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Theory of Regionalized

Variables

Introduction

It has been known two methods for statistical analysis of mineral

deposit characterization: classical statistics and spatial statistics.

Classical statistical is used to define the properties of sample

values with assumption that sample values is realization of random

variables.

Samples composition/support is relatively ignored, then assumed

that all sample values in the mineral deposit have the same

probability to be picked up.

The presence of trends and ore shoots in mineralization zones can

be ignored.

The fact in earth sciences shows that two samples taken in vicinity

gives the similar value compared to the others in further distance.

In contrary, spatial statistics is used if the sample values are

realizations of random function.

In this hypothesis, sample values is function of their locations in

deposit and their relative position is considered in analysis.

The similarity of sample values which is function of the samples

distance is the basics theory in spatial statistics.

In order to define how closely the spatial correlation among points

in deposit, we must know the structural function which is

represented by variogram model.

Defining variogram model is the first step in spatial statistics

(geostatistics) analysis.

Principally, the calculation in geostatistics needs computer

assistance.

GAMV is a program packet for variogram calculation, while

KB2D and KT3D are program packets for 2D and 3D kriging

application. Both packets are included in GSLIB (Geostatistical

Software Library, by Deutsch and Journel, 1998).

SGeMS (Stanford Geostatistical Earth Modeling Software, by

Remy, 2004) is public domain or open source software packet for

3D geostatistical modeling.

What is geostatistics?

has been defined as "the application

of probabilistic methods to

regionalized variables", which

designate any function displayed in

a real space.

Application of geostatistics in mining

2.Error estimates

3.Optimal sample (or drilling) spacing

4.Estimating block reserves

5.Gridding and contour mapping

6.Simulating a deposit to evaluate a proposed mine

plan

7.Estimating the recovery

Regionalized Variables

A variable is regionalized when it is distributed in space and characterize

a certain phenomena, i.e. metal grade in mineralization zone.

Mathematically, regionalized variable {f(x)} is realization value of

random function {F(x)} located in each points x in space.

Generally in all deposit, characteristics or variability structure in space of

regionalized variables is known by locally erratic aspect (i.e. the

presence of richer zones from the others).

Samples taken in the richers zones will have higher average values

compared to the ones taken in the poorer zones, so that the value of

regionalized variable f(x) depends on the position or location in space x.

But generally (in average) the value of regionalized variable will show

structurally aspect with a certain function.

(Source: Armstrong, 1998)

1. Concept of Random Function

Random variable z(x) is variable which has certain numerical value based

on the certain probability distribution, i.e.: variable related to drillhole,

z(xi), has location or position on point xi.

Random function Z(x) is collection of all random variables z(x) in deposit

or {Z(x), x deposit}.

Regionalized variable f(x) can be considered as the realization of random

variable z(x).

regionalized variable as:

a. Locally on point xi, z(xi) is random variable.

b. Z(x) is a random function for each collection of points xi and xi+h, while

random variables z(xi) and z(xi+h) themselves are not random function.

Generally z(xi) and z(xi+h) are independent, but both are connected by

position/structural space of regionalized variable f(x).

2. Hypothesis on Regionalized Variable and Variogram

Because of the presence of erratic aspect on regionalized variable,

the direct analysis on this variable is not possible done, therefore

some hypothesis are necessary.

Mathematical expectation is defined as character or value which is

representative of a population.

If distribution of random function Z(x) has expectation, the general

expectation is function of x, or defined as:

b. Second Moment Order

There are three second moments order which are considered in

geostatistical analysis:

1. Variance of Z(x)

Variance is defined as the expectation around m(x) or:

2. Covariance

Covariance of z(xi) and z(xi+h) are:

3. Semivariogram

Semivariogram function is defined as variance of increment or the

difference between {z(xi) z(xi+h)} or:

or practically is:

N

2 (h ) = [z(x i ) z(x i + h )] / N (h ) (4b)

2

i =1

average distance among samples location (lag).

c. Stationarity Hypothesis

This hypotesis exist from the definition that covariance and

semivariogram functions depends simultaneously on two points

support xi dan xi+h.

Variable is said stationary if its distribution is invariant under

translation.

A stationary random function is homogeneous and self-repeating in

space, i.e. in the increment of h, distribution of Z(x1), Z(x2), , Z(xk)

is the same as distribution of Z(x1+h), Z(x2+h), Z(xk+h).

Stationarity requires all mathematical moments are invariant under

translation, but in general this condition is not easy to be fulfilled

because of the limitation of experimental data, so that only the two first

moments (mean and variance) are assumed to be constant.

This hypothesis is considered to be weak, so that there is other next

hypothesis: second order stationarity expectation value (mean) of

Z(x) must be constant for all values of x.

not-stationary

stationary

d. Second Order Stationarity

the support point of x, or:

covariance and depends on distance h, or:

= E{Z(x+h) Z(x)} m.E{Z(x+h)} m.E{Z(x)} + m2

= E{Z(x+h) Z(x)} m2 m2 + m2

C(h) = E{Z(x+h) Z(x)} m2 x (6)

h defines vector coordinates (hu, hv, hw) in 3D space.

Stationarity of covariance means the stationarity of variance and

variogram.

definition:

1. Var {Z(x)} = E [{Z(x) m}2]

= E [Z(x) Z(x)] m2

= C(0) (7)

= E[{Z(x+h) Z(x)}2]

= E{Z(x+h)Z(x+h)} E{Z(x+h)Z(x)}

+ E{Z(x)Z(x)}

= E{Z(x)Z(x)} E{Z(x+h)Z(x)} = {C(0) + m2}

{C(h) + m2}

(h) = C(0) C(h) (8)

Practically the stationarity hypothesis is not easy to fulfill the

condition of a certain data distribution, especially if the it contains

trend, which is the means can not be assumed to be constant for

all points x to be non-stationary regionalized variable.

e. Instrinsic Hypothesis

In this hypothesis is assumed that the increment of random

function is weakly stationary, which means that the mean and

variance of increment Z(x+h) Z(x) exists and not depend on

point x, or:

and

hypothesis, but the opposite condition is not always valid.

If a regionalized variable is stationary, so that the variogram

((h)) and its covariance (C(h)) will be equivalent.

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