5.1 5.2 5.3
Spreadsheet-Aided Dryer Design
Z.B. Maroulis, G.D. Saravacos, and Arun S. Mujumdar
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... Principles and Techniques of Spreadsheet-Aided Process Design.......................................................... Design of a Conveyor Belt Dryer .......................................................................................................... 5.3.1 Process Description .................................................................................................................... 5.3.2 Process Model............................................................................................................................. 5.4 Excel Implementation of a Belt Dryer Design ....................................................................................... Nomenclature ................................................................................................................................................. References ......................................................................................................................................................
121 121 126 126 126 127 129 134
Spreadsheet software has become an indispensable tool for engineers, because of the availability of personal computers, ease of use, and adaptability to many types of problems. Spreadsheet software has achieved great popularity because of its availability for microcomputers at reasonable cost, the ease of learning and using the software, and its ﬂexible applications to many problems. Furthermore, general-purpose spreadsheet software can be used effectively in process design (Maroulis and Saravacos, 2003). For example, Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic for Applications is an effective tool for process design. Spreadsheets offer sufﬁcient process model ‘‘hospitality.’’ They are connected easily and online with charts and graphic objects, resulting in powerful and easy-to-use graphical interfaces. Excel also supports mathematical and statistical tools. For instance, Solver is an excellent tool for solving sets of equations and performing optimization. Databases are effectively and easily accessed. In addition, Visual Basic for Applications offers a powerful object-oriented programming language, capable of constructing commercial graphics interfaces. It is the objective of this chapter to present stepby-step procedures in order to allow application of various dryer models into the Excel environment. This chapter refers to two main topics. The principles for solution of a process design problem are presented ﬁrst and then the principles for Excel implementation are described.
The reader needs to become familiar with the following topics regarding Excel software, using the related literature:
. . . . . . .
Modeling and spreadsheets Analyzing the Solver Sensitivity analysis using Excel tables Controls and dialog boxes to input data Graphics to get the results Databases Visual Basic as a programming language
5.2 PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF SPREADSHEET-AIDED PROCESS DESIGN
Computer-aided design is based on computer simulators, whereas computer simulators are based on process modeling. The basic terms, such as modeling, simulation, and design, are deﬁned in Table 5.1. Modeling is the procedure of translating the physical laws of a process to mathematical equations to analyze or design the process. Simulation is the appropriate software, which predicts the real performance of a process. It is based on mathematical modeling plus the appropriate graphics interface in a computer environment. Design is a procedure of sizing and rating a process in order to achieve speciﬁc goals, such as economic production, product quality, and protection of the environment. Modeling and simulation are useful tools in process design. Table 5.2 summarizes a step-by-step procedure for process modeling, whereas Table 5.3
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Since the use of the simulator requires the solution of different problems. A degrees-of-freedom analysis is shown in Table 5.2 Process Modeling
1. In process design. Suppose that M variables are incorporated into the mathematical model of N equations. It contains the process model. and the remainder corresponds to design variables.
. generally. the solution is obtained automatically on this worksheet.TABLE 5. thermodynamic equilibrium relationships.5). which apply to the process. several different problems are formulated in the ‘‘Problem Solution Visual Basic Module. These steps are further analyzed. It usually consists of three parts: (a) Problem speciﬁcations: The speciﬁcations and the required data for the problem
TABLE 5. Process model formulation Degrees-of-freedom analysis Alternative problem formulations Problem-solution algorithm Cost estimation and project evaluation analysis Process optimization
TABLE 5. the model solution uses only worksheet functions. 4. All technical and required data are retrieved from the ‘‘Database worksheet.4 Degrees-of-Freedom Analysis
Total number of variables Total number of equations Degrees of freedom Degrees of freedom Problem speciﬁcations Design variables M N F ¼ M–N F K D ¼ F–K
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.4 and in Figure 5. The values for the design variables are decided by the design engineer. LLC. and uses the Solver or the Goal Seek utilities of Excel via a Visual Basic program. In that case. some variables have given values. with each one developed in a different sheet (Maroulis and Saravacos. They are derived from material and energy balances. The degrees of freedom is characteristic of the process. transport phenomena. In chemical and food engineering the resulting system is sparse. geometry. The ‘‘Process Model Worksheet’’ is the heart of the system calculations. Several different problems could be deﬁned for every process (see.1. 6.3 Process Simulation Procedure in a Spreadsheet Environment
1. Implementation of alternative problem solutions or optimization procedures 3. Table 5. Generally some assumptions are also built into the model. for example. 3.’’ Their solution is based on the simplest problem of the process model worksheet above. The resulting simulator has generally the outline presented in Figure 5. In that case the system can be solved
sequentially (down triangle matrix) or by using a few trial variables. 2002). Model development in a spreadsheet 2. etc. The above approach is suitable for implementation in a spreadsheet environment.1 Basic Deﬁnitions
Modeling: is the procedure to translate the physical laws of a process to mathematical equations Simulation: is the appropriate software which guesses the real performance of a process Design: is a procedure to size and rate a process in order to obtain a speciﬁc goal Sizing: given the process speciﬁcations calculate the equipment size and characteristics Rating: given the process speciﬁcations and the equipment size and characteristics calculate the operating conditions
TABLE 5.’’ which contains all the required information in the form of ‘‘data lists. M is greater than or equal to N. to obtain a solution for the alternative problems.’’ These data are extended and modiﬁed via appropriate dialog boxes. equipment characteristics.2. and the difference M–N corresponds to the degrees of freedom of the process. The number of design variables is characteristic of the problem. when any change in input variables (free variables) occurs. that is every variable appears in a few equations. Four different units are distinguished. The equations constituting a model describe the physical laws. 5. The remainder NÂN set of equations is solved by using mathematical techniques. 2. ‘‘Graphics interface worksheet’’ is a user-friendly way for human–machine communication. When no interactions are needed. due to the design speciﬁcations. Development of graphics interface
summarizes a step-by-step procedure for process simulation.
4. The following steps comprise an Excel implementation procedure:
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Name all cells in second columns according to the names in the ﬁrst column.1 Degrees-of-freedom analysis.’’ Insert and name blank sheets are presented in Table 5. Toward an integrated graphics interface Step 1: Workbook Preparation Create a new workbook and name it to describe the process.7.Total number of variables (M )
Total number of equations (N )
Degrees of freedom (F ) (Process characteristic)
Problem specifications (K ) (Problem characteristic)
Design variables (D )
FIGURE 5..g.xls. LLC. the second the variable values or variable formulas.
. In each range the ﬁrst column contains the variable names. (You can use the ‘‘CtrlþShiftþF3’’ option. sensitivity analysis. (c) Results presentation: The results are obtained automatically. Introducing dialog boxes and controls to modify data 6. and the third the units used.5 Some Typical Problems
Direct Given the characteristics of input streams the equipment characteristics the operating conditions the characteristics of the output streams the characteristics of input streams the characteristics of output streams the equipment characteristics the operating conditions the characteristics of input streams the characteristics of output streams the equipment characteristics the operating conditions the characteristics of input streams the characteristics of output streams the operating conditions the equipment characteristics
Calculate Design Given Calculate Rating Given
Graphics interface worksheet
Problem solution Visual Basic module
Calculate Identiﬁcation Given
Process model worksheet
FIGURE 5.2 Simulator architecture on a spreadsheet environment.)
TABLE 5. 2. or comparison of alternative solutions. Step 2: Process Modeling in a Spreadsheet Into the spreadsheet ‘‘Process’’ consider seven separate ranges. 3. e. Since these charts are updated automatically. one row for every variable in the range.
to be solved are entered by the user or estimated from the databases. rating. and are presented in the form of tables or charts.
Workbook preparation Process modeling in a spreadsheet Using ‘‘Solver’’ for process optimization Using graphs and tables for presentation of the results 5. Each range consists of three columns and several rows. the user has at his disposal all the information needed for sizing. (b) Problem-type selection: The type of problem to be solved is selected via buttons. ‘‘BeltDryer. as it is presented in Table 5.6. Data are inserted via dialog boxes or buttons for changing some important magnitudes.
8 Visual Basic Subroutine for Process Optimization
Sub optimum( ) 1 Sheets(‘‘Process’’). Relation: ¼ 3. The cell ranges can be colored with different colors.7 Cell Content in ‘‘Process’’ Spreadsheet
Range Name Technical data Design variables Process speciﬁcations Economic data Process model Process constraints Economic model Content Data Data Data Data Formulas Formulas Formulas
TABLE 5. The ranges ‘‘Process
TABLE 5.’’ and ‘‘Economic Model’’ contain formulas. Any optimization technique. the process model implementation has been completed. The spreadsheet process model is now ready for use. or sensitivity analysis. The drawn arrows show the information ﬂow in the spreadsheet.
. ByChange: ¼ Range(‘‘variables’’) 4 SolverAdd CellRef: ¼ Range(‘‘constraints’’). LLC. graphical or tabulated reports.
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.3 Model implementation in the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet. any sophisticated graphics interface can be based on the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet.’’ ‘‘Process Constraints.8. Any changes in process data. The resulting spreadsheet ‘‘Process’’ looks like that presented in Figure 5. Having inserted data and formulas. any scenario analysis.’’ ‘‘Design Variables.3. MaxMinVal: ¼ 1.’’ and ‘‘Economic Data’’ contain only data. Some examples follow.6 Sheets in ‘‘BeltDryer.
The ranges ‘‘Technical Data. Step 3: Using ‘‘Solver’’ for Process Optimization Create a Visual Basic subroutine with the name ‘‘optimum’’ in the ‘‘Optimize’’ module. process speciﬁcations.xls’’ Workbook
Sheet Name Spreadsheets Process Flow sheet Report Control Visual Basic Modules Optimize Controls Dialog box sheets Spec Tech Cost Purpose
Process model Process ﬂow sheet Summary report of results Graphics interface Process optimization subroutines Subroutines for dialog boxes and controls Process speciﬁcations Technical data Economical data
Model. FormulaText: ¼ 0# 5 SolverSolve UserFinish: ¼ True 6 Beep End Sub
Technical data Process model Process specifications Design variable Process constraints Excel graph Excel table
FIGURE 5. The appropriate code is shown in Table 5.Activate 2 SolverReset 3 SolverOk SetCell: ¼ Range(‘‘objective’’).’’ ‘‘Process Speciﬁcations. design variables are taken into account and the results are updated immediately.TABLE 5. economic data.
one for the variable name. In the Visual Basic Module ‘‘vb_controls’’ type a subroutine to use the dialog box in the sheet ‘‘d_spec. Any information concerning process conditions can be inserted in cells near the desired point of the ﬂow sheet.’’ Press the button ‘‘speciﬁcations’’ and a dialog box appears in order to modify data for process speciﬁcations.EditBoxes(‘‘W’’).Value DialogSheets(dbName).Value ¼ DialogSheets(dbName).EditBoxes(‘‘Yo’’).Text Range(‘‘Yo’’). which are included in the range ‘‘Design Variables’’ in the spreadsheet ‘‘Process. Get the information from the ‘‘Process’’ sheet. For each piece of information there need to be three cells.Text Range(‘‘Xo’’). That is.
. insert the units. Step 4: Using Excel Tables and Charts for Presentation of the Results The process design results can be further analyzed using the tools ‘‘Tables’’ and ‘‘Charts’’ supported by Excel.. Statement 3 selects the cell with the name ‘‘objective’’ to be the objective function [SetCell: ¼ Range(‘‘objective’’)].’’ In the Dialog Module ‘‘db_spec’’ insert for every variable one ‘‘Label’’ (from the toolbar ‘‘forms’’) for its description. Statement 2 resets the Solver. ‘‘kg/s.Text End If Beep End Sub
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.’’ You can add any information you like. The above-mentioned cell names must be deﬁned.Statement 1 activates the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet. Next construct a ‘‘XY(Scatter)’’ chart in
which the ﬁrst column of the table corresponds to x-values and the second to y-values. Statement 5 activates the solver to ﬁnd the optimum.’’ Press the button ‘‘optimizer’’ and the optimum is reached in a few seconds.EditBoxes(‘‘Yo’’).9 A Subroutine to Activate the Dialog Box
Sub DialogSpeciﬁcations( ) dbName ¼ ‘‘d_spec’’ DialogSheets(dbName). Thus.EditBoxes(‘‘W’’). a process ﬂow sheet can easily be constructed in Excel as follows: in the sheet ‘‘Flow sheet’’ draw a ﬂow sheet by using the drawing toolbar.’’ in a neighboring cell insert the formula ‘‘ ¼ F’’ to get the value from the ‘‘Process’’ sheet..Value If DialogSheets(dbName). A scroll bar can be used for each design variable in order to modify the values of the design variables. one for the variable value.e.Value ¼ DialogSheets(dbName). in the sheet ‘‘Process’’ name:
.EditBoxes(‘‘Xo’’). In order to plot the effect of the design variable (X) on a technical (Y) and an economic (Z) variable the following steps can be used: construct a one-dimensional Excel table in which the ‘‘Column Input Cell’’ is the cell with the name ‘‘X. Insert text or graphics as you like. and in another cell.Text ¼ Range(‘‘Yo’’). In the spreadsheet ‘‘Process’’ insert a button. and one ‘‘Label’’ for its units.
. as described previously in the ﬂow sheet construction procedure.EditBoxes(‘‘Xo’’).Value ¼ DialogSheets(dbName).Value DialogSheets(dbName). Statement 4 suggests that all cells in the range ‘‘constraints’’ [CellRef: ¼ Range(‘‘constraints’’)] must be greater than [Relation: ¼ 3] zero [FormulaText: ¼ 0#].’’ and assign it to the subroutine ‘‘DialogSpeciﬁcations.Text ¼ Range(‘‘W’’). ‘‘F ¼ . one ‘‘Edit Box’’ (from the toolbar ‘‘forms’’) for its value. Step 5: Introducing Dialog Boxes and Controls to Modify Data A dialog box can be used to modify the values of process speciﬁcations. to insert a stream ﬂow rate. i.9. name it ‘‘speciﬁcations. which are included in the range ‘‘Process Speciﬁcations’’ in the spreadsheet ‘‘Process. select a cell near the icon of the stream arrow and insert the symbolic name of the stream ﬂow rate.’’
.Text ¼ Range(‘‘Xo’’).’’ The second and third output columns refer to the cells ‘‘Y’’ and ‘‘Z. requires the minimization of the objective function [MaxMinVal: ¼ 2]. nearby. Any changes in data are updated immediately. Any other tabulated results or desired reports can be easily obtained as follows: select a spreadsheet to incorporate the required information.’’ as described in Table 5. and one for the variable units. i.Show Then Range(‘‘W’’).e. LLC.’’ respectively. For example. construct a second ‘‘XY(Scatter)’’ chart in which the ﬁrst column of the table corresponds to x-values and the third to y-values. name it ‘‘optimizer’’ and assign it to the subroutine ‘‘optimum. Similarly.
The cells that contain the values of the design variables as ‘‘variables’’ The cells that contain the process constraints as ‘‘constraints’’ The cell that contains the proﬁt as ‘‘objective’’
In the sheet ‘‘Process’’ insert a new button. and selects the range ‘‘variables’’ to be the decision variables [ByChange: ¼ Range (‘‘variables’’)]. Name all the Edit Boxes with the name of the corresponding variable.
min’’ Insert the maximum allowable value in a cell named ‘‘X..CV’’
The coded value ranges between 0 and 100 and is deﬁned as follows: X.’’ as described in Step 5 Insert buttons to appear and disappear the crucial graphs Insert buttons to activate the desired dialog boxes Insert scroll bars to modify the desired process variables Insert buttons to solve different problems. in order to handle the variable X.minþX. which activate the desired graphs or reports.maxÀX. and Equation T10.CV*(X. The drying air temperature is controlled in the heater.7 to air. Equation T10.maxÀXmin)*100
Insert a scroll bar from the toolbar ‘‘forms’’ and assign the ‘‘Cell Link’’ (in the ‘‘Format Object’’ menu) to the coded value ‘‘X.3. e. and humidity X0 (kg/kg db) is distributed on the belt as it enters the dryer.CV’’ Replace the content of the cell named ‘‘X’’ with the following formula:
¼ X.2 PROCESS MODEL
A mathematical model of the process presented in Figure 5.CV ¼ (XÀX.A scroll bar.4 is summarized in Table 5.
. Equation T10.1 calculates the vapor pressure at drying temperature.e. Both Equation T10.
Insert the scroll bar icon from the toolbar ‘‘forms’’ Insert the minimum allowable value in a cell named ‘‘X. .2 is the psychrometric equation. LLC.1 and Equation T10. Equation T10. The belt is moving at a velocity u (m/s) and requires an electrical power Eb (kW).5. Step 6: Toward an Integrated Graphics Interface Any desired graphics interface can be developed in the spreadsheet ‘‘Control. Equation T10.2 are used to calculate the water activity at drying conditions (i. and moisture content X (kg/kg db). temperature T (8C).
5. The wet feed at ﬂow rate F (kg/s db).min)/(X.
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. can be inserted as follows:
. 2003). The air conditions for design can be considered constant due to the high air recirculation.3 DESIGN OF A CONVEYOR BELT DRYER
In this section a design approach is described for a conveyor belt dryer (Maroulis and Saravacos.3. temperature T0 (8C). whereas Equation T10. The graphics interface could be further improved to look professional using appropriate programming code in Visual Basic. instead of the actual values. An electrical power Ef (kW) is expended by the fan and a thermal power Q (kW) is expended by the heater. temperature T (8C).
. This modiﬁcation guarantees the proper performance of the optimization and of scroll bars.4 are used in Equation T10. and humidity Y (kg/kg db).1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION
A typical ﬂow sheet of a conveyor belt dryer is presented in Figure 5.
FIGURE 5. The dried product exits the dryer at the same ﬂow rate on dry basis F (kg/s db). process optimization.
Draw a process ﬂow sheet in sheet ‘‘Controls. which calculates the required drying time.min)/100 It must be noted that the range ‘‘variables’’ which is handled by the solver during optimization must be redeﬁned to refer to coded values. He can enter data via scroll bars or dialog boxes and observe the results via buttons.4.4 estimates the drying time constant at drying conditions.3 and Equation T10.10.g.
.6 refers to solid.6 and Equation T10. Equation T10.3 calculates the equilibrium material moisture content at drying conditions.
The user has now at his disposal a process simulator.
5. temperature T and air humidity Y).
5. The drying air enters the dryer at a ﬂow rate Ff (kg/s db).7 constitute the moisture balance at the dryer. The thermal energy requirements for drying are summarized
.’’ It can be constructed as follows:
. whereas Equation T10.4 Schematic representation of a belt dryer. and the drying air humidity is controlled through the ﬂow rate of the fresh air Fa (kg/s db).max’’ Insert the coded value in a cell named ‘‘X.
2 is applied. Equation T10. Different problems (different material.5 constitutes a simple but accurate belt dryer design simulator.
5.13.24 deﬁne two crucial dryer performance indices. Equation T10.
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.16.13 correlates the residence time with the mass holdup.3) (T10. Equation T10. and Equation T10.14 the mass holdup with the volume holdup. The required cost data are summarized in Table 5.23 and Equation T10. Table 5. Table 5. ﬁnancial environment.12.13. Equation T10.16 calculates the required belt area.8) (T10.7) (T10.4) (T10. The corresponding technical data are summarized in Table 5. which minimize the objective function (TAC). Table 5. Equation T10. Equation T10.22) (T10.11) (T10. T.17) (T10.2) (T10.’’ and ‘‘Cost Data’’ contain data according to Table 5. it ﬁnds the (optimal) values of the design variables (Y. and the range ‘‘Cost Analysis’’ represents the analysis presented in Table 5.8 refers to water evaporation.11.18 through Equation T10. Finally.15 is the geometrical distribution of the volume holdup on the belt.10 Belt Dryer Model
Psychrometric equations Ps ¼ exp [a1Àa2/(a3 þ T)] Y ¼ mawPs/(PÀawPs) Drying kinetics Xe ¼ b1 exp[b2/(273þT)] [aw/(1Àaw)]b3 tc ¼ c0dc1Vc2Tc3Yc4 t ¼ Àtc ln[(XÀXe)/(X0ÀXe)] Material balance W ¼ F (X0ÀX) W ¼ Fa(Y À Y0) Thermal energy requirements Qwe ¼ F(X0 À X) [DH0 À (CPL À CPV)T] Qsh ¼ F [CPS þ X0CPL] (T À T0) Qah ¼ Fa [CPA þY0CPV] (T À T0) Q ¼ Qwe þ Qsh þ Qah Air heater Q ¼ AsUs(TsÀT) Belt dryer M ¼ tF (1þX0) M ¼ (1À«)rsH H ¼ Z0DL Ab ¼ LD ub ¼ L/t Fan DP ¼ f1Z0V2 Fi ¼ raVDL Ef ¼ DPFf/ra Belt driver Eb ¼ e1L(1þX0)F Electrical energy requirements E ¼ Eb þ Ef Performance indices n ¼ Qwe/Q r ¼ W/Ab (T10.21) (T10.16.1) (T10.6) (T10. Equation T10.17 is used as objective function in process optimization. as an example.15 suggests a selection of design variables and the corresponding solution algorithm is presented in Table 5.10. Equation T10.2.’’ ‘‘Design Variables.18.’’ ‘‘Process Speciﬁcations.11 are involved in the model of 24 equations presented in Table 5. The range ‘‘Model Solution’’ contains the solution of the model in Table 5.13) (T10. and Table 5.18) (T10.5. Thirty-seven variables presented in Table 5. Equation T10.10 to rejected air heating.24)
Equation T10..13 through Equation T10. the button ‘‘optimize’’ performs an optimization. (a) to construct a dynamic process ﬂow sheet (Figure 5.
in Equation T10. which results in four design variables. V.14) (T10.8 through Equation T10.20 estimates the required electrical power to operate the fan.11 refers to the total energy required by the heater.16) (T10. i. Figure 5.
.12 is used for sizing the heater. process speciﬁcations) can be solved instantaneously.21 estimates the required electrical power to move the belt.20 are used for sizing the fan.20) (T10. Equation T10. Equation T10.18. Step 4 of Section 5.TABLE 5. The ranges ‘‘Technical Data.17 the required belt velocity to obtain the desired residence time. whereas Equation T10.17.18 calculates the pressure loss of air through the loaded belt.14.23) (T10. The total annualized cost (TAC) presented in Table 5. The process speciﬁcations of a typical design problem are presented in Table 5.10 according to the solution presented in Table 5. LLC.6). Equation T10. and Equation T10. Equation T10.12.3 is implemented in an Excel environment according to the principles and techniques presented in Section 5. Equation T10.19) (T10. whereas a degrees-of-freedom analysis is shown in Table 5. D).24 calculates the evaporating capacity per unit belt area.5) (T10. and Equation T10.10) (T10. respectively.2 are applied and the dryer model is created on the spreadsheet ‘‘process’’ as shown in Figure 5. These equations are valid for all dryer types. Equation T10.e.12) (T10.9 to solids heating.15.22 calculates the required total electrical power.19 correlates the airﬂow with the air velocity. Steps 1–3 of Section 5.17 are used for sizing the belt.15) (T10.4 EXCEL IMPLEMENTATION OF A BELT DRYER DESIGN
In this section the dryer design model presented in Section 5.9) (T10. Finally.23 deﬁnes the dryer thermal performance.
12 Technical Data
Density (kg/m3) rw ra rs Speciﬁc heat (kJ/kg K) CPL CPV CPA CPS Latent heat (kJ/kg) DH0 Other Us « Empirical constants a1.TABLE 5.15 Design Variables (b) to investigate the effect of one design variable on an economic variable (Figure 5.7).8). (d) to summarize the results of the design on a synoptic report (Figure 5. c1.
. c2. LLC. c3. Any other analysis
Y T V D kg/kg db 8C m/s m Drying air humidity Drying air temperature Drying air velocity Belt width
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. b2.9). (c) to analyze the effect of two design variables on a technical variable (Figure 5. c4 e1 f1 Water Air Dry material Water Water vapor Air Dry material Steam condensation at 08C Heat transfer coefﬁcient at air heater (kW/m2 K) Void (empty) fraction of loading Antoine equation for vapor pressure of water Oswin equation for material isotherms Drying kinetics equation Belt driver power equation Pressure loss equation
TABLE 5.13 Process Speciﬁcations
F X0 X d T0 Y0 Z0 P Ts ton/h db kg/kg db kg/kg db m 8C kg/kg db m bar 8C Feed ﬂow rate Initial material moisture content Final material moisture content Material characteristic size Ambient temperature Ambient humidity Loading depth Ambient pressure Heating steam temperature
kW kW kW kW 8C kW kW kW — kg/h m2
TABLE 5.11 Process Variables
Drying air Fa Ff T Y V P T0 Y0 Ps aw Material F X0 X Xe d tc t Dryer W L D M H Ab As ub Z0 DP Thermal load Qwe Qsh Qah Q Ts Electrical load Eb Ef E Performance n r ton/h ton/h 8C kg/kg db m/s bar 8C kg/kg db bar — ton/h kg/kg db kg/kg db kg/kg db m h h ton/h m m ton m3 m2 m2 m/s m bar Fresh airﬂow rate Recycle airﬂow rate Drying air temperature Drying air humidity Drying air velocity Drying pressure Ambient temperature Ambient humidity Vapor pressure at drying conditions Water activity at drying conditions Material ﬂow rate Initial moisture content Final moisture content Equilibrium moisture content at drying conditions Particle size Drying time constant at drying conditions Drying time Drying rate Dryer length Dryer width Dryer mass holdup Dryer volume holdup Belt area Air heater transfer area Belt velocity Loading depth Pressure loss of air ﬂowing through belt Water vaporization Solid heating Air heating Total thermal load Steam temperature Belt driver Fan Total power requirement Thermal efﬁciency Speciﬁc rate of evaporation
TABLE 5.14 Degrees-of-Freedom Analysis
Process variables Process equations Degrees of freedom 37 24 13 Degrees of freedom Speciﬁcations Design variables 13 9 4
TABLE 5. a2. b3 c0. a3 b1.
11 T10. kJ/kg K cost of heating steam.3)
(T17.19 T10.5 T10.4)
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. kW rotating driver power.2) (T17.
TABLE 5.18 T10.7 T10. kW material ﬂow rate.TABLE 5. The results are shown in Figure 5.23 T10.16 Model Solution Algorithm
Equation T10. m particle size. $/m2 fan unit cost. $/kW h dryer width.13 T10.20 T10. m dry basis total power requirement.
.17 T10. ton/h recycle airﬂow rate.14 T10.16 T10. ton/h db pressure loss equation power fresh airﬂow rate.1 T10. $/m2 cost of electricity.12 T10.2 T10.17 Cost Analysis
Equipment cost Ceq ¼ Cbel Anbel þ Cexc Anexc þ Cfan Efnfan s Annual operating cost Cop ¼ (Cs Q þ Ce E)ty Total annual cost (objective function) TAC ¼ eCeq þ Cop where the Capital Recovery Factor is calculated from the equation ir (1 þ ir )lf e¼ (1 þ ir )lf À 1 (T17.24 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Ps aw Xe tc t W Fa Qwe Qsh Qah Q As M H L Ab ub DP Ff Ef Eb E n r
TABLE 5.10 T10.10 could be further improved by introducing more tools. tables. ton/h dryer volume holdup. m
can be performed in a similar way according to the scope of the designer. m2 air heater transfer area. m2 water activity Oswin equation constants drying kinetics equation constants belt dryer unit cost.18 Cost Data
Utility cost Ce Cs Equipment unit cost Cbel Cexc Cfan Equipment size scaling factor nbel nexc nfan Other ty ir lf $/kW h $/kW h $/m2 $/m2 $/kW — — — h/yr — yr Cost of electricity Cost of heating steam Belt dryer Heat exchanger Fan Belt dryer Heat exchanger Fan Annual operating time Interest rate Lifetime
ai Ab As aw bi ci Cbel Ce Cexc Cfan CPA CPL CPS CPV CPW Cs D d db E e e1 Eb Ef Er F f1 Fa Ff H ir L Antoine equation constants belt area. kW capital recovery factor belt driver power equation constant belt driver power. kJ/kg K speciﬁc heat of liquid water.2 is also applied exemplarily to insert a ‘‘scroll bar’’ for each of the design variables and a ‘‘dialog box’’ to modify the process speciﬁcations. m3 interest rate dryer length.22 T10.21 T10.10.4 T10. kJ/kg K speciﬁc heat of dry material.15 T10.3 T10. $/kW speciﬁc heat of air. The resulting graphics interface of Figure 5.8 T10. kW fan power. kJ/kg K speciﬁc heat of water vapor.1) (T17.9 T10.6 T10. $/kW h heat exchanger unit cost. LLC. Step 5 of Section 5. and graphs. kJ/kg K speciﬁc heat of water. It can also become more professional using appropriate programming in Visual Basic.
00 kJ/kg C ΔHo 2.50 MJ/kg 0.25– −1.00 kJ/kg C Cps 2.75E+03– 4.10 kW/m2 K e 0.20 MW 0.40– 1.Technical data 1.87 h t W 0. LLC.20 kJ/kg C Cpl
Design variables y 0.75– Nfan ty 4000 h/y 0.65– Nexc 0.40– −0.54 h 2.00 k$ 0.6 Process ﬂow sheet implemented in the spreadsheet ‘‘Flow sheet.63 MW Qsh 0.0 bar 160 C
1.5 Dryer model implementation in the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet.00E+01– 0.0 C v 1.622– m Us 0.00 k$ 2.20 Xe 0.0 y
Model solution ps 0.12– 2.100 kg/kg db T 90.10 tn/h 10 kg/kg db 0.
FIGURE 5.20 m 1.00 tn/m3 po 1.05 kg/kg db tc 0.99 tn/h 11 tn/h Fa Qwe 0.50– 1.1 kW Eb 27.1 kg/hm r Cost analysis 599 k$ Ceq 207 k$/y Cop TAC 357 k$/y
FIGURE 5.6 m Ab 25 m2 o 4.00 k$ Cexc Cfan 1.00 kg/m3 ps 1.4 m/h Dp 0.05 $/kW h Cs Cbel 25.06 m3 L 12.0 m Process specification F Xo X db To Yo Zo p Ts 0.90 kJ/kg C 1.16 tn H 5.0 C 0.
.00– 2.91 MW Q 130 m2 As M 3.19E+01– a1 a2 3.8 kW E 62.0 kW 0.’’
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.00–
Cost data 0.99E+03– a3 2.69– n 2 39.010 m 25.9 bar Ff 137 tn/h Ef 34.1 kg/kg db 0.70 bar ow 0.34E+02–
b1 b2 b3 c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 e1 f1
7.08 MW Qah 0.65– 0.50 m/s D 2.75 tn/m3 4.08– tr lf 5.010 kg/kg db 0.35E+04– 1.10 $/kW h Ce 0.95– Nbel 0.
7 Analyze the effect of one design variable on some economic variables. supported by Excel.FIGURE 5. 8C
Belt are (m2)
Drying are humidity (kg/kg db)
FIGURE 5. using the ‘‘Two-Dimensional Table’’ and ‘‘Chart’’ tools. 8C drying time constant. bar
Q Qah Qsh Qwe r t T tc T0 Ts
total thermal load. kW solid-heating thermal load. kW speciﬁc rate of evaporation. h ambient temperature. yr air–water molecular weight ratio dryer mass holdup. kW air-heating thermal load.
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. supported by Excel. kW water vaporization thermal load. h drying air temperature. bar vapor pressure at temperature T. kg/h m2 drying time. ton thermal efﬁciency belt dryer scaling factor heat exchanger number of ﬂights fan scaling factor pressure. using the ‘‘One-Dimensional Table’’ and ‘‘Chart’’ tools.8 Analyze the effect of two design variables on a technical variable. 8C steam temperature. LLC.
lf m M n nbel nexc nf nfan P Ps
16 5.08– lf = 5.91 MW
Eb = Ef = E =
27.8 kW 34.06 25.00 kJ/kgK
F = Xo = X = Xe = d = tc = 0 t =
0.10 0.10 kW/m2K ε = 0.00E+00
Qwe = Qsh = Qah = Q =
0.1 kg/kg db 0.54 2.6 2 3.00 k$/kW nbel = 0.50E−01 = −1.75 ton/m3
Fa Ff T y V P To Yo aw
= 11 = 137 = 90 = 0.2 m 1 bar 160 C 0.69− r = 39.01 = 0.00 ton/m3 ra = 1.35E−04 = 1.01 0.00 kJ/kgK 2.34E+02 = 7.20
ton/h m m ton m3 m2 m2 m/s m
Belt Driver Power Equation Pressure Loss Equation
a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 e1 f1
= 1.01 kg/kg db 0.01 m 25 C 0.1 kg/hm2
FIGURE 5.50 MJ/kg Us = 0.00 kg/m3 rs = 1.05 $/kWh Cbel = 25.75E+03 = 4.00E−01 = 1.20–
ton/h ton/h C kg/kg db m/s bar C kg/kg db
Cpw Cpv Cpa Cps
= = = =
4.08 MW 0.5 = 1 = 25 = 0. LLC.90 kJ/kgK 1.9 A summary report of the process design results.99E+03 = 2.Belt Dryer Design Report Belt Dryer Design Report page1/5 Cost Data Problem Folmulation Material Process Specification Feed Flow Rate Initial Material Moisture Content Final Material Moisture Content Material Characteristic Size Ambient Temperature Ambient Humidity Loading Depth Ambient Pressure Heating SteamTemperature Design Variables Drying Air Humidity Drying Air Temperature Drying Air Velocity Belt Width xxxxxxx Equipment Unit Cost Belt Dryer Heat Exchanger Fan Equipment Size Scaling Factor Belt Dryer Heat Exchanger Fan Other Annual Operating Time Interest Rate Lifetime Utility Cost Electricity Heating Steam
Ce = 0.0 kW
n = 0.1 = 1.05 0.40–
W L D M H Ab As u Zo
= = = = = = = = =
0.20 MW 0.1 10 0.3 130 4.65– nfan = 0.20 kJ/kgK 1.87
ton/h kg/kg db kg/kg db kg/kg db m h h
ΔHo = 2.5 m/s 2m
= = = =
Belt Dryer Design Report Results Drying Air Fresh Air Flowrate Recycle Air Flowrate Drying Air Temperature Drying Air Humidity Drying Air Velocity Drying Pressure Ambient Temperature Ambient Humidity Water Activity at Drying Conditions Material Material Flow Rate Initial Moisture Content Target Moisture Content Equiliblium Moisture Content Particle Size Drying Time Constant Drying Time Dryer Drying Rate Dryer Length Dryer Width Dryer Mass Holdup Dryer Volume Holdup Belt Area Air Heater Transfer Area Belt Velocity Loading Depth Thermal Load Water Vaporization Solid Heating Air Heating Total Thermal Load Electrical Load Belt Drive Fan Total Power Requirement Performance Thermal Efficiency Specific Rate of Evaporation
Belt Dryer Design Report
Technical Data Density Water Air Dry Material Specific Heat Water Water Vapor Air Dry Material Latent Heat Steam Condensation Other Heat Transfer Coefficient Void Fraction of Loading Antoine Equation for Vapor Pressure of Water Oswin Equation for Material Isotherms Drying Kinetics Equations rw = 1.65E+00 = 1.1 ton/h 10 kg/kg db 0.00E−01 = 5.1 kg/kg db 90 C 1.75– ty = 4000 h/y ir = 0.40E+00 = −2.0 k$/m2 Cexh = 2.95– nexh = 0.00E+00 = 2.19E+01 = 3.10 $/kWh Cs = 0.
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.40 0.99 12.63 MW 0.
F Xo X d To Yo Zo P Ts Y T V D
= = = = = = = = =
0.00 k$/m2 Cfan = 1.20E−01 = 2.1 kW 62.
Belt Dryer Design Report
Cost Analysis Results Equipment Cost Belt Dryer Heat Exchanger Fan Total Operating Cost Electricity Heating Steam Total Annualized Equipment Operating Total 538 47 14 Ceq = 599 k$ 25 182 Cop = 207 k$ 150 207 TAC = 357 k$/y
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC.
.10 Toward an integrated graphics interface.9 (continued)
bar void (empty) fraction of loading
ra rm rs rw
air density. ton/h ﬁnal moisture content. kg/kg db ambient air humidity. m latent heat of water evaporation at 08C. h/yr belt velocity. m/s heat transfer coefﬁcient at air heater. Saravacos GD. kg/kg db equilibrium moisture content. kJ/kg pressure loss of air. kg/m3 water density. simulation and design of drying processes. Saravacos GD. kg/m3
Maroulis ZB. Beijing. Marcel Dekker. kg/kg db drying air humidity. Maroulis ZB. IDS 2002. LLC. 2002. m/s evaporating capacity. kW/m2 K drying air velocity. Modeling. 2003. kg/m3 dry material density. kg/kg db initial moisture content. kg/m3 construction material density. Food Process Design.
ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. kg/kg db loading depth.ty ub Us V W X Xe X0 Y Y0 Z0 DH0 DP «
annual operating time. China. Keynote Lecture at the 13th International Drying Symposium. New York.