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Aircraft Maintenance FAR Legal Guide

by: Jan Zumwalt

1 Definitions and abbreviations
11 General rulemaking procedures
13 Investigative and enforcement procedures
21 Certification procedures for products and parts
23 Airworthiness standards: normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes - recipe
25 Airworthiness standards: transport category airplanes
27 Airworthiness standards: normal category rotorcraft
29 Airworthiness standards: transport category rotorcraft
31 Airworthiness standards: manned free balloons
33 Airworthiness standards: aircraft engines
35 Airworthiness standards: propellers
36 Noise standards: aircraft type certification
39 Airworthiness directives
43 Maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration
45 Identification and registration marking
47 Aircraft registration
49 Recording of aircraft titles and security documents
61 Certification: Pilots and flight instructors
63 Certification: Flight crewmembers other than pilots
65 Certification: Airmen other than flight crewmembers
67 Medical standards and certification
71 Designation of Federal airways, area low routes, controlled airspace, and reporting points
73 Special use airspace
75 Establishment of jet routes and high area routes
77 Objects affecting navigable airspace
91 General operating and flight rules
93 Special air traffic rules and airport traffic patterns
95 IFR altitudes
97 Standard instrument approach procedures
99 Security control of air traffic
101 Moored balloons, kites, unmanned rockets, and unmanned free balloons
103 Ultralight vehicles
105 Parachute jumping
107 Airport security
108 Airplane operator security
109 Indirect air carrier security
119 Air carriers – not common carriage
121 Air carriers – common carriage
125 how to make a large airplane (recipe) – more than 20 seats, 6000lb or larger
127 Certification and operations helicopter scheduled air carriers
129 Operations of foreign air carriers
133 Rotorcraft external-load operations
135 Unscheduled air carrier operations
137 Agricultural aircraft operations
139 Certification and operations: Land airports serving CAB-certificated air carriers
141 Pilot schools
143 Ground instructors
145 Repair stations
147 Aviation maintenance technician schools
149 Parachute lofts
150 Airport noise compatibility planning

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151 Federal aid to airports
152 Airport aid program
153 Acquisition of U.S. land for public airports
154 Acquisition of U.S. land for public airports under the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970
155 Release of airport property from surplus property disposal restrictions
157 Notice of construction, alteration, activation, and deactivation of airports
159 National capital airports
169 Expenditure of Federal funds for nonmilitary airports or air navigation facilities thereon
171 Non-Federal navigation facilities
183 Representatives of the Administrator
185 Legal proceedings, employee testimony, records
187 Fees
189 Use of Federal Aviation Administration communications system
191 Withholding security information from disclosure under the Air Transportation Security Act of 1974
198 War risk insurance
199 Aircraft loan guarantee program


Aircraft Documents
Abbreviation Description FAR
A Airworthiness 91 Sub ‘C’ (a)(1)
R Registration 91 Sub ‘C’ (a)(2)
R Radio FCC
O Operating Limitations Item 401 of equip list
W Weight & Balance Note (1) of equip list
E Equipment List Note (1) of equip list

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Single Engine - FAR Airworthiness Check

Mandatory Airworthiness – FAR 91.7
Description Regulation Time Period Last Inspection Next Due
Annual Inspection FAR 91.409a 12 calendar mo
100hr Inspection FAR 91.409b 100 flight hrs
Progressive Insp FAR 43.15d As required
Transponder FAR 91.215b 24 calendar mo
FAR 91.413
ELT operation FAR 91.207d 12 calendar mo
ELT battery FAR 91207c As marked
AD due date FAR 39.3 As required
AD due time FAR 39.3 As required
Flotation device FAR 91.205b12 As marked
Flotation device AC 20.56a 48mo after mfg
Pyrotechnic device FAR 91.205b12 As marked
Pyrotechnic device AC 91.58 48mo after mfg

Description Regulation Time Period Last Inspection Next Due
IFR VOR check FAR 91.171a2 30 days
IFR Static system FAR 91.411 24 calendar mo
IFR Altimeter FAR 91.411 24 calendar mo

Voluntary Airworthiness
Description Regulation Time Period Last Inspection Next Due
Engine overhaul Voluntary TBO
Prop overhaul Voluntary 5 yrs
Oil change Voluntary 25hr
Oil filter change Voluntary 50hr

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Maintenance FAR’s
Description FAR Comment
Airworthiness 21.183 Conforms to type design and condition for safe flight
Airworthiness - parts 21.303 Part replacement & substitution, PMA, STC, or 1 time
AC20-62d owner manufacture, industry standard parts may be used
(i.e. resisters, bolts, etc)
Major repair/alteration 43 (app A) Not listed in specs that appreciably effects weight,
- description balance, strength, aerodynamics, performance, or
Minor 1.1 Anything not major
Overhaul 43.2 (a) Disassemble, cleaned, inspected, repaired, reassembled,
and tested to service limits
Rebuild 43 (2)(b) Only the manufacture can disassemble, clean, inspect,
43 (3)(j) repair, reassemble, and test to new part tolerances
Preventative - 43 (app A)(c) Owner operator may perform
Annual/100 hr 43 (app D) Annual and 100hr differ only in periodic time requirement
inspection and limit.
100+10hr 91.409 (b) 10hr grace to get to maintenance facility
Manuals & tools 43.13 (a) Must use and understand manufactures current manuals,
65.81 techniques, and applicable tools
Markings & placards 23.1541
Controls 23.777
Fuel installation 23.951
Electrical installation 23.1351
Instrument installation 23.1311
Battery, radio, AC43.13 – 2a
antenna, lights, O2,
ski, seatbelt, cargo tie

Major repair/alteration 43 (App B) Normally 2 copies, 3 copies for cabin long range tanks –
– 337 form sample forms in ac8082-11
Records 91.405-407 Owner/operator responsible for maintenance records and
91.417 (b) they must be kept for 1 year
Malfunction or Defect Use form 8010-4 - sample forms in ac8082-11
Annual requirements 91.409 (a) Within preceding 12 calendar months
Annual/100hr chk list 43.15 (c) Checklist must be used
Inspection entries 43.11 (a) type of inspection, description, date, aircraft TIS,
signature, certificate num, certificate kind (samples entries
Inspection entries 43.9 (a) description, date, name of worker, signature, certificate
num, certificate kind (signature is return to service for only
the work performed), (samples entries provided)
Special flight 21.197-199 Ferry permit, etc
AD entries 91.417 (a)(1) Status, method of compliance, AD number, rev date

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Reoccurring: time, date, of next due - sample forms in

A&P, IA, duration 65.15 Permanent until surrendered, suspended, or revoked
A&P privileges 65.81 Perform or supervise (excluding major repair or
65.85 alterations of propeller or instruments). Must have
65.87 performed work before. Must understand current
manufactures manuals.
A&P recency 65.83 Within last 2 yrs worked for 6 mo
IA 65.91 Must be an A&P for at least 3 years
IA priveleges 65.92 As listed
IA recency experience 65.93 As listed
Data tag requirements AC49 Only mfg can make or issue one and must meet FAA req
& privileges 45.13(b), (c), May only be temp removed for maintenance
N-number AC49

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Aircraft 14 CFR 1.1 This term is in and means a device that is used or intended to
be used for flight in the air.


1. As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and
limitations of airmen, means a broad classification of aircraft. Examples
include: airplane; rotorcraft; glider; and lighter-than-air;

2. As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means a grouping of
aircraft based upon intended use or operating limitations. Examples include:
transport, normal, utility, acrobatic, limited, restricted, and provisional.

1. As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and
limitations of airmen, means a classification of aircraft within a category
having similar operating characteristics. Examples Include: single engine;
multiengine; land; water; gyroplane, helicopter, airship, and free balloon;

2. As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means a broad
grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or
landing. Examples include: airplane, rotorcraft, gilder, balloon, landplane,
and seaplane.

1. As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and
limitations of airmen, an airman certificate issued by the FAA. A specific
make and basic model of aircraft, Including modifications thereto that do not
change its handling or flight characteristics. Examples include: 737-700, G-
IV, and 1900; and

2. As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means those aircraft
which are similar in design. Examples include: 737-700 and 737-700C; G-IV
and G-IV-X; and 1900 and 1900C.

The FAA differentiates aircraft by their characteristics and physical
properties. Key groupings defined in 14 CFR 1.1 include:

Airplane - an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is
supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.

Glider - a heavier-than-air aircraft, that is supported in flight by the dynamic
reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces and whose free flight does not
depend principally on an engine.

Lighter-than-air aircraft - an aircraft that can rise and remain suspended
by using contained gas eighing less than the air that is displaced by the gas.

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Airship - an engine-driven lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered.

Balloon - a lighter-than-air aircraft that is not engine driven, and that
sustains flight through the
use of either gas buoyancy or an airborne heater.

Powered-lift - a heavier-than-air aircraft capable of vertical takeoff, vertical
landing, and low speed flight that depends principally on engine-driven lift
devices or engine thrust for lift during these flight regimes and on non-
rotating airfoil(s) for lift during horizontal flight.

Powered parachute - a powered aircraft comprised of a flexible or semi-
rigid wing connected to a fuselage so that the wing is not in position for flight
until the aircraft is in motion. The fuselage of a powered parachute contains
the aircraft engine, a seat for each occupant and Is attached to the aircraft's
landing gear.

Rocket - an aircraft propelled by ejected expanding gases generated in the
engine from self-contained propellants and not dependent on the intake of
outside substances. It includes any part which becomes separated during
the operation.

Rotorcraft - a heavier-than-air aircraft that depends principally for its
support in flight on the lift generated by one or more rotors.

Gyroplane - a rotorcraft whose rotors is not engine-driven, except for Initial
starting, but are made to rotate by action of the air when the rotorcraft Is
moving; and whose means of propulsion, consisting usually of conventional
propellers, is Independent of the rotor system.

Helicopter - a rotorcraft that, for its horizontal motion, depends principally
on its engine-driven rotors.

Weight-shift-control - a powered aircraft with a framed pivoting wing and a
fuselage controllable only in pitch and roll by the pilot's ability to change the
aircraft’s center of gravity with respect to the wing. Flight control of the
aircraft depends on the wing's ability to flexibly deform rather than the use
of control surfaces. Size and weight are other methods used in 14 CFR 1.1
to group aircraft:

Light-sport aircraft (LSA) - an aircraft, other than a helicopter or powered-
lift that, since its original
certification, has continued to meet the definition in 14 CFR 1.1. (LSA can
include airplanes, airships,
balloons, gliders, gyro planes, powered parachutes, and weight-shift-

Large aircraft - an aircraft of more than 12,500 pounds, maximum
certificated takeoff weight.

Small Aircraft - aircraft of 12,500 pounds or less, maximum certificated
takeoff weight.

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Aircraft Specification Order 8110.4b ch3 par5 (a), General. Prior to the adoption of the use of the
TCDS, approval of an aircraft, engine, or propeller type design resulted in
the publication of a "specification" document by the FAA's predecessor, the
Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA).

FAA-G-8082-114, Unlike the specifications, type certificate data sheets do
not contain a list of equipment approved for a particular aircraft. The list of
required and optional equipment can be found in the equipment list
furnished by the manufacturer of the aircraft. Sometimes a later issue of the
list is needed to cover recently approved items. Serial number eligibility
should always be considered.

Administrator FAR 1.1, Administrator means the Federal Aviation Administrator or any
person to whom he has delegated his authority in the matter concerned.

Airworthy/Airworthiness FAR 21.183 (1), He presents evidence to the Administrator that the
aircraft conforms to a type design approved under a type certificate or a
supplemental type certificate and to applicable Airworthiness Directives;

Update: FAR 3.5(a) now provides a term for airworthy.
FAR 3:5 Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.
(a) Definitions. The following terms will have the stated meanings when
used in this section:
Airworthy means the aircraft conforms to its type design and is in a
condition for safe operation.

Order 8130.2d par9, The term "airworthy" is not defined in Title 49 or the
regulations; however, a clear understanding of its meaning is essential for
use in the agency's Airworthiness Certification program. Below is an
analogy of the conditions necessary for the issuance of an airworthiness
certificate. A review of case law relating to airworthiness reveals two
conditions that must be met for an aircraft to be considered " airworthy."
Title 49 Section 44704(c) and 14 CFR part 21, Certification Procedures for
Products and Parts (part 21), § 21.183(a), (b), and (c), all relate to the two
conditions necessary for issuance of an airworthiness certificate. The
statutory language establishes the two conditions as:
a. The aircraft must conform to its TC. Conformity to type design is
considered attained when the aircraft configuration and the components
installed are consistent with the drawings, specifications, and other data that
are part of the TC, and would include any STC and field approved
alterations incorp orated into the aircraft.
b. The aircraft must be in a condition for safe operation. This refers to the
condition of the aircraft relative to wear and deterioration, e.g., skin
corrosion, window delamination/crazing, fluid leaks, tire wear, etc.

NOTE: If one or both of these conditions were not met, the aircraft would be
considered unairworthy. Aircraft which have not been issued a TC must
meet the requirements of paragraph 9b above.

Appliance FAR 1.1, Appliance means any instrument, mechanism, equipment, part,
apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including communications
equipment, that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an

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aircraft in flight, is installed in or attached to the aircraft, and is not part of an
airframe, engine, or propeller.

Approved: FAR 1.1, unless used with reference to another person, means approved by
the Administrator.

Categories FAR 23.3, Normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, transport

Categories (Commuter) FAR 23.2 (d), The commuter category is limited to propeller driven,
multiengine airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot
seats, of 19 or less, and a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 19,000
pounds or less. The commuter category operation is limited to any
maneuver incident to normal flying, stalls (except whip stalls), and steep
turns, in which the angle of bank is not more than 60 degrees.

Check FAR 147 App A (a)(2), Check means to verify proper operation.

Civil Aircraft FAR 1.1, Civil aircraft means aircraft other than public aircraft.

Date of Manufacture FAR 23.2 (c), For the purpose of this section, the date of manufacture is:
(1) The date the inspection acceptance records, or equivalent, reflect that
the airplane is complete and meets the FAA approved type design data; or

Empty Weight AC65-9a ch3, The empty weight of an aircraft includes all operating
equipment that has a fixed location and is actually installed in the aircraft. It
includes the weight of the airframe, powerplant, required equipment,
optional or special equipment, fixed ballast, hydraulic fluid, and residual fuel
and oil.

Residual fuel and oil are the fluids that will not normally drain out because
they are trapped in the fuel lines, oil lines, and tanks. They must be included
in the aircraft's empty weight. Information regarding residual fluids in aircraft
systems which must be included in the empty weight will be indicated in the
Aircraft Specification.

AC43.13 10-2b, The empty weight of an aircraft includes all operating
equipment that has a fixed location and is actually installed in the aircraft. It
includes the weight of the airframe, powerplant, required equipment,
optional or special equipment, fixed ballast, hydraulic fluid, and residual fuel
and oil.

FAR 23.29 (a), The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must
be determined by weighing the airplane with -
(1) Fixed ballast;
(2) Unusable fuel determined under § 23.959; and
(3) Full operating fluids, including -
(i) Oil;
(ii) Hydraulic fluid; and

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(iii) (a) Other fluids required for normal operation of airplane systems,
except potable water, lavatory precharge water, and water intended
for injection in the engines.
(b) The condition of the airplane at the time of determining empty
weight must be one that is well defined and can be easily repeated.

FAR 147 App A (a)(1), Inspect means to examine by sight and touch.

FAR 1.1, Maintenance means inspection, overhaul, repair, preservation,
and the replacement of parts, but excludes preventive maintenance.

Major - Repair/Alteration
FAR 1.1, Major alteration means an alteration not listed in the aircraft,
aircraft engine, or propeller specifications - (1) That might appreciably affect
weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation,
flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or (2) That is
not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary

FAR 43 App (A)(a)(1-4), Major alteration description & applicability

FAR 1.1, Major repair means a repair: (1) That, if improperly done, might
appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance,
powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting
airworthiness; or (2) That is not done according to accepted practices or
cannot be done by elementary operations.

- FAR 43 App (A)(b)(1-4), Major repair description & applicability

Major Overhaul AC 43-11, A major overhaul consists of the complete disassembly of an
engine. The overhaul facility inspects the engine, repairs it as necessary,
reassembles, tests, and approves it for return to service within the fits and
limits specified by the manufacturer’s overhaul data.

Minor - Repair/Alteration FAR 1.1, Minor alteration means an alteration other than a major

FAR 1.1, Minor repair means a repair other than a major repair.

May FAR 1.3(b)(2), May is used in a permissive sense to state authority or
permission to do the act prescribed, and the words "no person may * * *" or
"a person may not * * *" mean that no person is required, authorized, or
permitted to do the act prescribed;

FAA-G-8082-11 4, Minimum Equipment List: The minimum equipment list
(MEL) is intended to permit operations with certain inoperative items of
equipment for the minimum period of time necessary until repairs can be
accomplished. It is important that repairs are accomplished at the earliest

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opportunity in order to return the aircraft to its design level of safety and

FAR 1.1, Operate with respect to aircraft, means use, cause to use or
authorize to use aircraft, for the purpose (except as provided in 91.13 of this
chapter) of air navigation including the piloting of aircraft, with or without the
right of legal control (as owner, lessee, or otherwise).

Overhaul FAR 147 App A (a)(6), Overhaul means to disassemble, inspect, repair as
necessary, and check.

FAR 43.2 (a), No person may describe in any required maintenance entry
or form an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or
component part as being overhauled unless -
(1) Using methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the
Administrator, it has been disassembled, cleaned, inspected, repaired as
necessary, and reassembled; and
(2) It has been tested in accordance with approved standards and technical
data, or in accordance with current standards and technical data acceptable
to the Administrator, which have been developed and documented by the
holder of the type certificate, supplemental type certificate, or a material,
part, process, or appliance approval under § 21.305 of this chapter.

Major Overhaul AC 43-11, A major overhaul consists of the complete
disassembly of an engine. The overhaul facility inspects
the engine, repairs it as necessary, reassembles, tests,
and approves it for return to service within the fits and
limits specified by the manufacturer’s overhaul data. This
could be to new fits and limits or serviceable limits. The
engine owner should clearly understand what fits and
limits should be used when the engine is presented for
overhaul. The owner should also be aware of any
replaced parts, regardless of condition, as a result of a
manufacturer’s overhaul data, SB, or an Airworthiness
Directive (AD).

Top Overhaul AC 43-11, Top overhaul consists of repair to parts
outside of the crankcase, and can be accomplished
without completely disassembling the entire engine. It
can include the removal of cylinders, inspection and
repair to cylinders, inspection and repair to cylinder walls,
pistons, valve-operation mechanisms, valve guides, valve
seats, and the replacement of piston and piston rings. All
manufacturers do not recommend a top overhaul. Some
manufacturers indicate that a powerplant requiring work
to this extent should receive a complete overhaul.

Preventive Maintenance
FAR 1.1, Preventive maintenance means simple or minor preservation
operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving
complex assembly operations.

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FAR 43 App (A)(c), description & applicability

Public Aircraft FAR 1.1, Public aircraft means an aircraft used only for the United States
Government, …

Primary Aircraft FAR 21.24 (a), The applicant is entitled to a type certificate for an aircraft in
the primary category if -
(1) The aircraft -
(i) Is unpowered; is an airplane powered by a single, naturally aspirated
engine with a 61 knot or less VS0 stall speed as defined in § 23.49; or is
a rotorcraft with a 6 pound per square foot main rotor disc loading
limitation, under sea level standard day conditions;
(ii) Weighs not more than 2,700 pounds; or, for seaplanes, not more
than 3,375 pounds;
(iii) Has a maximum seating capacity of not more than four persons,
including the pilot; and
(iv) Has an unpressurized cabin.

FAR 47.17 (a), For purposes of this section: Aeronautical product means
any civil aircraft or airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance,
component, or part to be installed thereon.

FAR 21.1(b), For the purposes of this part, the word "product" means an
aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller.

Order 8180.4b 2-2f, A product is an aircraft, an aircraft engine, or a

Rebuilt, rebuild FAR 43 (2)(b), No person may describe in any required maintenance entry
or form an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or
component part as being rebuilt unless it has been disassembled, cleaned,
inspected, repaired as necessary, reassembled, and tested to the same
tolerances and limits as a new item, using either new parts or used parts
that either conform to new part tolerances and limits or to approved
oversized or undersized dimensions.

FAR 43 (3)(j), (j) A manufacturer may -
(1) Rebuild or alter any aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance
manufactured by him under a type or production certificate;

AC 43-11, The definition of the term “rebuilt” in § 91.421 allows the owner or
operator to use a new maintenance record without previous operating
history for an aircraft engine rebuilt by the manufacturer or an agency
approved by the manufacturer.

Remanufacture AC 43-11, (don’t use) …has no specific meaning in the regulations.

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Replace / Modify Parts FAR 21.303
(a), Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may
produce a modification or replacement part for sale for installation on a type
certificated product unless it is produced pursuant to a Parts Manufacturer
Approval issued under this subpart.
- (b) This section does not apply to the following:
- (1) Parts produced under a type or production certificate.
- (2) Parts produced by an owner or operator for maintaining or altering his
own product.
- (3) Parts produced under an FAA Technical Standard Order.
- (4) Standard parts (such as bolts and nuts) conforming to established
industry or U.S. specifications.

AC 20-62d, Industry standard small parts, owner made

Service FAR 147 App A (a)(4), "Service" means to perform functions that assure
continued operation.

Shall FAR 1.3(b)(1), "Shall" is used in an imperative sense;

Standard Airworthiness FAR 21.175 (a), Standard airworthiness certificates are airworthiness
certificates issued for aircraft type certificated in the normal, utility,
acrobatic, commuter, or transport category, and for manned free balloons,
and for aircraft designated by the Administrator as special classes of

FAR 21.183, Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility,
acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons;
and special classes of aircraft.

Special Airworthiness FAR 21.175 (b), (b) Special airworthiness certificates are primary,
restricted, limited, and provisional airworthiness certificates, special flight
permits, and experimental certificates.

FAR 21.197 (a), A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that
may not currently meet applicable airworthiness requirements but is capable
of safe flight, for the following purposes:
(1) Flying the aircraft to a base where repairs, alterations, or maintenance
are to be performed, or to a point of storage.
(2) Delivering or exporting the aircraft.
(3) Production flight testing new production aircraft.
(4) Evacuating aircraft from areas of impending danger.
(5) Conducting customer demonstration flights in new production aircraft
that have satisfactorily completed production flight tests.
(b) A special flight permit may also be issued to authorize the operation of
an aircraft at a weight in excess of its maximum certificated takeoff weight

Supervise FAR 43.3 (d), A person working under the supervision of a holder of a
mechanic or repairman certificate may perform the maintenance, preventive
maintenance, and alterations that his supervisor is authorized to perform, if
the supervisor personally observes the work being done to the extent

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necessary to ensure that it is being done properly and if the supervisor is
readily available, in person, for consultation.

Time In Service FAR 1.1, Time in Service with respect to maintenance time records, means
the time from the moment an aircraft leaves the surface of the earth until it
touches it at the next point of landing.

TSO FAR 21.303(b)(3)-etc, description & applicability

Type Certificate FAR 21.41, Each type certificate is considered to include the type design,
the operating limitations, the certificate data sheet, the applicable
regulations of this subchapter with which the Administrator records
compliance, and any other conditions or limitations prescribed for the
product in this subchapter.

TCDS Order 8110.4b 3-3(a), The TCDS is the part of the TC which documents the
conditions and limitations necessary to meet the airworthiness requirements
of the Federal Aviation Regulations.

Type Design FAR 21.31, The type design consists of -
(a) The drawings and specifications, and a listing of those drawings and
specifications, necessary to define the configuration and the design features
of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of this
subchapter applicable to the product;
(b) Information on dimensions, materials, and processes necessary to
define the structural strength of the product;
(c) The Airworthiness Limitations section of the Instructions for Continued
Airworthiness as required by Parts 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, and 35 of this
chapter, or as otherwise required by the Administrator; and as specified in
the applicable airworthiness criteria for special classes of aircraft defined in
§ 21.17(b); and
(d) For primary category aircraft, if desired, a special inspection and
preventive maintenance program designed to be accomplished by an
appropriately rated and trained pilot-owner.
(e) Any other data necessary to allow, by comparison, the determination of
the airworthiness, noise characteristics, fuel venting, and exhaust emissions
(where applicable) of later products of the same type.

PMA FAR 21.303(b)(2)-etc, description & applicability

STC AC21-40, Application Guide for Obtaining a STC

Ultralight Ultralight vehicle is another general term the FAA uses. This term is defined
in 14 CFR 103. As the term implies, powered ultralight vehicles must weigh
less than 254 pounds empty weight and unpowered ultralight vehicles
must weigh less than 155 pounds. Rules for ultralight vehicles are
significantly different from rules for aircraft; ultralight vehicle certification,
registration, and operation rules are also contained in 14 CFR 103

Unusable Fuel FAR 23.959 (a), The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be
established as not less than that quantity at which the first evidence of
malfunctioning occurs under the most adverse fuel feed condition

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occurring under each intended operation and flight maneuver involving that
tank. Fuel system component failures need not be considered.

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