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CEMENTING

CEMENT ADDITIVES

Most cement slurries will contain some additives, to modify the properties of the slurry and optimise
cement job. Most additives are known by the trade-names used by the cement service companies.
Cement additives can be used to:

Vary the slurry density


Change the compressive strength
Accelerate or retard the setting time
Control filtration and fluid loss
Reduce slurry viscosity

ACCELERATORS

Accelerators are added to the cement slurry to shorten the time taken for the cement to set. This are
especially important in shallow wells where the temperature is low and therefore the slurry may take a
long time to set.

Most common types of accelerators are:

Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) 1.5 - 2.0 %


Sodium Chloride (NaCl2) 2 - 2.5 %
Seawater

Higher concentration of these additives will act as a retarder.

RETARDERS

In deep wells the higher temperature will reduce the cement slurrys thickening time. Retarders are
used to prolong the thickening time and avoid the risk of the cement setting prematurely.

Most common types of retarders are:

Calcium lignosulphanate 0.1 1.5 %


Saturated Salt Solution

EXTENDERS (LIGHTWEIGHT ADDITIVES)

Extenders are used to reduce the slurry density for jobs where the hydrostatic head of the cement slurry
may exceed the fracture strength of certain formation. In reduction the slurry density the ultimate
compressive strength is also reduced and the thickening time increased. Use of this additives allows
more mixwater to be added, and hence increase the amount of slurry which is produced by each sack of
cement.
CEMENTING
The most common types of extenders are:

Bentonite 2-16% bentonite absorbs water and therefore allows more mixwater to be added. It
will also reduce compressive strength and sulphate resistance.
Pozzolan 50/50 mix with Portland cement, will reduce compressive strength and increase
sulphate resistance
Diatomaceous earth (10-40%) allows more water absorption, can reduce cement slurry density
to 11 ppg

HEAVYWEIGHT ADDITIVES

Heavyweight additives are used when cementing through overpressured zones. The most common
types of heavyweight additives are:

Barite up to 18 ppg but causes reduction in compressive strength and pumpability


Hematite (Fe2O3) up to 22 ppg, reduces pumpability, friction reducing additives are required
Sand graded sand (40 -60 mesh) can give a 2 ppg increase in density

DISPERSANTS (FRICTION REDUCING ADDITIVES)

Dispersants were added to improve the flow properties by lowering the viscosity of cement slurry

The most common types of dispersants are:

Polymers (0.3-0.5 lb/sx of cement)


Salt (1-16 lb/sx of cement)
Calcium lignosulphanate (0.5-1.5lb/sx of cement)

FLUID LOSS ADDITIVES

Fluid loss additives are added to prevent dehydration of cement slurry and premature setting. The most
common types are:

Organic polymer (0.5-1.5%)


Carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl (CMHEC) 0.3-10%