, which means that the

number of computational steps required grows exponentially with the number of variables involved so

that they become quickly unsolvable using ordinary computers. A quicker manner to do the computa-

tion is to make a physical experiment. A further bonus is that if you can solve one NP hard problem,

you can solve many equivalent NP hard problems. What is new that quantum computation is not

deterministic so that computation must be carried out several times and probability distribution for

the outcomes allows to deduce the answer. Often however the situation is such that it is easy to check

whether the outcome provides the sought for solution.

Years later David Deutch [24] transformed Feynman’s ideas into a detailed theory of quantum

computation demonstrating how to encode quantum computation in a quantum system and researchers

started to develop applications. One of the key factors in the computer security is cryptography which

relies on the fact that the factorization of large integers to primes is a NP hard problem. Peter Shor [25]

discovered an algorithm, which allows to carry out the factorization in time, which is exponentially

shorter than by using ordinary computers. A second example is problem of searching a particular

from a set of N items, which requires time proportional to N classically but quantally only a time

proportional to

√

N.

The key notion is quantum entanglement which allows to store information in the relationship

between systems, qubits in the simplest situation. This means that information storage capacity

123

124 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

increases exponentially as a function of number of qubits rather than only linearly. This explains

why NP hard problems which require time increasing exponentially with the number of variables can

be solved using quantum computers. It also means exponentially larger information storage capacity

than possible classically.

Recall that there are three equivalent approaches to quantum computation: quantum Turing

machine, quantum circuits, and topology based unitary modular functor approach. In quantum circuit

approach the unitary time evolution deﬁning the quantum computation is assumed to be decomposable

to a product of more elementary operations deﬁned by unitary operators associated with quantum

gates. The number of diﬀerent gates needed is surprisingly small: only 1-gates generating unitary

transformations of single qubit, and a 2-gate representing a transformation which together with 1-

gates is able to generate entanglement are needed to generate a dense subgroup of unitary group U(2

n

)

in the case of n-qubit system. 2-gate could be conditional NOT (CNOT). The ﬁrst 1-gate can induce

a phase factor to the qubit 0 and do nothing for qubit 1. Second 1-gate could form orthogonal square

roots of bits 1 and 0 as superposition of 1 and 0 with identical probabilities.

The formal deﬁnition of the quantum computation using quantum circuit is as a computation of

the value of a Boolean function of n Boolean arguments, for instance the k:th bit of the largest prime

factor of a given integer. The unitary operator U is constructed as a product of operators associated

with the basic gates. It is said that the function coding the problem belongs to the class BQP (function

is computable with a bounded error in polynomial time) if there exists a classical polynomial-time (in

string length) algorithm for specifying the quantum circuit. The ﬁrst qubit of the outgoing n-qubit is

measured and the probability that the the value is 0 determines the value of the bit to be calculated.

For instance, for p(0) ≥ 2/3 the bit is 0 and for p(0) ≥ 1/3 the bit is 1. The evaluation of the outcome

is probabilistic and requires a repeat the computation suﬃciently many times.

The basic problem of quantum computation is the extremely fragility of the physical qubit (say

spin). The fragility can be avoided by mapping q-bits to logical qubits realized as highly entangled

states of many qubits and quantum error-correcting codes and fault tolerant methods [27, 28, 29] rely

on this.

The space W of the logical qubits is known as a code space. The sub-space W of physical states of

space Y = V ⊗V..... ⊗V is called k-code if the eﬀect of any k-local operator (aﬀecting only k tensor

factors of Y linearly but leaving the remaining factors invariant) followed by an orthogonal projection

to W is multiplication by scalar. This means that k-local operator modify the states only in directions

orthogonal to W.

These spaces indeed exist and it can be shown that the quantum information coded in W is not

aﬀected by the errors operating in fewer than k/2 of the n particles. Note that k = 3 is enough to

guarantee stability with respect to 1-local errors. In this manner it is possible to correct the errors

by repeated quantum measurements and by a suitable choice of the sub-space eliminate the errors

due to the local changes of qubits by just performing a projection of the state back to the subspace

(quantum measurement).

If the the error magnitude is below so called accuracy threshold, arbitrary long quantum compu-

tations are reliable. The estimates for this constant vary between 10

−5

and 10

−3

. This is beyond

current technologies. Error correction is based on the representation of qubit as a logical qubit deﬁned

as a state in a linear sub-space of the tensor product of several qubits.

Topological quantum computation [28] provides an alternative approach to minimize the errors

caused by de-coherence. Conceptually the modular functor approach [30, 28] is considerably more

abstract than quantum circuit approach. Unitary modular functor is the S-matrix of a topological

quantum ﬁeld theory. It deﬁnes a unitary evolution realizing the quantum computation in macroscopic

topological ground states degrees of freedom. The nice feature of this approach is that the notion of

physical qubit becomes redundant and the code space deﬁned by the logical qubits can be represented

in terms topological and thus non-local degrees of freedom which are stable against local perturbations

as required.

2.1.2 Quantum computation and TGD

Concerning quantum computation [26] in general, TGD TGD inspired theory of consciousness provides

several new insights.

2.1. Introduction 125

Quantum jump as elementary particle of consciousness and cognition

Quantum jump is interpreted as a fundamental cognitive process leading from creative confusion via

analysis to an experience of understanding, and involves TGD counterpart of the unitary process

followed by state function reduction and state preparation. One can say that quantum jump is the

elementary particle of consciousness and that selves consists of sequences of quantum jump just like

hadrons, nuclei, atoms, molecules,... consist basically of elementary particles. Self loses its conscious-

ness when it generates bound state entanglement with environment. The conscious experience of

self is in a well-deﬁned sense a statistical average over the quantum jump during which self exists.

During macro-temporal quantum coherence during macro-temporal quantum coherence a sequence

of quantum jumps integrates eﬀectively to a single moment of consciousness and eﬀectively deﬁnes

single unitary time evolution followed by state function reduction and preparation. This means a

fractal hierarchy of consciousness very closely related to the corresponding hierarchy for bound states

of elementary particles and structure formed from them.

Negentropy Maximization Principle guarantees maximal entanglement

Negentropy Maximization Principle is the basic dynamical principle constraining what happens in

state reduction and self measurement steps of state preparation. Each self measurement involves

a decomposition of system into two parts. The decomposition is dictated by the requirement that

the reduction of entanglement entropy in self measurement is maximal. Self measurement can lead to

either unentangled state or to entangled state with density matrix which is proportional to unit matrix

(density matrix is the observable measured). In the latter case maximally entangled state typically

involved with quantum computers results as an outcome. Hence Nature itself would favor maximally

entangling 2-gates. Note however that self measurement occurs only if it increases the entanglement

negentropy.

Number theoretical information measures and extended rational entanglement as bound

state entanglement

The emerging number theoretical notion of information allows to interpret the entanglement for which

entanglement probabilities are rational (or belong to an extension of rational numbers deﬁning a ﬁnite

extension of p-adic numbers) as bound state entanglement with positive information content. Macro-

temporal quantum coherence corresponds to a formation of bound entanglement stable against state

function reduction and preparation processes.

Spin glass degeneracy, which is the basic characteristic of the variational principle deﬁning space-

time dynamics, implies a huge number of vacuum degrees of freedom, and is the key mechanism

behind macro-temporal quantum coherence. Spin glass degrees of freedom are also ideal candidates

qubit degrees of freedom. As a matter fact, p-adic length scale hierarchy suggests that qubit represents

only the lowest level in the hierarchy of qupits deﬁning p-dimensional state spaces, p prime.

Time mirror mechanism and negative energies

The new view about time, in particular the possibility of communications with and control of geometric

past, suggests the possibility of circumventing the restrictions posed by time for quantum computation.

Iteration based on initiation of quantum computation again and again in geometric past would make

possible practically instantaneous information processing.

Space-time sheets with negative time orientation carry negative energies. Also the possibility of

phase conjugation of fermions is strongly suggestive. It is also possible that anti-fermions possess

negative energies in phases corresponding to macroscopic length scales. This would explain matter-

antimatter asymmetry in elegant manner. Zero energy states would be ideal for quantum computation

purposes and could be even created intentionally by ﬁrst generating a p-adic surface representing the

state and then transforming it to a real surface.

The most predictive and elegant cosmology assumes that the net quantum numbers of the Universe

vanish so that quantum jumps would occur between diﬀerent kinds of vacua. Crossing symmetry

makes this option almost consistent with the idea about objective reality with deﬁnite conserved total

quantum numbers but requires that quantum states of 3-dimensional quantum theory represent S-

matrices of 2-dimensional quantum ﬁeld theory. These quantum states are thus about something. The

126 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

boundaries of space-time surface are most naturally light-like 3-surfaces space-time surface and are

limiting cases of space-like 3-surface and time evolution of 2-surface. Hence they would act naturally

as space-time correlates for the reﬂective level of consciousness.

2.1.3 TGD and the new physics associated with TQC

TGD predicts the new physics making possible to realized braids as entangled ﬂux tubes and also

provides a detailed model explaing basic facts about anyons.

Topologically quantized magnetic ﬂux tube structures as braids

Quantum classical correspondence suggests that the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action corre-

sponds to a space-time representation of second law and that the 4-surfaces approach asymptotically

space-time representations of systems which do not dissipate anymore. The correlate for the absence

of dissipation is the vanishing of Lorentz 4-force associated with the induced K¨ahler ﬁeld. This con-

dition can be regarded as a generalization of Beltrami condition for magnetic ﬁelds and leads to very

explicit general solutions of ﬁeld equations [D1].

The outcome is a general classiﬁcation of solutions based on the dimension of CP

2

projection. The

most unstable phase corresponds to D = 2-dimensional projection and is analogous to a ferromagnetic

phase. D = 4 projection corresponds to chaotic demagnetized phase and D = 3 is the extremely

complex but ordered phase at the boundary between chaos and order. This phase was identiﬁed as

the phase responsible for the main characteristics of living systems [I4, I5]. It is also ideal for quantum

computations since magnetic ﬁeld lines form extremely complex linked and knotted structures.

The ﬂux tube structures representing topologically quantized ﬁelds, which have D = 3 -dimensional

CP

2

projection, are knotted, linked and braided, and carry an inﬁnite number of conserved topological

charges labelled by representations of color group. They seem to be tailor-made for deﬁning the

braid structure needed by TQC. The boundaries of the magnetic ﬂux tubes correspond to light-

like 3-surfaces with respect to the induced metric (being thus metrically 2-dimensional and allowing

conformal invariance) and can be interpreted either as 3-surfaces or time-evolutions of 2-dimensional

systems so that S-matrix of 2-D system can be coded into the quantum state of conformally invariant

3-D system.

Anyons in TGD

TGD suggests a many-sheeted model for anyons used in the modelling of quantum Hall eﬀect [31, 19,

32]. Quantum-classical correspondence requires that dissipation has space-time correlates. Hence a

periodic motion should create a permanent track in space-time. This kind of track would be naturally

magnetic ﬂux tube like structure surrounding the Bohr orbit of the charged particle in the magnetic

ﬁeld. Anyon would be electron plus its track.

The magnetic ﬁeld inside magnetic ﬂux tubes impels the anyons to the surface of the magnetic ﬂux

tube and a highly conductive state results. The partial fusion of the ﬂux tubes along their boundaries

makes possible delocalization of valence anyons localized at the boundaries of ﬂux tubes and implies

a dramatic increase of longitudinal conductivity. When magnetic ﬁeld is gradually increased the radii

of ﬂux tubes and the increase of the net ﬂux brings in new ﬂux tubes. The competition of these eﬀects

leads to the emergence of quantum Hall plateaus and sudden increase of the longitudinal conductivity

σ

xx

.

The simplest model explains only the ﬁlling fractions ν = 1/m, m odd. The ﬁlling fractions

ν = N/m, m odd, require a more complex model. The transition to chaos means that periodic orbits

become gradually more and more non-periodic: closed orbits fail to close after the ﬁrst turn and

do so only after N 2π rotations. Tracks would become N-branched surfaces. In N-branched space-

time the single-valued analytic two particle wave functions (ξ

k

−ξ

l

)

m

of Laughlin [32] correspond to

multiple valued wave functions (z

k

− z

l

)

m/N

at its M

4

+

projection and give rise to a ﬁlling fraction

ν = N/m. The ﬁlling fraction ν = N/m, m even, requires composite fermions [37]. Anyon tracks can

indeed contain up to 2N electrons if both directions of spin are allowed so that a rich spectroscopy is

predicted: in particular anyonic super-conductivity becomes possible by 2-fermion composites. The

branching gives rise to Z

N

-valued topological charge.

2.1. Introduction 127

One might think that fractional charges could be only apparent and result from the multi-branched

character as charges associated with a single branch. This does not seem to be the case. Rather, the

fractional charges result from the additional contribution of the vacuum K¨ahler charge of the anyonic

ﬂux tube to the charge of anyon. For D = 3 K¨ahler charge is topologized in the sense that the charge

density is proportional to the Chern-Simons. Also anyon spin could become genuinely fractional due

to the vacuum contribution of the K¨ahler ﬁeld to the spin. Besides electronic anyons also anyons

associated with various ions are predicted and certain strange experimental ﬁndings about fractional

Larmor frequencies of proton in water environment [43, 55] have an elegant explanation in terms of

protonic anyons with ν = 3/5. In this case however the magnetic ﬁeld was weaker than the Earth’s

magnetic ﬁeld so that the belief that anyons are possible only in systems carrying very strong magnetic

ﬁelds would be wrong.

In TGD framework anyons as punctures of plane would be replaced by wormhole like tubes connect-

ing diﬀerent points of the boundary of the magnetic ﬂux tube and are predicted to always appear as

pairs as they indeed do. Detailed arguments demonstrate that TGD anyons are for N = 4 (ν = 4/m)

ideal for realizing the scenario of [28] for TQC.

The TGD inspired model of non-Abelian anyons is consistent with the model of anyons based on

spontaneous symmetry breaking of a gauge symmetry G to a discrete sub-group H dynamically [38].

The breaking of electro-weak gauge symmetry for classical electro-weak gauge ﬁelds occurs at the

space-time sheets associated with the magnetic ﬂux tubes deﬁning the strands of braid. Symmetry

breaking implies that elements of holonomy group span H. This group is also a discrete subgroup of

color group acting as isotropy group of the many-branched surface describing anyon track inside the

magnetic ﬂux tube. Thus the elements of the holonomy group are mapped to a elements of discrete

subgroup of the isometry group leading from branch to another one but leaving many-branched surface

invariant.

Witten-Chern-Simons action and light-like 3-surfaces

The magnetic ﬁeld inside magnetic ﬂux tube expels anyons at the boundary of the ﬂux tube. In

quantum TGD framework light-like 3-surfaces of space-time surface and future light cone are in key

role since they deﬁne causal determinants for K¨ahler action. They also provide a universal manner

to satisfy boundary conditions. Hence also the boundaries of magnetic ﬂux tube structures could be

light like surfaces with respect to the induced metric of space-time sheet and would be somewhat

like black hole horizons. By their metric 2-dimensionality they allow conformal invariance and due

the vanishing of the metric determinant the only coordinate invariant action is Chern-Simons action

associated K¨ahler gauge potential or with the induced electro-weak gauge potentials.

The quantum states associated with the light-like boundaries would be naturally ”self-reﬂective”

states in the sense that they correspond to S-matrix elements of the Witten-Chern-Simons topological

ﬁeld theory. Modular functors could results as restriction of the S-matrix to ground state degrees of

freedom and Chern-Simons topological quantum ﬁeld theory is a promising candidate for deﬁning the

modular functors [32, 33].

Braid group B

n

is isomorphic to the ﬁrst homotopy group of the conﬁguration space C

n

(R

2

) of n

particles. C

n

(R

2

) is ((R

2

)

n

−D)/S

n

, where D is the singularity represented by the conﬁgurations in

which the positions of 2 or more particles. and be regarded also as the conﬁguration associated with

plane with n + 1 punctures with n + 1:th particle regarded as inert. The inﬁnite order of the braid

group is solely due to the 2-dimensionality. Hence the dimension D = 4 for space-time is unique also

in the sense that it makes possible TQC.

2.1.4 TGD and TQC

Many-sheeted space-time concept, the possibility of negative energies, and Negentropy Maximization

Principle inspire rather concrete ideas about TQC. NMP gives good hopes that the laws of Nature

could take care of building ﬁne-tuned entanglement generating 2-gates whereas 1-gates could be re-

duced to 2-gates for logical qubits realized using physical qubits realized as Z

4

charges and not existing

as free qubits.

128 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

Only 2-gates are needed

The entanglement of qubits is algebraic which corresponds in TGD Universe to bound state entangle-

ment. Negentropy Maximization Principle implies that maximal entanglement results automatically

in quantum jump. This might saves from the ﬁne-tuning of the 2-gates. In particular, the maximally

entangling Yang-Baxter R-matrix is consistent with NMP.

TGD suggests a rather detailed physical realization of the model of [28] for anyonic quantum

computation. The ﬁndings about strong correlation between quantum entanglement and topological

entanglement are apparently contradicted by the Temperley-Lie representations for braid groups using

only single qubit. The resolution of the paradox is based on the observation that in TGD framework

batches containing anyon Cooper pair (AA) and single anyon (instead of two anyons as in the model

of [28]) allow to represent single qubit as a logical qubit, and that mixing gate and phase gate can be

represented as swap operations s

1

and s

2

. Hence also 1-gates are induced by the purely topological

2-gate action, and since NMP maximizes quantum entanglement, Nature itself would take care of

the ﬁne-tuning also in this case. The quantum group representation based on q = exp(i2π/5) is the

simplest representation satisfying various constraints and is also physically very attractive. [28, 30].

TGD makes possible zero energy TQC

TGD allows also negative energies: besides phase conjugate photons also phase conjugate fermions

and anti-fermions are possible, and matter-antimatter asymmetry might be only apparent and due to

the ground state for which fermion energies are positive and anti-fermion energies negative.

This would make in principle possible zero energy topological quantum computations. The least

one could hope wold be the performance of TQC in doubles of positive and negative energy computa-

tions making possible error detection by comparison. The TGD based model for anyon computation

however leads to expect that negative energies play much more important role.

The idea is that the quantum states of light-like 3-surfaces represent 2-dimensional time evolutions

(in particular modular functors) and that braid operations correspond to zero energy states with initial

state represented by positive energy anyons and ﬁnal state represented by negative energy anyons.

The simplest manner to realize braid operations is by putting positive resp. negative energy anyons

near the boundary of tube T

1

resp. T

2

. Opposite topological charges are at the ends of the magnetic

threads connecting the positive energy anyons at T

1

with the negative energy anyons at T

2

. The

braiding for the threads would code the quantum gates physically.

Before continuing a humble confession is in order: I am not a professional in the area of quantum

information science. Despite this, my hope is that the speculations below might serve as an inspiration

for real professionals in the ﬁeld and help them to realize that TGD Universe provides an ideal arena

for quantum information processing, and that the new view about time, space-time, and information

suggests a generalization of the existing paradigm to a much more powerful one.

2.2 Existing view about topological quantum computation

In the sequel the evolution of ideas related to topological quantum computation, dance metaphor, and

the idea about realizing the computation using a system exhibiting so called non-Abelian Quantum

Hall eﬀect, are discussed.

2.2.1 Evolution of ideas about TQC

The history of the TQC paradigm is as old as that of QC and involves the contribution of several Fields

Medalists. At 1987 to-be Fields Medalist Vaughan Jones [34] demonstrated that the von Neumann

algebras encountered in quantum theory are related to the theory of knots and allow to distinguish

between very complex knots. Vaughan also demonstrated that a given knot can be characterized in

terms an array of bits. The knot is oriented by assigning an arrow to each of its points and projected

to a plane. The bit sequence is determined by a sequence of bits deﬁned by the self-intersections of the

knot’s projection to plane. The value of the bit in a given intersection changes when the orientation

of either line changes or when the line on top of another is moved under it. Since the logic operations

performed by the gates of computer can be coded to matrices consisting of 0s and 1s, this means that

tying a know can encode the logic operations necessary for computation.

2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 129

String theorist Edward Witten [32, 33], also a Fields Medalist, connected the work of Jones to

quantum physics by showing that performing measurements to a system described by a 3-dimensional

topological quantum ﬁeld theory deﬁned by non-Abelian Chern-Simons action is equivalent with

performing the computation that a particular braid encodes. The braids are determined by linked

word lines of the particles of the topological quantum ﬁeld theory. What makes braids and quantum

computation so special is that the coding of the braiding pattern to a bit sequence gives rise to a code,

which corresponds to a code solving NP hard problem using classical computer.

1989 computer scientist Alexei Kitaev [31] demonstrated that Witten’s topological quantum ﬁeld

theory could form a basis for a computer. Then Fields Medalist Michael Freedman entered the scene

and in collaboration with Kitaev, Michael Larson and Zhenghan Wang developed a vision of how to

build a topological quantum computer [30, 28] using system exhibiting so called non-Abelian quantum

Hall eﬀect [40].

The key notion is Z

4

valued topological charge which has values 1 and 3 for anyons and 0 and 2 for

their Cooper pairs. For a system of 2n non-Abelian anyon pairs created from vacuum there are n-1

anyon qubits analogous to spin . The notion of physical qubit is not needed at all and logical qubit is

coded to the topological charge of the anyon Cooper pair. The basic idea is to utilize entanglement

between Z

4

valued topological charges to achieve quantum information storage stable against de-

coherence. The swap of neighboring strands of the braid is the topological correlate of a 2-gate which

as such does not generate entanglement but can give rise to a transformation such as CNOT. When

combined with 1-gates taking square root of qubit and relative phase, this 2-gate is able to generate

U(2

n

).

The swap can be represented as the so called braid Yang-Baxter R-matrix characterizing also the

deviation of quantum groups from ordinary groups [29]. Quite generally, all unitary Yang-Baxter

R-matrices are entangling when combined with square root gate except for special values of param-

eters characterizing them and thus there is a rich repertoire of topologically realized quantum gates.

Temperley-Lieb representation provides a 1-qubit representation for swaps in 3-braid system [29, 30].

The measurement of qubit reduces to the measurement of the topological charge of the anyon Cooper

pair: in the case that it vanishes (qubit 0) the anyon Cooper pair can annihilate and this serves as

the physical signature.

2.2.2 Topological quantum computation as quantum dance

Although topological quantum computation involves very abstract and technical mathematical think-

ing, it is possible to illustrate how it occurs by a very elegant metaphor. With tongue in cheek one

could say that topological quantum computation occurs like a dance. Dancers form couples and in

this dancing ﬂoor the partners can be also of same sex. Dancers can change their partners. If the

partners are of the same sex, they deﬁne bit 1 and if they are of opposite sex they deﬁne bit 0.

To simplify things one can arrange dancers into a row or several rows such that neighboring

partners along the row form a couple. The simplest situation corresponds to a single row of dancers

able to make twists of 180 degrees permuting the dancers and able to change the partner to a new one

any time. Dance corresponds to a pattern of tracks of dancers at the ﬂoor. This pattern can be lifted

to a three-dimensional pattern introducing time as a third dimension. When one looks the tracks of

a row of dancers in this 2+1-dimensional space-time, one ﬁnds that the tracks of the dancers form

a complex weaved pattern known as braiding. The braid codes for the computation. The braiding

consists of primitive swap operations in which two neighboring word lines twist around each other.

The values of the bits giving the result of the ﬁnal state of the calculation can be detected since

there is something very special which partners with opposite sex can do and do it sooner or later. Just

by looking which pairs do it allows to deduce the values of the bits. The alert reader has of course

guessed already now that the physical characterization for the sex is as a Z

4

valued topological charge,

which is of opposite sign for the diﬀerent sexes forming Cooper pairs, and that the thing that partners

of opposite sex can do is to annihilate! All that is needed to look for those pairs which annihilate

after the dance evening to detect the 0s in the row of bits. The coding of the sex to the sign of the

topological charge implies also robustness.

It is however essential that the value of topological charge for a given particle in the ﬁnal state

is not completely deﬁnite (this is completely general feature of all quantum computations). One can

tell only with certain probability that given couple in the ﬁnal state is male-female or male-male or

130 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

female-female and the probabilities in question code for the braid pattern in turn coding for quantum

logic circuit. Hence one must consider an ensemble of braid calculations to deduce these probabilities.

The basic computational operation permuting the neighboring topological charges is topological

so that the program represented by the braiding pattern is very stable against perturbations. The

values of the topological charges are also stable. Hence the topological quantum computation is a

very robust process and immune to quantum de-coherence even in the standard physics context.

2.2.3 Braids and gates

In order to understand better how braids deﬁne gates one must introduce some mathematical notions

related to the braids.

Braid groups

Artin introduced the braid groups bearing his name as groups generated by the elements, which

correspond to the cross section between neighboring strands of the braid. The deﬁnition of these

groups is discussed in detail in [29]. For a braid having n + 1 strands the Artin group B

n1

has n

generators s

i

. The generators satisfy certain relations. Depending on whether the line coming from

left is above the the line coming from right one has s

i

or s

−1

i

. The elements s

i

and s

j

commute for

i < j and i > j + 1: s

i

s

j

= s

j

s

i

, which only says that two swaps which do not have common lines

commute. For i = j and i = j +1 commutativity is not assumed and this correspond to the situation

in which the swaps act on common lines.

As already mentioned, Artin’s braid group B

n

is isomorphic with the homotopy group π

1

((R

2

)

n

/S

n+1

)

of plane with n + 1 punctures. B

n

is inﬁnite-dimensional because the conditions s

2

i

= 1 added to the

deﬁning relations in the case of permutation group S

n

are not included. The inﬁnite-dimensionality

of homotopy groups reﬂects the very special topological role of 2-dimensional spaces.

One must consider also variants of braid groups encountered when all particles in question are not

identical particles. The reason is that braid operation must be replaced by a 2π rotation of particle

A around B when the particles are not identical.

1. Consider ﬁrst the situation in which all particles are non-identical. The ﬁrst homotopy group of

R

2

)

n

−D, where D represents points conﬁgurations for which two or more points are identical is

identical with the colored braid group B

c

n

deﬁned by n+1 punctures in plane such that n+1:th

is passive (punctures are usually imagined to be located on line). Since particles are not identical

the braid operation must be replaced by monodromy in which i:th particle makes 2π rotation

around j:th particle. This group has generators

γ

ij

= s

i

...s

j−2

s

2

j−1

s

j−2

...s

−1

i

, i < j , (2.2.1)

and can be regarded as a subgroup of the braid group.

2. When several representatives of a given particle species are present the so called partially colored

braid group B

pc

n

is believed to describe the situation. For pairs of identical particles the gen-

erators are braid generators and for non-identical particles monodromies appear as generators.

It will be found later that in case of anyon bound states, the ordinary braid group with the

assumption that braid operation can lead to a temporary decay and recombination of anyons to

a bound state, might be a more appropriate model for what happens in braiding.

3. When all particles are identical, one has the braid group B

n

, which corresponds to the fun-

damental group of C

n

(R

2

) = ((R

2

)

n

− D)/S

n

. Division by S

n

expresses the identicality of

particles.

2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 131

Extended Artin’s group

Artin’s group can be extended by introducing any group G and forming its tensor power G

⊗

n

=

G ⊗ ... ⊗ G by assigning to every strand of the braid group G. The extended group is formed from

elements of g

1

⊗ g

2

.... ⊗ g

n

and s

i

by posing additional relations g

i

s

j

= s

j

g

i

for i < j and i > j + 1.

The interpretation of these relations is completely analogous to the corresponding one for the Artin’s

group.

If G allows representation in some space V one can look for the representations of the extended

Artin’s group in the space V

⊗

n

. In particular, unitary representations are possible. The space in

question can also represent physical states of for instance anyonic system and the element g

i

associated

with the lines of the braid can represent the unitary operators characterizing the time development

of the strand between up to the moment when it experiences a swap operation represented by s

i

after

this operation g

i

becomes s

i

g

i

s

−1

i

.

Braids, Yang-Baxter relations, and quantum groups

Artin’s braid groups can be related directly to the so called quantum groups and Yang-Baxter relations.

Yang-Baxter relations follow from the relation s

1

s

2

s

1

= s

2

s

1

s

2

by noticing that these operations

permute the lines 123 of the braid to the order 321. By assigning to a swap operation permuting i:th

and j:th line group element R

ij

when i:th line goes over the j:th line, and noticing that R

ij

i acts in

the tensor product V

i

⊗V

j

, one can write the relation for braids in a form

R

32

R

13

R

12

= R

12

R

13

R

23

.

Braid Yang-Baxter relations are equivalent with the so called algebraic Yang-Baxter relations en-

countered in quantum group theory. Algebraic R can be written as R

a

= RS, where S is the matrix

representing swap operation as a mere permutation. For a suitable choice R

a

provides the fundamental

representations for the elements of the quantum group SL(n)

q

when V is n-dimensional.

The equations represent n

6

equations for n

4

unknowns and are highly over-determined so that

solving the equations is a diﬃcult challenge. Equations have symmetries which are obvious on basis

of the topological interpretation. Scaling and automorphism induced by linear transformations of V

act as symmetries, and the exchange of tensor factors in V ⊗V and transposition are symmetries as

also shift of all indices by a constant amount (using modulo N arithmetics).

Unitary R-matrices

Quite a lot is known about the general solutions of the Yang-Baxter equations and for n = 2 the

general unitary solutions of equations is known [36]. All of these solutions are entangling and deﬁne

thus universal 1-gates except for certain parameter values.

The ﬁrst solution is

R =

1

√

2

¸

¸

¸

1 1

1 −1

1 1

−1 1

¸

(2.2.2)

and contains no free parameters (dots denote zeros). This R-matrix is strongly entangling. Note

that the condition R

8

= 1 is satisﬁed. The deﬁning relations for Artin’s braid group allow also more

general solutions obtained by multiplying R with an arbitrary phase factor. This would mean that

R

8

= 1 constraint is not satisﬁed anymore. One can argue that over-all phase does not matter: on

the other hand, the over all phase is visible in knot invariants deﬁned by the trace of R.

The second and third solution come as families labelled four phases a, b, c and d:

132 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

R

(a, b, c, d) =

1

√

2

¸

¸

¸

a

b

c

d

¸

R

(a, b, c, d) =

1

√

2

¸

¸

¸

a

b

c

d

¸

(2.2.3)

These matrices are not as such entangling. The products U

1

⊗U

2

RV

1

⊗V

2

, where U

i

and V

i

are 2 2

unitary matrices, are however entangling matrices and thus act as universal gates for ad − bc = 0

guaranteeing that the state a[11` +b[10` +[01` +[00` is entangled.

It deserves to be noticed that the swap matrix

S = R

(1, 1, 1, 1) =

1

√

2

¸

¸

¸

1

1

1 1

1

¸

(2.2.4)

permuting the qubits does not deﬁne universal gate. This is understandable since in this representation

of braid group reduces it to permutation group and situation becomes completely classical.

One can write all solutions R of braid Yang-Baxter equation in the form R = R

a

, where R

a

is

the solution of so called algebraic Yang-Baxter equation. The interpretation is that the swap matrix

S represents the completely classical part of the swap operation since it acts as a mere permutation

whereas R

a

represents genuine quantum eﬀects related to the swap operation.

In the article of Kauﬀman [29] its is demonstrated explicitly how to construct CNOT gate as a

product MRN, where M and N are products of single particle gates. This article contains also a

beautiful discussion about how the traces of the unitary matrices deﬁned by the braids deﬁne knot

invariants. For instance, the matrix R satisﬁes R

8

= 1 so that the invariants constructed using R as

2-gate cannot distinguish between knots containing n and n + 8k sub-sequent swaps. Note however

that the multiplication of R with a phase factor allows to get rid of the 8-periodicity.

Knots, links, braids, and quantum 2-gates

In [29] basic facts about knots, links, and their relation to braids are discussed. Knot diagrams are

introduced, the so called Reidermeister moves and homeomorphisms of plane as isotopies of knots and

links are discussed. Also the notion of braid closure producing knots or links is introduced together

with the theorem of Markov stating that any knot and link corresponds to some (not unique) braid.

Markov moves as braid deformations leaving corresponding knots and links invariant are discussed and

it the immediate implication is that traces of the braid matrices deﬁne knot invariants. In particular,

the traces of the unitary matrices deﬁned by R-matrix deﬁne invariants having same value for the

knots and links resulting in the braid closure.

In [29] the state preparation and quantum measurement allowing to deduce the absolute value of

the trace of the unitary matrix associated with the braid deﬁning the quantum computer is discussed

as an example how quantum computations could occur in practice. The braid in question is product

of the braid deﬁning the invariant and trivial braid with same number n of strands. The incoming

state is maximally entangled state formed

¸

n

[n` ⊗[n`, where n runs over all possible bit sequences

deﬁned by the tensor product of n qubits. Quantum measurement performs a projection to this state

and from the measurements it is possible to deduce the absolute value of the trace deﬁning the knot

invariant.

2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 133

2.2.4 About quantum Hall eﬀect and theories of quantum Hall eﬀect

Using the dance metaphor for TQC, the system must be such that it is possible to distinguish between

the diﬀerent sexes of dancers. The proposal of [28] is that the system exhibiting so called non-Abelian

Quantum Hall eﬀect [19, 20] could make possible realization of the topological computation.

The most elegant models of quantum Hall eﬀect are in terms of anyons regarded as singularities

due to the symmetry breaking of gauge group G down to a ﬁnite sub-group H, which can be also

non-Abelian. Concerning the description of the dynamics of topological degrees of freedom topological

quantum ﬁeld theories based on Chern-Simons action are the most promising approach.

Quantum Hall eﬀect

Quantum Hall eﬀect [31, 19] occurs in 2-dimensional systems, typically a slab carrying a longitudi-

nal voltage V causing longitudinal current j. A magnetic ﬁeld orthogonal to the slab generates a

transversal current component j

T

by Lorentz force. j

T

is proportional to the voltage V along the slab

and the dimensionless coeﬃcient is known as transversal conductivity. Classically the coeﬃcients is

proportional ne/B, where n is 2-dimensional electron density and should have a continuous spectrum.

The ﬁnding that came as surprise was that the change of the coeﬃcient as a function of parameters like

magnetic ﬁeld strength and temperature occurred as discrete steps of same size. In integer quantum

Hall eﬀect the coeﬃcient is quantized to 2να, α = e

2

/4π, such that ν is integer.

Later came the ﬁnding that also smaller steps corresponding to the ﬁlling fraction ν = 1/3 of the

basic step were present and could be understood if the charge of electron would have been replaced

with ν = 1/3 of its ordinary value. Later also QH eﬀect with wide large range of ﬁlling fractions of

form ν = k/m was observed.

The model explaining the QH eﬀect is based on pseudo particles known as anyons [38, 19]. Accord-

ing to the general argument of [31] anyons have fractional charge νe. Also the TGD based model for

fractionization to be discussed later suggests that the anyon charge should be νe quite generally. The

braid statistics of anyon is believed to be fractional so that anyons are neither bosons nor fermions.

Non-fractional statistics is absolutely essential for the vacuum degeneracy used to represent logical

qubits.

In the case of Abelian anyons the gauge potential corresponds to the vector potential of the

divergence free velocity ﬁeld or equivalently of incompressible anyon current. For non-Abelian anyons

the ﬁeld theory deﬁned by Chern-Simons action is free ﬁeld theory and in well-deﬁned sense trivial

although it deﬁnes knot invariants. For non-Abelian anyons situation would be diﬀerent. They would

carry non-Abelian gauge charges possibly related to a symmetry breaking to a discrete subgroup

H of gauge group [38] each of them deﬁning an incompressible hydrodynamical ﬂow. Non-Abelian

QH eﬀect has not yet been convincingly demonstrated experimentally. According to [28] the anyons

associated with the ﬁlling fraction ν = 5/2 are a good candidate for non-Abelian anyons and in this

case the charge of electron is reduced to Q = 1/4 rather than being Q = νe.

Non-Abelian anyons [40, 19] are always created in pairs since they carry a conserved topological

charge. In the model of [28] this charge should have values in 4-element group Z

4

so that it is conserved

only modulo 4 so that charges +2 and -2 are equivalent as are also charges 3 and -1. The state of

n anyon pairs created from vacuum can be show to possess 2

n−1

-dimensional vacuum degeneracy

[20]: later a TGD based argument for why this is the case is constructed. When two anyons fuse the

2

n−1

-dimensional state space decomposes to 2

n−2

-dimensional tensor factors corresponding to anyon

Cooper pairs with topological charges 2 and 0. The topological ”spin” is ideal for representing logical

qubits. Since free topological charges are not possible the notion of physical qubit does not make sense

(note the analogy with quarks). The measurement of topological qubit reduces to a measurement of

whether anyon Cooper pair has vanishing topological charge or not.

Quantum Hall eﬀect as a spontaneous symmetry breaking down to a discrete subgroup

of the gauge group

The system exhibiting quantum Hall eﬀect is eﬀectively 2-dimensional. Fractional statistics suggests

that topological defects, anyons, allowing a description in terms of the representations of the homotopy

group of ((R

2

)

n

−D)/S

n

. The gauge theory description would be in terms of spontaneous symmetry

breaking of the gauge group G to a ﬁnite subgroup H by a Higgs mechanism [38, 19]. This would

make all gauge degrees of freedom massive and leave only topological degrees of freedom. What is

134 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

unexpected that also non-Abelian topological degrees of freedom are in principle possible. Quantum

Hall eﬀect is Abelian or non-Abelian depending on whether the group H has this property.

In the symmetry breaking G → H the non-Abelian gauge ﬂuxes deﬁned as non-integrable phase

factors Pexp(i

A

µ

dx

µ

) around large circles (surrounding singularities (so that ﬁeld approaches a

pure gauge conﬁguration) are elements of the ﬁrst homotopy group of G/H, which is H in the case

that H is discrete group and G is simple. An idealized manner to model the situation [19] is to assume

that the connection is pure gauge and deﬁned by an H-valued function which is many-valued such that

the values for diﬀerent branches are related by a gauge transformation in H. In the general case a

gauge transformation of a non-trivial gauge ﬁeld by a multi-valued element of the gauge group would

give rise to a similar situation.

One can characterize a given topological singularity magnetically by an element in conjugacy class

C of H representing the transformation of H induced by a 2π rotation around singularity. The elements

of C deﬁne states in given magnetic representation. Electrically the particles are characterized by an

irreducible representations of the subgroup of H

C

⊂ H which commutes with an arbitrarily chosen

element of the conjugacy class C.

The action of h(B) resulting on particle A when it makes a closed turn around B reduces in

magnetic degrees of freedom to translation in conjugacy class combined with the action of element of

H

C

in electric degrees of freedom. Closed paths correspond to elements of the braid group B

n

(X

2

)

identiﬁable as the mapping class group of the punctured 2-surface X

2

and this means that symmetry

breaking G →H deﬁnes a representation of the braid group. The construction of these representations

is discussed in [19] and leads naturally via the group algebra of H to the so called quantum double

D(H) of H, which is a quasi-triangular Hopf algebra allowing non-trivial representations of braid

group.

Anyons could be singularities of gauge ﬁelds, perhaps even non-Abelian gauge ﬁelds, and the latter

ones could be modelled by these representations. In particular, braid operations could be represented

using anyons.

Witten-Chern-Simons action and topological quantum ﬁeld theories

The Wess-Zumino-Witten action used to model 2-dimensional critical systems consists of a 2-dimensional

conformally invariant term for the chiral ﬁeld having values in group G combined with 2+1-dimensional

term deﬁned as the integral of Chern-Simons 3-form over a 3-space containing 2-D space as its bound-

ary. This term is purely topological and identiﬁable as winding number for the map from 3-dimensional

space to G. The coeﬃcient of this term is integer k in suitable normalization. k gives the value of

central extension of the Kac-Moody algebra deﬁned by the theory.

One can couple the chiral ﬁeld g(x) to gauge potential deﬁned for some subgroup of G

1

of G. If

the G

1

coincides with G, the chiral ﬁeld can be gauged away by a suitable gauge transformation and

the theory becomes purely topological Witten-Chern-Simons theory. Pure gauge ﬁeld conﬁguration

represented either as ﬂat gauge ﬁelds with non-trivial holonomy over homotopically non-trivial paths or

as multi-valued gauge group elements however remain and the remaining degrees of freedom correspond

to the topological degrees of freedom.

Witten-Chern-Simons theories are labelled by a positive integer k giving the value of central

extension of the Kac-Moody algebra deﬁned by the theory. The connection with Wess-Zumino-Witten

theory come from the fact that the highest weight states associated with the representations of the Kac-

Moody algebra of WZW theory are in one-one correspondence with the representations R

i

possible

for Wilson loops in the topological quantum ﬁeld theory.

In the Abelian case case 2+1-dimensional Chern-Simons action density is essentially the inner

product A ∧ dA of the vector potential and magnetic ﬁeld known as helicity density and the theory

in question is a free ﬁeld theory. In the non-Abelian case the action is deﬁned by the 3-form

k

4π

Tr

A∧ (dA+

2

3

A∧ A)

and contains also interaction term so that the ﬁeld theory deﬁned by the exponential of the interaction

term is non-trivial.

In topological quantum ﬁeld theory the usual n-point correlation functions deﬁned by the functional

integral are replaced by the functional averages for Diff

3

invariant quantities deﬁned in terms of

non-integrable phase factors deﬁned by ordered exponentials over closed loops. One can consider

2.2. Existing view about topological quantum computation 135

arbitrary number of loops which can be knotted, linked, and braided. These quantities deﬁne both

knot and 3-manifold invariants (the functional integral for zero link in particular). The perturbative

calculation of the quantum averages leads directly to the Gaussian linking numbers and inﬁnite number

of perturbative link and not invariants.

The experience gained from topological quantum ﬁeld theories deﬁned by Chern-Simons action

has led to a very elegant and surprisingly simple category theoretical approach to the topological

quantum ﬁeld theory [30, 31] allowing to assign invariants to knots, links, braids, and tangles and

also to 3-manifolds for which braids as morphisms are replaced with cobordisms. The so called

modular Hopf algebras, in particular quantum groups Sl(2)

q

with q a root of unity, are in key role

in this approach. Also the connection between links and 3-manifolds can be understood since closed,

oriented, 3-manifolds can be constructed from each other by surgery based on links.

Witten’s article [32] ”Quantum Field Theory and the Jones Polynomial” is full of ingenious con-

structions, and for a physicist it is the easiest and certainly highly enjoyable manner to learn about

knots and 3-manifolds. For these reasons a little bit more detailed sum up is perhaps in order.

1. Witten discusses ﬁrst the quantization of Chern-Simons action at the weak coupling limit k →∞.

First it is shown how the functional integration around ﬂat connections deﬁnes a topological

invariant for 3-manifolds in the case of a trivial Wilson loop. Next a canonical quantization is

performed in the case X

3

= Σ

2

R

1

: in the Coulomb gauge A

3

= 0 the action reduces to a sum of

n = dim(G) Abelian Chern-Simons actions with a non-linear constraint expressing the vanishing

of the gauge ﬁeld. The conﬁguration space consists thus of ﬂat non-Abelian connections, which

are characterized by their holonomy groups and allows K¨ahler manifold structure.

2. Perhaps the most elegant quantal element of the approach is the decomposition of the 3-manifold

to two pieces glued together along 2-manifold implying the decomposition of the functional inte-

gral to a product of functional integrals over the pieces. This together with the basic properties

of Hilbert of complex numbers (to which the partition functions deﬁned by the functional in-

tegrals over the two pieces belong) allows almost a miracle like deduction of the basic results

about the behavior of 3-manifold and link invariants under a connected sum, and leads to the

crucial skein relations allowing to calculate the invariants by decomposing the link step by step

to a union of unknotted, unlinked Wilson loops, which can be calculated exactly for SU(N).

The decomposition by skein relations gives rise to a partition function like representation of

invariants and allows to understand the connection between knot theory and statistical physics

[16]. A direct relationship with conformal ﬁeld theories and Wess-Zumino-Witten model emerges

via Wilson loops associated with the highest weight representations for Kac Moody algebras.

3. A similar decomposition procedure applies also to the calculation of 3-manifold invariants using

link surgery to transform 3-manifolds to each other, with 3-manifold invariants being deﬁned as

Wilson loops associated with the homology generators of these (solid) tori using representations

R

i

appearing as highest weight representations of the loop algebra of torus. Surgery operations

are represented as mapping class group operations acting in the Hilbert space deﬁned by the

invariants for representations R

i

for the original 3-manifold. The outcome is explicit formulas

for the invariants of trivial knots and 3-manifold invariant of S

3

for G = SU(N), in terms of

which more complex invariants are expressible.

4. For SU(N) the invariants are expressible as functions of the phase q = exp(i2π/(k + N))

associated with quantum groups. Note that for SU(2) and k = 3, the invariants are expressible

in terms of Golden Ratio. The central charge k = 3 is in a special position since it gives rise to

k + 1 = 4-vertex representing naturally 2-gate physically. Witten-Chern-Simons theories deﬁne

universal unitary modular functors characterizing quantum computations [30].

Chern-Simons action for anyons

In the case of quantum Hall eﬀect the Chern-Simons action has been deduced from a model of electrons

as a 2-dimensional incompressible ﬂuid [32]. Incompressibility requires that the electron current has

a vanishing divergence, which makes it analogous to a magnetic ﬁeld. The expressibility of the

current as a curl of a vector potential b, and a detailed study of the interaction Lagrangian leads

to the identiﬁcation of an Abelian Chern-Simons for b as a low energy eﬀective action. This action

136 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

is Abelian, whereas the anyonic realization of quantum computation would suggest a non-Abelian

Chern-Simons action.

Non-Abelian Chern-Simons action could result in the symmetry breaking of a non-Abelian gauge

group G, most naturally electro-weak gauge group, to a non-Abelian discrete subgroup H [38] so that

states would be labelled by representations of H and anyons would be characterized magnetically

H-valued non-Abelian magnetic ﬂuxes each of them deﬁning its own incompressible hydro-dynamical

ﬂow. As will be found, TGD predicts a non-Abelian Chern-Simons term associated with electroweak

long range classical ﬁelds.

2.2.5 Topological quantum computation using braids and anyons

By the general mathematical results braids are able to code all quantum logic operations [41]. In

particular, braids allow to realize any quantum circuit consisting of single particle gates acting on

qubits and two particle gates acting on pairs of qubits. The coding of braid requires a classical

computation which can be done in polynomial time. The coding requires that each dancer is able to

remember its dancing history by coding it into its own state.

The general ideas are following.

1. The ground states of anyonic system characterize the logical qubits, One assumes non-Abelian

anyons with Z

4

-valued topological charge so that a system of n anyon pairs created from vacuum

allows 2

n−1

-fold anyon degeneracy [20]. The system is decomposed into blocks containing one

anyonic Cooper pair with Q

T

∈ ¦2, 0¦ and two anyons with such topological charges that the

net topological charge vanishes. One can say that the states (0, 1−1) and (0, −1, +1)) represent

logical qubit 0 whereas the states (2, −1, −1) and (2, +1, +1) represent logical qubit 1. This

would suggest 2

2

-fold degeneracy but actually the degeneracy is 2-fold.

Free physical qubits are not possible and at least four particles are indeed necessarily in order

to represent logical qubit. The reason is that the conservation of Z

4

charge would not allow

mixing of qubits 1 and 0, in particular the Hadamard 1-gate generating square root of qubit

would break the conservation of topological charge. The square root of qubit can be generated

only if 2 units of topological charge is transferred between anyon and anyon Cooper pair. Thus

qubits can be represented as entangled states of anyon Cooper pair and anyon and the fourth

anyon is needed to achieve vanishing total topological charge in the batch.

2. In the initial state of the system the anyonic Cooper pairs have Q

T

= 0 and the two anyons have

opposite topological charges inside each block. The initial state codes no information unlike in

ordinary computation but the information is represented by the braid. Of course, also more

general conﬁgurations are possible. Anyons are assumed to evolve like free particles except

during swap operations and their time evolution is described by single particle Hamiltonians.

Free particle approximation fails when the anyons are too near to each other as during braid

operations. The space of logical qubits is realized as k-code deﬁned by the 2

n−1

ground states,

which are stable against local single particle perturbations for k = 3 Witten-Chern-Simons

action. In the more general case the stability against n-particle perturbations with n < [k/2] is

achieved but the gates would become [k/2]-particle gates (for k = 5 this would give 6-particle

vertices).

3. Anyonic system provides a unitary modular functor as the S-matrix associated with the anyon

system whose time evolution is ﬁxed by the pre-existing braid structure. What this means that

the S-matrices associated with the braids can be multiplied and thus a unitary representation

for the group formed by braids results. The vacuum degeneracy of anyon system makes this

representation non-trivial. By the NP complexity of braids it is possible to code any quantum

logic operation by a particular braid [39]. There exists a powerful approximation theorem

allowing to achieve this coding classically in polynomial time [41]. From the properties of the

R-matrices inducing gate operations it is indeed clear that two gates can be realized. The

Hadamard 1-gate could be realized as 2-gate in the system formed by anyon Cooper pair and

anyon.

4. In [28] the time evolution is regarded as a discrete sequence of modiﬁcations of single anyon

Hamiltonians induced by swaps [38]. If the modiﬁcations deﬁne a closed loop in the space

2.3. General implications of TGD for quantum computation 137

of Hamiltonians the resulting unitary operators deﬁne a representation of braid group in a

dense discrete sub-group of U(2

n

). The swap operation is 2-local operation acting like a 2-gate

and induces quantum logical operation modifying also single particle Hamiltonians. What is

important that this modiﬁcation maps the space of the ground states to a new one and only if

the modiﬁcations correspond to a closed loop the ﬁnal state is in the same code space as the

initial state. What time evolution does is to aﬀect the topological charges of anyon Cooper pairs

representing qubits inside the 4-anyon batches deﬁned by the braids.

In quantum ﬁeld theory the analog but not equivalent of this description would be following.

Quite generally, a given particle in the ﬁnal state has suﬀered a unitary transformation, which

is an ordered product consisting of two kinds of unitary operators. Unitary single particle

operators U

n

= Pexp(i

t

n+1

t

n

H

0

dt) are analogs of operators describing single qubit gate and

play the role of anyon propagators during no-swap periods. Two-particle unitary operators

U

swap

= Pexp(i

H

swap

dt) are analogous to four-particle interactions and describe the eﬀect of

braid operations inducing entanglement of states having opposite values of topological charge

but conserving the net topological charge of the anyon pair. This entanglement is completely

analogous to spin entanglement. In particular, the braid operation mixes diﬀerent states of

the anyon. The unitary time development operator generating entangled state of anyons and

deﬁned by the braid structure represents the operation performed by the quantum circuit and

the quantum measurement in the ﬁnal state selects a particular ﬁnal state.

5. Formally the computation halts with a measurement of the topological charge of the left-most

anyon Cooper pair when the outcome is just single bit. If decay occurs with suﬃciently high

probability it is concluded that the value of the computed bit is 0, otherwise 1.

2.3 General implications of TGD for quantum computation

TGD based view about time and space-time could have rather dramatic implications for quantum

computation in general and these implications deserve to be discussed brieﬂy.

2.3.1 Time need not be a problem for quantum computations in TGD

Universe

Communication with and control of the geometric past is the basic mechanism of intentional action,

sensory perception, and long term memory in TGD inspired theory of consciousness. The possibility

to send negative energy signals to the geometric past allows also instantaneous computations with

respect to subjective time deﬁned by a sequence of quantum jumps. The physicist of year 2100 can

induce the quantum jump to turn on the quantum computer at 2050 to perform a simulation of ﬁeld

equations deﬁned by the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action and lasting 50 geometric years, and if

this is not enough iterate the process by sending the outcome of computation back to the past where

it deﬁnes initial values of the next round of iteration. Time would cease to be a limiting factor to

computation.

2.3.2 New view about information

The notion of information is very problematic even in the classical physics and in quantum realm

this concept becomes even more enigmatic. TGD inspired theory consciousness has inspired number

theoretic ideas about quantum information which are still developing. The standard deﬁnition of

entanglement entropy relies on the Shannon’s formula: S = −

¸

k

p

k

log(p

k

). This entropy is always

non-negative and tells that the best one can achieve is entanglement with zero entropy.

The generalization of the notion of entanglement entropy to the p-adic context however led to

realization that entanglement for which entanglement probabilities are rational or in an extension of

rational numbers deﬁning a ﬁnite extension of p-adics allows a hierarchy of entanglement entropies S

p

labelled by primes. These entropies are deﬁned as S

p

= −

¸

k

p

k

log([p

k

[

p

), where [p

k

[

p

denotes the

p-adic norm of probability. S

p

can be negative and in this case deﬁnes a genuine information measure.

For given entanglement probabilities S

p

has a minimum for some value p

0

of prime p, and S

p

0

could be

taken as a measure for the information carried by the entanglement in question whereas entanglement

138 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

in real and p-adic continua would be entropic. The entanglement with negative entanglement entropy

is identiﬁed as bound state entanglement.

Since quantum computers by deﬁnition apply states for which entanglement coeﬃcients belong

to a ﬁnite algebraic extension of rational numbers, the resulting states, if ideal, should be bound

states. Also ﬁnite-dimensional extensions of p-adic numbers by transcendentals are possible. For

instance, the extension by the p − 1 ﬁrst powers of e (e

p

is ordinary p-adic number in R

p

). As

an extension of rationals this extension would be discrete but inﬁnite-dimensional. Macro-temporal

quantum coherence can be identiﬁed as being due to bound state formation in appropriate degrees of

freedom and implying that state preparation and state function reduction eﬀectively ceases to occur

in these degrees of freedom.

Macro-temporal quantum coherence eﬀectively binds a sequence of quantum jumps to single quan-

tum jump so that the eﬀective duration of unitary evolution is stretched from about 10

4

Planck times

to arbitrary long time span. Also quantum computations can be regarded as this kind of extended

moments of consciousness.

2.3.3 Number theoretic vision about quantum jump as a building block of

conscious experience

The generalization of number concept resulting when reals and various p-adic number ﬁelds are fused

to a book like structure obtaining by gluing them along rational numbers common to all these num-

ber ﬁelds leads to an extremely general view about what happens in quantum jump identiﬁed as

basic building block of conscious experience. First of all, the unitary process U generates a formal

superposition of states belonging to diﬀerent number ﬁelds including their extensions. Negentropy

Maximization Principle [H2] constrains the dynamics of state preparation and state function reduc-

tion following U so that the ﬁnal state contains only rational or extended rational entanglement with

positive information content. At the level of conscious experience this process can be interpreted as

a cognitive process or analysis leading to a state containing only bound state entanglement serving

as a correlate for the experience of understanding. Thus quantum information science and quantum

theory of consciousness seem to meet each other.

In the standard approach to quantum computing entanglement is not bound state entanglement.

If bound state entanglement is really the entanglement which is possible for quantum computer, the

entanglement of qubits might not serve as a universal entanglement currency. That is, the reduction

of the general two-particle entanglement to entanglement between N qubits might not be possible in

TGD framework.

The conclusion that only bound state entanglement is possible in quantum computation in human

time scales is however based on the somewhat questionable heuristic assumption that subjective time

has the same universal rate, that is the average increment ∆t of the geometric time in single quantum

jump does not depend on the space-time sheet, and is of order CP

2

time about 10

4

Planck times. The

conclusion could be circumvented if one assumes that ∆t depends on the space-time sheet involved:

for instance, instead of CP

2

time ∆t could be of order p-adic time scale T

p

for a space-time sheet

labelled by p-adic prime p and increase like

√

p. In this case the unitary operator deﬁning quantum

computation would be simply that deﬁning the unitary process U.

2.3.4 Dissipative quantum parallelism?

The new view about quantum jump implies that state function reduction and preparation process

decomposes into a hierarchy of these processes occurring in various scales: dissipation would occur in

quantum parallel manner with each p-adic scale deﬁning one level in the hierarchy. At space-time level

this would correspond to almost independent quantum dynamics at parallel space-time sheets labelled

by p-adic primes. In particular, dissipative processes can occur in short scales while the dynamics

in longer scales is non-dissipative. This would explain why the description of hadrons as dissipative

systems consisting of quarks and gluons in short scales is consistent with the description of hadrons

as genuine quantum systems in long scales. Dissipative quantum parallelism would also mean that

thermodynamics at shorter length scales would stabilize the dynamics at longer length scales and in

this manner favor scaled up quantum coherence.

NMR systems [26] might represent an example about dissipative quantum parallelism. Room tem-

perature NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) systems use highly redundant replicas of qubits which

2.3. General implications of TGD for quantum computation 139

have very long coherence times. Quantum gates using radio frequency pulses to modify the spin

evolution have been implemented, and even eﬀective Hamiltonians have been synthesized. Quantum

computations and dynamics of other quantum systems have been simulated and quantum error pro-

tocols have been realized. These successes are unexpected since the energy scale of cyclotron states is

much below the thermal energy. This has raised fundamental questions about the power of quantum

information processing in highly mixed states, and it might be that dissipative quantum parallelism

is needed to explain the successes.

Magnetized systems could realize quite concretely the renormalization group philosophy in the

sense that the magnetic ﬁelds due to the magnetization at the atomic space-time sheets could deﬁne a

return ﬂux along larger space-time sheets as magnetic ﬂux quanta (by topological ﬂux quantization)

deﬁning eﬀective block spins serving as thermally stabilized qubits for a long length scale quantum

parallel dynamics. For an external magnetic ﬁeld B ∼ 10 Tesla the magnetic length is L ∼ 10 nm

and corresponds to the p-adic length scale L(k = 151). The induced magnetization is M ∼ nµ

2

B/T,

where n is the density of nuclei and µ = ge/2m

p

is the magnetic moment of nucleus. For solid matter

density the magnetization is by a factor ∼ 10 weaker than the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld and corresponds

to a magnetic length L ∼ 15 µm: the p-adic length scale is around L(171). For 10

22

spins per block

spin used for NMR simulations the size of block spin should be ∼ 1mm solid matter density so that

single block spin would contain roughly 10

6

magnetization ﬂux quanta containing 10

16

spins each. The

magnetization ﬂux quanta serving as logical qubits could allow to circumvent the standard physics

upper bound for scaling up of about 10 logical qubits [26].

2.3.5 Negative energies and quantum computation

In TGD universe space-times are 4-surfaces so that negative energies are possible due to the fact that

the sign of energy depends on time orientation (energy momentum tensor is replaced by a collection

of conserved momentum currents). This has several implications. Negative energy photons having

phase conjugate photons as physical correlates of photons play a key role in TGD inspired theory

of consciousness and living matter and there are also indications that magnetic ﬂux tubes structures

with negative energies are important.

Negative energies makes possible communications to the geometric past, and time mirror mecha-

nism involving generation of negative energy photons is the key mechanism of intentional action and

plays central role in the model for the functioning of bio-systems. In principle this could allow to

circumvent the problems due to the time required by computation by initiating computation in the

geometric past and iterating this process. The most elegant and predictive cosmology is that for which

the net conserved quantities of the universe vanish due the natural boundary condition that nothing

ﬂows into the future light cone through its boundaries representing the moment of big bang.

Also topological quantum ﬁeld theories describe systems for which conserved quantities associated

with the isometries of space-time, such as energy and momentum, vanish. Hence the natural question

is whether negative energies making possible zero energy states might also make possible also zero

energy quantum computations.

Crossing symmetry and Eastern and Western views about what happens in scattering

The hypothesis that all physical states have vanishing net quantum numbers (Eastern view) forces to

interpret the scattering events of particle physics as quantum jumps between diﬀerent vacua. This

interpretation is in a satisfactory consistency with the assumption about existence of objective reality

characterized by a positive energy (Western view) if crossing symmetry holds so that conﬁguration

space spinor ﬁelds can be regarded as S-matrix elements between initial state deﬁned by positive

energy particles and negative energy state deﬁned by negative energy particles. As a matter fact,

the proposal for the S-matrix of TGD at elementary particle level relies on this idea: the amplitudes

for the transition from vacuum to states having vanishing net quantum numbers with positive and

negative energy states interpreted as incoming and outgoing states are assumed to be interpretable

as S-matrix elements.

More generally, one could require that scattering between any pair of states with zero net energies

and representing S-matrix allows interpretation as a scattering between positive energy states. This

requirement is satisﬁed if their exists an entire self-reﬂective hierarchy of S-matrices in the sense that

the S-matrix between states representing S-matrices S

1

and S

2

would be the tensor product S

1

⊗S

2

. At

140 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

the observational level the experience the usual sequence of observations [m

1

` → [m

2

`..... → [m

n

`...

based on belief about objective reality with non-vanishing conserved net quantum numbers would

correspond to a sequence ([m

1

→ m

2

` → [m

2

→ m

3

`... between ”self-reﬂective” zero energy states.

These sequences are expected to be of special importance since the contribution of the unit matrix to

S-matrix S = 1+iT gives dominating contribution unless interactions are strong. This sequence would

result in the approximation that S

2

= 1 +iT

2

in S = S

1

⊗S

2

is diagonal. The fact that the scattering

for macroscopic systems tends to be in forward direction would help to create the materialistic illusion

about unique objective reality.

It should be possible to test whether the Eastern or Western view is correct by looking what

happens strong interacting systems where the western view should fail. The Eastern view is consistent

with the basic vision about quantum jumps between quantum histories having as a counterpart the

change of the geometric past at space-time level.

Negative energy anti-fermions and matter-antimatter asymmetry

The assumption that space-time is 4-surface means that the sign of energy depends on time orientation

so that negative energies are possible. Phase conjugate photons [52] are excellent candidates for

negative energy photons propagating into geometric past.

Also the phase conjugate fermions make in principle sense and one can indeed perform Dirac

quantization in four manners such that a) both fermions and anti-fermions have positive/negative

energies, b) fermions (anti-fermions) have positive energies and anti-fermions (fermions) have negative

energies. The corresponding ground state correspond to Dirac seas obtained by applying the product

of a) all fermionic and anti-fermionic annihilation (creation) operators to vacuum, b) all fermionic

creation (annihilation) operators and anti-fermionic annihilation (creation) operators to vacuum. The

ground states of a) have inﬁnite vacuum energy which is either negative or positive whereas the ground

states of b) have vanishing vacuum energy. The case b) with positive fermionic and negative anti-

fermionic energies could correspond to long length scales in which are matter-antisymmetric due to

the eﬀective absence of anti-fermions (”eﬀective” meaning that no-one has tried to detect the negative

energy anti-fermions). The case a) with positive energies could naturally correspond to the phase

studied in elementary particle physics.

If gravitational and inertial masses have same magnitude and same sign, consistency with empiri-

cal facts requires that positive and negative energy matter must have been separated in cosmological

length scales. Gravitational repulsion might be the mechanism causing this. Applying naively New-

ton’s equations to a system of two bodies with energies E

1

> 0 and −E

2

< 0 and assuming only

gravitational force, one ﬁnds that the sign of force for the motion in relative coordinates is determined

by the sign of the reduced mass −E

1

E

2

/(E

1

−E

2

), which is negative for E

1

> [E

2

[: positive masses

would act repulsively on smaller negative masses. For E

1

= −E

2

the motion in the relative coordi-

nate becomes free motion and both systems experience same acceleration which for E

1

corresponds

to a repulsive force. The reader has probably already asked whether the observed acceleration of the

cosmological expansion interpreted in terms of cosmological constant due to vacuum energy could

actually correspond to a repulsive force between positive and negative energy matter.

It is possible to create pairs of positive energy fermions and negative energy fermions from vacuum.

For instance, annihilation of photons and phase conjugate photons could create electron and negative

energy positron pairs with a vanishing net energy. Magnetic ﬂux tubes having positive and negative

energies carrying fermions and negative energy positrons pairs of photons and their phase conjugates

via fermion anti-fermion annihilation. The obvious idea is to perform zero energy topological quantum

computations by using anyons of positive energy and anti-anyons of negative energy plus their Cooper

pairs. This idea will be discussed later in more detail.

2.4 TGD based new physics related to topological quantum

computation

The absolute minimization of K¨ahler action is the basic dynamical principle of space-time dynamics.

For a long time it remained an open question whether the known solutions of ﬁeld equations are

building blocks of the absolute minima of K¨ahler action or represent only the simplest extremals one

can imagine and perhaps devoid of any real signiﬁcance. Quantum-classical correspondence meant a

2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 141

great progress in the understanding the solution spectrum of ﬁeld equations. Among other things,

this principle requires that the dissipative quantum dynamics leading to non-dissipating asymptotic

self-organization patterns should have the vanishing of the Lorentz 4-force as space-time correlate.

The absence of dissipation in the sense of vanishing of Lorentz 4-force is a natural correlate for the

absence of dissipation in quantum computations. Furthermore, absolute minimization, if it is really

a fundamental principle, should represent the second law of thermodynamics at space-time level. Of

course, one cannot exclude the possibility that second law of thermodynamics at space-time level

could replace absolute minimization as the basic principle.

The vanishing of Lorentz 4-force generalizes the so called Beltrami conditions [17, 19] stating the

vanishing of Lorentz force for purely magnetic ﬁeld conﬁgurations and these conditions reduce in

many cases to topological conditions. The study of classical ﬁeld equations predicts three phases

corresponding to non-vacuum solutions of ﬁeld equations possessing vanishing Lorentz force. The

dimension D of CP

2

projection of the space-time sheet serves as classiﬁer of the phases.

1. D = 2 phase is analogous to ferro-magnetic phase possible in low temperatures and relatively

simple, D = 4 phase is in turn analogous to a chaotic de-magnetized high temperature phase.

2. D = 3 phase represents spin glass phase, kind of boundary region between order and chaos

possible in a ﬁnite temperature range and is an ideal candidate for the ﬁeld body serving as a

template for living systems. D = 3 phase allows inﬁnite number of conserved topological charges

having interpretation as invariants describing the linking of the magnetic ﬁeld lines. This phase

is also the phase in which topological quantum computations are possible.

2.4.1 Topologically quantized generalized Beltrami ﬁelds and braiding

From the construction of the solutions of ﬁeld equations in terms topologically quantized ﬁelds it is

obvious that TGD Universe is tailor made for TQC.

D = 3 phase allows inﬁnite number of topological charges characterizing the linking of

magnetic ﬁeld lines

When space-time sheet possesses a D = 3-dimensional CP

2

projection, one can assign to it a non-

vanishing and conserved topological charge characterizing the linking of the magnetic ﬁeld lines deﬁned

by Chern-Simons action density A ∧ dA/4π for induced K¨ahler form. This charge can be seen as

classical topological invariant of the linked structure formed by magnetic ﬁeld lines. For D = 2

the topological charge densities vanish identically, for D = 3 they are in general non-vanishing and

conserved, whereas for D = 4 they are not conserved. The transition to D = 4 phase can thus be used

to erase quantum computer programs realized as braids. The 3-dimensional CP

2

projection provides

an economical manner to represent the braided world line pattern of dancers and would be the space

where the 3-dimensional quantum ﬁeld theory would be deﬁned.

The topological charge can also vanish for D = 3 space-time sheets. In Darboux coordinates

for which K¨ahler gauge potential reads as A = P

k

dQ

k

, the surfaces of this kind result if one has

Q

2

= f(Q

1

) implying A = fdQ

1

, f = P

1

+ P

2

∂

Q

1

Q

2

, which implies the condition A ∧ dA = 0.

For these space-time sheets one can introduce Q

1

as a global coordinate along ﬁeld lines of A and

deﬁne the phase factor exp(i

A

µ

dx

µ

) as a wave function deﬁned for the entire space-time sheet. This

function could be interpreted as a phase of an order order parameter of super-conductor like state and

there is a high temptation to assume that quantum coherence in this sense is lost for more general

D = 3 solutions. Note however that in boundaries can still remain super-conducting and it seems

that this occurs in the case of anyons.

Chern-Simons action is known as helicity in electrodynamics [20]. Helicity indeed describes the

linking of magnetic ﬂux lines as is easy to see by interpreting magnetic ﬁeld as incompressible ﬂuid ﬂow

having A as vector potential: B = ∇A. One can write A using the inverse of ∇ as A = (1/∇)B.

The inverse is non-local operator expressible as

1

∇

B(r) =

dV

(r −r

)

[r −r

[

3

B(r

) ,

as a little calculation shows. This allows to write

A B as

142 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

dV A B =

dV dV

B(r)

(r −r

)

[r −r

[

3

B(r

)

,

which is completely analogous to the Gauss formula for linking number when linked curves are replaced

by a distribution of linked curves and an average is taken.

For D = 3 ﬁeld equations imply that K¨ahler current is proportional to the helicity current by a

factor which depends on CP

2

coordinates, which implies that the current is automatically divergence

free and deﬁnes a conserved charge for D = 3-dimensional CP

2

projection for which the instanton

density vanishes identically. K¨ahler charge is not equal to the helicity deﬁned by the inner product of

magnetic ﬁeld and vector potential but to a more general topological charge.

The number of conserved topological charges is inﬁnite since the product of any function of CP

2

coordinates with the helicity current has vanishing divergence and deﬁnes a topological charge. A very

natural function basis is provided by the scalar spherical harmonics of SU(3) deﬁning Hamiltonians of

CP

2

canonical transformations and possessing well deﬁned color quantum numbers. These functions

deﬁne and inﬁnite number of conserved charges which are also classical knot invariants in the sense

that they are not aﬀected at all when the 3-surface interpreted as a map from CP

2

projection to M

4

+

is deformed in M

4

+

degrees of freedom. Also canonical transformations induced by Hamiltonians in

irreducible representations of color group aﬀect these invariants via Poisson bracket action when the

U(1) gauge transformation induced by the canonical transformation corresponds to a single valued

scalar function. These link invariants are additive in union whereas the quantum invariants deﬁned

by topological quantum ﬁeld theories are multiplicative.

Also non-Abelian topological charges are well-deﬁned. One can generalize the topological current

associated with the K¨ahler form to a corresponding current associated with the induced electro-weak

gauge ﬁelds whereas for classical color gauge ﬁelds the Chern-Simons form vanishes identically. Also

in this case one can multiply the current by CP

2

color harmonics to obtain an inﬁnite number of

invariants in D = 3 case. The only diﬀerence is that A∧dA is replaced by Tr(A∧(dA+2A∧A/3)).

There is a strong temptation to assume that these conserved charges characterize colored quantum

states of the conformally invariant quantum theory as a functional of the light-like 3-surface deﬁning

boundary of space-time sheet or elementary particle horizon surrounding wormhole contacts. They

would be TGD analogs of the states of the topological quantum ﬁeld theory deﬁned by Chern-Simons

action as highest weight states associated with corresponding Wess-Zumino-Witten theory. These

charges could be interpreted as topological counterparts of the isometry charges of conﬁguration

space of 3-surfaces deﬁned by the algebra of canonical transformations of CP

2

.

The interpretation of these charges as contributions of light-like boundaries to conﬁguration space

Hamiltonians would be natural. The dynamics of the induced second quantized spinor ﬁelds relates to

that of K¨ahler action by a super-symmetry, so that it should deﬁne super-symmetric counterparts of

these knot invariants. The anti-commutators of these super charges would contribute to conﬁguration

space metric a part which would deﬁne a K¨ahler magnetic knot invariant. These Hamiltonians and

their super-charge counterparts would be responsible for the topological sector of quantum TGD.

The color partial wave degeneracy of topological charges inspires the idea that also anyons could

move in color partial waves identiﬁable in terms of ”rigid body rotation” of the magnetic ﬂux tube

of anyon in CP

2

degrees of freedom. Their presence could explain non-Abelianity of Chern-Simons

action and bring in new kind bits increasing the computational capacity of the topological quantum

computer. The idea about the importance of macroscopic color is not new in TGD context. The

fact that non-vanishing K¨ahler ﬁeld is always accompanied by a classical color ﬁeld (proportional to

it) has motivated the proposal that colored excitations in macroscopic length scales are important in

living matter and that colors as visual qualia correspond to increments of color quantum numbers in

quantum phase transitions giving rise to visual sensations.

Knot theory, 3-manifold topology, and D = 3 solutions of ﬁeld equations

Topological quantum ﬁeld theory (TQFT) [30] demonstrates a deep connection between links and

3-topology, and one might hope that this connection could be re-interpreted in terms of imbeddings

of 3-manifolds to H = M

4

+

CP

2

as surfaces having 3-dimensional CP

2

projection, call it X

3

in

the sequel. D = 3 suggests itself because in this case Chern-Simons action density for the induced

K¨ahler ﬁeld is generically non-vanishing and deﬁnes an inﬁnite number of classical charges identiﬁable

2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 143

as K¨ahler magnetic canonical covariants invariant under Diff(M

4

+

). The ﬁeld topology of K¨ahler

magnetic ﬁeld should be in a key role in the understanding of these invariants.

1. Could 3-D CP

2

projection of 3-surface provide a representation of 3-topology?

Witten-Chern-Simons theory for a given 3-manifold deﬁnes invariants which characterize both the

topology of 3-manifold and the link. Why this is the case can be understood from the construction

of 3-manifolds by drilling a tubular neighborhood of a link in S

3

and by gluing the tori back to get

a new 3-manifolds. The links with some moves deﬁning link equivalences are known to be in one-one

correspondence with closed 3-manifolds and the axiomatic formulation of TQFT [30] as a modular

functor clariﬁes this correspondence. The question is whether the CP

2

projection of the 3-surface

could under some assumptions be represented by a link so that one could understand the connection

between the links and topology of 3-manifolds.

In order to get some idea about what might happen consider the CP

2

projection X

3

of 3-surface.

Assume that X

3

is obtained from S

3

represented as a 3-surface in CP

2

by removing from S

3

a tubular

link consisting of linked and knotted solid tori D

2

S

1

. Since the 3-surface is closed, it must have folds

at the boundaries being thus representable as a two-valued map S

3

→ M

4

+

near the folds. Assume

that this is the case everywhere. The two halves of the 3-surface corresponding to the two branches

of the map would be glued together along the boundary of the tubular link by identiﬁcation maps

which are in the general case characterized by the mapping class group of 2-torus. The gluing maps

are deﬁned inside the overlapping coordinate batches containing the boundary S

1

S

1

and are maps

between the pairs (Ψ

i

, Φ

i

), i = 1, 2 of the angular coordinates parameterizing the tori.

Deﬁne longitude as a representative for the a + nb of the homology group of the 2-torus. The

integer n deﬁnes so called framing and means that the longitude twists n times around torus. As a

matter fact, TQFT requires bi-framing: at the level of Chern-Simons perturbation theory bi-framing

is necessary in order to deﬁne self linking numbers. Deﬁne meridian as the generator of the homology

group of the complement of solid torus in S

3

. It is enough to glue the carved torus back in such a

manner that meridian is mapped to longitude and longitude to minus meridian. This map corresponds

to the SL(2, C) element

0 1

−1 0

.

Also other identiﬁcation maps deﬁned by SL(2, Z) matrices are possible but one can do using only

this. Note that the two component SL(2, Z) spinors deﬁned as superpositions of the generators (a, b)

of the homology group of torus are candidates for the topological correlates of spinors. In the gluing

process the tori become knotted and linked when seen in the coordinates of the complement of the

solid tori.

This construction would represent the link surgery of 3-manifolds in terms of CP

2

projections

of 3-surfaces of H. Unfortunately this representation does not seem to be the only one. One can

construct closed three-manifolds also by the so called Heegaard splitting. Remove from S

3

D

g

, a

solid sphere with g handles having boundary S

g

, and glue the resulting surface with its oppositely

oriented copy along boundaries. The gluing maps are classiﬁed by the mapping class group of S

g

.

Any closed orientable 3-manifold can be obtained by this kind of procedure for some value of g. Also

this construction could be interpreted in terms of a fold at the boundary of the CP

2

projection for

a 2-valued graph S

3

→ M

4

+

. Whether link surgery representation and Heegaard splitting could be

transformed to each other by say pinching D

g

to separate tori is not clear to me.

When the graph CP

2

→ M

4

+

is at most 2-valued, the intricacies due to the imbedding of the 3-

manifold are at minimum, and the link associated with the projection should give information about

3-topology and perhaps even characterize it. Also the classical topological charges associated with

K¨ahler Chern-Simons action could give this kind of information.

2. Knotting and linking for 3-surfaces

The intricacies related to imbedding become important in small co-dimensions and it is of consid-

erable interest to ﬁnd what can happen in the case of 3-surfaces. For 1-dimensional links and knots

the projection to a plane, the shadow of the knot, characterizes the link/knot and allows to deduce

link and knot invariants purely combinatorially by gradually removing the intersection points and

writing a contribution to the link invariant determined by the orientations of intersecting strands and

144 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

by which of them is above the other. Thus also the generalization of knot and link diagrams is of

interest.

Linking of m- and n-dimensional sub-manifolds of D-dimensional manifold H

D

occurs when the

condition m + n = D − 1 holds true. The n-dimensional sub-manifold intersects m + 1-dimensional

surfaces having m-dimensional manifold as its boundary at discrete points, and it is usually not

possible to remove these points by deforming the surfaces without intersections in some intermediate

stage. The generalization of the link diagram results as a projection D−1-dimensional disk D

D−1

of

H

D

.

3-surfaces link in dimension D = 7 so that the linking of 3-surfaces occurs quite generally in

time=constant section of the imbedding space. A link diagram would result as a projection to E

2

CP

2

, E

2

a 2-dimensional plane: putting CP

2

coordinates constant gives ordinary link diagram in

E

2

. For magnetic ﬂux tubes the reduction to 2-dimensional linking by idealizing ﬂux tubes with

1-dimensional strings makes sense.

Knotting occurs in codimension 2 that is for an n-manifold imbedded in D = n + 2-dimensional

manifold. Knotting can be understood as follows. Knotted surface spans locally n + 1-dimensional

2-sided n+1-disk D

n+1

(disk for ordinary knot). The portion of surface going through D

n+1

can be

idealized with a 1-dimensional thread going through it and by n+2 = D knotting is locally linking of

this 1-dimensional thread with n-dimensional manifold. N-dimensional knots deﬁne n+1-dimensional

knots by so called spinning. Take an n-knot with the topology of sphere S

n

such that the knotted part

is above n + 1-plane of n + 2-dimensional space R

n+2

(z ≥ 0), cut oﬀ the part below plane (z < 0),

introduce an additional dimension (t) and make a 2π rotation for the resulting knot in z − t plane.

The resulting manifold is a knotted S

n+1

. The counterpart of the knot diagram would be a projection

to n + 1-dimensional sub-manifold, most naturally disk D

n+1

, of the imbedding space.

3-surfaces could become knotted under some conditions. Vacuum extremals correspond to 4-

surfaces X

4

⊂ M

4

+

Y

2

whereas the four-surfaces X

4

⊂ M

4

+

S

2

, S

2

homologically non-trivial

geodesic sphere, deﬁne their own ”sub-theory”. In both cases 3-surfaces in time=constant section

of imbedding space can get knotted in the sense that un-knotting requires giving up the deﬁning

condition temporarily. The counterpart of the knot diagram is the projection to E

2

X

2

, X

2

= Y

2

or S

2

, where E

2

is plane of M

4

+

. For constant values of CP

2

coordinates ordinary knot diagram

would result. Reduction to ordinary knot diagrams would naturally occur for D = 2 magnetic ﬂux

tubes. The knotting occurs also for 4-surfaces themselves in M

4

+

X

2

: knot diagram is now deﬁned

as projection to E

3

X

2

.

3. Could the magnetic ﬁeld topology of 3-manifold be able to mimic other 3-topologies?

In D = 3 case the topological charges associated with K¨ahler Chern-Simons term characterize the

linking of the ﬁeld lines of the K¨ahler gauge potential A. What dA∧A = 0 means that ﬁeld lines are

linked and it is not possible to deﬁne a coordinate varying along the ﬁeld lines of A. This is impossible

even locally since the dA ∧ A = 0 condition is equivalent with non existence of a scalar functions k

and Φ such that ∇Φ = kA guaranteing that Φ would be the sought for global coordinate.

One can idealize the situation a little bit and think of a ﬁeld conﬁguration for which magnetic ﬂux

is concentrated at one-dimensional closed lines. The vector potential would in this case be simply

A = ∇(kΨ + lΦ), where Ψ is an angle coordinate around the singular line and Φ a coordinate along

the singular circle. In this idealized situation the failure to have a global coordinate would be due

to the singularities of otherwise global coordinates along one-dimensional linked and knotted circles.

The reason is that the ﬁeld lines of A and B rotate helically around the singular circle and the

points (x, y, z) with constant values of x, y are on a helix which becomes singular at z-axis. Since

the replacement of a ﬁeld conﬁguration with a non-singular ﬁeld conﬁguration but having same ﬁeld

line topology does not aﬀect the global ﬁeld line topology, one might hope of characterizing the ﬁeld

topology by its singularities along linked and knotted circles also in the general case.

Just similar linked and knotted circles are used to construct 3-manifolds in the link surgery which

would suggest that the singularities of the ﬁeld line topology of X

3

code the non-trivial 3-topology

resulting when the singularities are removed by link surgery. Physically the longitude deﬁning the

framing a +nb would correspond to the ﬁeld line of A making an n2π twist along the singular circle.

Meridian would correspond to a circle in the plane of B. The bi-framing necessitated by TQFT would

have a physical interpretation in terms of the helical ﬁeld lines of A and B rotating around the singular

circle. At the level of ﬁelds the gluing operation would mean a gauge transformation such that the

meridians would become the ﬁeld lines of the gauge transformed A and being non-helical could be

2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 145

continued to the the interior of the glued torus without singularities. Simple non-helical magnetic

torus would be in question.

This means that the magnetic ﬁeld patterns of a given 3-manifold could mimic the topologies of

other 3-manifolds. The topological mimicry of this kind would be a very robust manner to represent

information and might be directly relevant to TQC. For instance, the computation of topological

invariants of 3-manifold Y

3

could be coded by the ﬁeld pattern of X

3

representing the link surgery

producing the 3-manifold from S

3

, and the physical realization of TQC program could directly utilize

the singularities of this ﬁeld pattern. Topological magnetized ﬂux tubes glued to the back-ground

3-surface along the singular ﬁeld lines of A could provide the braiding.

This mimicry could also induce transitions to the new topology and relate directly to 3-manifold

surgery performed by a physical system. This transition would quite concretely mean gluing of simple

D = 2 magnetic ﬂux tubes along their boundaries to the larger D = 3 space-time sheet from which

similar ﬂux tube has been cut away.

4. A connection with anyons?

There is also a possible connection with anyons. Anyons are thought to correspond to singularities

of gauge ﬁelds resulting in a symmetry breaking of gauge group to a ﬁnite subgroup H and are

associated with homotopically non-trivial loops of C

n

= ((R

2

)

n

− D)/S

n

represented as elements of

H. Could the singularities of gauge ﬁelds relate to the singularities of the link surgery so that the

singularities would be more or less identiﬁable as anyons? Could N-branched anyons be identiﬁed in

terms of framings a+Nb associated with the gluing map? D = 3 solutions allow the so called contact

structure [D1], which means a decomposition of the coordinates of CP

2

projection to a longitudinal

coordinate s and a complex coordinate w. Could this decomposition generalize the notion of eﬀective

2-dimensionality crucial for the notion of anyon?

5. What about Witten’s quantal link invariants?

Witten’s quantal link invariants deﬁne natural multiplicative factors of conﬁguration space spinor

ﬁelds identiﬁable as representations of two 2-dimensional topological evolution. In Witten’s approach

these invariants are deﬁned as functional averages of non-integrable phase factors associated with a

given link in a given 3-manifold. TGD does not allow any natural functional integral over gauge

ﬁeld conﬁgurations for a ﬁxed 3-surface unless one is willing to introduce ﬁctive non-Abelian gauge

ﬁelds. Although this is not a problem as such, the representation of the invariants in terms of inherent

properties of the 3-surface or corresponding 4-surfaces would be highly desirable.

Functional integral representation is not the only possibility. Quantum classical correspondence

combined with topological ﬁeld quantization implied by the absolute minimization of K¨ahler action

generalizing Bohr rules to the ﬁeld context gives hopes that the 3-surfaces themselves might be able to

represent 3-manifold invariants classically. In D = 3 case the quantized exponents of K¨ahler-Chern-

Simons action and SU(2)

L

Chern-Simons action could deﬁne 3-manifold invariants. These invariants

would satisfy the obvious multiplicativity conditions and could correspond to the phase factors due to

the framing dependence of Witten’s invariants identifying the loops of surgery link as Wilson loops.

These phase factors are powers of U = exp(i2πc/24), where c is the central charge of the Virasoro

representation deﬁned by Kac Moody representation. One has c = k dim(g)/(k +c

g

/2), which gives

U = exp(i2πk/8(k +2)) for SU(2). The dependence on k diﬀers from what one might naively expect.

For this reason, and also because the classical Wilson loops do not depend explicitly on k, the value of

k appearing in Chern-Simons action should be ﬁxed by the internal consistency and be a constant of

Nature according to TGD. The guess is that k possesses the minimal value k = 3 allowing a universal

modular functor for SU(2) with q = exp(i2π/5).

The loops associated with the topological singularities of the K¨ahler gauge potential (typically

the center lines of helical ﬁeld conﬁgurations) would in turn deﬁne natural Wilson loops, and since

the holonomies around these loops are also topologically quantized, they could deﬁne invariants of

3-manifolds obtained by performing surgery around these lines. The behavior of the induced gauge

ﬁelds should be universal near the singularities in the sense that the holonomies associated with the

CP

2

projections of the singularities to CP

2

would be universal. This expectation is encouraged by

the notion of quantum criticality in general and in particular, by the interpretation of D = 3 phase

as a critical system analogous to spin glass.

The exponent of Chern-Simons action can explain only the phase factors due to the framing, which

are usually regarded as an unavoidable nuisance. This might be however all that is needed. For the

146 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

manifolds of type X

2

S

1

all link invariants are either equal to unity or vanish. Surgery would allow

to build 3-manifold invariants from those of S

2

S

1

. For instance, surgery gives the invariant Z(S

3

)

in terms of Z(S

2

S

1

, R

i

) and mapping class group action coded into the linking of the ﬁeld lines.

Holonomies can be also seen as multi-valued SU(2)

L

gauge transformations and can be mapped

to a multi-valued transformations in the SU(2) subgroup of SU(3) acting on 3-surface as a geometric

transformations and making it multi-branched. This makes sense if the holonomies deﬁne a ﬁnite

group so that the gauge transformation is ﬁnitely many-valued. This description might apply to the

3-manifold resulting in a surgery deﬁned by the Wilson loops identiﬁable as branched covering of the

initial manifold.

The construction makes also sense for the holonomies deﬁned by the classical SU(3) gauge ﬁelds

deﬁned by the projections of the isometry currents. Furthermore, the fact that any CP

2

Hamiltonian

deﬁnes a conserved topological charge in D = 3 phase should have a deep signiﬁcance. At the level of

the conﬁguration space geometry the ﬁnite-dimensional group deﬁning Kac Moody algebra is replaced

with the group of canonical transformations of CP

2

. Perhaps one could extend the notion of Wilson

loop for the algebra of canonical transformations of CP

2

so that the representations R

i

of the gauge

group would be replaced by matrix representations of the canonical algebra. That the trace of the

identity matrix is inﬁnite in this case need not be a problem since one can simply redeﬁne the trace

to have value one.

Braids as topologically quantized magnetic ﬁelds

D = 3 space-time sheets would deﬁne complex braiding structures with ﬂux tubes possessing inﬁnite

number of topological charges characterizing the linking of ﬁeld lines. The world lines of the quantum

computing dancers could thus correspond to the ﬂux tubes that can get knotted, linked, and braided.

This idea conforms with the earlier idea that the various knotted and linked structures formed by

linear bio-molecules deﬁne some kind of computer programs.

1. Boundaries of magnetic ﬂux tubes as light-like 3-surfaces

Field equations for K¨ahler action are satisﬁed identically at boundaries if the boundaries of mag-

netic ﬂux tubes (and space-time sheet in general) are light-like in the induced metric. In M

4

+

metric

the ﬂux tubes could look static structures. Light-likeness allows an interpretation of the boundary

state either as a 3-dimensional quantum state or as a time-evolution of a 2-dimensional quantum

state. This conforms with the idea that quantum computation is cognitive, self reﬂective process so

that quantum state is about something rather than something. There would be no need to force par-

ticles to ﬂow through the braid structure to build up time-like braid whereas for time-like boundaries

of magnetic ﬂux tubes a time-like braid results only if the topologically charged particles ﬂow through

the ﬂux tubes with the same average velocity so that the length along ﬂux tubes is mapped to time.

Using the terminology of consciousness theory, one could say that during quantum dance the

dancers are in trance being entangled to a single macro-temporally coherent state which represents

single collective consciousness, and wake up to individual dancers when the dance ends. Quantum

classical correspondence suggests that the generation of bound state entanglement between dancers

requires tangled join along boundaries bonds connecting the space-time sheets of anyons (braid of

ﬂux tubes again!): dancers share mental images whereas direct contact between magnetic ﬂux tubes

deﬁning the braid is not necessary. The bound state entanglement between sub-systems of unentan-

gled systems is made possible by the many-sheeted space-time. This kind of entanglement could be

interpreted as entanglement not visible in scales of larger ﬂux tubes so that the notion is natural in

the philosophy based on the idea of length scale resolution.

2. How braids are generated?

The encoding of the program to a braid could be a mechanical process: a bundle of magnetic

ﬂux tubes with one end ﬁxed would be gradually weaved to a braid by stretching and performing the

needed elementary twists. The time to perform the braiding mechanically requires classical computer

program and the time needed to carry out the braiding depends polynomially on the number of

strands.

The process could also occur by a quantum jump generating the braided ﬂux tubes in single ﬂash

and perhaps even intentionally in living systems (ﬂux tubes with negative topological charge could

have negative energy so that it would require no energy to generate the structure from vacuum). The

2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 147

interaction with environment could be used to select the desired braids. Also ensembles of braids

might be imagined. Living matter might have discovered this mechanism and used int intentionally.

3. Topological quantization, many-sheetedness, and localization

Localization of modular functors is one of the key problems in topological quantum computation

(see the article of Freedman [38]. For anyonic computation this would mean in the ideal case a

decomposition of the system into batches containing 4 anyons each so that these anyon groups interact

only during swap operations.

The role of topological quantization would be to select of a portion of the magnetic ﬁeld deﬁning

the braid as a macroscopic structure. Topological ﬁeld quantization realizes elegantly the requirement

that single particle time evolutions between swaps involve no interaction with other anyons.

Also many-sheetedness is important. The (AA) pair and two anyons would correspond braids

inside braids and as it turns out this gives more ﬂexibility in construction of quantum computation

since the 1-gates associated with logical qubits of 4-batch can belong to diﬀerent representation of

braid group than that associated with braiding of the batches.

2.4.2 Quantum Hall eﬀect and fractional charges in TGD

In fractional QH eﬀect anyons possess fractional electromagnetic charges. Also fractional spin is

possible. TGD explains fractional charges as being due to multi-branched character of space-time

sheets. Also the Z

n

-valued topological charge associated with anyons has natural explanation.

Basic TGD inspired ideas about quantum Hall eﬀect

Quantum Hall eﬀect is observed in low temperature systems when the intensity of a strong magnetic

ﬁeld perpendicular to the current carrying slab is varied adiabatically. Classically quantum Hall eﬀect

can be understood as a generation of a transversal electric ﬁeld, which exactly cancels the magnetic

Lorentz force. This gives E = −j B/ne. The resulting current can be also understood as due to a

drift velocity proportional to EB generated in electric and magnetic ﬁelds orthogonal to each other

and allowing to cancel Lorentz force. This picture leads to the classical expression for transversal Hall

conductivity as σ

xy

= ne/B. σ

xy

should vary continuously as a function of the magnetic ﬁeld and

2-dimensional electron density n.

In quantum Hall eﬀect σ

xy

is piece-wise constant and quantized with relative precision of about

10

−10

. The second remarkable feature is that the longitudinal conductivity σ

xx

is very high at plateaus:

variations by 13 orders of magnitude are observed. The system is also very sensitive to small pertur-

bations.

Consider now what these qualitative observations might mean in TGD context.

1. Sensitivity to small perturbations means criticality. TGD Universe is quantum critical and

quantum criticality reduces to the spin glass degeneracy due to the enormous vacuum degeneracy

of the theory. The D = 2 and D = 3 non-vacuum phases predicted by the generalized Beltrami

ansatz are this in-stability might play important role in the eﬀect.

2. The magnetic ﬁelds are genuinely classical ﬁelds in TGD framework, and for D = 2 proportional

to induced K¨ahler magnetic ﬁeld. The canonical symmetries of CP

2

act like U(1) gauge transfor-

mations on the induced gauge ﬁeld but are not gauge symmetries since canonical transformations

change the shape of 3-surface and aﬀect both classical gravitational ﬁelds and electro-weak and

color gauge ﬁelds. Hence diﬀerent gauges for classical K¨ahler ﬁeld represent magnetic ﬁelds for

which topological ﬁeld quanta can have widely diﬀering and physically non-equivalent shapes.

For instance, tube like quanta act eﬀectively as insulators whereas magnetic walls parallel to the

slab act as conducting wires.

Wall like ﬂux tubes parallel to the slab perhaps formed by a partial fusion of magnetic ﬂux

tubes along their boundaries would give rise to high longitudinal conductivity. For disjoint ﬂux

tubes the motion would be around the ﬂux tubes and the electrons would get stuck inside these

tubes. By quantum criticality and by D < 4 property the magnetic ﬂux tube structures are

unstable against perturbations, in particular the variation of the magnetic ﬁeld strength itself.

The transitions from a plateau to a new one would correspond to the decay of the magnetic

148 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

walls back to disjoint ﬂux tubes followed by a generation of walls again so that conductivity is

very high outside transition regions. The variation of any parameter, such as temperature, is

expected to be able to cause similar eﬀects implying dramatic changes in Hall conductivity.

The percolation model for the quantum Hall eﬀect represents slab as a landscape with mountains

and valleys and the varied external parameter, say B or free electron density, as the sea level.

For the critical values of sea level narrow regions carrying so called edge states allow liquid to ﬁll

large regions appear and implies increase of conductivity. Obviously percolation model diﬀers

from the model based on criticality for which the landscape itself is highly fragile and a small

perturbation can develop new valleys and mountains.

3. The eﬀective 2-dimensionality implies that the solutions of Schr¨odinger equation of electron in

external magnetic ﬁeld are products of any analytic function with a Gaussian representing the

ground state of a harmonic oscillator. Analyticity means that the kinetic energy is completely

degenerate for these solutions. The Lauhglin ansatz for the state functions of electron in the

external magnetic ﬁeld is many-electron generalization of these solutions: the wave functions

consists of products of terms of form (z

i

−z

j

)

m

, m odd integer from Fermi statistics.

The N-particle variant of Laughlin’s ansatz allows to deduce that the system is incompressible.

The key observation is that the probability density for the many-particle state has an interpre-

tation as a Boltzmann factor for a ﬁctive two-dimensional plasma in electric ﬁeld created by

constant charge density [31, 32]. The probability density is extremely sensitive to the changes

of the positions of electrons giving rise to the constant electron density. The screening of charge

in this ﬁctive plasma implies the ﬁlling fraction ν = 1/m, m odd integer and requires charge

fractionization e →e/m. The explanation of the ﬁlling fractions ν = N/m would require multi-

valued wave functions (z

i

− z

j

)

N/m

. In single-sheeted space-time this leads to problems. TGD

suggests that these wave functions are single valued but deﬁned on N-branched surface.

The degeneracy with respect to kinetic energy brings in mind the spin glass degeneracy induced

by the vacuum degeneracy of the K¨ahler action. The Dirac equation for the induced spinors is

not ordinary Dirac equation but super-symmetrically related to the ﬁeld equations associated

with K¨ahler action. Also it allows vacuum degeneracy. One cannot exclude the possibility that

also this aspect is involved at deeper level.

4. The fractionization of charge in quantum Hall eﬀect challenges the idea that charged particles of

the incompressible liquid are electrons and this leads to the notion of anyon. Quantum-classical

correspondence inspires the idea that although dissipation is absent, it has left its signature as a

track associated with electron. This track is magnetic ﬂux tube surrounding the classical orbit

of electron and electron is conﬁned inside it. This reduces the dissipative eﬀects and explains the

increase of conductivity. The rule that there is single electron state per magnetic ﬂux quantum

follows if Bohr quantization is applied to the radii of the orbits. The fractional charge of anyon

would result from a contribution of classical K¨ahler charge of anyon ﬂux tube to the charge of

the anyon. This charge is topologized in D = 3 phase.

Anyons as multi-branched ﬂux tubes representing charged particle plus its track

Electrons (in fact, any charged particles) moving inside magnetic ﬂux tubes move along circular paths

classically. The solutions of the ﬁeld equations with vanishing Lorentz 4-force correspond to asymptotic

patterns for which dissipation has already done its job and is absent. Dissipation has however deﬁnite

eﬀects on the ﬁnal state of the system, and one can argue that the periodic motion of the charged

particle has created what might called its ”track”. The track would be realized as a circular or helical

ﬂux tube rotating around ﬁeld lines of the magnetic ﬁeld. The corresponding cyclotron states would

be localized inside tracks. Simplest tracks are circular ones and correspond to absence of motion in

the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. Anyons could be identiﬁed as systems formed as particles plus the

tracks containing them.

1. Many-branched tracks and approach to chaos

When the system approaches chaos one expects the the periodic circular tracks become non-

periodic. One however expects that this process occurs in steps so that the tracks are periodic in the

sense that they close after N 2π rotations with the value of N increasing gradually. The requirement

2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 149

that K¨ahler energy stays ﬁnite suggests also this. A basic example of this kind of track is obtained when

the phase angles Ψ and Φ of complex CP

2

coordinates (ξ

1

, ξ

2

) have ﬁnitely multi-valued dependence

on the coordinate φ of cylindrical coordinates: (Ψ, Φ) = (m

1

/N, m

2

/N)φ). The space-sheet would be

many-branched and it would take N turns of 2π to get back to the point were one started. The phase

factors behave as a phase of a spinning particle having eﬀective fractional spin 1/N. I have proposed

this kind of mechanism as an explanation of so called hydrino atoms claimed to have the spectrum of

hydrogen atom but with energies scaled up by N

2

[46, G2]. The ﬁrst guess that N corresponds to m

in ν = 1/m is wrong. Rather, N corresponds to N in ν = N/m which means many-valued Laughlin

wave functions in single branched space-time.

Similar argument applies also in CP

2

degrees of freedom. Only the N-multiples of 2π rotations by

CP

2

isometries corresponding to color hyper charge and color iso-spin would aﬀect trivially the point of

multi-branched surface. Since the contribution of K¨ahler charge to electromagnetic charge corresponds

also to anomalous hyper-charge of spinor ﬁeld in question, an additional geometric contribution to

the anomalous hypercharge would mean anomalous electromagnetic charge.

It must be emphasized the fractionization of the isometry charges is only eﬀective and results from

the interpretation of isometries as space-time transformations rather than transformation rotating

entire space-time sheet in imbedding space. Also classical charges are eﬀectively fractionized in the

sense that single branch gives in a symmetric situation a fraction of 1/n of the entire charge. Later it

will be found that also a genuine fractionization occurs and is due to the classical topologized K¨ahler

charge of the anyon track.

2. Modelling anyons in terms of gauge group and isometry group

Anyons can be modelled in terms of the gauge symmetry breaking SU(2)

L

→ H, where H is

discrete sub-group. The breaking of gauge symmetry results by the action of multi-valued gauge

transformation g(x) such that diﬀerent branches of the multi-valued map are related by the action of

H.

1. The standard description of anyons is based on spontaneous symmetry breaking of a gauge

symmetry G to a discrete sub-group H dynamically [38]. The gauge ﬁeld has suﬀered multi-

valued gauge transformation such that the elements of H permute the diﬀerent branches of g(x).

The puncture is characterized by the element of the H associated with the loop surrounding

puncture. In the idealized situation that gauge ﬁeld vanishes, the parallel translation of a particle

around puncture aﬀects the particle state, itself a representation of G, by the element of the

homotopy π

1

(G/H) = H identiﬁable as non-Abelian magnetic charge. Thus holonomy group

corresponds to homotopy group of G/H which in turn equals to H. This in turn implies that

the inﬁnite-dimensional braid group whose elements deﬁne holonomies in turn is represented in

H.

2. In TGD framework the multi-valuedness of g(x) corresponds to a many-branched character

of 4-surface. This in turn induces a branching of both magnetic ﬂux tube and anyon tracks

describable in terms of H ⊂ SU(2)

L

acting as an isotropy group for the boundaries of the

magnetic ﬂux tubes. H can correspond only to a non-Abelian subgroup SU(2)

L

of the electro-

weak gauge group for the induced (classical) electro-weak gauge ﬁelds since the Chern-Simons

action associated with the classical color gauge ﬁelds vanishes identically. The electro-weak

holonomy group would reduce to a discrete group H around loops deﬁned by anyonic ﬂux tubes

surrounding magnetic ﬁeld lines inside the magnetic ﬂux tubes containing anyons. The reduction

to H need to occur only at the boundaries of the space-time sheet where conducting anyons

would reside: boundaries indeed correspond to asymptotia in well-deﬁned sense. Electro-weak

symmetry group can be regarded as a sub-group of color group of isometries in a well-deﬁned

sense so that H can be regarded also as a subgroup of color group acting as isotropies of the

multi-branched surface at least in the in regions where gauge ﬁeld vanishes.

3. For branched surfaces the points obtained by moving around the puncture correspond in a good

approximation to some elements of h ∈ H leading to a new branch but the 2-surface as a

whole however remains invariant. The braid group of the punctured 2-surface would be also

now represented as transformations of H. The simplest situation is obtained when H is a cyclic

group Z

N

of the U(1) group of CP

2

geodesic in such a manner that 2π rotation around symmetry

axis corresponds to the generating element exp(i2π/N) of Z

N

.

150 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

Dihedral group D

n

having order 2n and acting as symmetries of n-polygon of the plane is

especially interesting candidate for H. For n = 2 the group is Abelian group Z

2

Z

2

whereas

for n > 2 D

n

is a non-Abelian sub-group of the permutation group S

n

. The cyclic group Z

4

crucial for TQC is a sub-group of D

4

acting as symmetries of square. D

4

has a 2-dimensional

faithful representation. The numbers of elements for the conjugacy classes are 1,1,2,2,2. The

sub-group commuting with a ﬁxed element of a conjugacy class is D

4

for the 1-element conjugacy

classes and cyclic group Z

4

for 2-element conjugacy classes. Hence 2-valued magnetic ﬂux would

be accompanied by Z

4

valued ”electric charge” identiﬁable as a cyclic group permuting the

branches.

3. Can one understand the increase in conductivity and ﬁlling fractions at plateaus?

Quantum Hall eﬀect involves the increase of longitudinal conductivity by a factor of order 10

13

[31].

The reduction of dissipation could be understood as being caused by the fact that anyonic electrons are

closed inside the magnetic ﬂux tubes representing their tracks so that their interactions with matter

and thus also dissipation are reduced.

Laughlin’s theory [32, 31] gives almost universal description of many aspects of quantum Hall eﬀect

and the question arises whether Laughlin’s wave functions are deﬁned on possibly multi-branched

space-time sheet X

4

or at projection of X

4

to M

4

+

. Since most theoreticians that I know still live in

single sheeted space-time, one can start with the most conservative assumption that they are deﬁned

at the projection to M

4

+

. The wave functions of one-electron state giving rise ﬁlling fraction ν = 1/m

are constructed of (z

i

−z

j

)

m

, where m is odd by Fermi statistics.

Also rational ﬁlling fractions of form ν = 1/m = N/n have been observed. These could relate

to the presence of states whose projections to M

4

are multi-valued and which thus do not have any

”classical” counterpart. For N-branched surface the single-valued wave functions (ξ

i

−ξ

j

)

n

, n odd by

Fermi statistics, correspond to apparently multi-valued wave functions (z

i

−z

j

)

n/N

at M

4

projection

with fractional relative angular momenta m = n/N. The ﬁlling fraction would be ν = N/n, n odd.

All ﬁlling fractions reported in [31] have n odd with n varying in the range 1 − 7. N has the values

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9. Also values N = 12, 13 for which n = 5 are reported [28].

The ﬁlling fractions ν = N/n = 5/2, 3/8, 3/10 reported in [37] would require even values of n

conﬂicting with Fermi statistics. Obviously Lauhglin’s model fails in this case and the question is

whether one these fractions could correspond to bosonic anyons, perhaps Cooper pairs of electrons

inside track ﬂux tubes. The Z

N

valued charge associated with N-branched surfaces indeed allows the

maximum 2N electrons per anyon. Bosonic anyons are indeed the building block of the TQC model

of [28]. The anyon Cooper pairs could be this kind of states and their BE condensation would make

possible genuine super-conductivity rather than only exceptionally high value of conductivity.

One can imagine also more complex multi-electron wave functions than those of Laughlin. The

so called conformal blocks representing correlation functions of conformal quantum ﬁeld theories

are natural candidates for the wave functions [20] and they appear naturally as state functions of

in topological quantum ﬁeld theories. For instance, wave functions which are products of factors

(z

k

−z

l

)

2

with the Pfaﬃan Pf(A

kl

) of the matrix A

kl

= 1/(z

k

−z

l

) guaranteing anti-symmetrization

have been used to explain even values of m [20].

4. N-branched space-time surfaces make possible Z

N

valued topological charge

According to [20] that 2n non-Abelian anyon pairs with charge 1/4 created from vacuum gives rise

to a 2

n−1

-fold degenerate ground state. It is also argued that ﬁlling fraction 5/2 could correspond

to this charge [28]. TGD suggests somewhat diﬀerent interpretation. 4-fold branching implies auto-

matically the Z

4

-valued topological charge crucial for anyonic quantum computation. For 4-branched

space-time surface the contribution of a single branch to electron’s charge is indeed 1/4 units but

this has nothing to do with the actual charge fractionization. The value of ν is of form ν = /m and

electromagnetic charge equals to ν = 4e/m in this kind of situation.

If anyons (electron plus ﬂux tube representing its track) have Z

4

charges 1 and 3, their Cooper

pairs have charges 0 and 2. The double-fold degeneracy for anyon’s topological charge means that

it possesses topological spin conserved modulo 4. In presence of 2n anyon pairs one would expect

2

n

-fold degeneracy. The requirement that the net topological charge vanishes modulo 4 however ﬁxes

the topological charge of n:th pair so that 2

n−1

fold degeneracy results.

A possible interpretation for Z

N

-valued topological charge is as fractional angular momenta k/N

2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 151

associated with the phases exp(ik2π/N), k = 0, 1, ...., n−1 of particles in multi-branched surfaces. The

projections of these wave functions to single-branched space-time would be many-valued. If electro-

weak gauge group breaks down to a discrete subgroup H for magnetic ﬂux tubes carrying anyonic

”tracks”, this symmetry breakdown could induce their multi-branched property in the sense rotation

by 2π would correspond to H isometry leading to a diﬀerent branch.

Topologization of K¨ahler charge as an explanation for charge fractionization

The argument based on what happens when one adds one anyon to the anyon system by utilizing

Faraday’s law [31] leads to the conclusion that anyon charge is fractional and given by νe. The anyonic

ﬂux tube along boundary of the ﬂux tube corresponds to the left hand side in the Faraday’s equation

E dl = −

dΦ

dt

.

By expressing E in turns of current using transversal conductivity and integrating with respect to

time, one obtains

Q = νe

for the charge associated with a single anyon. Hence the addition of the anyon means an addition of

a fractional charge νe to the system. This argument should survive as such the 1-branched situation

so that at least in this case the fractional charges should be real.

In N-branched case the closed loop

**E dl around magnetic ﬂux tube corresponds to N-branched
**

anyon and surrounds the magnetic ﬂux tube N times. This would suggest so that net magnetic ﬂux

should be N times the one associated with single but unclosed 2π rotation. Hence the formula would

seem to hold true as such also now for the total charge of the anyon and the conclusion is that charge

fractionization is real and cannot be an eﬀective eﬀect due to fractionization of charge at single branch

of anyon ﬂux tube.

One of the basic diﬀerences between TGD and Maxwell’s theory is the possibility of vacuum

charges and this provides an explanation of the eﬀect is in terms of vacuum K¨ahler charge. K¨ahler

charge contributes e/2 to the charge of electron. Anyon ﬂux tube can generate vacuum K¨ahler charge

changing the net charge of the anyon. If the anyon charge equals to νe the conclusions are following.

1. The vacuum K¨ahler charge of the anyon track is q = (ν −1)e.

2. The dimension of the CP

2

projection of the anyon ﬂux tube must be D = 3 since only in this case

the topologization of anyon charge becomes possible so that the charge density is proportional

to the Chern-Simons term A ∧ dA/4π. Anyon ﬂux tubes cannot be super-conducting in the

sense that non-integrable phase factor exp(

**A dl) would deﬁne global order parameter. The
**

boundaries of anyonic ﬂux tubes could however remain potentially super-conducting and anyon

Cooper pairs would be expelled there by Meissner eﬀect. This gives super-conductivity in length

scale of single ﬂux tube. Conductivity and super-conductivity in long length scales requires that

magnetic ﬂux tubes are glued together along their boundaries partially.

3. By Bohr quantization anyon tracks can have r

n

=

√

n r

B

, n ≤ m, where r

m

corresponds to

the radius of the magnetic ﬂux tube carrying m ﬂux quanta. Only the tracks with radius r

m

contribute to boundary conductivity and super-conductivity giving ν = 1/m for singly branched

surfaces.

The states with ν = N/m cannot correspond to non-super-conducting anyonic tracks with

radii r

n

, n < m, n odd, since these cannot contribute to boundary conductivity. The many-

branched character however allows an N-fold degeneracy corresponding to the fractional angular

momentum states exp(ikφ/N), k = 0, ..., N −1 of electron inside anyon ﬂux tubes of radius r

m

.

k is obviously a an excellent candidate for the Z

N

-valued topological charge crucial for anyonic

quantum computation. Z

4

is uniquely selected by the braid matrix R.

Only part of the anyonic Fermi sea need to be ﬁlled so that ﬁlling fractions ν = k/m, k = 1, ..., N

are possible. Charges νe are possible if each electron inside anyon track contributes 1/m units

to the fractional vacuum K¨ahler charge. This is achieved if the radius of the anyonic ﬂux tube

grows as

k/m when electrons are added. The anyon tracks containing several electrons give

152 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

rise to composite fermions with fermion number up to 2N if both directions of electron spin are

allowed.

4. Charge fractionization requires vacuum K¨ahler charge has rational values Q

K

= (ν − 1)e. The

quantization indeed occurs for the helicity deﬁned by Chern-Simons term A ∧ dA/4π. For

compact 3-spaces without boundary the helicity can be interpreted as an integer valued invariant

characterizing the linking of two disjoint closed curves deﬁned by the magnetic ﬁeld lines. This

topological charge can be also related to the asymptotic Hopf invariant proposed by Arnold

[18], which in non-compact case has a continuum of values. Vacuum K¨ahler current is obtained

from the topological current A ∧ dA/4π by multiplying it with a function of CP

2

coordinates

completely ﬁxed by the ﬁeld equations. There are thus reasons to expect that vacuum K¨ahler

charge and also the topological charges obtained by multiplying Chern Simons current by SU(3)

Hamiltonians are quantized for compact 3-surfaces but that the presence of boundaries replaces

integers by rationals.

What happens in quantum Hall system when the strength of the external magnetic ﬁeld

is increased?

The proposed mechanism of anyonic conducitivity allows to understand what occurs in quantum Hall

system when the intensity of the magnetic ﬁeld is gradually increased.

1. Percolation picture encourages to think that magnetic ﬂux tubes fuse partially along their bound-

aries in a transition to anyon conductivity so that the anyonic states localized at the boundaries

of ﬂux tubes become delocalized much like electrons in metals. Laughlin’s states provide an

idealized description for these states. Also anyons, whose tracks have Bohr radii r

m

smaller

than the radius r

B

of the magnetic ﬂux tube could be present but they would not participate

in this localization. Clearly, the anyons at the boundaries of magnetic ﬂux tubes are highly

analogous to valence electrons in atomic physics.

2. As the intensity of the magnetic ﬁeld B increases, the areas a of the ﬂux tubes decreases as

a ∝ 1/B: this means that the existing contacts between neighboring ﬂux tubes tend to be

destroyed so that anyon conductivity is reduced. On the other hand, new magnetic ﬂux tubes

must emerge by the constancy of the average magnetic ﬂux implying dn/da ∝ B for the average

density of ﬂux tubes. This increases the probability that the newly generated ﬂux tubes can

partially fuse with the existing ﬂux tubes.

3. If the ﬂux tubes are not completely free to move and change their shape by area preserving

transformations, one can imagine that for certain value ranges of B the generation of new

magnetic ﬂux tubes is not favored since there is simply no room for the newcomers. The

Fermi statistics of the anyonic electrons at the boundaries of ﬂux tubes might relate to this

non-hospitable behavior. At certain critical values of the magnetic ﬁeld the sizes of ﬂux tubes

become however so small that the situation changes and the new ﬂux tubes penetrate the system

and via the partial fusion with the existing ﬂux tubes increase dramatically the conductivity.

Also protonic anyons are possible

According to the TGD based model, any charged particle can form anyons and the strength of the

magnetic ﬁeld does not seem to be crucial for the occurrence of the eﬀect and it could occur even

in the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. The change of the cyclotron and Larmor frequencies of the charged

particle in an external magnetic ﬁeld to a value corresponding to the fractional charge provides a clear

experimental signature for both the presence of anyons and for their the fractional charge.

Interestingly, water displays a strange scaling of proton’s cyclotron frequency in an external mag-

netic ﬁeld [43, 55]. In an alternating magnetic ﬁeld of .1551 Gauss (Eearth’s ﬁeld has a nominal value

of .58 Gauss) a strong absorption at frequency f = 156 Hz was observed. The frequency was halved

when D

2

O was used and varied linearly with the ﬁeld strength. The resonance frequency however

deviated from proton’s Larmor frequency, which suggests that a protonic anyon is in question. The

Larmor frequency would be in this case f

L

= r νeB/2m

p

, where r = µ

p

/µ

B

= 2.2792743 is the ratio

of proton’s actual magnetic moment to its value for a point like proton. The experimental data gives

2.4. TGD based new physics related to topological quantum computation 153

ν = .6003 = 3/5 with the accuracy of 5 10

−4

so that 3-branched protonic anyons with m = 5 would

be responsible for the eﬀect.

If this interpretation is correct, entire p-adic hierarchy of anyonic NMR spectroscopies associated

with various atomic nuclei would become possible. Bosonic anyon atoms and Cooper pairs of fermionic

anyon atom could also form macroscopic quantum phases making possible super-conductivity very

sensitive to the value of the average magnetic ﬁeld and bio-systems and brain could utilize this feature.

2.4.3 Does the quantization of Planck constant transform integer quantum

Hall eﬀect to fractional quantum Hall eﬀect?

The model for topological quantum computation inspired the idea that Planck constant might be

dynamical and quantized. The work of Nottale [53] gave a strong boost to concrete development of

the idea and it took year and half to end up with a proposal about how basic quantum TGD could

allow quantization Planck constant associated with M

4

and CP

2

degrees of freedom such that the

scaling factor of the metric in M

4

degrees of freedom corresponds to the scaling of in CP

2

degrees of

freedom and vice versa [C3]. The dynamical character of the scaling factors of M

4

and CP

2

metrics

makes sense if space-time and imbedding space, and in fact the entire quantum TGD, emerge from a

local version of an inﬁnite-dimensional Cliﬀord algebra existing only in dimension D = 8 [C2].

The predicted scaling factors of Planck constant correspond to the integers n deﬁning the quantum

phases q = exp(iπ/n) characterizing Jones inclusions. A more precise characterization of Jones

inclusion is in terms of group G

b

⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SU(3) in CP

2

degrees of freedom and G

a

⊂ SL(2, C) in

M

4

degrees of freedom. In quantum group phase space-time surfaces have exact symmetry such that

to a given point of M

4

corresponds an entire G

b

orbit of CP

2

points and vice versa. Thus space-time

sheet becomes N(G

a

) fold covering of CP

2

and N(G

b

)-fold covering of M

4

. This allows an elegant

topological interpretation for the fractionization of quantum numbers. The integer n corresponds to

the order of maximal cyclic subgroup of G.

In the scaling

0

→n

0

of M

4

Planck constant ﬁne structure constant would scale as

α =

e

2

4πc

→

α

n

,

and the formula for Hall conductance would transform to

σ

H

→

ν

n

α .

Fractional quantum Hall eﬀect would be integer quantum Hall eﬀect but with scaled down α. The

apparent fractional ﬁlling fraction ν = m/n would directly code the quantum phase q = exp(iπ/n)

in the case that m obtains all possible values. A complete classiﬁcation for possible phase transitions

yielding fractional quantum Hall eﬀect in terms of ﬁnite subgroups G ⊂ SU(2) ⊂ SU(3) given by

ADE diagrams would emerge (A

n

, D

2n

, E

6

and E

8

are possible). What would be also nice that CP

2

would make itself directly manifest at the level of condensed matter physics.

2.4.4 Why 2+1-dimensional conformally invariant Witten-Chern-Simons

theory should work for anyons?

Wess-Zumino-Witten theories are 2-dimensional conformally invariant quantum ﬁeld theories with

dynamical variables in some group G. The action contains the usual 2-dimensional kinetic term

for group variables allowing conformal group action as a dynamical symmetry plus winding number

deﬁned associated with the mapping of 3-surface to G which is Diff

4

invariant. The coeﬃcient of

this term is quantized to integer.

If one couples this theory to a gauge potential, the original chiral ﬁeld can be transformed away

and only a Chern-Simons term deﬁned for the 3-manifold having the 2-dimensional space as boundary

remains. Also the coeﬃcient k of Chern-Simons term is quantized to integer. Chern-Simons-Witten

action has close connection with Wess-Zumino-Witten theory. In particular, the states of the topo-

logical quantum ﬁeld theory are in one-one correspondence with highest weights of the WZW action.

The appearance of 2+1-dimensional Diff

3

invariant action can be understood from the funda-

mentals of TGD.

154 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

1. Light-like 3-surfaces of both future light-cone M

4

+

and of space-time surface X

4

itself are in a

key role in the construction of quantum TGD since they deﬁne causal determinants for K¨ahler

action.

2. At the space-time level both the boundaries of X

4

and elementary particle horizons surrounding

the orbits of wormhole contacts deﬁne light-like 3-surfaces. The ﬁeld equations are satisﬁed

identically at light-like boundaries. Of course, the projections of the the light-like surfaces of X

4

to Minkowski space need not look light-like at all, and even boundaries of magnetic ﬂux tubes

could be light-like.

Light-like 3-surfaces are metrically 2-dimensional and allow a generalized conformal invariance

crucial for the construction of quantum TGD. At the level of imbedding space conformal super-

canonical invariance results. At the space-time level the outcome is conformal invariance highly

analogous to the Kac Moody symmetry of super string models [B2, B3, E2]. In fact, there are

good reasons to believe that the three-dimensional Chern-Simons action appears even in the con-

struction of conﬁguration space metric and give an additional contribution to the conﬁguration

space metric when the light-like boundaries of 3-surface have 3-dimensional CP

2

projection.

3. By the eﬀective two-dimensionality the Wess-Zumino-Witten action containing Chern-Simons

term is an excellent candidate for the quantum description of S-matrix associated with the light-

like 3-surfaces since by the vanishing of the metric determinant one cannot deﬁne any general

coordinate invariant 3-dimensional action other than Chern-Simons action. The boundaries of

the braid formed by the magnetic ﬂux tubes having light-like boundaries, perhaps having join

along boundaries bonds between swapped ﬂux tubes would deﬁne the 2+1-dimensional space-

time associated with a braid, would deﬁne the arena of Witten-Chern-Simons theory describing

anyons. This S-matrix can be interpreted also as characterizing either a 3-dimensional quantum

state since light-like boundaries are limiting cases of space-like 3-surfaces.

4. K¨ahler action deﬁnes an Abelian Chern-Simons term and the induced electroweak gauge ﬁelds

deﬁne a non-Abelian variant of this term. The Chern-Simons action associated with the classical

color degrees of freedom vanishes as is easy to ﬁnd. The classical color ﬁelds are identiﬁed as

projections of Killing vector ﬁelds of color group: A

c

α

= j

A

k

∂

α

s

k

τ

A

= J

r

k

∂

r

H

A

∂

α

s

k

. The

classical color gauge ﬁeld is proportional to the induced K¨ahler form: F

c

αβ

= H

A

J

αβ

τ

A

. A little

calculation shows that the instanton density vanishes by the identity H

A

H

A

= 1 (this identity

is forced by the necessary color-singletness of the YM action density and is easy to check in the

simpler case of S

2

.

5. Since qubit realizes the fundamental representation of the quantum group SU(2)

q

, SU(2) is in

a unique role concerning the construction of modular functors and quantum computation using

Chern-Simons action. The quantum group corresponding to q = exp(i2π/r), r = 5 is realized

for the level k = 3 Chern-Simons action and satisﬁes the constraint r = k +c

g

, where c

g

= 2 is

the so called dual Coxeter number of SU(2) [30, 39, 28].

The exponent non-Abelian SU(2)

L

U(1) Chern-Simons action combined with the correspond-

ing action for K¨ahler form so that eﬀective reduction to SU(2)

L

occurs, could appear as a

multiplicative factor of the conﬁguration space spinor ﬁelds deﬁned in the conﬁguration space of

3-surfaces. Since 3-dimensional quantum state would represent a 2-dimensional time evolution

the role of these phase factor would be very analogous to the role of ordinary Chern-Simons

action.

2.5 Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe

The general philosophy behind TQC inspires the dream that the existence of basic gates, in particular

the maximally entangling 2-gate R, is guaranteed by the laws of Nature so that no ﬁne tuning would

be needed to build the gates. Negentropy Maximization Principle, originally developed in context of

TGD inspired theory of consciousness, is a natural candidate for this kind of Law of Nature.

2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 155

2.5.1 Concrete realization of quantum gates

The bold dream is that besides 2-gates also 1-gates are realized by the basic laws of Nature. The

topological realization of the 3-braid representation in terms of Temperley-Lie algebra allows the

reduction of 1-gates to 2-gates.

NMP and TQC

Quantum jump involves a cascade of self measurements in which the system under consideration

can be though of as decomposing to two parts which are either un-entangled or possess rational or

extended rational entanglement in the ﬁnal state. The sub-system is selected by the requirement that

entanglement negentropy gain is maximal in the measurement of the density matrix characterizing

the entanglement of the sub-system with its complement.

In the case case that the density matrix before the self measurement decomposes into a direct

sum of matrices of dimensions N

i

, such that N

i

> 1 holds true for some values of i, say i

0

, the

ﬁnal state is a rationally entangled and thus a bound state. i

0

is ﬁxed by the requirement that the

number theoretic entropy for the ﬁnal state maximally negative and equals to klog(p), where p

k

is

the largest power of prime dividing N

i

0

. This means that maximally entangled state results and the

density matrix is proportional to a unit matrix as it is also for the entanglement produced by R. In

case of R the density matrix is 1/2 times 2-dimensional unit matrix so that bound state entanglement

negentropy is 1 bit.

The question is what occurs if the density matrix contains a part for which entanglement probabil-

ities are extended rational but not identical. In this case the entanglement negentropy is positive and

one could argue that no self-measurement occurs for this state and it remains entangled. If so then

the measurement of the density matrix would occur only when it increases entanglement negentropy.

This looks the only sensible option since otherwise only bound state entanglement with identical en-

tanglement probabilities would be possible. This question is relevant also because Temperley-Lieb

representation using (AA) − A − A system involves entanglement with entanglement probabilities

which are not identical.

In the case that the 2-gate itself is not directly entangling as in case of R

and R

, NMP should

select just the quantum history, that single particle gates at it guarantee maximum entanglement

negentropy. Thus NMP would come in rescue and give hopes that various gates are realized by

Nature.

Non-Abelian anyon systems are modelled in terms of punctures of plane and Chern-Simons action

for the incompressible vector potential of hydrodynamical ﬂow. It is interesting to ﬁnd how these

ideas relate to the TGD description.

Non-Abelian anyons reside at boundaries of magnetic ﬂux tubes in TGD

In [28] anyons are modelled in terms of punctures of plane deﬁned by the slab carrying Hall current. In

TGD the punctures correspond naturally to magnetic ﬂux tubes deﬁning the braid. It is now however

obvious under what conditions the braid containing the TGD counterpart of (AA)-A-A system can

be described as a punctured disk if the ﬂux tubes describing the tracks of valence anyons are very

near to the boundaries of the magnetic ﬂux tubes. Rather, the punctured disk is replaced with the

closed boundary of the magnetic ﬂux tube or of the structure formed by the partial fusion of several

magnetic ﬂux tubes. This microscopic description and is consistent with Laughlin’s model only if it

is understood as a long length scale description.

Non-Abelian charges require singularities and punctures but a two-surface which is boundary does

not allow punctures. The punctures assigned with an anyon pair would become narrow wormhole

threads traversing through the interior of the magnetic ﬂux tube and connecting the punctures like

wormholes connect two points of an apple. It is also possible that the threads connect the surfaces of

two nearby magnetic ﬂux tubes. The wormhole like character conforms with the fact that non-Abelian

anyons appear always in pairs.

The case in which which the ends of the wormhole thread belong to diﬀerent neighboring magnetic

ﬂux tubes, call them T

1

and T

2

, is especially interesting as far as the model for TQC is considered.

The state of (AA) −A−A system before (after) the 3-braid operation would be identiﬁable as anyons

near the surface of T

1

(T

2

). If only suﬃciently local operations are allowed, the braid group would

be same as for anyons inside disk. This means consistency with the anyon model of [28] for TQC

156 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

requiring that the dimension for the space of ground states is 2

n−1

in a system consisting of n anyon

pairs.

The possibility of negative energies allows inspires the idea that the anyons at T

2

have negative

energies so that the anyon system would have a vanishing net energy. This would conform with the

idea that the scattering from initial to ﬁnal state is equivalent with the creation of zero energy state

for which initial (ﬁnal) state particles have positive (negative) energies, and with the fact that the

boundaries of magnetic ﬂux tubes are light-like systems for which 3-D quantum state is representation

for a 2-D time evolution.

Since the correlation between anyons at the ends of the wormhole thread is purely topological, the

most plausible option is that they behave as free anyons dynamically. Assuming 4-branched anyon

surfaces, the charges of anyons would be of form Q = ν

A

e, ν

A

= 4/m, m odd.

Consider now the representation of 3-braid group. That the mapping class group for the 3-braid

system should have a 2-dimensional representation is obvious from the fact that the group has same

generators as the mapping class group for torus which is represented by as SL(2, Z) matrices acting

on the homology of torus having two generators a, b corresponding to the two non-contractible circles

around torus. 3-braid group would be necessarily represented in Temperley-Lieb representation.

The character of the anyon bound state is important for braid representations.

1. If anyons form loosely bound states (AA), the electrons are at diﬀerent tracks and the charge

is additive in the process so that one has Q

AA

= 2Q

A

= 8/m, m odd, which is at odds with

statistics. It might be that the naive rule of assigning fractional charge to the state does not

hold true for loosely bound bosonic anyons. In this case (AA) − A system with charge states

((1, −1), 1) and ((1, 1), −1) would be enough for realizing 1-gates in TQC. The braid operation s

2

of Temperley-Lieb representation represented (A

1

A

2

) −A

3

→(A

1

A

3

) −A

2

would correspond to

an exchange of the dance partner by a temporary decay of (A

1

A

2

) followed by a recombination

to a quantum superposition of (A

1

A

2

) and (A

1

A

3

) and could be regarded as an ordinary braid

operation rather than monodromy. The relative phase 1-gate would correspond to s

1

represented

as braid operation for A

1

and A

2

inside (A

1

A

2

).

2. If anyons form tightly bound states (AA) in the sense that single anyonic ﬂux tube carries two

electrons, charge need not be additive so that bound states could have charges Q = 4/2m

1

so

that the vacuum K¨ahler charge Q

K

= 4(1/m

1

− 2/m) would be created in the process. This

would stabilize (AA) state and would mean that the braid operation (A

1

A

2

)−A

3

→(A

1

A

3

)−A

2

cannot occur via a temporary decay to free anyons and it might be necessary to replace 3-braid

group by a partially colored 3-braid group for (AA)−A−A system which is sub-group of 3-braid

group and has generators s

2

1

(two swaps for (AA) −A) and s

2

(swap for A−A) instead of s

1

and

s

2

. Also in this case a microscopic mechanism changing the value of (AA) Z

4

charge is needed

and the situation might reduce to the case a) after all.

The Temperley Lieb representation for this group is obtained by simply taking square of the

generator inducing entanglement (s

2

rather than s

1

in the notation used!). The topological

charge assignments for (AA) −A −A system are ((1, −1), 1, −1) and ((1, 1), −1, −1). s

2

1

would

correspond to the group element generating (AA) −A entanglement and s

2

acting on A−A pair

would correspond to phase generating group element.

Braid representations and 4-branched anyon surfaces

Some comments about braid representations in relation to Z

N

- valued topological charges are in order.

1. Yang-Baxter braid representation using the maximally entangling braid matrix R is especially

attractive option. For anyonic computation with Z

4

-valued topological charge R is the unique

2-gate conserving the net topological charge (note that the mixing of the [1, 1` and [ − 1, −1`

is allowed). On the other, R allows only the conservation of Z

4

value topological charge. This

suggests that the the entanglement between logical qubits represented by (AA) −A−A batches

is is generated by R. The physical implication is that only ν = 4/n 4-branched anyons could be

used for TQC.

2. In TGD framework the entangling braid representation inside batches responsible for 1-gates

need not be the same since batches correspond to magnetic ﬂux tubes. In standard physics con-

2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 157

text it would be harder to defend this kind of assumption. As will be found 3-braid Temperley-

Lieb representation is very natural for 1-gates. The implication is that the n-braid system

with braids represented as 4-batches would have 2

n

-dimensional space of logical qubits in fact

identical with the space of realizable qubits.

3. Also n-braid Temperley-Lieb representations are possible and the explicit expressions of the

braiding matrices for 6-braid case suggest that Z

4

topological charge is conserved also now [30].

In this case the dimension of the space of logical qubits is for highly favored value of quantum

group parameter q = exp(iπ/5) given by the Fibonacci number F(n) for n-braid case and behaves

as Φ

4n

asymptotically so that this option would be more eﬀective. From Φ

4

= 1 + 3Φ · 8.03

one can say that single 4-batch carries 3 bits of information instead of one. This is as it must

be since topological charge is not conserved inside batches separately for this option.

4. (AA) − A representation based on Z

4

-valued topological charge is unique in that the space of

logical qubits would be the space of topologically realizable qubits. Quantum superposition of

logical qubits could could be represented (AA) − A entangled state of form a[2, −1` + b[0, 1`

generated by braid action. Relative phase could be generated by braid operation acting on

the entangled state of anyons of (AA) Cooper pair. Since the superposition of logical cubits

corresponds to an entangled state a[2, −1` + b[0, 1` for which coeﬃcients are extended ratio-

nal numbers, the number theoretic realization of the bound state property could pose severe

conditions on possible relative phases.

2.5.2 Temperley-Lieb representations

The articles of Kaufmann [29] and Freedman [30, 38] provide enjoyable introduction to braid groups

and to Tempeley-Lie representations. In the sequel Temperley-Lieb representations are discussed from

TGD view point.

Temperley-Lieb representation for 3-braid group

In [29] it is explained how the so called Temperley-Lie algebra deﬁned by 2 2-matrices I, U

1

, U

2

satisfying the relations U

2

1

= dU

1

, U

2

2

= dU

2

, U

1

U

2

U

1

= U

2

, U

2

U

1

U

2

= U

1

allows a unitary represen-

tation of Artin’s braid group by unitary 2 2 matrices. The explicit representations of the matrices

U

1

and U

2

(note that U

i

/d acts as a projector) given by

U

1

=

d 0

0 0

,

U

2

=

¸

1

d

1 −

1

d

2

1 −

1

d

2

d −

1

d

¸

. (2.5.1)

Note that the eigenvalues of U

i

are d and 0. The representation of the elements s

1

and s

2

of the

3-braid group is given by

Φ(s

1

) = AI +A

−1

U

1

=

−U

−3

0

0 U

,

Φ(s

2

) = AI +A

−1

U

2

=

¸

−

U

3

d

U

−1

√

1−(1/d)

2

U

−1

√

1−(1/d)

2

U

−5

d

¸

,

U = exp(iφ) . (2.5.2)

Here the condition d = −A

2

− A

−2

is satisﬁed. For A = exp(iφ), with [φ[ ≤ π/6 or [π − φ[ ≤ π/6,

the representation is unitary. The constraint comes from the requirement d > 1. From the basic

representation it follows that the eigenvalues of Φ(s

i

) are −exp(−3iφ) and exp(iφ).

Tihs 3-braid representation is a special case of a more general Temperley-Lieb-Jones representation

discussed in [30] using notations A =

√

−1exp(−i2π/4r), s = A

2

, and q = A

4

. In this case all eigen-

values of all representation matrices are −1 and q = exp(−i2π/r). This representation results by

158 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

multiplying Temperley-Lieb representation above with an over-all phase factor exp(4iφ) and by the

replacement A = exp(iφ) →

√

−1A.

Constraints on the parameters of Temperley-Lieb representation

The basic mathematical requirement is that besides entangling 2-gate there is minimum set of 1-gates

generating inﬁnite sub-group of U(2). Further conditions come from the requirement that a braid

representation is in question. In the proposal of [28, 30] the 1-gates are realized using Temperley-

Lieb 3-braid representation. It is found that there are strong constraints to the representation and

that relative phase gate generating the phase exp(iφ) = exp(i2π/5) is the simplest solution to the

constraints.

The motivation comes from the ﬁndings made already by Witten in his pioneering work related to

the topological quantum ﬁeld theories and one can ﬁnd a good representation about what is involve

din [30].

Topological quantum ﬁeld theories can produce unitary modular functors when the A = q

1/4

=

exp(iφ) characterizing the quantum group multiplication is a root of unity so that the quantum

enveloping algebra U(Sl(2))

q

deﬁned as the quantum version of the enveloping algebra U(Sl(2)) is

not homomorphic with U(Sl(2)) and theory does not trivialize. Besides this, q must satisfy some

consistency conditions. First of all, A

4n

= 1 must be satisﬁed for some value of n so that A is either

a primitive l:th, 2l:th of unity for l odd, or 4l:th primitive root of unity.

This condition relates directly to the fact that the quantum integers [n]

q

= (A

2n

−A

−2n

)/(A

2

−A

−2

)

vanish for n ≥ l so that the representations for a highest weight n larger than l are not irreducible. This

implies that the theory simpliﬁes dramatically since these representations can be truncated away but

can cause also additional diﬃculties in the deﬁnition of link invariants. Indeed, as Witten found in his

original construction, the topological ﬁeld theories are unitary for U(Sl(2))

q

only for A = exp(ikπ/2l),

k not dividing 2l, and A = exp(iπ/l), l odd (no multiples are allowed) [30]. n = 2l = 10, which is the

physically favored choice, corresponds to the relative phase 4φ = 2π/5.

Golden Mean and quantum computation

Temperley-Lieb representation based on q = exp(i2π/5) is highly preferred physically.

1. One might hope that the Yang-Baxter representation based on maximally entangling braid

matrix R might work. R

8

= 1 constraint is however not consistent with Temperley-Lieb repre-

sentations. The reason is that Φ

8

(s

1

) = 1 gives φ = π/4 > π/6 so that unitarity constraint is not

satisﬁed. φ = exp(i2π/16) corresponding r = 4 and to the matrix Φ(s

2

) =

ˆ

R = exp(i2π/16) R

allows to satisfy the unitarity constraint. This would look like a very natural looking selection

since Φ(s

2

) would act as a Hadamard gate and NMP would imply identical entanglement prob-

abilities if a bound state results in a quantum jump. Unfortunately, s

1

and s

2

do not generate

a dense subgroup of U(2) in this case as shown in [30].

2. φ = π/10 corresponding to r = 5 and Golden Mean satisﬁes all constraints coming from quantum

computation and knot theory. That is it spans a dense subgroup of U(2), and allows the

realization of modular functor deﬁned by Witten-Chern-Simons SU(2) action for k = 3, which

is physically highly attractive since the condition

r = k +c

g

(SU(2))

connecting r, k and the dual Coxeter number c

g

(SU(N)) = n in WCS theories is satisﬁed for

SU(2) in this case for r = 5 and k = 3.

SU(2) would have interpretation as the left-handed electro-weak gauge group SU(2)

L

associated

with classical electro-weak gauge ﬁelds. The symmetry breaking of SU(2)

L

down to a discrete

subgroup of SU(2)

L

yielding anyons would relate naturally to this. The conservation of the

topologized K¨ahler charge would correlate with the fact that there is no symmetry breaking

in the classical U(1) sector. k = 3 Chern-Simons theory is also known to share the same

universality class as simple 4-body Hamiltonian [28] (larger values of k would correspond to

k + 1-body Hamiltonians).

2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 159

3. Number theoretical vision about intentional systems suggests that the preferred relative phases

are algebraic numbers or more generally numbers which belong to a ﬁnite-dimensional exten-

sion of p-adic numbers. The idea about p-adic cognitive evolution as a gradual generation of

increasingly complex algebraic extensions of rationals allows to see the extension containing

Golden Mean Φ = (1 +

√

5)/2 as one of the simplest extensions. The relative phase exp(i4φ) =

exp(i2π/5) is expressible in an extension containing

√

Φ and Φ: one has cos(4φ) = (Φ − 1)/2

and sin(4φ) =

√

5Φ/2.

The general number theoretical ideas about cognition support the view that Golden Mean is in a very

special role in the number theoretical world order. This would be due to the fact that log(Φ)/π is a

rational number. This hypothesis would explain scaling hierarchies based on powers of Golden Mean.

One could argue that the geometry of the braid should reﬂect directly the value of the A = exp(i2φ).

The angle increment per single DNA nucleotide is φ/2 = 2π/10 for DNA double strand (note that

q would be exp(iπ/10), which raises the question whether DNA might be a topological quantum

computer.

Bratteli diagram for n = 5 case, Fibonacci numbers, and microtubuli

Finite-dimensional von Neumann algebras can be conveniently characterized in terms of Bratteli dia-

grams [16]. For instance, the diagram a) of the ﬁgure 2.5.2 at the end of the chapter represents the

inclusion N ⊂ M, where N = M

2

(C) ⊗ C, M = M

6

(C) ⊗ M

3

(C) ⊗ C. The diagram expresses the

imbeddings of elements A⊗x of M

2

(C) ⊗C to M

6

(C) as a tensor product A

1

⊗A

2

⊗x

A

1

=

¸

A . .

. A .

. . A

¸

,

A

2

=

A .

. x

.

(2.5.3)

Bratteli diagrams of inﬁnite-dimensional von Neumann algebras are obtained as limiting cases of

ﬁnite-dimensional ones.

Figure 2.1: a) Illustration of Bratteli diagram. b) and c) give Bratteli diagrams for n = 4 and n = 5

Temperley Lieb algebras

2. Temperley Lieb algebras approximate II

1

factors

The hierarchy of inclusions of with [M

i+1

: M

i

[ = r deﬁnes a hierarchy of Temperley-Lieb algebras

characterizable using Bratteli diagrams. The diagrams b) and c) of the ﬁgure 2.5.2 at the end of the

chapter characterize the Bratteli diagrams for n = 4 and n = 5. For n = 4 the dimensions of algebras

come in powers of 2 in accordance with the fact r = 2 is the dimension of the eﬀective tensor factor

of II

1

.

160 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

For n = 5 and B

m

= ¦1, e

1

, ..., e

m

¦ the dimensions of the two tensor factors of the Temperley Lieb-

representation are two subsequent Fibonacci numbers F

m−1

, F

m

(F

m+1

= F

m

+F

m−1

, F

1

= 1, F

2

= 1)

so that the dimension of the tensor product is dim(B

m

) = F

m

F

m−1

. One has dim(B

m+1

)/dim(B

m

) =

F

m

/F

m−2

→Φ

2

= 1 +Φ, the dimension of the eﬀective tensor factor for the corresponding hierarchy

of II

1

factors. Hence the two dimensional hierarchies ”approximate” each other. In fact, this result

holds completely generally.

The fact that r is approximated by an integer in braid representations is highly interesting from

the point of view of TQC. For 3-braid representation the dimension of Temperley-Lieb representation

is 2 for all values of n so that 3-braid representation deﬁnes single (topo)logical qubit as (AA) −A−A

realization indeed assumes. One could optimistically say that TGD based physics automatically

realizes topological qubit in terms of 3-braid representation and the challenge is to understand the

details of this realization.

2. Why Golden Mean should be favored?

The following argument suggests a physical reason for why just Golden Mean should be favored

in the magnetic ﬂux tube systems.

1. Arnold [18] has shown that if Lorentz 3-force satisﬁes the condition F

B

= q(∇B) B = q∇Φ,

then the ﬁeld lines of the magnetic ﬁeld lie on Φ = constant tori. On the other hand, the

vanishing of the Lorentz 4-forces for solutions of ﬁeld equations representing asymptotic self-

organized states, which are the ”survivors” selected by dissipation, equates magnetic force with

the negative of the electric force expressible as qE, E = −∇Φ + ∂

t

A, which is gradient if the

vector potential does not depend on time. Since the vector potential depends on three CP

2

coordinates only for D = 3, this seems to be the case.

2. The celebrated Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem is about the stability of systems,

whose orbits are on invariant tori characterized by the frequencies associated with the n in-

dependent harmonic oscillator like degrees of freedom. The theorem states that the tori for

which the frequency ratios are rational are highly unstable against perturbations: this is due

to resonance eﬀects. The more ”irrational” the frequencies are, the higher the stability of the

orbits is, and the most stable situation corresponds to frequencies whose ratio is Golden Mean.

In quantum context the frequencies for wave motion on torus would correspond to multiples

ω

i

= n2π/L

i

, L

i

the circumference of torus. This poor man’s argument would suggest that the

ratio of the circumferences of the most stable magnetic tori should be given by Golden Mean in

the most stable situation: perhaps one might talk about Golden Tori!

3. Golden Mean and microtubuli

What makes this observation so interesting is that Fibonacci numbers appear repeatedly in the

geometry of living matter. For instance, micro-tubuli, which are speculated to be systems performing

quantum computation, represent in their structure the hierarchy Fibonacci numbers 5, 8, 13, which

brings in mind the tensor product representation 5 ⊗ 8 of B

5

(5 braid strands!) and leads to ask

whether this Temperley-Lieb representation could be somehow realized using microtubular geometry.

According to the arguments of [28] the state of n anyons corresponds to 2

n−1

topological degrees of

freedom and code space corresponds to F

n

-dimensional sub-space of this space. The two conformations

of tubulin dimer deﬁne the standard candidate for qubit, and one could assume that the conformation

correlates strongly with the underlying topological qubit. A sequence of 5 resp. 8 tubulin dimers

would give 2

4

resp. 2

7

-dimensional space with F

5

= 5- resp. F

7

= 13-dimensional code sub-space

so that numbers come out nicely. The changes of tubulin dimer conformations would be induced by

the braid groups B

4

and B

7

. B

4

would be most naturally realized in terms of a unit of 5-dimers by

regarding the 4 ﬁrst tubulins as braided punctures and 5th tubulin as the passive puncture. B

7

would

be realized in a similar manner using a unit of 8 tubulin dimers.

Flux tubes would connect the subsequent dimers along the helical 5-strand resp. 8-strand deﬁned

by the microtubule. Nearest neighbor swap for the ﬂux tubes would induce the change of the tubulin

conformation and induce also entanglement between neighboring conformations. A full 2π helical

twist along microtubule would correspond to 13 basic steps and would deﬁne a natural TQC program

module. In accordance with the interpretation of II

1

factor hierarchy, (magnetic or electric) ﬂux tubes

could be assumed to correspond to r = 2 II

1

factor and thus carry 2-dimensional representations of

2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 161

n = 5 or n = 4 3-braid group. These qubits could be realized as topological qubits using (AA) − A

system.

Topological entanglement as space-time correlate of quantum entanglement

Quantum-classical correspondence encourages to think that bound state formation is represented at

the space-time level as a formation of join along boundaries bonds connecting the boundaries of 3-

space sheets. In particular, the formation of entangled bound states would correspond to a topological

entanglement for the join along boundaries bonds forming braids. The light-likeness of the boundaries

of the bonds gives a further support for this identiﬁcation. During macro-temporal quantum coherence

a sequence of quantum jumps binds eﬀectively to single quantum jump and subjective time eﬀectively

ceases to run. The light-likeness for the boundaries of bonds means that geometric time stops and

is thus natural space-time correlate for the subjective experience during macro-temporal quantum

coherence.

Also the work with TQC lends support for a a deep connection between quantum entanglement

and topological entanglement in the sense that the knot invariants constructed using entangling 2-gate

R can detect linking. Temperley-Lieb representation for 3-braids however suggests that topological

entanglement allows also single qubit representations for with quantum entanglement plays no role.

One can however wonder whether the entanglement might enter into the picture in some natural

manner in the quantum computation of Temperley-Lieb representation. The idea is simple: perhaps

the physics of (AA) − A − A system forces single qubit representation through the simple fact that

the state space reduces in 4-batch to single qubit by topological constraints.

For TQC the logical qubits correspond to entangled states of anyon Cooper pair (AA) and second

anyon A so that the quantum superposition of qubits corresponds to an entangled state in general.

Several arguments suggest that logical qubits would provide Temperley-Lieb representation in a nat-

ural manner.

1. The number of braids inside 4-anyon batch (or 3-anyon batch in case that (AA) can decay

temporarily during braid operation) 3 so that by the universality this system allows to compute

the unitary Temperley-Lieb braid representation. The space of logical qubits equals to the entire

state space since the number of qubits represented by topological ground state degeneracy is 1

instead of the expected three since 2n anyon system gives rise to 2

n−1

-fold vacuum degeneracy.

The degeneracy is same even when two of the anyons fuse to anyon Cooper pair. Thus it

would seem that the 3-braid system in question automatically produces 1-qubit representation

of 3-braid group.

2. The braiding matrices Φ(s

1

) and Φ(s

2

) are diﬀerent and only Φ(s

2

) mixes qubit values. This

can be interpreted as the presence of two inherently diﬀerent braid operations such that only

the second braiding operation can generate entanglement of states serving as building blocks

of logical qubits. The description of anyons as 2-dimensional wormholes led to precisely this

picture. The braid group reduces to braid group for one half of anyons since anyon and its

partner at the end of wormhole are head and feet of single dancer, and the anyon pair (AA)

forming bound state can change partner during swap operation with anyon A and this generates

quantum entanglement. The swap for anyons inside (AA) can generate only relative phase.

3. The vanishing of the topological charge in a pairwise manner is the symmetry which reduces

the dimension of the representation space to 2

n−1

as already found. For n = 4 only single

topological qubit results. The conservation and vanishing of the net topological charge inside

each batch gives a constraint, which is satisﬁed by the maximally entangling R-matrix R so that

it could take care of braiding between diﬀerent 4-batches and one would have diﬀerent braid

representation for 4-batches and braids consisting of them. Topological quantization justiﬁes

this picture physically. Only phase generating physical 1-gates are allowed since Hadamard

gate would break the conservation of topological charge whereas for logical 1-gates entanglement

generating 2-gates can generate mixing without the breaking of the conservation of topological

charges.

162 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

Summary

It deserves to summarize the key elements of the proposed model for which the localization (in the

precise sense deﬁned in [38]) made possible by topological ﬁeld quantization and Z

4

valued topological

charge are absolutely essential prerequisites.

1. 2n-anyon system has 2

n−1

-fold ground state degeneracy, which for n = 2 leaves only single

logical qubit. In standard physics framework (AA) −A−A is minimal option because the total

homology charge of the system must vanish. In TGD (AA) − A system is enough to represent

3-braid system if the braid operation between AA and A can be realized as an exchange of the

dancing partner. This option makes sense because the anyons with opposite topological charges

at the ends of wormhole threads can be negative energy anyons representing the ﬁnal state of

the braid operation. A pair of magnetic ﬂux tubes is needed to realize single anyon-system

containing braid.

2. Maximally entangling R-matrix realizes braid interactions between (AA) − A systems realized

as 3-braids inside larger braids and the space of logical qubits is equivalent with the space of

realizable qubits. The topological charges are conserved separately for each (AA) − A system.

Also the more general realization based on n-braid representations of Temperley-Lieb algebra is

formally possible but the diﬀerent topological realization of braiding operations does not support

this possibility.

3. Temperley-Lieb 3-braid representation for (AA) − A − A system allows to realize also 1-gates

as braid operations so that topology would allow to avoid the ﬁne-tuning associated with 1-

gates. Temperley-Lieb representation for φ = exp(iπ/10) satisﬁes all basic constraints and

provides representation of the modular functor expressible using k = 3 Witten-Chern-Simons

action. Physically 1-gates are realizable using Φ

1

acting as phase gate for anyon pair inside

(AA) and Φ(s

2

) entangling (AA) and A by partner exchange. The existence of single qubit

braid representations apparently conﬂicting with the identiﬁcation of topological entanglement

as a correlate of quantum entanglement has an explanation in terms of quantum computation

under topological symmetries.

2.5.3 Zero energy topological quantum computations

As already described, TGD suggests a radical re-interpretation for matter antimatter asymmetry in

long length scales. The asymmetry would be due to the fact that ground state for fermion system

corresponds to inﬁnite sea of negative energy fermions and positive energy anti-fermions so that

fermions would have positive energies and anti-fermions negative energies.

The obvious implication is the possibility to interpret scattering between positive energy states as

a creation of a zero energy state with outgoing particles represented as negative energy particles. The

fact that the quantum states of 3-dimensional light-like boundaries of 3-surfaces represent evolutions

of 2-dimensional quantum systems suggests a realization of topological quantum computations using

physical boundary states consisting of positive energy anyons representing the initial state of anyon

system and negative energy anyons representing the outcome of the braid operation.

The simplest scenario simply introduces negative energy charge conjugate of the (AA) −A system

so that no deviations from the proposed scenario are needed. Both calculation and its conjugate

are performed. This picture is the only possible one if one assumes that given space-time sheet

contains either positive or negative energy particles but not both and very natural if one assumes

ordinary fermionic vacuum. The quantum computing system would could be generated without any

energy costs and even intentionally by ﬁrst generating the p-adic space-time sheets responsible for the

magnetic ﬂux tubes and anyons and then transformed to their real counterparts in quantum jump.

This double degeneracy is analogous to that associated with DNA double strand and could be used

for error correction purposes: if the calculation has been run correctly both anyon Cooper pairs and

their charge conjugates should decay with the same probability.

Negative energies could have much deeper role in TQC. This option emerges naturally in the

wormhole handle realization of TQC. The TGD realization of 1-gates in 3-braid Temperley-Lieb

representation uses anyons of opposite topological charges at the opposite ends of threads connecting

magnetic ﬂux tube boundaries. Single 3-braid unit would correspond to positive energy electronic

2.5. Topological quantum computation in TGD Universe 163

anyons at the ﬁrst ﬂux tube boundary and negative energy positronic anyons at the second ﬂux tube

boundary. The sequences of 1-gates represented as 3-braid operations would be coded by a sequence

of 3-braids representing generators of 3-braid group along a pair of magnetic ﬂux tubes. Of course,

also n-braid operations could be coded in the similar manner in series. Hence TQC could be realized

using only two magnetic ﬂux tubes with n-braids connecting their boundaries in series.

Condensed matter physicist would probably argue that all this could be achieved by using electrons

in strand and holes in the conjugate strand instead of negative energy positrons: this would require only

established physics. One can however ask whether negative energy positrons could appear routinely in

condensed matter physics. For instance, holes might in some circumstances be generated by a creation

of an almost zero energy pair such that positron annihilates with a fermion below the Fermi surface.

The signature for this would be a photon pair consisting of ordinary and phase conjugate photons.

The proposed interpretation of the S-matrix in the Universe having vanishing net quantum numbers

encourages to think that the S-matrices of 2+1-dimensional ﬁeld theories based on Witten-Chern-

Simons action deﬁned in the space of zero (net) energy states could deﬁne physical states for quantum

TGD. Thus the 2+1-dimensional S-matrix could deﬁne quantum states of 4-dimensional theory having

interpretation as states representing ”self-reﬂective” level representing in itself the S-matrix of a lower-

dimensional theory. The identiﬁcation of the quantum state as S-matrix indeed makes sense for light-

like surfaces which can be regarded as limiting cases of space-like 3-surfaces deﬁning physical state

and time-like surfaces deﬁning a time evolution of the state of 2-dimensional system.

Time evolution would deﬁne also an evolution in topological degrees of freedom characterizing

ground states. Quantum states associated with light-like (with respect to the induced metric of space-

time sheet) 3-dimensional boundaries of say magnetic ﬂux tubes would deﬁne quantum computations

as modular functors. This conforms with quantum-classical correspondence since braids, the classical

states, indeed deﬁne quantum computations.

The important implication would be that a conﬁguration which looks static would code for the

dynamic braiding. One could understand the quantum computation in this framework as signals

propagating through the strands and being aﬀected by the gate. Even at the limit when the signal

propagates with light velocity along boundary of braid the situation looks static from outside. Time

evolution as a state could be characterized as sequence of many-anyon states such that basic braid

operations are realized as zero energy states with initial state realized using positive energy anyons and

ﬁnal state realized using negative energy energy anyons diﬀering by the appropriate gate operation

from the positive energy state.

In the case of n-braid system the state representing the S-matrix S = S

1

S

2

....S

n

associated with

a concatenation of n elementary braid operations would look like

[S` = P

k

1

S

1

k

1

k

2

P

k

2

S

2

k

2

k

3

P

k

3

S

3

k

3

k

4

... ,

P

k

= [k, <`[k, >` . (2.5.4)

Here S

k

are S-matrices associated with gates representing simple braiding operations s

k

for n + 1

threads connecting the magnetic ﬂux tubes. P

k

represents a trivial transition [k` → [k → k` as zero

energy state [k, > 0`[k, <`. The states P

k

represent matrix elements of the identiﬁcation map from

positive energy Hilbert space to its negative energy dual.

What would happen can be visualized in two alternative manners.

1. For this option the braid maps occur always from ﬂux tube 1 to ﬂux tube 2. A braiding transition

from 1 to 2 is represented by S

k

1

; a trivial transition from 2 to 1 is represented by P

k

; a braiding

transition from 1 to 2 is represented by S

k

2

, etc... In this case ﬂux tube 1 contains positive

energy anyons and ﬂux tube 2 the negative energy anyons.

2. An alternative representation is the one in which P

k

represents transition along the strand so

that S

k

resp. S

k+1

corresponds to braiding transition from strand 1 to 2 resp. 2 to 1. In this

case both ﬂux tubes contain both positive and negative energy anyons.

164 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

2.6 Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding

space

In the following the recent view about structure of imbedding space forced by the quantization of

Planck constant is described. This view has developed much before the original version of this chapter

was written.

The original idea was that the proposed modiﬁcation of the imbedding space could explain naturally

phenomena like quantum Hall eﬀect involving fractionization of quantum numbers like spin and charge.

This does not however seem to be the case. G

a

G

b

implies just the opposite if these quantum numbers

are assigned with the symmetries of the imbedding space. For instance, quantization unit for orbital

angular momentum becomes n

a

where Z

n

a

is the maximal cyclic subgroup of G

a

.

One can however imagine of obtaining fractionization at the level of imbedding space for space-

time sheets, which are analogous to multi-sheeted Riemann surfaces (say Riemann surfaces associated

with z

1/n

since the rotation by 2π understood as a homotopy of M

4

lifted to the space-time sheet

is a non-closed curve. Continuity requirement indeed allows fractionization of the orbital quantum

numbers and color in this kind of situation.

2.6.1 Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible

The observation above stimulates the question whether it might be possible in some sense to replace

H or its factors by their multiple coverings.

1. This is certainly not possible for M

4

, CP

2

, or H since their fundamental groups are trivial.

On the other hand, the ﬁxing of quantization axes implies a selection of the sub-space H

4

=

M

2

S

2

⊂ M

4

CP

2

, where S

2

is a geodesic sphere of CP

2

.

ˆ

M

4

= M

4

`M

2

and

ˆ

CP

2

= CP

2

`S

2

have fundamental group Z since the codimension of the excluded sub-manifold is equal to two

and homotopically the situation is like that for a punctured plane. The exclusion of these sub-

manifolds deﬁned by the choice of quantization axes could naturally give rise to the desired

situation.

2. Zero energy ontology forces to modify this picture somewhat. In zero energy ontology causal

diamonds (CDs) deﬁned as the intersections of future and past directed light-cones are loci for

zero energy states containing positive and negative energy parts of state at the two light-cone

boundaries. The location of CD in M

4

is arbitrary but p-adic length scale hypothesis suggests

that the temporal distances between tips of CD come as powers of 2 using CP

2

size as unit.

Thus M

4

is replaces by CD and

ˆ

M

4

is replaced with

ˆ

CD deﬁned in obvious manner.

3. H

4

represents a straight cosmic string inside CD. Quantum ﬁeld theory phase corresponds to

Jones inclusions with Jones index ´ : ^ < 4. Stringy phase would by previous arguments

correspond to ´: ^ = 4. Also these Jones inclusions are labeled by ﬁnite subgroups of SO(3)

and thus by Z

n

identiﬁed as a maximal Abelian subgroup.

One can argue that cosmic strings are not allowed in QFT phase. This would encourage the

replacement

ˆ

CD

ˆ

CP

2

implying that surfaces in CD S

2

and (M

2

∩ CD) CP

2

are not

allowed. In particular, cosmic strings and CP

2

type extremals with M

4

projection in M

2

and

thus light-like geodesic without zitterwebegung essential for massivation are forbidden. This

brings in mind instability of Higgs=0 phase.

4. The covering spaces in question would correspond to the Cartesian products

ˆ

CD

n

a

ˆ

CP

2n

b

of the covering spaces of

ˆ

CD and

ˆ

CP

2

by Z

n

a

and Z

n

b

with fundamental group is Z

n

a

Z

n

b

.

One can also consider extension by replacing M

2

∩ CD and S

2

with its orbit under G

a

(say

tedrahedral, octahedral, or icosahedral group). The resulting space will be denoted by

ˆ

CD

ˆ

G

a

resp.

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

G

b

.

5. One expects the discrete subgroups of SU(2) emerge naturally in this framework if one allows

the action of these groups on the singular sub-manifolds M

2

∩CD or S

2

. This would replace the

singular manifold with a set of its rotated copies in the case that the subgroups have genuinely

3-dimensional action (the subgroups which corresponds to exceptional groups in the ADE corre-

spondence). For instance, in the case of M

2

∩CD the quantization axes for angular momentum

2.6. Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space 165

would be replaced by the set of quantization axes going through the vertices of tedrahedron, oc-

tahedron, or icosahedron. This would bring non-commutative homotopy groups into the picture

in a natural manner.

6. Also the orbifolds

ˆ

CD/G

a

ˆ

CP

2

/G

b

can be allowed as also the spaces

ˆ

CD/G

a

(

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

G

b

)

and (

ˆ

CD

ˆ

G

a

)

ˆ

CP

2

/G

b

. Hence the previous framework would generalize considerably by the

allowance of both coset spaces and covering spaces.

There are several non-trivial questions related to the details of the gluing procedure and phase

transition as motion of partonic 2-surface from one sector of the imbedding space to another one.

1. How the gluing of copies of imbedding space at (M

2

∩ CD) CP

2

takes place? It would seem

that the covariant metric of M

4

factor proportional to

2

must be discontinuous at the singular

manifold since only in this manner the idea about diﬀerent scaling factor of M

4

metric can make

sense. This is consistent with the identical vanishing of Chern-Simons action in M

2

S

2

.

2. One might worry whether the phase transition changing Planck constant means an instantaneous

change of the size of partonic 2-surface in CD degrees of freedom. This is not the case. Light-

likeness in (M

2

∩CD) S

2

makes sense only for surfaces X

1

D

2

⊂ (M

2

∩CD) S

2

, where X

1

is light-like geodesic. The requirement that the partonic 2-surface X

2

moving from one sector

of H to another one is light-like at (M

2

∩CD) S

2

irrespective of the value of Planck constant

requires that X

2

has single point of (M

2

∩ CD) as M

2

projection. Hence no sudden change of

the size X

2

occurs.

3. A natural question is whether the phase transition changing the value of Planck constant can

occur purely classically or whether it is analogous to quantum tunneling. Classical non-vacuum

extremals of Chern-Simons action have two-dimensional CP

2

projection to homologically non-

trivial geodesic sphere S

2

I

. The deformation of the entire S

2

I

to homologically trivial geodesic

sphere S

2

II

is not possible so that only combinations of partonic 2-surfaces with vanishing total

homology charge (K¨ahler magnetic charge) can in principle move from sector to another one,

and this process involves fusion of these 2-surfaces such that CP

2

projection becomes single

homologically trivial 2-surface. A piece of a non-trivial geodesic sphere S

2

I

of CP

2

can be

deformed to that of S

2

II

using 2-dimensional homotopy ﬂattening the piece of S

2

to curve. If this

homotopy cannot be chosen to be light-like, the phase transitions changing Planck constant take

place only via quantum tunnelling. Obviously the notions of light-like homotopies (cobordisms)

and classical light-like homotopies (cobordisms) are very relevant for the understanding of phase

transitions changing Planck constant.

2.6.2 Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones

inclusions?

What could be the interpretation of these two kinds of spaces?

1. Jones inclusions appear in two varieties corresponding to ´ : ^ < 4 and ´ : ^ = 4 and one

can assign a hierarchy of subgroups of SU(2) with both of them. In particular, their maximal

Abelian subgroups Z

n

label these inclusions. The interpretation of Z

n

as invariance group is

natural for ´ : ^ < 4 and it naturally corresponds to the coset spaces. For ´ : ^ = 4 the

interpretation of Z

n

has remained open. Obviously the interpretation of Z

n

as the homology

group deﬁning covering would be natural.

2. ´ : ^ = 4 should correspond to the allowance of cosmic strings and other analogous objects.

Does the introduction of the covering spaces bring in cosmic strings in some controlled manner?

Formally the subgroup of SU(2) deﬁning the inclusion is SU(2) would mean that states are

SU(2) singlets which is something non-physical. For covering spaces one would however obtain

the degrees of freedom associated with the discrete ﬁber and the degrees of freedom in question

would not disappear completely and would be characterized by the discrete subgroup of SU(2).

For anyons the non-trivial homotopy of plane brings in non-trivial connection with a ﬂat cur-

vature and the non-trivial dynamics of topological QFTs. Also now one might expect similar

166 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

non-trivial contribution to appear in the spinor connection of

ˆ

CD

ˆ

G

a

and

ˆ

CP

2

ˆ

G

b

. In confor-

mal ﬁeld theory models non-trivial monodromy would correspond to the presence of punctures

in plane.

3. For factor spaces the unit for quantum numbers like orbital angular momentum is multiplied

by n

a

resp. n

b

and for coverings it is divided by this number. These two kind of spaces are

in a well deﬁned sense obtained by multiplying and dividing the factors of

ˆ

H by G

a

resp. G

b

and multiplication and division are expected to relate to Jones inclusions with ´: ^ < 4 and

´: ^ = 4, which both are labeled by a subset of discrete subgroups of SU(2).

4. The discrete subgroups of SU(2) with ﬁxed quantization axes possess a well deﬁned multipli-

cation with product deﬁned as the group generated by forming all possible products of group

elements as elements of SU(2). This product is commutative and all elements are idempotent

and thus analogous to projectors. Trivial group G

1

, two-element group G

2

consisting of reﬂec-

tion and identity, the cyclic groups Z

p

, p prime, and tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral

groups are the generators of this algebra.

By commutativity one can regard this algebra as an 11-dimensional module having natural numbers

as coeﬃcients (”rig”). The trivial group G

1

, two-element group G

2

¡ generated by reﬂection, and

tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral groups deﬁne 5 generating elements for this algebra. The

products of groups other than trivial group deﬁne 10 units for this algebra so that there are 11 units

altogether. The groups Z

p

generate a structure analogous to natural numbers acting as analog of

coeﬃcients of this structure. Clearly, one has eﬀectively 11-dimensional commutative algebra in 1-1

correspondence with the 11-dimensional ”half-lattice” N

11

(N denotes natural numbers). Leaving

away reﬂections, one obtains N

7

. The projector representation suggests a connection with Jones

inclusions. An interesting question concerns the possible Jones inclusions assignable to the subgroups

containing inﬁnitely manner elements. Reader has of course already asked whether dimensions 11,

7 and their diﬀerence 4 might relate somehow to the mathematical structures of M-theory with 7

compactiﬁed dimensions. One could introduce generalized conﬁguration space spinor ﬁelds in the

conﬁguration space labelled by sectors of H with given quantization axes. By introducing Fourier

transform in N

11

one would formally obtain an inﬁnite-component ﬁeld in 11-D space.

The question how do the Planck constants associated with factors and coverings relate is far from

trivial and I have considered several options.

1. If one assumes that

2

(X), X = M

4

, CP

2

corresponds to the scaling of the covariant metric

tensor g

ij

and performs an over-all scaling of metric allowed by Weyl invariance of K¨ahler action

by dividing metric with

2

(CP

2

), one obtains r

2

≡

2

/

2

0

2

(M

4

)/

2

(CP

2

). This puts M

4

and

CP

2

in a very symmetric role and allows much more ﬂexibility in the identiﬁcation of symmetries

associated with large Planck constant phases.

2. Algebraist would argue that Planck constant must deﬁne a homomorphism respecting multipli-

cation and division (when possible) by G

i

. This requires r(X) = (X)

0

= n for covering and

r(X) = 1/n for factor space or vice versa. This gives two options.

3. Option I: r(X) = n for covering and r(X) = 1/n for factor space gives r ≡ /

0

= r(M

4

)/r(CP

2

).

This gives r = n

a

/n

b

for

ˆ

H/G

a

G

b

option and r = n

b

/n

a

for

ˆ

H

ˆ

times(G

a

G

b

) option with

obvious formulas for hybrid cases.

4. Option II: r(X) = 1/n for covering and r(X) = n for factor space gives r = r(CP

2

)/r(M

4

).

This gives r = n

b

/n

a

for

ˆ

H/G

a

G

b

option and r = n

a

/n

b

for

ˆ

H

ˆ

times(G

a

G

b

) option with

obvious formulas for the hybrid cases.

5. At quantum level the fractionization would come from the modiﬁcation of fermionic anti-

commutation (bosonic commutation) relations involving at the right hand side so that particle

number becomes a multiple of 1/n or n. If one postulates that the total number states is invari-

ant in the transition, the increase in the number of sheets is compensated by the increase of the

fundamental phase space volume proportional to . This would give r(X) →r(X)/n for factor

space and r(X) →nr(X) for the covering space to compensate the n-fold reduction/increase of

states. This would favor Option II.

2.6. Appendix: A generalization of the notion of imbedding space 167

6. The second manner to distinguish between these two options is to apply the theory to concrete

physical situations. Since G

a

and G

b

act as symmetries in CD and CP

2

degrees of freedom, one

might of being able to distinguish between the two options if it is possible to distinguish between

the action of G as symmetry of quantum states associated with covering and factor space. Also

the quantization of the orbital spin quantum number at single particle level as multiples of n

can be distinguished from that in multiples of 1/n.

2.6.3 A simple model of fractional quantum Hall eﬀect

The generalization of the imbedding space suggests that it could possible to understand fractional

quantum Hall eﬀect [34] at the level of basic quantum TGD. This section represents the ﬁrst rough

model of QHE constructed for a couple of years ago is discussed. Needless to emphasize, the model

represents only the basic idea and involves ad hoc assumption about charge fractionization.

Recall that the formula for the quantized Hall conductance is given by

σ = ν

e

2

h

,

ν =

n

m

. (2.6.1)

Series of fractions in ν = 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, 4/9, 5/11, 6/13, 7/15..., 2/3, 3/5, 4/7, 5/9, 6/11, 7/13..., 5/3, 8/5, 11/7, 14/9...4/3, 7/5, 10/7, 13/9...,

1/5, 2/9, 3/13..., 2/7, 3/11..., 1/7.... with odd denominator have been observed as are also ν = 1/2 and

ν = 5/2 states with even denominator [34].

The model of Laughlin [32] cannot explain all aspects of FQHE. The best existing model proposed

originally by Jain is based on composite fermions resulting as bound states of electron and even number

of magnetic ﬂux quanta [35]. Electrons remain integer charged but due to the eﬀective magnetic ﬁeld

electrons appear to have fractional charges. Composite fermion picture predicts all the observed

fractions and also their relative intensities and the order in which they appear as the quality of sample

improves.

The generalization of the notion of imbedding space suggests the possibility to interpret these

states in terms of fractionized charge, spin, and electron number. There are four combinations of

covering and factors spaces of CP

2

and three of them can lead to the increase of Planck constant.

Besides this there are two options for the formula of Planck constant so that which the very meager

theoretical background one can make only guesses. On the following just for fun consideration option

I is considered although the conservation of number of states in the phase transition changing favors

option II.

1. The easiest manner to understand the observed fractions is by assuming that both M

4

and CP

2

correspond to covering spaces so that both spin and electric charge and fermion number are

fractionized. This means that e in electronic charge density is replaced with fractional charge.

Quantized magnetic ﬂux is proportional to e and the question is whether also here fractional

charge appears. Assume that this does not occur.

2. With this assumption the expression for the Planck constant becomes for Option II as r =

/

0

= n

a

/n

b

and charge and spin units are equal to 1/n

b

and 1/n

a

respectively. This gives

ν = nn

a

/n

b

. The values m = 2, 3, 5, 7, .. are observed. Planck constant can have arbitrarily

large values. There are general arguments stating that also spin is fractionized in FQHE.

3. The appearance of ν = 5/2 has been observed [36]. The fractionized charge is e/4 in this case.

Since n

i

> 3 holds true if coverings are correlates for Jones inclusions, this requires to n

b

= 4

and n

a

= 10. n

b

predicting a correct fractionization of charge. The alternative option would

be n

b

= 2 that also Z

2

would appear as the fundamental group of the covering space. Filling

fraction 1/2 corresponds in the composite fermion model and also experimentally to the limit

of zero magnetic ﬁeld [35]. n

b

= 2 is however inconsistent with the observed fractionization of

electric charge and with the vision inspired by Jones inclusions.

4. A possible problematic aspect of the TGD based model is the experimental absence of even values

of n

b

except n

b

= 2 (Laughlin’s model predicts only odd values of n). A possible explanation is

168 Chapter 2. Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

that by some symmetry condition possibly related to fermionic statistics (as in Laughlin model)

n

a

/n

b

must reduce to a rational with an odd denominator for n

b

> 2. In other words, one has

n

a

∝ 2

r

, where 2

r

the largest power of 2 divisor of n

b

.

5. Large values of n

a

emerge as B increases. This can be understood from ﬂux quantization. One

has e

BdS = n(M

4

) = nn

a

0

. By using actual fractional charge e

F

= e/n

b

in the ﬂux factor

would give e

F

BdS = n(n

a

/n

b

)

0

= n. The interpretation is that each of the n

a

sheets

contributes one unit to the ﬂux for e. Note that the value of magnetic ﬁeld in given sheet is not

aﬀected so that the build-up of multiple covering seems to keep magnetic ﬁeld strength below

critical value.

6. The understanding of the thermal stability is not trivial. The original FQHE was observed in

80 mK temperature corresponding roughly to a thermal energy of T ∼ 10

−5

eV. For graphene

the eﬀect is observed at room temperature. Cyclotron energy for electron is (from f

e

= 6

10

5

Hz at B = .2 Gauss) of order thermal energy at room temperature in a magnetic ﬁeld

varying in the range 1-10 Tesla. This raises the question why the original FQHE requires

so low temperature. The magnetic energy of a ﬂux tube of length L is by ﬂux quantization

roughly e

2

B

2

S ∼ E

c

(e)m

e

L (

0

= c = 1) and exceeds cyclotron roughly by a factor L/L

e

, L

e

electron Compton length so that thermal stability of magnetic ﬂux quanta is not the explanation.

A possible explanation is that since FQHE involves several values of Planck constant, it is

quantum critical phenomenon and is characterized by a critical temperature. The diﬀerences of

the energies associated with the phase with ordinary Planck constant and phases with diﬀerent

Planck constant would characterize the transition temperature.

As already noticed, it is possible to imagine several other options and the identiﬁcation of charge

unit is rather ad hoc. Therefore this model can be taken only as a warm-up exercise. In [C4] Quantum

Hall eﬀect and charge fractionization are discussed in detail and one ends up with a rather detailed

view about the delicacies of the K¨ahler structure of generalized imbedding space.

Bibliography

Online books about TGD

[1] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Topological Geometrodynamics: Overview.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdview/tgdview.html.

[2] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Physics as Inﬁnite-Dimensional Geometry.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdgeom/tgdgeom.html.

[3] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdclass/tgdclass.html.

[4] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum TGD.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdquant/tgdquant.html.

[5] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD as a Generalized Number Theory.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html.

[6] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/paddark/paddark.html.

[7] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and Fringe Physics.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/freenergy/freenergy.html.

Online books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness

and quantum biology

[8] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Self-Organizing Quantum Systems.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/bioselforg/bioselforg.html.

[9] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Hardware of Living Matter.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/bioware/bioware.html.

[10] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html.

[11] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/genememe/genememe.html.

[12] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and EEG.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdeeg/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html.

[13] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/hologram/hologram.html.

[14] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Magnetospheric Consciousness.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/magnconsc/magnconsc.html.

[15] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/magnconsc/mathconsc.html.

169

170 BIBLIOGRAPHY

References to the chapters of books

[A8] The chapter Was von Neumann Right After All of [4].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdview/tgdview.html#vNeumann.

[A9] The chapter Does TGD Predict the Spectrum of Planck Constants? of [1].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdview/tgdview.html#Planck.

[B1] The chapter Identiﬁcation of the Conﬁguration Space K¨ahler Function of [2].

http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdgeom/tgdgeom.html#kahler.

[B2] The chapter Construction of Conﬁguration Space K¨ahler Geometry from Symmetry Principles:

Part I of [2].

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2003, page 16.

Part II

PHYSICS INSPIRED MODELS

FOR GENOME AND

EVOLUTION OF GENETIC

CODE

175

Chapter 3

Genes and Memes

3.1 Introduction

In TGD based model of consciousness genes and memes are in very similar position. The quantum

self-organization process explains genetic code as an outcome of Darwinian selection basically carried

out by dissipation, and also memes should be subject to similar selection. Cognitive codes would be

for neuroscience what genetic code is for biology. Hence there are good motivations to guess what

the precise form and realization of these codes might be if it really exists. In fact, p-adic length

scale hierarchy suggests an entire fractal hierarchy of cognitive codes with quantized durations of the

codeword and preferred numbers of bits per code word [K1]. There exists however some preferred

cognitive codes. A simple model for abstraction process leads to an entire hierarchy of genetic codes

and one of them explains the basic numbers of the genetic code. A fascinating possibility is that

the next level in the hierarchy yields memetic code and also this possibility will be studied in the

sequel. Genetic and memetic codes represent particular examples associated with Mersenne primes

p = 127 = 2

7

−1 and p = M

127

= 2

127

−1.

3.1.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy of codes

The basic numbers of genetic code are probably not accidental. This led for more than ten years

ago to an attempt to construct a model for abstraction process reproducing the basic numbers of the

genetic code.

Genetic code from a model for abstraction process

The simplest model for an abstraction process is based to a repeated formation of statements about

statements starting from two basic statements representing the most primitive logical thoughts. If

one drops at each step of construction the statement corresponding to empty set in the set theoretic

realization of Boolean algebra, one obtains a hierarchy allowing to understand the basic numbers of

genetic code.

The outcome is the so called Combinatorial Hierarchy [16] consisting of the Mersenne numbers

2, M(1) = 3, 7 ,127, 2

127

− 1, .. constructed using the rule M(n + 1) = M

M(n)

= 2

M(n)

− 1. The

explicitly listed ones are known to be primes. Combinatorial Hierarchy emerges from a model of

abstraction process as sub-sequent transitions from level to meta level by forming Boolean statements

about Boolean statements of level n and dropping one statement away. Combinatorial Hierarchy

results also by constructing the sets of all subsets with empty set excluded starting from two element

set. The set of statements at level n can be given a structure of Finite Field G(M(n), 1) if M(n)

is prime. The multiplicative groups Z

M(n)−1

form a nested hierarchy and the coset spaces Z

k

n

≡ Z

M(n)−1

/Z

M(n−1)−1

are cyclic groups (k

n

= (M(n) − 1)/(M(n − 1) − 1)). Hilbert’s conjecture

states that each Mersenne number in the Combinatorial Hierarchy is prime.

Combinatorial Hierarchy based model of genetic code explains the number of DNAs and amino-

acids, and the representation of words of the genetic code as triplets of 4 diﬀerent lower level codewords.

Genetic code corresponds to n = 3 level of the hierarchy with 127 statements representable as 7-bit

sequences with the sequence of seven ’0’:s dropped away. Only the 64 6-bit code words can be fully

177

178 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

realized and correspond to (M(3) + 1)/2 = 64 DNA triplets. k

3

= 126/6 = 21 equals to the number

of amino-acids plus stopping codon. There is a natural imbedding of subgroup Z

21

identiﬁable as a

representation of amino-acids to the group Z

126=6×21

.

More abstractly, at level n the counterparts of DNA triplets correspond to the set X

N(DNA)

⊂

Z

M(n)−1

of N(DNA) = (M(n) + 1)/2 statements consistent with a ﬁxed atomic statement (64 for

n = 3). Atomic statement corresponds to a ﬁxed value, assumed to be one, of a ﬁxed bit in a bit

sequence representation and a subset consisting of single element in the set theoretic representation.

These statements could be regarded as statements consistent with the axiom deﬁned by the selection of

the atomic statement. The counterparts of amino-acids and stopping codon correspond to k

n

theorems

of a formal system deﬁned by n

th

level of Combinatorial Hierarchy having a unique imbedding as the

group Z

k

n

⊂ Z

M(n)−1

. The DNAs coding for a given ”amino-acid” correspond to the special cases of

the theorem.

Mapping of DNA code words to amino-acids generalizes to the mapping x → x

k

n−1

in Z

M(n)−1

mapping DNA type statements to amino-acid type statements. (M

(

n) +1)/2 DNAs can be imbedded

to Z

126

with several manners. Genetic code is ﬁxed ones this imbedding is given. For n = 3 one

obtains ordinary genetic code deﬁned by the map x → x

6

and imbedding of the DNAs to Z

126

. The

numbers of DNA:s coding single amino-acid can be reproduced by a symmetry breaking mechanism

involving the ﬁnite groups Z

p

n−1

and Z

k

n

and symmetry breaking is in a well deﬁned sense minimal.

The inﬁnite hierarchy of possible genetic codes (at least if Hilbert’s conjecture holds true) suggests

the possibility of an inﬁnite hierarchy of increasingly complex life forms.

If one allows only Mersenne primes, the model for the abstraction process predicts at least one

further code, which I have used to call memetic code. It corresponds to the Mersenne prime M

127

=

2

127

− 1 and has 2

126

code words and (2

126

− 1)/(2

6

− 1) ”amino-acids”. The secondary p-adic time

scale T(2, M

127

) is .1 seconds and deﬁnes a fundamental time scale in bio-systems.

There are reasons to expect that memetic code is an especially interesting higher level cognitive

code and realized in terms of ﬁeld patterns. In particular intronic portion of DNA could realize

memetic codewords as sequences of 21 DNA triplets and memes would deﬁne the counterparts of

computer programs at DNA level whereas genes would deﬁne the counterpart of computer hardware

coded into lower level programs and built only when needed. Both memes and genes could express

themselves in terms of ﬁeld patterns.

Memes and genes should relate like computer software and hardware. In the case of language the

rules producing a given linguistic expression can be seen as the software whereas words can be seen as

the hardware built from phonemes. This leads to the idea that memetic codewords deﬁne the basic

program modules producing linguistic expressions by activating genes which express themselves as

words or word sequences. Phonemes could directly correspond to DNA triplets and deﬁne the basic

building blocks of language having as such no meaning. If this view is correct, the development of

spoken and written language would mean basically the emergence of a higher level of intentionality,

which utilizes an already existing repertoire of memes already expressed in many other manners. This

would in turn suggest that animals and even plants possess some kind of languages realized at cellular

level, and that even inter-species communications using common memetic vocabulary.

Myth about Fall of Man as metaphor for codes

There are basically two genetic and memetic codes: 6-bit and almost-7-bit (2

3

− 1 code words rep-

resented consciously) genetic codes and 126- and almost-127 bit memetic codes. The myth about

the Fall of Man provides a little bit tongue-in-cheek metaphor for the extension of 126-bit code to

almost-127-bit code. God gave to Adam and Eve the moral code as a single moral law formulated

as an atomic statement ”Do anything but do not eat from the Tree of Good and Bad Knowledge”.

Adam and Eve of course did this and probably as many fractally scaled versions.

The ﬁrst Fall occurred probably already at the molecular level and meant the replacement of 6-bit

genetic code with almost-7-bit code: 63 = 9 7 sins beside 64 good deeds appeared (there are 9

classes of sins containing one sin for every day of the week, one of them containing the seven deadly

ones!). Imagination and intentions realized as deeds emerged and Adam and Eve became moral agents.

For the memetic code the replacement of 126-bit memetic code led to almost 127-bit code and the

repertoire of good and bad deeds was now much more impressive: 2

126

good deeds and 2

126

− 1 sins

(the basic classiﬁcation sins to 7 basic types makes senses still!). One can of course wonder what was

this un-doable sin with strong G¨odelian ﬂavor. A code word with only zeros cannot give rise to a

3.1. Introduction 179

conscious experience. Hence the un-doable sin could be such that the sinner cannot experience its

consequences in this life, that is suicide.

Genetic code and thinking at DNA level

TGD predicts entire inﬁnite hierarchy of selves starting from elementary particle level so that con-

sciousness should be present also at DNA and protein level. The notion of self indeed allows to

understand protein folding, which is rather mysterious phenomenon in standard physics framework.

The physical model of the genetic code constructed in [L2], when interpreted in terms of the model

for an abstraction process, suggests the interpretation of the genetic code as mapping the fundamental

64 truths to 20 basic conscious experiences, perhaps the protein level emotional experience about truth-

ness: it must be emphasized that our experiences are probably not in question. Amino-acid P could

correspond to the emotionally experienced truth ’G

1

(P) or G

2

(P).. or G

n

(P) is true’, where G

i

code

for protein P. 3 stopping sign codewords cannot be experienced emotionally as truths not non-truths

(holy trinity at protein level!).

In the model for introns discussed in the chapter [L2] cognitive neutrino play an essential role in

the genetic program of eukaryotes and suggests that Boolean mind appears already at molecular level

and could correspond to the logical statements represented by genes. This Boolean mind does not

correspond to our conscious logical thinking.

Does memetic code emerge at the next level of abstraction process?

The natural question is whether a counterpart of the genetic code could make sense for memes.

Combinatorial Hierarchy model for abstraction process that memetic code should correspond to the

level M

127

of the hierarchy. This leads to a precise realization of the memetic code in terms of

binary sequences. The secondary p-adic time scale associated with M

127

is .1 seconds, which seems

to deﬁne the duration for the immediate subjective memory. If this time scale corresponds to a

sequence consisting 127 bits, the duration of single bit is 1/1270 seconds, which happens to be very

near to deﬁnite p-adic time scale but is somewhat shorter than the typical duration of nerve pulse.

This suggests that nerve pulse patterns as such cannot realize the full memetic code. The time scale

associated with k = 252 = 2 6 21 is .05 seconds and one half of the duration of 127-bit memetic

codon. k = 252 allows the representations of both 6- and 7-bit genetic codes and of the 126-bit

memetic code.

An attractive hypothesis is that the temporal sequences for the Z

0

magnetization directions for a

block cognitive antineutrinos at cell membrane space-time sheet provide a representation of the almost

127-bit memetic codeword. The conscious experience results when the Z

0

magnetization directions ﬂip

back to the direction of external Z

0

magnetic ﬁeld in spin ﬂipping cyclotron transition. M

127

= 2

127

−1

diﬀerent conscious experiences results since nothing happens if all cognitive antineutrinos are in the

same direction as external Z

0

magnetic ﬁeld. Z

0

magnetization direction could be altered by the Z

0

magnetic pulse associated with the Z

0

ME inducing cell membrane oscillations of nerve pulse pattern.

This raises obvious questions. Does genome have a memetic counterpart; what would be the

function of the memone; what would be the memetic counterparts of the transcription and translation

processes for genes? The natural guess is that memes are the basic building blocks of cognition and

language. Perhaps also memes are coded by DNA, most naturally by introns, whose portion from the

genome increases with the evolutionary level of organism and is 99 per cent for Homo Sapiens. The

sequences of 21 DNA triplets would naturally realize 126-bit memetic codons 2

126

memetic codons

at DNA level. The prediction is that the intronic portions of the genome should consist of basic

units containing 21 DNA triplets. This would also mean that the language conscious-to-us is only

a tip of an iceberg. The intronic part of the DNA would be expressed in terms of MEs and involve

communications between cell membrane and nucleus. The dynamics of this realization would be fast

and nucleus would play the role of cellular brain.

3.1.2 The product model for the evolution of genetic code

It became as a surprise to me personally that the genetic code has an exact A-G permutation symmetry

and an almost exact T-C permutation symmetry with respect to the third nucleotide. Seen with the

eyes of a theoretical physicist knowing the enormous importance of spontaneous symmetry breaking in

180 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

physics, these simple symmetries point the way to the understanding of the basic mechanism behind

the evolution of the genetic code.

This inspired a simple model for our genetic code allowing to see the genetic code as a product of

much simpler doublet and singlet codes with a small symmetry breaking due to the interaction between

singlets and doublets. This model, even admittedly rather formal, might have deep implications for

the theories how the life at the molecular level has involved. The physical realization of this model

will be also discussed brieﬂy. A detailed discussion can be found in [L7].

3.1.3 General ideas about codes and languages

By quantum-classical correspondence space-time sheets provide a symbolic representation for the

contents of consciousness. Therefore one can say that everything in principle represents and the task

is to understand how these symbolic representations are generated, how codes are established, and

how these symbolic representations generated the desired mental images. This obviously means a

profound departure from the basic belief system of standard biology.

Computer languages form a hierarchy such that highest level languages are very ﬂexible approach-

ing gradually to the spoken language whereas lowest level languages are very precise and rigid. The

notion of self hierarchy suggests that our spoken language is only a top of an iceberg and that below it

is a hierarchy of languages ending down to the cellular level and DNA is one particular example about

”computer language” realized in terms of p-adic cognitive codes, in particular genetic and memetic

codes. In an attempt to understand whether and how memetic and other p-adic cognitive codes might

relate to the spoken and written language one must have some general ideas codes and language.

The hierarchy of cognitive codes

p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggests an entire hierarchy of cognitive codes and languages. The

primes p · 2

k

, k integer seems to be interesting physically, and prime values of k seem to be espe-

cially interesting. The codes would be characterized by the duration of the codeword given by n-ary

p-adic time scale T

p

(n) = p

(n−1)/2

T

p

, T

p

= 2

k/2−127

T(2, 127), T(2, 127) = .1 seconds. The most

general assumption is that number k

1

of bits of the codeword for given integer k

1

corresponds to some

factor of k, the largest factor maximizing the information content. Codes could be represented either

as temporal sequences of bits represented as pulses of maximal duration T

p

(n)/k

1

or as superpositions

of k

1

harmonics of f

1

= 1/T

p

(n), where Fourier components having intensity above/below critical

value would represent bit 1/0. These representations will be referred to as pulse and frequency repre-

sentations. Frequency representations would be realized in terms of topological light rays (”massless

extremals”, MEs) representing topologically quantized transverse radiation and pulse representations

in terms of scalar wave pulses not possible in Maxwell’s electrodynamics [G3]. This representational

dichotomy reﬂects particle-wave duality and talking left brain and singing right brain dichotomy.

Memetic and genetic codes represent special examples of cognitive codes. One must distinguish

between two representations: the representations involving 6 bits or almost 7 bits and 126 bits or

almost 127 bits. ’Almost’ means that only 2

k

− 1 bit sequences rather than all 2

k

bit sequences are

realized as conscious bits if bits are realized as phase transitions.

Codes are always involved with classical communications involving transformation of mental images

to a symbolic representation by some code. At our level of the hierarchy this symbolic representation

could be speech, written language, picture, body language... This would suggest that also p-adic

cognitive codes are involved with conscious communications. If these codes are realized in living

systems, the bit sequences with the predicted durations and bit contents should induce biological

eﬀects serving as correlates for the conscious understanding of the message generated by the codewords

at some level of the hierarchy.

TGD based view about living matter relies on the notion of ﬁeld body or magnetic body associated

with any system and having size much larger than the material body. Also these bodies form a fractal

hierarchy. The communications from material body to ﬁeld body could be based on cognitive codes.

Given p-adic frequency corresponds f

p

to a p-adic length scale L

p

= c/f

p

characterizing the size of the

magnetic body involved and for EEG frequencies the size scale of Earth is natural unit. For instance,

p-adic cognitive codes realized in terms of ﬁeld patterns would be involved with the communication

of long term declarative memories from the geometric past.

3.1. Introduction 181

What language is?

The attempt to understand the possible role of memetic code, a rough vision about what language is,

allows to eliminate several ideas which look promising at ﬁrst.

1. Language involves generation of symbolic representation of a mental image by a more or less

rigid code. An example of a very ﬂexible code is code based on associations. The symbolic

representation of mental image should induce in the receiver the original mental image as faith-

fully as possible. This requires that a lot of common context. In particular, the neurologies

and biologies of the sender and receiver must resemble each other suﬃciently. In the case of

high level languages like ordinary language even this is not enough and only simplest verbal

signals and body language are understood universally. The cognitive codes associated with say

cell level communications might make possible communications between cells of even diﬀerent

species remaining however unconscious to us.

2. The p-adic vision about evolution of cognitive skills like spoken language is that they evolve from

long time and length scales to shorter ones. First a rough sketch about the motor action is created

and gradually more and more details are added. This applies also at the level of the evolution

of language itself. Simple signals expressing and generating emotions evolve gradually to spoken

language which evolves to written language which in turn evolves to computer languages.

3. Learning of language requires learning of the conventions assigning to a given symbol a mental

image. Sharing of mental images which represent more primitive ”telepathic” communication

makes possible this process. The observation that even plants and cells can react to our emotions

and that this reaction does not depend much on distance [21], suggest that the sharing of

mental images is in question. This allows to consider the possibility of inter-species linguistic

communications using ﬁeld patterns.

4. The understanding of language requires transformation of symbolic representation to conscious

experience and here the notion of conscious bit (”cbit” [H8]) realized as a phase transition or as an

absence of phase transition suggests itself. Phase transition could correspond to magnetization

or formation of electret state and living matter could generate these representations in various

length scales.

5. In TGD Universe intentions are realized as actions by a process, which proceeds from the mag-

netic body downwards along the hierarchy much like a desire of a boss of some institution to the

lower levels of hierarchy. At each level intention or intentions are transformed to desires commu-

nicated to the lower levels of hierarchy. Intentions have p-adic space-time sheets as space-time

correlates and are transformed to real ones representing the desire.

The most plausible realization of this process is in terms of time mirror mechanism. The space-

time sheets in question would correspond to negative energy topological light rays representing the

propagation of signals to the geometric past and induce processes. The process would continue down to

the level of neurons and even DNA level and generate the desired action as a reaction to the resulting

complex of desires. The beauty of the mechanism is that the communication to the geometric past

makes it instantaneous.

Spoken and written language would rely on the same process and could propagate down to the

level of genome and select the memes to be expressed. The expression of these memes as ﬁeld patterns

would then be a process propagating upwards in the hierarchy and ﬁnally generating speech or written

word. When I decide to say something say the words ”time mirror”, this intention is transformed to

a desire communicated to the geometric past to the lower level of the self hierarchy, and that at this

level this desire generates further desires communicated to the lower levels. Ultimately this process

ends down to the level of cells and even cell nuclei and DNA and induces response which propagates

to the higher levels as neural and other activities inducing muscular activities in speech organs and

generates the words ”time mirror”.

The signal to the geometric past involves negative energy photons and topological light rays. The

working hypothesis has been that the signal to the geometric past is only a space-time correlate for

sharing of the desire to generate the action, and does not involve any code. If this is the case then

only the response propagating to the geometric future would be classical signal based on some code.

182 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

One must however keep mind open to the possibility that also communications to the geometric past

involve code.

Conscious bits and cognitive representations

The symbols representing message must be transformed to standardized mental images. The simplest

possibility is that the mental images are coded to patterns of conscious bits or cbits. The general

model for sensory and other qualia suggests that conscious bits should be realized as quantum jumps

sequences associated with phase transitions. In this manner same quantum number increment is occurs

for many particle for single quantum jump and for suﬃciently long sequence of quantum jumps. Bit

1 would correspond to the occurrence of phase transition and bit 0 to the non-occurrence of the phase

transition. For a code of k bits this has important implication: the codeword containing only zeros

does not generate any conscious experience so that the number of experienced code words is 2

k

− 1.

This could explain why Mersenne primes seem to be deﬁne especially important p-adic time scales.

Living matter is populated by dynamical electrets so that phase transitions between ordinary and

electret states at various length scales are expected to be of special importance. Also magnetization

of super phases at magnetic ﬂux tubes of say Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is expected to be one mechanism

producing basic qualia serving as as bits.

Computer metaphor at DNA level

Software and hardware are essential elements of the computer and at DNA level this could mean

that genes code for hardware which is not stable as in case of ordinary computers. This means

that computer hardware is replaced by the possibility to generate it and genes carry the information

needed for this. Introns would in turn represent the software, the programs and therefore also the

linguistic aspect of DNA. An interesting possibility is that introns realize memes as sequences of 21

DNA triplets. This picture allows and even suggests that even DNA level might be involved with the

generation of spoken words and deﬁne the deep structure of language.

3.2 Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code

It is already found that Combinatorial Hierarchy emerges as a unique hierarchy of mappings of Boolean

thoughts to association sequences, which could perhaps correspond to nerve pulse patterns, or more

probably, to temporal ﬁeld patterns. In the following the connection of Combinatorial Hierarchy with

genetic code is demonstrated.

3.2.1 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a model for abstraction process

One could view the development of intelligence as a process, which takes place as sub-sequent tran-

sitions from hierarchy level to a higher hierarchy level, meta-level. First there are statements about

concrete things, say numbers. Then come the statements about statements (say theorems about the-

orems of number theory): ”If theorem A is true then theorem B is true”. Then come the statements

about statements about...

What is remarkable is that the so called Combinatorial Hierarchy [16] (which emerged ﬁrst in

particle physics context) results from this kind of gradual abstraction process consider Z

2

valued

functions. The value 1 might correspond to ”true” and 0 to ”not true”.

i) Assume that lowest level corresponds to 2 statements.

ii) Go to the meta level and consider statements about statements (theorems about theorems in

mathematics). Therefore one must consider Z

2

valued Boolean functions in Z

2

corresponding to

statements of type ’P is true’ and ’P is not true’ : there are altogether 4 of them. Drop the statement

represented by (0, 0).

iii) Again one goes to meta level and considers statements about statements about statements that

is functions from 3-element set to Z

2

: 7 elements altogether, when one throws away the statement

represented by sequence of zero bits.

iv) Continuing this process one clearly gets Combinatorial Hierarchy.

The somewhat mysterious feature is the dropping of one statement. If the construction corresponds

to the construction assigning creation of the cognitive fermion pair with the splitting of a wormhole

3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 183

contact connecting two space-time sheets, then the requirement that the two space-time sheets form a

connected structure drops exactly one conﬁguration (no wormhole contacts connecting the two space-

time sheets) from consideration. Second interpretation would be in terms of conscious bit. If conscious

bit ’1’ is represented as a phase transition of some kind then the sequence of ’0’s is not representable

as a conscious bits so that only 2

k

−1 code words are representable for k bit code and the only k −1

bits are fully representable which suggests that only 2

k−1

bits represent information and remaining

bits could play the same role as parity bits.

There is second construction which is purely set theoretical and gives a natural explanation for the

dropping of one statement. Consider subsets of the set (0, 1). There are 3 of them if the physically non-

realizable empty set is excluded. Consider next the subsets of the 3-element set: there are 2

3

−1 = 7

of these sets if empty set is excluded. By continuing the process one ﬁnds that the numbers of the

Combinatorial Hierarchy result. This suggests that the physical non-realizability of (0, 0, ...) Boolean

statement is basic reason for dropping it from consideration.

The numbers of the Combinatorial Hierarchy have some properties, which suggest that they are

very closely related to Genetic Code.

1. The numbers p = 3 = M

2

, 7 = M

3

, 127 = M

7

, M

127

are Mersenne primes. It is possible that

all the Mersenne numbers M(n + 1) = M

M(n)

of the sequence are primes. This implies that

the statements can be given the algebraic structure of Finite Field G(p, 1). Therefore the set

of the Boolean statements has also interpretation as a simpliﬁed model for arithmetics and the

arithmetic abilities of the intelligent system grow gradually in transitions from level to meta

level. As a consequence the basic conjecture

M(n + 1) = M

M(n)

= 2

M(n)

−1 prime n = 1, 2, ... ,

(3.2.1)

roughly means that there is no upper bound for the arithmetic abilities of intelligent system!

2. The statements at the level p are of two types: ’P is true’ and ’P is not true’ and there are

clearly N(p) = (p + 1)/2 mutually consistent statements at level p. These numbers come

as 2, 4, 64, 2

126

, .. for p = 3, 7, 127, ... What is remarkable is that N(7) = 4 is the number of

diﬀerent DNA:s and N(127) is the number of diﬀerent DNA sequences. This suggests that

DNA:s represent physically consistent with a given atomic statement at level p.

3. The Finite Field G(p, 1) has the cyclic group Z

p−1

as the multiplicative group of nonzero ele-

ments. The dimensions of these groups read as 1, 2, 6 = 2 3, 126 = 6 21, ... for Combinatorial

Hierarchy. The multiplicative group of the previous level can be regarded as a subgroup of the

next level multiplicative group for the lowest members of the Combinatorial Hierarchy at least:

Z

p

n

−1

⊂ Z

p

n+1

−1

. The reason is that p

n+1

− 1 is divisible by p

n

− 1 for the lowest Mersenne

primes. In fact divisibility holds true also for M

127

−1 and M

7

−1. Divisibility condition gives

2

126

−1 = 63n . (3.2.2)

The condition is satisﬁed!: 63 = 3

2

7 divides 2

126

−1, whose prime factorization [17] is given by

2

126

−1 = 3

3

7

2

19 43 73 127 X ,

X = 337 5419 92737 649657 77158673929 . (3.2.3)

Actually the divisibility follows quite generally from the following little theorem:

Theorem: M(n) −1 divides M(n + 1) −1 always and M(n) divides M(n + 1) −1 if M(n) is prime.

The divisibility of M(M(n)) − 1 by prime M(n) follows as a particular case a = 2, p = M(n) of

Fermat’s theorem stating that a

p−1

= 1 mod p holds true for any natural number a and any prime

184 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

p. The divisibility of M(M(n)) − 1 by M(n) − 1 is equivalent with the divisibility of 2

M(n)−1

− 1

with 2

M(n−1)−1

−1. This property holds true for the lowest Mersenne numbers of the Combinatorial

Hierarchy and can be proven to hold true generally by induction using the following lemma [18]:

Lemma: The greatest common multiplier (x, y) for integers x = 2

a

− 1 and y = 2

b

− 1 satisﬁes

(2

a

−1, 2

b

−1) = 2

(a,b)

−1. The proof of the lemma is based on the observation that the polynomial

x

n

− 1 (x = 2 now) factorizes into a product of factors (x

n

i

− 1), where n

i

is factor of n. For the

polynomials x

a

−1 and x

b

−1 the largest common multiplier is therefore x

(a,b)

−1.

For a = M(n) − 1 and b = M(M(n + 1)) − 1 lemma together with the induction assumption gives

(a, b) = 2

(M(n)−1,M(n−1)−1)

− 1 = 2

M(n−1)−1

− 1: the result means that 2

M(n−1)−1

− 1 = M(n) − 1

divides 2

M(n)−1

−1 = M(n+1) −1. The prime number property of Mersenne numbers is not needed

in the proof.

As a consequence one has an inﬁnite hierarchy of coset spaces Z

p

n+1

−1

/Z

p

n

−1

= Z

k

n

, which

are also cyclic groups. The ﬁrst members of this hierarchy are Z

k

1

)

= Z

2

, Z

3

, Z

21

, .... Also the

groups Z

k

n

satisfy the condition Z

k

n

⊂ Z

k

n+1

for the lowest values of k with k

1

excluded and an

interesting possibility is that k

n

divides k

n+1

quite generally for some number theoretic reason. What is

remarkable is that k

2

= 3 is the number of DNA:s in DNA triplets and k

3

= 21 is the number of amino-

acids plus stopping sign coded by DNA:s. This observation suggests that amino-acids correspond to

the subset of the statements of G(p

n

, 1) imbeddable as subgroup Z

k

n

to Z

p

n

−1

for p

n

= 127. A

little consideration shows that the map x →x

k

n−1

gives a unique imbedding for the amino-acid type

statements to Z

p

n

−1

.

n 1 2 3 4

M(n) 3 7 127 2

127

−1

N(DNA, n) = (M(n) + 1)/2 2 4 64 2

126

N(amino, n) = (M(n) −1)/(M(n −1) −1) 2 3 21 (2

126

−1)/63

Table 1. The lowest Mersenne numbers of Combinatorial Hierarhcy (known to be primes), the

numbers of ’DNA’ k

n−1

-plets and the numbers of ’amino-acids’ for these levels.

These observations suggest a general model for Genetic Code. The 64 DNA sequences give a

physical representation for the statements compatible with a given atomic statement at p = 127 level

of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. The choice of these mutually compatible statements as a subset of

G(127, 1) is by no means unique and is determined by the evolution. The 21 amino-acids (stopping

sign is regarded formally as ’amino-acid’) at p = 127 level correspond to the unique statements

representable in the form y = x

6

in Z

126

and form cyclic group Z

21

. Genetic code can be regarded

as the mapping x → x

6

mapping all DNA type statements to amino acid type statements. The

interpretation of the amino-acid type statements is as general axioms and DNA type statements are

regarded as special cases of these axioms. Amino-acid sequences in turn are regarded as theorems

derivable from axioms by constructing amino-acid sequences: the direction of the sequence is unique

by the chirality of the amino-acid molecules.

The formation of theorems in formal system indeed corresponds to the formation of symbol

sequences by some rules (now the rules are extremely simple, perhaps too simple!). The repre-

sentability of DNA:s as triplets of 4 basic units has explanation: actually a more general the formula

N(DNA, n) = (p

n

+1)/2 = ((p

n−1

+1)/2)

k

n−1

= N(DNA, n−1)

N(amino,n−1)

holds true for all levels

of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. In particular, for p = 127 one has 64 = 4

3

. Actually an inﬁnite

hierarchy of Genetic Codes suggests itself: for the n:th member of the Hierarchy there are k

n

axioms

and if k

n

divides k

n+1

the axioms of level n are imbeddable as a subgroup Z

k

n

to the group Z

k

n+1

of

axioms at level n + 1 and the counterpart of G¨odel’s Incompleteness Theorem holds true.

3.2.2 Interpretation of genetic code

Finite Field Computer picture leads to the interpretation of genetic code as a map from the set of well

deﬁned truth values X

64

⊂ G(127, 1) (DNA:s) to the set Z

126

/Z

6

= Z

21

⊂ G(127, 1) (amino-acids).

1. The interpretation of the previous observation is that amino-acids and ’stopping sign’ correspond

to the elements x of the coset space Y = Z

126

/Z

6

= Z

21

obtained by identifying two elements a

and b of Z

126

are identiﬁed if a

6

= b

6

holds true. The realization of Z

21

as a subset of G

127,1

is

obtained as the set of non-vanishing sixth powers of G(127, 1) elements

3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 185

z ∈ Z

21

<=> z = x

6

, 0 = x ∈ G(127, 1) . (3.2.4)

Since a coset space is in question d = 126/21 = 6 elements of Z

126

are mapped to a given element

of Z

21

in the map x →x

6

.

2. According to the proposed model of intelligent system DNA triplets correspond to a subset X

64

of 64 well determined truth values of p = 127 logic but at this stage there is no ﬁrst principle

telling which subset corresponds to truth values. Let us however assume that X

64

corresponds

to subset of Z

126

so that zero element is excluded from X

64

.

3. With these identiﬁcations genetic code correspond to the mapping x → x

6

from the set X

64

of

well deﬁned truth values to Z

21

x ∈ X

64

→ x

6

∈ Z

21

. (3.2.5)

The number of DNA triplets d coding same amino acid is just the number of elements of X

64

mapped to same element of Y and this gives strong constraints for the identiﬁcation of X

64

as

subset of G(127, 1). Clearly, genetic code is to a high degree equivalent with the identiﬁcation

of 64-element DNA triplets as subset of Z

126

. The identiﬁcation of X

64

as subset of Z

126

cannot

however be determined uniquely since the group Z

6

acts as the symmetry group of the code

permuting the 6 elements of Z

21

mapped to same element of Z

126

and leading to a code with

same degeneracies d.

An important prediction is that at most six DNA triplets can correspond to same amino acid.

As the following table shows the condition is satisﬁed: there are three amino acids for which DNA

degeneracy d is 6. This means that it is indeed possible to realize genetic code in the proposed manner.

d 6 4 3 2 1

N 3 5 2 9 2

Table 1. The number of amino acids N associated with a given degeneracy d telling the number

of DNA triplets mapped to the amino acid in genetic code. The degeneracies are always smaller than

7 as predicted by the proposed explanation of the Genetic Code.

One can consider ﬁrst simple guesses for the identiﬁcation of X

64

as a subset of G(127, 1). The

identiﬁcation as even elements y = 2k, k = 0, 63 is not possible since zero cannot belong to X

64

: same

applies to the identiﬁcation as odd elements. The identiﬁcation as the elements expressible as squares

y = x

2

is excluded for the same reason. One could include the 64

th

DNA by identifying it as an

arbitrary element of Z

126

. All these identiﬁcations yield almost completely symmetric genetic code:

d = 3 for all 21 amino acids except one for with one has d = 4 so that something more complicated is

needed.

3.2.3 Genetic Code as a result of geometric symmetry breaking

One could try to understand the pattern of degeneracies as a symmetry breaking pattern, but not in

terms of group representations as is done usually but in terms of group orbits. For single DNA multiplet

associated with given amino-acid the natural symmetry group is Z

6

or some of its subgroups and DNA

multiplet of given amino-acid can be regarded as a union of orbits for the subgroup in question. The

subgroups of Z

126

/Z

6

= Z

3

Z

7

in turn can transform the DNA multiplets with same degeneracy to

each other and amino-acids with same degeneracy can be regarded as a union of orbits of Z

7

, Z

3

or

Z

1

. This symmetry pattern seems to work!

1. Consider ﬁrst the group Z

6

acting inside DNA multiplets associated with given amino-acid. The

deﬁnition of Z

21

implies that the DNA:as associated with d = 6 amino-acids must be identiﬁed

as six-element orbits of Z

6

symmetry. d = 3, d = 2, d = 1 amino acids correspond to the

186 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

breaking of Z

6

to Z

3

,Z

2

and to Z

1

respectively. d = 4 amino-acids are however problematic

since Z

6

does not have 4-element subgroup. One can interpret d = 4 DNA:s either as a union

of two Z

2

orbits or as a union of Z

3

and Z

1

orbits: Z

1

orbit corresponds most naturally to the

mirror image of one Z

3

point, when the points of Z

126

are represented as points of unit circle.

This interpretation seems to be more appropriate.

2. Consider next the group Z

21

acting on amino-acids. The 3 d = 6 amino-acids could be identiﬁed

as an orbit of Z

3

⊂ Z

21

. If one regards the 5 d = 4 multiplets as unions of Z

3

and Z

1

orbits one

can obtain altogether 2 +5 Z

3

⊂ Z

6

orbits, which could be regarded as Z

7

orbit. What remains

is 5 +2 = 7 Z

1

orbits, which could be regarded as Z

7

orbit. Therefore it seems that amino-acids

can be ordered nicely into the orbits of Z

3

and Z

7

. It turns however that exact symmetry is

broken and some orbits are slightly deformed or even broken to pieces.

There are good reasons for symmetry breaking.

1. Besides symmetry also redundancy of the genetic code is desirable: this means that the number

of the amino-acids with small degeneracy should be as small as possible. Z

6

(or some subgroup)

symmetry and redundancy are competing factors since average degeneracy is always same and

symmetry tends to increase the redundancy associated with some amino acids. Therefore re-

dundancy requirement might be one underlying reason for symmetry breaking.

2. It turns out that also the competition between symmetries Z

3

and Z

7

in Z

27

forces either Z

7

or

Z

3

symmetry breaking already before the ’actual’ symmetry breaking.

3. The third reason for the symmetry breaking is the constraint that the numbers of DNA triplets

and amino-acids are constrained to 64 and 21 respectively. For, instance 63 DNA:s allows

representation as a union 9 Z

6

orbits having Z

3

⊂ Z

21

as symmetry group but for 64 DNA:s

there is necessarily one Z

1

orbit present.

It would be nice if one could understand the genetic code as a small perturbation of some code with

both high symmetry and high redundancy. One could even assume that the number of amino-acids

before the symmetry breaking is smaller than 21 so that symmetry breaking is necessary to obtain 21

amino-acids. A geometric picture of the situation is obtained by regarding the points of Z

126

as points

Φ = n2π/126 of a unit circle endowed with standard metric so that it becomes possible to deﬁne what

’small’ symmetry breaking means.

3.2.4 Symmetry breaking scenarios

The genetic code can be reproduced as the following symmetry breaking pattern.

1. Unbroken symmetry corresponds to the following situation. There are 6 = 3+3 amino-acids with

maximal degeneracy d = 6 and 7 amino-acids with degeneracy d = 4: altogether 13 < 21 so that

symmetry breaking is necessary. d = 6 multiplets correspond to 6 Z

6

orbits Φ = n2π/6 +k∆(i),

with ∆(i) = k

i

2π/126 < 2π/6. Single d = 4 multiplet corresponds to Z

3

orbit plus single point,

which is diametrically opposite to one of the points at Z

3

orbit. More explicitly: basic (3, 1)

multiplet corresponds to the Z

3

orbit Φ

3

(k) = 6∆+k2π/3, k = 0, 1, 2 plus the point Φ

1

= 6∆+π.

By acting on this orbit with rotations ∆

1

(i) = k

i

2π/126, i = 0, ..., 6, ∆

1

(i) < 2π/6 one obtains

7 d = 4 multiplets. Obviously one must have ∆(i) = ∆

1

(j) for each i, j pair in order to avoid

overlapping. The actual imbedding of Z

6

multiplets is not relevant for the degeneracies of the

genetic code and will be discussed later.

2. The ﬁrst symmetry breaking is Z

6

→ Z

2

and occurs for 3 d = 6 amino-acids and leads from

3 Z

6

orbits to 9 Z

2

orbits so that 9 d = 2 amino-acids result. Breaking can be understood

geometrically as follows. Single d = 6 multiplet is obtained by Z

2

action (reﬂection) from Z

3

orbit, say Φ(k) = k2π/3. What happens is that two points on Z

3

orbit that for Z

3

orbit the

points Φ(k) with k = 1 and 4 are rotated slightly with diﬀerent rotation angles

3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 187

Φ(1) → Φ(1) +δ

1

,

Φ(4) → Φ(4) +δ

1

,

Φ(5) → Φ(5) −δ

2

,

Φ(6) → Φ(6) −δ

2

,

δ

i

=

k

i

2π

126

,

1 < k

i

< 6 . (3.2.6)

Here δ

i

must be chosen so that the deformed points do not coincide with already ’occupied’

points. Minimal symmetry breaking is obtained with k

1

= 1 = k

2

but would lead to overlapping.

One must also have k

1

= k

2

(k

1

= k

2

would imply additional reﬂection symmetry). The

symmetry breaking leads to 9 + 7 = 16 amino acids with degeneracies d ≥ 2.

3. The second symmetry breaking leads from 7 d = 4 multiplets to 5 d = 4 multiplets, 2 d = 3

multiplets and 2 d = 1 multiplets. What happens is that 2 basic d = 4 multiplets consisting of

Z

3

orbit and mirror image of one of Z

3

points is deformed d = 3 plus d = 1 multiplet: this is

achieved if mirror image point is slighly shifted. The deformation is obtained by performing for

the basic multiplet (Φ

3

(k) = k2π/3, Φ

1

= π) the deformation

Φ

1

= π → π ±δ

3

. (3.2.7)

δ

3

= k

3

2π/126, 1 < k

3

< 6 followed by appropriate rotation carrying broken multiplet to its

own position. k

3

= 1 is not allowed since it would lead to overlapping and k

3

= 2 leads to the

smallest possible symmetry breaking.

One can try to ﬁnd unique imbedding of X

64

(and also try to understand the uniqueness of the

genetic code) by requiring that amino-acids form orbits of Z

21

or its subgroups. Z

3

and Z

7

are

competing symmetries and not consistent with each other: the reason is that Z

3

orbits and Z

7

orbits

in same basic angular range of length 2π/6 necessarily overlap since between two points of Z

3

orbit

there are always just 6 points so that Z

7

orbit cannot be put between two points on Z

3

orbit. Therefore

one must choose between either enhanced Z

3

or Z

7

symmetry for the imbedding of X

64

.

Consider ﬁrst Z

3

symmetric situation.

1. 6 = 3 + 3 Z

6

orbits decompose naturally into two orbits of Z

3

. The ﬁrst Z

3

orbit corresponds

to Φ(k, m) = 6m 2π/126 +k2π/6 , m = 0, 1, 2 and second Z

3

orbit is obtained from this orbit

by a rotation ∆Φ = 2π/126. When Z

6

orbits break down to 9 Z

2

orbits the Z

2

orbits can form

3 separate orbits of Z

3

.

2. The graphical experimentation with various possibilities shows that one must split Z

7

orbit to

three pieces 7 = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 so that the 2:s form Z

3

orbit. Therefore complete breaking of Z

7

symmetry makes possible additional Z

3

symmetry. This means that one d = 4 orbits arrange

into 2 Z

3

orbits and one Z

1

orbit before symmetry breaking. After the symmetry breaking the

2 d = 3 multiplets and d = 3:s belonging to 5 d = 4 : s form still Z

3

orbits but two d = 1:s are

thrown out of corresponding Z

3

orbits.

3. An example of an imbedding satisfying these constraints is given by the following formulas

188 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

d N(d) Φ/∆ = n mod 126 , ∆ = 2π/126

6 3 n = A(i) +B(k) ,A(i) = 21i, B(k) = 7k, i ∈ I, k ∈ K

I = ¦0, 1, .., 5¦, K = ¦0, 1, 2¦

2 9 n = (A(i) +B(k) + 1 +δ

1

(i)), i ∈ I, k ∈ K

δ

1

(0) = δ

1

(3) = 0, δ

1

(1) = δ

1

(4) = −3, δ

1

(2) = δ

1

(5) = 4

4 5 n = i + 42k, n = i + 63, i = 2, 10, 11, 17, 18, k ∈ K

3 2 n = i + 42k ,i = 3, 4, k ∈ K

1 2 n = i + 63 +δ

2

(i) ,i = 3, 4, δ

2

(3) = −1, δ

2

(4) = 1

Table 2. Explicit form for the Z

3

symmetric imbedding of X

64

consistent with Genetic Code.

The index k appearing in the formulas labels points on Z

3

orbit. The imbedding is illustrated

in ﬁgure 3.2.4.

Consider next Z

7

type scenario. 7 d = 4:s can be put into single Z

7

orbit. d = 6 representations

cannot however form neither Z

7

full orbits nor full Z

3

orbits in this case. After the symmetry breaking

the 2 d = 3 multiplets and d = 3:s belonging to 5 d = 4 : s form still Z

7

orbits but two d = 1:s are

thrown out of corresponding Z

7

orbits. There exists no full Z

7

orbit consisting of amino-acids with

same d after symmetry breaking so that in this sense Z

7

sceneario possesses much less symmetry than

Z

3

scenario. An explicit example is given by the following formulas

d N(d) Φ/∆ = n mod 126, ∆ = 2π/126

6 3 n = A(i) +B(k) , A(i) = 21i, B(k) = 7k +δ

1

(k),i ∈ I,k ∈ K

I = ¦0, .., 5¦, K = ¦0, 1, 2¦, δ

1

(1) = 5, δ

1

(0) = delta

1

(2) = 0

2 9 n = A(i) +δ

2

(i) + 1 +B(k),i ∈ I, k ∈ K

δ

2

(1) = δ

2

(4) = −2 , δ

2

(2) = δ −2(5) = 2,

4 5 n = 3 +i + 42k, n = i + 63, i = 2, ..., 6, k ∈ K

3 2 n = 3 +i + 42k ,i = 1, 7, k ∈ K

1 2 n = i + 63 +δ

3

(i) ,i = 1 or 7, δ

3

(1) = −1, δ

3

(7) = 1

Table 3. Explicit form for the Z

7

type imbedding of X

64

consistent with Genetic Code. The imbedding

is illustrated in ﬁgure 3.2.4.

3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 189

Figure 3.1: The imbedding X

64

⊂ Z

126

reproducing Genetic Code and possessing Z

3

type symmetry.

The lengths of radial lines are 6 + d, where d = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 is the number of DNA:s associated with

amino-acid. The angular distance between points on Z

3

(Z

7

) orbits is to 20 (2.85) degrees.

190 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

Figure 3.2: Z

7

type imbedding X

64

⊂ Z

126

reproducing Genetic Code. Symmetry breaking is much

larger for this imbedding although visually the imbedding looks perhaps more symmetric than Z

3

type imbedding.

3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 191

3.2.5 In what sense the physical genetic code is unique?

The proposed symmetry breaking scenario is certainly not the only one. A constraint on symmetry

breaking patterns comes from the requirement that all amino acids are coded. In terms of orbit

multiplicities g(k) (number of amino acids with same number of DNA:s) one has two conditions

¸

k=1,2,3,4,6

g(k) = 21 ,

¸

k=1,2,3,4,6

g(k)k = 64 . (3.2.8)

k = 4 case corresponds to two Z

3

and Z

1

orbits associated with single amino acid. This gives

g(1) = −22 +g(3) + 2g(4) + 4g(6) ,

g(2) = 43 −2g(3) −3g(4) −5g(6) . (3.2.9)

This means that all possible genetic codes are labeled by the three integers g(3), g(4) and g(6). The

conditions imply

g(3) + 2g(4) + 4g(6) ≥ 22 ,

2g(3) + 3g(4) + 5g(6) ≤ 43 . (3.2.10)

These conditions restrict the possible symmetry breaking scenarios. In particular, g(6) ≤ 8 must hold

true so that maximal symmetry corresponds to the codes with (g(3), g(4), g(6)) equal to (1, 0, 8) or

(0, 1, 8).

In the proposed symmetry breaking scenario the number of DNA:s is automatically ﬁxed to 64 and

the only requirement is that deformation of X

64

is such that the number of amino-acids is not smaller

than 21. If one assumes that the only symmetry breakings are of form 6 → 3 2 and 4 → 3 + 1 and

denotes the numbers of broken d = 6 and d = 4 multiplets with k

6

and k

4

respectively the condition

for 21 amino acids reads as (6−k

6

)+3k

6

+(7−k

4

)+2k

4

= 21 , which gives k

6

= 4−k

4

/2, k

4

= 0, 2, 4, 6.

k

4

gives the number of d = 1 amino-acids and k

4

/2 + 2 gives the number of the unbroken 6 orbits:

these numbers clearly measure redundancy and symmetry. The numbers of amino-acids with various

degeneracies are given by

N(d = 1) = N(3) = k

4

,

N(2) = 3(4 −k

4

/2) ,

N(4) = 7 −k

4

,

N(6) = 2 +k

4

. (3.2.11)

The following table summarizes the 4 genetic codes possible under these assumptions

N(d = 1) N(d = 2) N(d = 3) N(d = 4) N(d = 6)

0 12 0 7 2

2 9 2 5 3

4 6 4 3 4

6 3 6 3 5

Table 4.: The 4 possible genetic codes assuming unbroken initial Z

3

symmetry with numbers of

amimo acids with same degeneracy.

The physically realized genetic code (second row) is clearly a compromise between symmetry and

redundancy. By the previous construction the physically realized code is characterized by additional

symmetry: namely the group Z

3

⊂ Z

21

transforming both 3 d = 6 amino-acids and 3 triplets of d = 2

amino acids to each other. For all other Z

3

type alternatives this symmetry is broken. Therefore the

physical genetic code corresponds in a well deﬁned sense to minimal symmetry breaking.

192 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

3.2.6 Hierarchy of Genetic Codes?

Genetic Code generalizes to an entire hierarchy of genetic codes at formal level, at least.

1. The spaces X

4

⊂ X

64

⊂ X

(M

127

+1)/2

= X

2

126 ⊂ .... an be regarded as a hierarchy of ’DNA

triplets’.

2. The preceding results suggest that the multiplicative groups associated with the Combinatorial

Hierarchy form also a hierarchy: Z

2

⊂ Z

6

⊂ Z

126

⊂ Z

M

127

−1

⊂ ...... This is true if the dimensions

divide each other: 2[6[126[M

127

−1[..... 126 indeed divides M

127

−1 = 2(2

126

−1) and the number

of ’amino-acids’ at the third level is (2

126

− 1)/63! The result holds generally from Fermat’s

theorem (2

p−1

= 1 mod p) if the Mersenne numbers of the Combinatorial Hierarchy are primes.

3. If Combinatorial Hierarchy consists of primes the coset spaces Z

6

/Z

2

= Z

3

⊂ Z

126

/Z

6

= Z

21

⊂

Z

M

127

−1

/Z

126

⊂ .... exist and form a hierarchy of ’amino-acids’.

The redundancy of the genetic code could be interpreted as resulting from a hierarchy of discrete

gauge symmetries: Z

M

n

−1

acts as gauge symmetry in the space Z

M

M

n

−1

.

There is still further apparent numerical co-incidence. For the ﬁrst 3 levels the numbers of ’amino-

acids’ are

a

0

= 2 ,

a

1

= 3 (3.2.12)

per,

a

2

= 21 ,

a

3

= ((M

127

−1)/2)/((M

7

+ 1)/2)) = (2

126

−1)/63 . (3.2.13)

The numbers of ’DNA’-n-plets (well deﬁned truth values) are

d

0

= 2 ,

d

1

= 4 = 2

2

= d

a

0

0

,

d

2

= 64 = 4

3

= d

a

1

1

,

d

3

= 2

126

= 64

21

= d

a

2

2

.

(3.2.14)

The formulas imply that one can construct the physical DNA-triplets at level 2 as d

2

= d

a

1

1

= 4

3

triplets of DNA molecules. At level 3 one can construct d

3

= d

a

2

2

= 63

21

= 2

126

’DNA’ 21-plets of 64

diﬀerent DNA-triplets. More generally, DNA-plets at given level n correspond to a

n−1

-plets of DNA

formed from the DNA-plets of the previous level since the identity

d

n

=

(M

n

+ 1)

2

= d

a

n−1

n−1

= 2

a

n−1

a

n−2

a

n−3

...a

0

. (3.2.15)

holds true in general since the groups Z

M

n

−1

forms a hierarchy of nested subgroups.

The result means that the concrete physical representation of truth values of M

n

logic as ’DNA’

sequences is an internal property of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. The immediate prediction is that

sequences of 21 DNA-triplets should code for a

3

= (2

126

− 1)/63 generalized amino-acids consisting

of sequences of 21 amino-acids acids: these units could be regarded as some kind of ’pre-genes’.

The number of amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids (of order 2

91

is much smaller than

the number of generalized amino-acids (of order 2

120

), which means that the ordinary amino acids

cannot provide an optimal realization of DNA sequences: many generalized amino-acids have no

DNA sequence as their representative. DNA sequences are known to contain passive sections, introns,

which do not code DNA. An interesting question is whether these sections could represent M

127

level

sequences: if so the number of DNA triplets in these sections should be a multiple of 21.

If the lowest level of the Hierarchy is present DNA:s should be representable as doublets formed

from two diﬀerent p = 3 ’pre-DNA’:s and these should code for 3 diﬀerent ’pre-amino-acids’. This

kind of structure is not realized in Nature so that the p = 7 level of DNA:s is in this sense irreducible.

3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 193

3.2.7 The structure of the negation map

The negation map mapping statement to its negation is highly non-unique unless it possesses symme-

tries and it is interesting to ﬁnd what one can conclude about the structure of this map by symmetry

arguments.

1. For each amino-acid type general statement there are six special cases of the statement. The fact

that only 64 statements are actually consistent with a given atomic statement means that some

special cases associated with diﬀerent amino-acids correspond to statement and its negation

whereas two points at given Z

6

orbit cannot correspond to a statement and its negation.

2. 62 negations of 64 DNA type statements belong to Z

126

. One lacking negation corresponds

to the zero element of G(127, 1) and the second one corresponds to the excluded statement in

the construction of the Combinatorial Hierarchy. One can associate to each amino-acid deﬁnite

number of negations as the number of elements in the complement of DNA type statements on

the Z

6

orbit deﬁned by amino-acid (at Z

6

orbit all statements must be consistent with a ﬁxed

atomic statement). These numbers are d

1

= 0 for 3 d = 6 amino-acids , d

1

= 2 for 5 d = 3 +1

amino-acids, d

1

= 4 for 9 d = 2 amino-acids and d

1

= 5 for the 2 d = 1 amino-acids so that

negations ’code’ only 18 amino-acids so that duality symmetry between statements and their

negations is not possible.

3. Negation must map statements at given orbit to a diﬀerent orbit. It is however natural to re-

quire that points on same orbit, say A, are mapped on same orbit, say B, if possible and that

the angles and ordering of points belonging to same orbit are preserved in negation map. More

generally, the ordering of points on circle should be preserved.

4. For 2 d = 3 amino-acids, call them a and b, the Z

3

orbit a (b) is mapped to the complement of

Z

3

orbit b (a). The map is unique apart from Z

3

rotation.

5. For 9 d = 2 amino-acids Z

2

orbits (pairs of diametrically opposite points) form 3 Z

3

orbits

and Z

3

rotation plus a rotation inside Z

6

orbit gives good candidate for negation map. As a

consequence 9 Z

2

orbits in the complement remains ’free’ and form 3 Z

3

orbits, call them G

i

.

6. It is natural map d = 6 orbits to these free 9 Z

2

orbits in Z

3

symmetric manner, which means

that the content of single Z

6

orbit i is mapped into 3 d = 2 orbits in G

i

. Diametrically opposite

point pair on Z

6

orbit is mapped to a similar point pair in G

i

. The map is unique if one requires

that Z

6

element on the initial orbit goes to same Z

6

element on the ﬁnal orbit and this in turn

makes the map of 9 Z

2

orbits unique apart from reﬂection.

7. The 5 d = 3+1 amino-acids form unions of diametrically opposite point pair A

i

plus point pair

B

i

,i = 1, ..., 5 separated by angle of 120 degrees. Point pairs B

i

can be mapped to the mirror

image

¯

B

j

of B

j

, j = i: one can require that cyclic ordering of pairs B

i

is preserved in map to

remove part of the non-uniqueness. 2 + 2 pairs A

i

can be mapped to the 2 + 2 pairs C

i

in the

complements of 2 d = 1 orbits containing 5 points each (2 diametrically opposite pairs C

i

plus

single point). The remaining pair, say A

i

0

, can be mapped to zero element of G(127, 1) and to

the ’dropped out’ statement.

8. Denoting the mirror images of 2 d = 1 statements a and b by ¯ a and

¯

b the negation map for them

reads as (a, b) →(

¯

b, ¯ a).

3.2.8 Combinatorial Hierarchy as a hierarchy of formal systems

Usually [19] formal system is understood as a system of symbols, axioms interpreted as allowed basic

strings of symbols and rules for constructing new sequences from the symbols. In [19] the exciting

analogies between the symbol sequences of formal systems and DNA and amino acids sequences and

Genetic Code were emphasized and it indeed seems that more than analogy is in question. The

model for the Genetic Code suggests an interpretation of Combinatorial Hierarchy as a hierarchy

of formal systems with DNA type statements identiﬁable as a maximal set of mutually consistent

statements and amino-acid type statements as basic axiom type truths. Genetic code results from the

194 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

necessary but non-unique selection of these statements consistent with a ﬁxed atomic statement and

the selection of these statements could be a result of ﬁght for survival at the level of amino-acids. The

rule for forming statements in this system is simple: just form DNA sequences with building blocks

consisting of a

n−1

(number of ’amino-acids’ at level n−1) DNA-sequences of previous level. Theorems

are obtained by coding these statements to amino-acid sequences.

Consider ﬁrst DNA type statements.

1. It was already suggested that the elements of Finite Fields in the Combinatorial Hierarchy

correspond to a hierarchy of statements about statements about .... and therefore a sequence

of formal systems formed from basic formal system by successive construction of meta level

statements.

2. Finite Field provides a language to construct all possible statements. As already found, the

(p +1)/2 (p is Mersenne prime in the Combinatorial Hierarchy) statements correspond to max-

imal set of statements consistent with a ﬁxed atomic statement of this formal system. This is

indeed a possible interpretation. Combinatorial Hierarchy was constructed by starting from a

set containing just two statements 1 and 0. In the ﬁrst p = 3 level one forms 4 statements

about these two statements and drops the one representable as (0, 0). There are however 2

contradictory statements of type P and not P in this set so that only 2 = (p + 1)/2 statements

are consistent with a given atomic statement in the real world. At the level p one has p = M

n

statements about lower level statements and by construction (p − 1)/2 statements P have also

their negation in the set of all possible statements so that (p+1)/2 consistent statements with a

ﬁxed atomic statement are possible. Thus the conclusion is that 64 DNA triplets represent the

maximum number of mutually consistent statements at level p = M

7

= 127 of a formal system

possibly having a hierarchy of meta levels.

Consider next the interpretation for the set Z

k

n

= Z

p

n

−1

/Z

p

n−1

−1

, k

n

= (p

n

− 1)/(p

n−1

+ 1) of

amino-acid type statements.

1. In any formal system there are two kind of meta statements that is statements P(Q

1

, ..Q

n

)

about statements. The ﬁrst class corresponds to theorems P(Q

1

, ...Q

n

) without any reference

to the particular value of statements Q

i

: a simple example is general theorem stating the

conditions under which an orthogonal triangle with two integer sides is Pythagorean triangle:

m

2

+ n

2

= l

2

with m, n, l integers. Second class corresponds to the theorems with (Q

1

, ..., Q

n

)

possessing deﬁnite values: a simple example is previous theorem for triangle having sides 2, 1

and 3: 2

2

+ 1

2

= 3

2

. The set of ’amino-acid’ type statements does not depend on the choice

of the choice fo the (p + 1)/2 statements consistent with a given atomic statement and this

suggests the interpretation ’amino-acid’ type statements as general axiom like truths without

any reference to the values of the argument of the statement.

What is special in the proposed hierarchy of formal systems that the substitution operation

corresponds to the multiplication of Z

k

element with the element Z

p

n−1

−1

. The introduction of

mutual consistency by selecting (p +1)/2 special statements implies that the number of DNA:s

per amino-acid corresponds to the number of special cases associated with a given ’axiom’

depends on the ’axiom’. There is still upper bound for special cases given by p

n−1

−1.

2. In a good formal system the choice of DNA type statements should be such that there is at

least one statement per each truth. The most important truths (as far as survival is considered)

should correspond to full Z

p

n−1

−1

orbits.

G¨odel’s Incompleteness Theorem was one of the basic themes in the book of Hofstadter [19].

Theorem states that in any suﬃciently complicated formal system (,that is, practically interesting)

there are truths, which are not provable. The Incompleteness Theorem seems to have its analog in

bio-systems. As already observed at the level M

127

DNA sequences consisting of 21 triplets corre-

spond to true statements, which can be regarded as special cases of general truths, whose number

is (2

126−1

)/63 ∼ 2

120

. Amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids give a natural realization

for a subset of these truths and the genetic code map is induced from the Genetic Code at the basic

level p = 127. The number of the truths given by these sequences is of order 20

21

∼ 2

91

(taking into

account the reduction caused by the stopping sign) and much smaller than all possible truths. The

3.2. Combinatorial Hierarchy and Genetic Code 195

interpretation is that the number of possible theorems obtained by forming amino-acid sequences is

much smaller than the number of truths. One could always add ’axioms’ by realizing the remaining

truths in some new manner but since the number of levels in the Combinatorial Hierarchy is inﬁnite

(assuming that the Mersenne numbers in question are primes) there are always unprovable truths

in the system. One can obviously classify the formal systems according to which level is the basic

irreducible level inducing genetic code at higher levels.

p = 7 (n = 2) and p = 3 (n = 1) level as the deﬁning, irreducible level are also in principle possible.

1. At level p = 7 4 doublets of level p = 3 ’DNA’ code 2 ’pre-amino-acids’ plus stopping sign and

at the next level this coding induces 2

3

= 8 < 21 diﬀerent ’amino-acids’ since stopping sign does

not appear in theorems. If stopping sign would correspond to actual amino-acid there would

be 3

3

= 27 > 21 theorems so that the number of theorems would be larger than the number of

truths!

2. At level p = 3 2 ’DNA’:s of code one amino-acid plus stopping sign so that genetic code is

one-to-one.

An interesting possibility is that p = 3 and p = 7 levels might have been deﬁning, irreducible

levels for bio-systems at some early stage of evolution. These formal systems can be regarded

as a subsystem of the full DNA-amino-acid system. RNA-triplets of form UXY , X, Y ∈ ¦A, C¦

give indeed realization for p = 7 system: UAA codes stopping sign,UAC codes cys and UCA and

UCC code ser (using the standard short hand notation for RNA:s and amino-acids [19]). The

sequences formed from these DNA:s and corresponding amino-acids indeed realize p = 7 formal

system as subsystem of p = 127 system. p = 3 formal system can be realized as UAA coding

stopping sign and UAC coding cys. An interesting possibility is that this DNA-amino-acid

subsystem has formed ﬁrst in the biochemical evolution. For both p = 3 and p = 7 degenerate

genetic codes one has G+C/A+U = 1/2. G+C/A+U content varies in the range (.7, 1.5) for

insects and in the range (1.17, 1.56) in the case of ﬁsh and for younger evolutionary forms A+U

content is known to increase [20].

3. The transition to ’p = M

127

life’ would require the addition of a rather large number of new

’amino-acids’ to the set of all possible amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids whereas

DNA triplets could be simply replaced with sequences of 21 DNA triplets. In the transition to

p = 127 life tRNA triplets binding single amino-acid would be replaced by sequences of 21

tRNA triplets binding besides amino-acid sequences suitably modiﬁed amino-acid sequences in

order to achieve maximal number of ’amino-acids’ at level p = 127. Also the modiﬁcation

of the translation system (in ribosomes) is required so that the ’reading head’ recognizes a

sequence of 21 mRNA-triplets instead of single mRNA triplet. An interesting question is whether

biochemistry might allow this kind of extension.

3.2.9 Summary

The simple model of abstraction has rather interesting connections with genetic code.

1. Combinatorial Hierarchy results as hierarchy of abstraction levels for statements or thoughts.

Lowest level A

2

corresponds to the two possible values of Boolean variable and thoughts of the

level A

n+1

correspond to statements about statements of level n that is Boolean maps A

n

→A

2

.

If the statement corresponding to sequence of zero bits is excluded the dimensions form a series

of Mersenne numbers 3, 7, 127, M

127

, ... Combinatorial Hierarchy is obtained also by considering

the set of subsets with empty set excluded. The hypothesis that there is no upper bound

for intelligence is equivalent with the hypothesis that these numbers are primes and that the

numbers p

n

− 1 in the sequence have the property that p

n

− 1 divides p

n+1

− 1. This implies

that one obtains a hierarchy of Finite Fields G(p

n

, 1) and their multiplicative groups Z

p

n

−1

as

well as coset groups Z

p

n

−1

/Z

p

n−1

−1

= Z

k

n

, k

n

= (p

n

−1)/(p

n−1

−1).

2. There are (p

n

+ 1)/2 statements consistent with a given atomic statement at level n and the

numbers come as 2, 4, 64, ... These statements are referred to as ’DNA’ type statements for

obvious reasons. The dimensions k

n

comes as 2, 3, 21, ... The hypothesis is that amino-acid

type statements correspond to the statements of Z

k

n

⊂ Z

p

n

−1

and can be regarded as general

theorems whereas DNA type statements correspond to special cases of these theorems and are

196 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

mapped to general theorems the mapping x → x

p

n−1

−1

at level n. At level n the genetic code

corresponds to the non-unique choice of the (p

n

+ 1)/2 DNA type statements consistent with a

given atomic statement in Z

p

n

−1

.

3. Biologically Genetic Code is determined by the competition between amino-acids: each amino-

acid tries to maximize the number of DNA:s coding it (amino-acids are like politicians who are

representatives of one truth and DNA:s are in the role of voters). The tendency favors Z

p

n−1

−1

(Z

6

) symmetry. The physically realized code can be understood as resulting from the symmetry

breaking caused by the competition between the groups Z

p

n−1

−1

(Z

6

) acting on DNA:s associated

with single amino-acid and factor groups of Z

k

n

(Z

21

= Z

3

Z

7

) transforming amino-acids to each

other. Instead of ﬁnite dimensional representations of Lie groups the orbits of the cyclic groups

Z

n

are basic objects in the symmetry breaking mechanism.

4. At level n basic objects are k

n−1

-plets of DNA:s of level n−1 and sequences of same DNA units

can in principle appear at all levels of the hierarchy. At the next k = M

127

level ’DNA’:s could

therefore be regarded as sequences of 21 DNA triplets.

5. A hierarchy of increasingly complicated formal systems is predicted if one accepts the hypothesis.

For the formal system of order n n:th level of the Combinatorial Hierarchy is the deﬁning level

in the sense that the number of ’amino-acids’ is maximal and equal k

n

. Formal systems of order

n

1

< n are imbeddable into the formal system of order n. The formation of amino-acid sequences

corresponds to the formation of theorems. For a formal system of order n amino-acid sequences

realize only a small subset of all possible k

n

1

truths at higher levels n

1

> n of the Combinatorial

Hierarchy in accordance with G¨odel’s theorem. One can also classify all possible bio-systems

according to the value of n for the corresponding formal system. The Earthly life corresponds to

n = 3 formal system and ’life of order 4’ would require the addition of rather large number of new

’amino-acids’ to the set of all possible amino-acid sequences consisting of 21 amino-acids whereas

DNA triplets could be simply replaced with sequences of 21 DNA triplets. The realization of

’n = 4 life’ requires that tRNA triplets binding single amino-acid are replaced by sequences of

21 tRNA triplets binding besides amino-acid sequences suitably modiﬁed amino-acid sequences

in order to achieve maximal number of ’amino-acids’ at level n = 4. Also the modiﬁcation of

the reading system (in ribosomes) is required so that the ’reading head’ recognizes a sequence

of 21 mRNA triplets instead of single mRNA triplet.

6. An open problem relates to the precise role of DNA and proteins. The model of Boolean

thoughts represented in terms of the cognitive fermion pairs leads to the correspondence between

fermions and mind like space-time sheets and gives Combinatorial Hierarchy a special status.

What comes in mind is that DNA provides a hardware representations of thoughts analogous to a

computer memory. DNA molecules would be conscious selves representing 3 basic symbols in the

mind of higher level self formed by DNA triplet. DNA sequences would be selves, experiencing

DNA triplets as their sub-selves. Individual DNA molecules would represent sub-sub-selves so

that DNA sequence would experience only the average of the experiences of individual DNA

molecules.

7. It deserves to be noticed that I Ching claims that there are 64 fundamental mental states: could

it be that these mental states correspond to all possible DNA triplet selves? It this interpretation

is correct then Buddhist meditators would have achieved bio-feedback at DNA level! Genetic

Code itself could be interpreted as a mapping of DNA selves to protein selves: this could be

perhaps regarded as kind of mimicry or conscious abstraction process. Protein selves would

represent theorem like abstractions of conscious thoughts represented by DNA selves.

8. It is known that cell numbers of diﬀerent cell types in nervous, muscular, adipose, gonadic and

homopoietic organs concentrate themselves around powers of two – 2

n

, where n in the range

20 − 40 [22]: this can be understood if they result in n regularly occurring cell divisions. It

might however be that the explanation of the regularity involves something much deeper. For

instance, the cell types represent various n-bit sequences.

3.3. Genes, memes, and universal language 197

3.3 Genes, memes, and universal language

In TGD framework the notion of magnetic body plays a key role in the understanding of bio-systems

and communications between magnetic and material body could be based on memetic code words.

Magnetic body is the fundamental intentional agent is in the same relation to the material body as

memetic code to the genetic code and computer software to the hardware or the manual to the elec-

tronic instrument. Hence there is a strong temptation to believe that memetic codewords represented

as ﬁeld patterns of duration .1 seconds is associated with the communications between magnetic body

and brain.

For instance, the fact that 10 Hz is basic hippocampal frequency suggests that declarative memories

could be based on time mirror mechanism with negative energy signal from the magnetic body of the

geometric future reﬂected from the brain of the geometric past as a positive energy signal back to the

magnetic body of the geometric future. Classical communications could utilize memetic code using

pulse or frequency coding. These ﬁeld patterns could also deﬁne shared mental images. For instance,

sequences of the memes represented as ﬁeld patterns could activate intronic memes, which in turn

would activate genes.

3.3.1 Genes-memes, biology-culture, hardware-software?

The reports of the Public Consortium about human genome in Nature, Feb 15, 2001 [29] and of Celera

Genomics in Science of Feb 16th, 2001, [30] demonstrated that the amount of human genome diﬀers

relatively little from those of lower organisms: we have only about 30,000 genes, little more than twice

the number 13,601 of genes for fruit ﬂy. This paradoxical ﬁnding strongly supports the view that our

genome is not solely responsible for what we are and that the intronic portion of DNA (only about

1 per cent codes of human DNA codes or amino-acid sequences), is not ”junk DNA”, but contains

important biological information and expresses it non-chemically.

In TGD Universe introns would express memes as the classical ﬁeld patterns associated with MEs

(”topological light rays”) responsible for the basic expressions of language understood in an extremely

general sense. This language includes body language and even cellular signalling, and could quite well

make possible (not necessarily conscious) interspecies communications based on the memes and genes

expressed by both communicating species and forming a common portion of grammar and vocabulary.

All eukaryotes (cells with nuclei), even bacteria, would possess part of the memes of this universal

language. The memetic code word is predicted to consist of a sequence of 21 DNA triplets and carries

126 bits of information instead of 6 bits of genetic code. Of course, also genes could be expressed in

terms of MEs and could deﬁne a lower level language possessed also by prokaryotes.

The actual role of DNA could be understood using a computer analogy. Memes represent the

program modules written using the programming language deﬁned by the memetic code and realized

in terms of the ﬁeld patterns associated with MEs. Genes represent the lower level programs coding

for the necessary hardware. System builds only the hardware needed, that is cell expresses only a

small fraction of the genome. For neurons this fraction is known to be highest. DNA engineering

requires besides the addition of the new programs (memes, introns) also the insertion of the necessary

hardware (new genes). Memes and corresponding genes should have very intimate relationship. In this

conceptual framework the standard view is wrong since it identiﬁes the build-up of a new hardware

as the sole activity at the DNA level. This would be like identifying the addition of a net card to a

computer as the fundamental activity related with computers.

3.3.2 Pulse and frequency representations of the genetic and memetic code

words

The most general form of p-adic length scale hypothesis implies that each p-adic prime p · 2

k

, k

integer, deﬁnes a hierarchy of physically favored p-adic time scales given by T

p

(n) = p

(n−1)/2

T

p

≡

T(n, k), T

p

=

√

pT

CP

2

, where T

CP

2

is the so called CP

2

time scale about 10

4

Planck times. The

most general assumption assigns to any prime p · 2

k

, k integer, a hierarchy of cognitive codes with

codeword having a duration equal to n-ary p-adic time scale T

p

(n) such that the number of bits is

factor k

1

of k.

Code words could be realized either as k

1

ﬁrst harmonics of the fundamental frequency f

p

(n) =

1/T

p

(n) or as temporal sequences of k

1

bits of duration τ = T

p

(n)/k

1

represented as pulses of max-

198 Chapter 3. Genes and Memes

imal duration τ. These representations will be referred to as frequency and pulse representations

respectively. EEG represents a good candidate for frequency representation.

1. Pulse representations, scalar wave pulses, and transformation of intentions to actions

Pulse representations could be realized in terms of scalar wave pulses predicted by TGD and

claimed to exist already by Tesla [G3]. Scalar wave pulses can be visualized as capacitors moving

with light velocity and carrying longitudinal essentially constant electric ﬁeld. If charged particles

of matter end up temporarily to the space-time sheets of the scalar wave pulse, they are accelerated

without dissipation and generate negative energy ”acceleration radiation” rather than brehmstrahlung

at harmonics of the frequency determined by the duration of the scalar wave pulse. Under obvious

conditions on the duration of the scalar wave pulse the negative energy radiation can be