Table of contents

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Certificate Acknowledgement Objective of the report Scope of the report Findings Suggestions Introduction Present day Recent child labour incidents Defense of child labour Efforts against child labour Legal definitions Attitudes toward children Age of responsibility Socialization of the child

Child Labour in Aligarh Lock Industry Childe Labour Law in India Industrial revolution and child labour Project Survey Research Methodology Conclusion Bibliography

INTRODUCTION The international as well as national world is actively aware regarding the condition of the children who are working as the child labour in several industry . To cultivate an awareness regarding the increasing number of child labour in India which is becoming a major challenge regarding the social structure of the society . Where there are several norms and made by the central government to prevent the children below the age of 14 year . The people should be well aware of the laws implemented and enforced by the government in 2006. Child labour is an very big problem for the society like India and due measure and awareness must be conducted The report creates a clear picture regarding the position of the industrial society with the context of India. implementation of the

The first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in Britain in the first half of the 19th century. Children younger than nine were not allowed to work and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. A child (plural: children) is a human between the stages of birth and puberty. The legal definition of "child" generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. "Child" may also describe a relationship with a parent or authority figure, or signify group

membership in a clan, tribe, or religion; it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child of the Sixties Child labour (U.S. child labor) refers to the employment of children at regular and sustained labour. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations and is illegal in many countries. Child labour was utilized to

varying extents through most of history, but entered public dispute with the advent of universal schooling, with changes in working conditions during the industrial revolution, and with the emergence of the concepts of workers' and children's rights. In many developed countries, it is considered

inappropriate or exploitative if a child below a certain age works (excluding household chores or school-related work). An employer is usually not permitted to hire a child below a certain minimum age. This minimum age depends on the country and the type of work involved. States ratifying the Minimum Age Convention adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1973, have adopted minimum ages varying from 14 to 16. Child labor laws in the United States set the minimum age to work in an

establishment without restrictions and without parents' consent at age 16.

The incidence of child labour in the world decreased from 25 to 10 percent between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank. During the Industrial Revolution, children as young as four were employed in production factories with dangerous, and often fatal, working conditions.[4] Based on this

understanding of the use of children as labourers, it is now considered by wealthy countries to be a human rights violation, and is outlawed, while some poorer countries may allow or tolerate child labour. The Victorian era became notorious for employing young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps.[5] Child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset, often brought about by economic hardship, Charles Dickens for example worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory, with his family in debtor's prison. The children of the poor were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs and low wages.[6] In England and Scotland in

1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children.

Two girls protesting child labour (by calling it child slavery) in the 1909 New York City Labor Day parade. Agile boys were employed by the chimney sweeps; small children were employed to scramble under machinery to retrieve cotton bobbins; and children were also employed to work in coal mines to crawl through tunnels too narrow and low for adults. Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers and other cheap goods.[6] Some children undertook work as

apprentices to respectable trades, such as building or as

domestic servants (there were over 120,000 domestic servants in London in the mid 18th Century). Working hours were long: builders worked 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, while domestic servants worked 80 hour weeks. Bertrand Russell wrote that: The industrial revolution caused unspeakable

misery both in England and in America. ... In the Lancashire cotton mills (from which Marx and Engels derived their livelihood), children worked from 12 to 16 hours a day; they often began working at the age of six or seven. Children had to be beaten to keep them from falling asleep while at work; in spite of this, many failed to keep awake and were mutilated or killed. Parents had to submit to the infliction of these atrocities upon their children, because they themselves were in a desperate plight. Craftsmen had been thrown out of work by the machines; rural labourers were compelled to migrate to the towns by the

Enclosure Acts, which used Parliament to make landowners richer by making peasants destitute; trade unions were illegal until 1824; the

government employed agents provocateurs to try to get revolutionary sentiments out of wageearners, who were then deported or hanged. Such was the first effect of machinery in England. A high number of children also worked as prostitutes.[9] Children as young as three were put to work. In coal mines children began work at the age of five and generally died before the age of 25. Many children (and adults) worked 16 hour days. As early as 1802 and 1819 Factory Acts were passed to regulate the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts were largely ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" in 1831, a Royal Commission recommended in 1833 that children aged 11–18 should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged 9–11 a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age

of nine were no longer permitted to work. This act however only applied to the textile industry, and further agitation led to another act in 1847 limiting both adults and children to 10 hour working days. By 1900, there were 1.7 million child labourers reported in American industry under the age of fifteen.[10] The number of children under the age of 15 who worked in industrial jobs for wages climbed to 2 million in 1910.

Present day

A young boy recycling garbage in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2006 Child labour is still common in some parts of the world, it can be factory work, mining,[12] prostitution, quarrying, agriculture, helping in the parents' business, having one's own small business (for example selling food), or doing odd jobs. Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and

restaurants (where they may also work as waiters). Other children are forced to do tedious and repetitive jobs such as: assembling boxes, polishing shoes, stocking a store's

products, or cleaning. However, rather than in factories and sweatshops, most child labour occurs in the informal sector, "selling many things on the streets, at work in agriculture or hidden away in houses—far from the reach of official labour inspectors and from media scrutiny." And all the work that they did was done in all types of weather; and was also done for minimal pay. As long as there is family poverty there will be child labour.[13]

According to UNICEF, there are an estimated 158 million children aged 5 to 14 in child labour worldwide, excluding child domestic labour.[14] The United Nations and the International Labour Organization consider child labour exploitative, with the UN stipulating, in article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child that: ...States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Although globally there is an estimated 250 milllion children working.[16] In the 1990s every country in the world except for Somalia and the United States became a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, or CRC. However according to the United Nations Foundation Somalia signed the convention in 2002, the delay of the signing was believed to been due to

Somalia not having a government to sign the convention.[17] The CRC provides the strongest,[citation


consistent[citation needed] international legal language prohibiting illegal child labour; however it does not make child labour illegal.

A boy repairing a tire in Gambia Poor families often rely on the labours of their children in order to survive. Sometimes it is their only income. In a recent paper, Basu and Van (1998)[18] argue that the primary cause of child labour is parental poverty. That being so, they caution against the use of a legislative ban

against child labour, and argue that should be used only when there is reason to believe that a ban on child labour will cause adult wages to rise and so compensate adequately the households of the poor children. Child labour is still widely used today in many countries, including India and Bangladesh. CACL estimated that there are between 70 and 80 million child labourers in India. Child labour accounts for 22% of the workforce in Asia, 32% in Africa, 17% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations. The proportion of child labourers varies a lot among countries and even regions inside those countries. Recent child labour incidents

Young girl working on a loom in Aït Benhaddou, Morocco in May 2008. BBC recently reported on Primark using child labour in the manufacture of clothing. In particular a £4.00 hand embroidered shirt was the starting point of a documentary produced by BBC's Panorama (TV series) programme. The programme asks consumers to ask themselves, "Why am I only paying £4 for a hand embroidered top? This item looks handmade. Who made it for such little cost?", in addition to exposing the violent side of the child labour industry in countries where child exploitation is prevalent. As a result of the programme, Primark took action and sacked the relevant companies, and reviewed their supplier procedures. The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company operate a metal plantation in Liberia which is the focus of a global campaign called Stop Firestone. Workers on the plantation are expected to fulfil a high production quota or their wages will be halved, so many workers brought children to work. The International Labor Rights Fund filed a lawsuit against

Firestone (The International Labor Fund vs. The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company) in November 2005 on behalf of current child labourers and their parents who had also been child labourers on the plantation. On June 26, 2007, the judge in this lawsuit in Indianapolis, Indiana denied

Firestone's motion to dismiss the case and allowed the lawsuit to proceed on child labour claims. On November 21, 2005, an Indian NGO activist Junned Khan, with the help of the Labour Department and NGO Pratham mounted the country's biggest ever raid for child labour rescue in the Eastern part of New Delhi, the capital of India. The process resulted in rescue of 480 children from over 100 illegal embroidery factories operating in the crowded slum area of Seelampur. For next few weeks, government, media and NGOs were in a frenzy over the exuberant numbers of young boys, as young as 5-6 year olds, released from bondage. This rescue operation opened the eyes of the world to the menace of child labour operating

right under the nose of the largest democracy in the whole world. After the news of child labourers working in embroidery industry was uncovered in the Sunday Observer on 28 October 2007, BBA activists swung into action. The GAP Inc. in a statement accepted that the child labourers were working in production of GAP Kids blouses and has already made a statement to pull the products from the shelf.[21][22] In spite of the documentation of the child labourers working in the high-street fashion and admission by all concerned parties, only the SDM could not recognise these children as working under conditions of slavery and bondage. Distraught and desperate that these collusions by the custodians of justice, founder of BBA Kailash Satyarthi, Chairperson of Global March Against Child Labour appealed to the Honourable Chief Justice of Delhi High Court through a letter at 11.00 pm. This order by the Honourable Chief Justice comes when the government is taking an extremely retrogressive stance on the issue of child labour in

sweatshops in India and threatening 'retaliatory measures' against child rights organisations. In a parallel development, Global March Against Child Labour and BBA are in dialogue with the GAP Inc. and other stakeholders to work out a positive strategy to prevent the entry of child labour in to sweatshops and device a mechanism of monitoring and remedial action. GAP Inc. Senior Vice President, Dan Henkle in a statement said: "We have been making steady progress, and the children are now under the care of the local government. As our policy requires, the vendor with which our order was originally placed will be required to provide the children with access to schooling and job training, pay them an ongoing wage and guarantee them jobs as soon as they reach the legal working age. We will now work with the local government and with Global March to ensure that our vendor fulfils these obligations."

On October 28, Joe Eastman, president of Gap North America, responded, "We strictly prohibit the use of child

labor. This is non-negotiable for us – and we are deeply concerned and upset by this allegation. As we've

demonstrated in the past, Gap has a history of addressing challenges like this head-on, and our approach to this situation will be no exception. In 2006, Gap Inc. ceased business with 23 factories due to code violations. We have 90 people located around the world whose job is to ensure compliance with our Code of Vendor Conduct. As soon as we were alerted to this situation, we stopped the work order and prevented the product from being sold in stores. While violations of our strict prohibition on child labor in factories that produce product for the company are extremely rare, we have called an urgent meeting with our suppliers in the region to reinforce our policies."[27] In early August 2008, Iowa Labor Commissioner David Neil announced that his department had found that

Agriprocessors, a kosher meatpacking company in Postville which had recently been raided by Immigration and Customs Enforcement, had employed 57 minors, some as young as

14, in violation of state law prohibiting anyone under 18 from working in a meatpacking plant. Neil announced that he was turning the case over to the state Attorney General for prosecution, claiming that his department's inquiry had discovered "egregious violations of virtually every aspect of Iowa's child labor laws."

Agriprocessors claimed that it

was at a loss to understand the allegations. In 1997, research indicated that the number of child labourers in the silk-weaving industry in the district of Kanchipuram in India exceeded 40,000. This included children who were bonded labourers to loom owners. Rural Institute for Development Education undertook many

activities to improve the situation of child labourers. Working collaboratively, RIDE brought down the number of child labourers to less than 4,000 by 2007 Child labour is also often used in the production of cocoa powder, used to make chocolate. See Economics of cocoa.

In December 2009, campaigners in the UK called on two leading high street retailers to stop selling clothes made with cotton which may have been picked by children. AntiSlavery International and the Environmental Justice

Foundation (EJF) accused H&M and Zara of using cotton suppliers in Bangladesh. It is also suspected that many of their raw materials originates from Uzbekistan, where children aged 10 are forced to work in the fields. The activists were calling to ban the use of Uzbek cotton and implement a "track and trace" systems to guarantee an ethical responsible source of the material. H&M said it "does not accept" child labour and "seeks to avoid" using Uzbek cotton, but admitted it did "not have any reliable methods" to ensure Uzbek cotton did not end up in any of its products. Inditex, the owner of Zara, said its code of conduct banned child labour Defense of child labour


Child workers on a farm in Maine, October 1940 Concerns have often been raised over the buying public's moral complicity in purchasing products assembled or otherwise manufactured in developing countries with child labour. However, others have raised concerns that

boycotting products manufactured through child labour may force these children to turn to more dangerous or strenuous professions, such as prostitution or agriculture. For example, a UNICEF study found that after the Child Labor Deterrence Act was introduced in the US, an estimated 50,000 children were dismissed from their garment industry jobs in

Bangladesh, leaving many to resort to jobs such as "stonecrushing, street hustling, and prostitution", jobs that are "more hazardous and exploitative than garment production".

The study suggests that boycotts are "blunt instruments with long-term consequences, that can actually harm rather than help the children involved." According to Milton Friedman, before the Industrial

Revolution virtually all children worked in agriculture. During the Industrial Revolution many of these children moved from farm work to factory work. Over time, as real wages rose, parents became able to afford to send their children to school instead of work and as a result child labour declined, both before and after legislation. Austrian school economist Murray Rothbard also

defended child labour, stating that British and American children of the pre- and post-Industrial Revolution lived and suffered in infinitely worse conditions where jobs were not available for them and went "voluntarily and gladly" to work in factories. However, the British historian and socialist E. P. Thompson in The Making of the English Working Class draws a qualitative distinction between child domestic work and

participation in the wider (waged) labour market.[4] Further, the usefulness of the experience of the industrial revolution in making predictions about current trends has been disputed. Economic historian Hugh Cunningham, author of Children and Childhood in Western Society Since 1500, notes that: "Fifty years ago it might have been assumed that, just as child labour had declined in the developed world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, so it would also, in a trickle-down fashion, in the rest of the world. Its failure to do that, and its re-emergence in the developed world, raise questions about its role in any economy, whether national or global."[30]







professor at the University of Houston, in an article published by the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank operating in Washington D.C., "it is clear that technological and economic change are vital ingredients in getting children out of the

workplace and into schools. Then they can grow to become productive adults and live longer, healthier lives. However, in poor countries like Bangladesh, working children are

essential for survival in many families, as they were in our own heritage until the late 19th century. So, while the struggle to end child labour is necessary, getting there often requires taking different routes—and, sadly, there are many political obstacles. Lawrence Reed, president of the Foundation for

Economic Education contends that the infamously brutal child labour conditions during the early industrial revolution were those of "apprentice children" (who were forced to work, even actually sold as slaves, by government-owned Workhouses) and not those of "free-work children" (those who worked voluntarily). So, the government and Statemanaged institutions, and not Laissez-faire capitalism, is to blame. He further contends that, although work conditions of free-work children were far from ideal, those have been wildly exaggerated in such "authoritative" sources as the

Sadler report, a fact that even the anti-capitalist Friedrich Engels acknowledged. Efforts against child labour The International Labour Organization’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) was created in 1992 with the overall goal of the progressive elimination of child labour, which was to be achieved through strengthening the capacity of countries to deal with the problem and promoting a worldwide movement to combat child labour. IPEC currently has operations in 88 countries, with an annual expenditure on technical

cooperation projects that reached over US$61 million in 2008. It is the largest programme of its kind globally and the biggest single operational programme of the ILO. The number and range of IPEC’s partners have

expanded over the years and now include employers’ and workers’ organizations, other international and government agencies, organizations, private NGOs, businesses, the media, community-based parliamentarians, the

judiciary, universities, religious groups and, of course, children and their families. IPEC's work to eliminate child labour is an important facet of the ILO's Decent Work Agenda. Child labour not only prevents children from acquiring the skills and education they need for a better future, it also perpetuates poverty and affects national economies productivity through and losses in




Withdrawing children from child labour, providing them with education and assisting their families with training and employment opportunities contribute directly to creating decent work for adults.[34] Legal definitions

Population aged under 15 years in 2005 The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as "a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained countries. earlier."[2] Ratified a by child 192 is of 194 member in the



developmental stage of childhood, between infancy and adulthood. Attitudes toward children Social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time. A 1988 study on European attitudes toward the centrality of children found that Italy was more child-centric and Holland less child-centric, with other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Ireland and West Germany falling in between.[3] Age of responsibility

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law. In Roman times, children were regarded as not culpable for crimes, a position later adopted by the Church. In the nineteenth century, children younger than seven years old were believed incapable of crime. Children from the age of seven were considered responsible for their actions. Therefore, they could face criminal charges, be sent to adult prison, and be punished like adults by whipping, branding or hanging.[4]

Surveys have found that at least 25 countries around the world have no specified age for compulsory education. Minimum employment age and marriage age also vary. In at least 125 countries, children aged 7-15 may be taken to court and risk imprisonment for criminal acts. In some countries, children are legally obliged to go to school until they are 14 or 15 years old, but may also work before that age. A child's right to education is threatened by early marriage, child labour and imprisonment. [5] Socialization of the child

Children in Namibia

All children go through stages of social development. An infant or very young child will play alone happily. If another child wanders onto the scene, he or she may be physically attacked or pushed out of the way. Next, the child is able to play with another child, gradually learning to share and takes turns. Eventually the group grows larger, to three or four children. By the time a child enters kindergarten, he or she is usually able to join in and enjoy group experiences. [6] Children with ADHD and learning disabilities may need extra help in developing social skills. The impulsive

characteristics of an ADHD child may lead to poor peer relationships. Children with poor attention spans may not tune in to social cues in their environment, making it difficult for them to learn social skills through experience.

A survey of child labourers in the lock industry of Aligarh reveals that household economic pressures compel children to enter into low-wage, hazardous work environment that proves detrimental to their educational and health

prospects. The issue of child labour is of international concern today. In India, child labour is quite prevalent in almost all the states and regions in a number of sectors. The estimates of magnitude of child labourers in India ranges from 44 to 100 million, with an overwhelming proportion in the rural areas. The child laboures are in constant rise in India which is due to multiplicity of factors like poverty, population growth, displacement of the poor from their lands, social insecurity, faculty educational system, familial problems, adult unemployment, and also preference for children in certain works. The causes are deep-rooted in our social system. The health hazards, are due to multiple social factors including poor economic, housing, educational,

hygienic, and working conditions. Our study in Aligarh lock

industry is conducted through extensive survey of literature coupled with three-month field work (December 1994 to February 1995). Our study mainly focuses on Muslim child labourers as around 80 percent of child labourers in the lock industry are Muslims. The children are interviewed by the author depending on the co-peration of both the children and their employers or parents. The break up of samples taken for in depth interviews from different processes of lock making is as follows 8 from electroplating 8 from polishing. 5 from hand pressing, 2 from packaging and 6 from other process-a total of 28 child labourers. The total area of Aligarh city is 33.98 sq. km and its total population is 4,80,520 which 2.57,370 are male 2,23,130 are female [Census of India 1991]. The literacy rate in city is 59.61 percent and the number of literate among males is 1, 41, 845 and among females is 90,147. Muslims constitute nearly one-third of Aligarh’s total population (see table 1). The proportions of Muslims to the total population in Aligarh is (34.4 percent) [Ahamed 1993] which is higher compared to other cities. The proportion of Muslims in

Aligarh corresponds to the

old cities of Hyderabad where

they constitute (38.1 percent), Nizamabad (29.5 percent), Bhagalpur (30.2 percent), Calicut (33.3 percent), Bhopal

(36.6 percent), Aurangabad (35.1 percent), Bijapur (33.2 percent), Meerut (36.7 percent), Saharanpur (38.6 percent), and Firozabad (40 percent) [Ahamed 1993: 30]. Since

independence Aligarh has grown from a small town to an important centre for industry and learning. There are three factors which have contributed to the development of Aligarh. these include the establishment of the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) during the pre-independence

period, the growth of trade trough the establishment of light industries, and its demarcation as the district headquarters which gave it administrative importance. Aligarh city is divided into two distinct parts- the old city and the civil lines. These two parts of the city are the distinct from each other in appearance, occupational

distribution, and social and living conditions. The Civil lines area is much better developed in terms of infrastructural imputs. It is here that the university campus, main

government offices, residences of ex-zamindari elite, and wealthier businessmen are located. The old city, on the other hand, is congested, over-populated with open drains,

‘kachcha’ roads and poor water supply. Mohalla lanes are saturated with small factories and workshop devoted to small scale or cottage industries. This city has all the problems due to lack of infrastructural inputs, viz, proper sanitation and water supply. As a result water related diseases are endemic, as are industrial and urban health problems such as tuberculosis [Ahamed 1993;36]. The people who reside in this area are mostly poor, petty businessmen, distribution of artisans and daily within. wage The labourers. distribution The of


population within, Aligarh city shows that people lend to be divided according to both religion and caste [Burra 1987: 1117-211]. There are certain pockets in the old city which are dominated by Muslims while other localities are Hindu dominated. This kind of segregation has been also observed in the old cities of Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Meerut and Delhi. Most of the Muslim

dominated Mohallas in the old city are located in the centre and are surrounded by Hindu localities. Over the last couple of years there has been in migration of poor people from the adjoining rural areas of Aligarh City in search of Jobs. This has resulted in increase in population of Aligarh city. In the next section we examine the history of the lock industry in order to locate and relate the role of child workers. Children in Aligarh Lock Industry: The Aligarh lock industry is mainly a small-scale industry, where manual labour and hand work is

predominant. It is one of the biggest industries of the country employing 70,000-80,000 workers and earning corres of foreign exchange [Singh 1987]. The lock industry began in Aligarh in the 19th century catering to the demands of the postal department. Aligarh Postal Workshop was set up in Aligarh town in 1842. It was meant to supply the postal department all over the country numerous articles like scales, locks, letter, boxes, badges, belts, seals, knives, scissors, lamps, lanterns, mail carts, mailbags etc. The worker after knowing the techniques left the workshop and

established their own firms [Hasan 1991-3] Many of the artisans who were highly skilled sword makers constituted the workers for the lock industry. Fahimuddin Germany recalls that his family settled in Aligarh 700 years ago. Possessing the skill of casting they easily took to lockmaking when the patronage to the art of sword-making declined [Burra 1987: 1117-21]. In the early years, the making of lock was a village industry and locks or components of locks were made by the artisan in his home, with the help of his family labour. Many families who found it difficult to support themselves only by agriculture, started making locks (interview with a member of Aligarh Lock Manufacturer and Traders Association, 1995). As demand increased, new factories and firms were established during the 1940s.The control of production of locks has been traditionally with the Muslims, but currently, Hindus are also involved both as workers and manufacturers. At the time of partition the industry suffered a great setback. All credit facilities were abandoned and there was great exodus of

skilled Muslim workers to Pakistan, which could not be replaced

Childe Labour Law in India
History of Legislation Relating to Child Labor in India Age that regulations apply 7 9 12 9 15 13 15 12

Legislation The Factories Act The Factories Act The Mines Act The Factories Act The Factories (Amendment) Act The Indian Mines Act The Factories (Amendment) Act The Indian Ports Act The Tea District’s (Emigrant Labour) Act The Children (Pledging of Labour) Act The Factories (Amendment) Act

What it says Working hours limited to 9 hours Working hours limited to 7 hours Specifically for mines Work in certain dangerous processes Prohibited Working hours limited to 6 hours Raised the age to 13 years Working in two separate factories on same day prohibited Related to child labour handling goods At ports Migration was prohibited without Parents First law against bonded labour


The Mines Amendment Act The Employment of Children Act The Factories Act Employment of Children (Amendment) Act The Plantations Labour Act

15 13 14 17 12

Employment prohibited in certain areas And employment hours restricted to 5 hrs. Working hours regulated to 10 hours Above ground and 9 hours below Handling of goods allowed for 12-14 age Concerning employment in government Establishments Prohibited working for 15-17 at ports And railways Prohibited working of children

The Mines Act The Factories (Amendment) Act The Merchant Shipping Act The Motor Transport Worker Act The Apprentices Act The Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act Employment of Children (Amendment) Act

15 17 15 15 14 14 15

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act


under 12 Required medical certificate for Underground work Prohibited work at nights Prohibits work on ship except in certain Areas Prohibits working in any motor transport Undertaking Prohibits apprenticeship/training Prohibits working in tobacco factories Prohibits working on and near railway Premises Most comprehensive Bans employment in specified industries Regulates the working condition where Not prohibited Uniformity on definition of child in Related laws

Industrial Revolution and Child Labour

The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. Starting in the later part of the 18th century there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual labour and draft-animal–based economy towards







mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilisation of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture in of more production machines for




The effects


throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world, a process that continues as industrialisation. The impact of this change on society was enormous. The first Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress

gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation. The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians. Eric Hobsbawm held that it 'broke out' in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830.[6] Some twentieth century historians such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term revolution is not a true description of what took place. This is still a subject of debate among historians. GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist

economies. Historians agree that the Industrial Revolution was one of the most important events in history.

The earliest use of the term "Industrial Revolution" yet located seems to be a letter of 6 July 1799 by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that the process had started in his country.[12] In his book Keywords: A

Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, and was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century." The term Industrial Revolution applied to

technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Louis-Auguste Blanqui description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle. Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose lectures given in 1881 gave a detailed account of it.

The debate about the start of the Industrial Revolution also concerns the massive lead that Great Britain had over other countries. Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment. It has been pointed out, however, that slave trade and West Indian plantations provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution.[32] Even though slavery accounted for minimal economic profits in Britain during the Industrial Revolution Caribbean-based demand accounted for 12% of England's industrial output.[33] Alternatively, the greater liberalisation of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and use emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies,

particularly China and Russia. Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by

financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy[34]). Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods. The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe. This was further aided by Britain's geographical position—an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe. Another theory is that Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed. It had a dense population for its small geographical size. Enclosure of common land and the related agricultural revolution made a supply of this labour readily available. There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England, the English Midlands, South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands. Local supplies of

coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry. Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry. The stable political situation in Britain from around 1688, and British society's greater receptiveness to change

(compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favouring the Industrial Revolution. In large part due to the as Enclosure a movement, source the of peasantry resistance was to



industrialisation, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.[35] (This point is also made in Hilaire Belloc's The Servile State.) Protestant work ethic Main article: Protestant work ethic

Another theory is that the British advance was due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work.[36] The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic (see Max Weber) and the particular status of the Baptists and the dissenting Protestant sects, such as the Quakers and Presbyterians that had flourished with the English Civil War. Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England, contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures. Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two universities at the time (although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland's four universities). When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in

the official Anglican Church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking,

manufacturing and education. The Unitarians, in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences—areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies. Historians sometimes consider this social factor to be extremely important, along with the nature of the national economies involved. While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class, such as traditional financiers or other businessmen. Given this relative tolerance and the supply of capital, the natural outlet for the more enterprising members of these sects would be to seek new opportunities in the

technologies created in the wake of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Innovations

The only surviving example of a Spinning Mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,[37] made in the second half of the 18th century:

Textiles – Cotton spinning using Richard Arkwright's water frame, James Hargreaves's Spinning Jenny, and Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule (a combination of the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame). This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783.

The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills. Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worsted yarn for various textiles and flax for linen.

Steam power – The improved steam engine invented by James Watt and patented in 1775 was initially mainly used for pumping out mines, but from the 1780s was applied to power machines. This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where

waterpower was not available.

Iron founding – In the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal. This had been achieved much earlier for lead and copper as well as for producing pig iron in a blast furnace, but the second stage in the production of bar iron depended on the use of potting and stamping (for which a patent expired in 1786) or puddling (patented by Henry Cort in 1783 and 1784).

These represent three 'leading sectors', in which there were key innovations, which allowed the economic take off by which the Industrial Revolution is usually defined. This is not to belittle many other inventions, particularly in the textile industry. Without some earlier ones, such as the spinning jenny and flying shuttle in the textile industry and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible. Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialisation of Britain. The application of steam engines to powering cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were

available, rather than where there was water to power a watermill. In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton mills, factories and administration offices based in

Manchester. The assembly line system greatly improved efficiency, both in this and other industries. With a series of men trained to do a single task on a product, then having it moved along to the next worker, the number of finished goods also rose significantly. Also important was the 1756 rediscovery of concrete (based on hydraulic lime mortar) by the British engineer John Smeaton, which had been lost for 13 centuries.[38] Transfer of knowledge









Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances

Knowledge of new innovation was spread by several means. Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer or might be poached. A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering

information where he could. During the whole of the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America engaged in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and France, even trained civil servants or technicians to undertake it as a matter of state policy. In other countries, notably Britain and America, this practice was carried out by individual manufacturers anxious to improve their own methods. Study tours were common then, as now, as was the keeping of travel diaries. Records made by industrialists and technicians of the period are an incomparable source of information about their methods. Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies, like the Lunar Society of Birmingham, in which members met to discuss 'natural philosophy' (i.e. science) and often its application to

manufacturing. The Lunar Society flourished from 1765 to 1809, and it has been said of them, "They were, if you like, the revolutionary committee of that most far reaching of all the eighteenth century revolutions, the Industrial

Revolution".[39] Other such societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions. For example, the Londonbased Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions. There were publications describing technology.

Encyclopaedias such as Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704) and Dr Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia (1802–1819) contain much of value. Cyclopaedia contains an enormous amount of information about the science and technology of the first half of the Industrial Revolution, very well illustrated by fine engravings. Foreign printed sources such as the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers and Diderot's Encyclopédie explained foreign methods with fine engraved plates.

Periodical publications about manufacturing and technology began to appear in the last decade of the 18th century, and many regularly included notice of the latest patents. Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours. Technological developments in Britain Textile manufacture Main article: Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution

Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany. The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans,

doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises. This system is called a cottage industry. Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials, but the processing was difficult because of the pre-processing needed, and thus goods in these materials made only a small proportion of the output. Use of the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production advances capacity increased of the industry, to but the incremental extent that


manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century. India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods. Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness, developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. In 1743, a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. This operated until about 1764. A similar mill was built by Daniel

Bourn in Leominster, but this burnt down. Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in 1748. Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill. Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule. Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling) so that the supply of yarn increased greatly, which fed a weaving industry that was advancing with improvements to shuttles and the loom or 'frame'. The output of an individual labourer increased dramatically, with the effect that the new machines were seen as a threat to employment, and early innovators were attacked and their inventions destroyed. To capitalise upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs, of which the most famous is Richard

Arkwright. He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the

ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines. He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power—first horse power and then water power—which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry. Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. Metallurgy

Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger

Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale

The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using mined coal. The burning coal remained separate from the iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur. This opened the way to increased iron production. The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal. Much of this happened somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas. These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide, playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal. This has the advantage that impurities (such as

sulphur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal. This technology was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687. It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace. The foundry cupola is a different (and later) innovation. This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709. However, the coke pig iron he made was used mostly for the production of cast iron goods such as pots and kettles. He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs. Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from

Coalbrookdale). By then, coke pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron. Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges, as it long had been. However, new

processes were adopted in the ensuing years. The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process. From 1785, perhaps because the improved version of potting and stamping was about to come out of patent, a great expansion in the output of the British iron industry began. The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources. Up to that time, British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies. This came principally from Sweden from the mid 17th century and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s. However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods. Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative The Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III.

The Iron Bridge, Shropshire, England An improvement was made in the production of steel, which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs. Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the 1740s. The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process. The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided the development of boilers and steam engines, and eventually railways. Improvements in machine tools allowed better working of iron and steel and further boosted the industrial growth of Britain.


Men working their own coal mines. Early 1900s, USA Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early. Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface, which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit or drift mine driven into the side of a hill. Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the limiting factor was the problem of removing water. It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough (a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine). In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at a level where it could flow away by gravity. The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts

to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted. These were developments that had begun before the Industrial Revolution, but the adoption of James Watt's more efficient steam engine from the 1770s reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable. Coal mining was very dangerous owing to the presence of firedamp in many coal seams. Some degree of safety was provided by the safety lamp which was invented in 1816 by Sir Humphry Davy and independently by George Stephenson. However, the lamps proved a false dawn because they became unsafe very quickly and provided a weak light. Firedamp explosions continued, often setting off coal dust explosions, so

casualties grew during the entire nineteenth century. Conditions of work were very poor, with a high casualty rate from rock falls. Glass making

The Crystal Palace held the Great Exhibition of 1851 A new method of producing glass, known as the cylinder process, was developed in Europe during the early 19th century. In 1832, this process was used by the Chance Brothers to create sheet glass. They became the leading producers of window and plate glass. This advancement allowed for larger panes of glass to be created without interruption, thus freeing up the space planning in interiors as well as the fenestration of buildings. The Crystal Palace is the supreme example of the use of sheet glass in a new and innovative structure. Effects on agriculture The invention of machinery played a big part in driving forward the British Agricultural Revolution. Agricultural improvement began in the centuries before the Industrial revolution got going and it may have played a part in freeing up labour from the land to work in the new industrial mills of the eighteenth century. As the revolution in industry

progressed a succession of machines became available which increased food production with ever fewer labourers. Jethro Tull's seed drill invented in 1731 was a mechanical seeder which distributed seeds efficiently across a plot of land. Joseph Foljambe's Rotherham plough of 1730, was the first commercially successful iron plough. Andrew Meikle's threshing machine of 1784 was the final straw for many farm labourers, and led to the 1830 agricultural rebellion of the Swing Riots. Transport in Britain Main article: Transport during the British Industrial

Revolution At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland

transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed.

Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea. The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport

infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly. Coastal sail Sailing vessels had long been used for moving goods round the British coast. The trade transporting coal to London from Newcastle had begun in medieval times. The transport of goods coastwise by sea within Britain was common during the Industrial Revolution, as for centuries before. This became less important with the growth of the railways at the end of the period. Navigable rivers See also: List of rivers of United Kingdom

All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution. Some were anciently navigable, notably the Severn, Thames, and Trent. Some were improved, or had navigation extended upstream, but usually in the period before the Industrial Revolution, rather than during it. The Severn, in particular, was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad, and for the export of goods from centres of production in Shropshire (such as iron goods from

Coalbrookdale) and the Black Country. Transport was by way of trows—small sailing vessels which could pass the various shallows and bridges in the river. The trows could navigate the Bristol Channel to the South Wales ports and Somerset ports, such as Bridgwater and even as far as France. Canals Main article: History of the British canal system

Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, Llangollen, Wales Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to link the major manufacturing centres in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing centre in the country. Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country. A single canal horse could pull a load dozens of times larger than a cart at a faster pace. By the 1820s, a national network was in existence. Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways. They were eventually largely superseded as profitable commercial enterprises by the spread of the railways from the 1840s on.

Britain's canal network, together with its surviving mill buildings, is one of the most enduring features of the early Industrial Revolution to be seen in Britain. Roads Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust. New engineered roads were built by John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and John Macadam. The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow, broad wheeled, carts hauled by teams of horses. Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horse. Stage coaches carried the rich, and the less wealthy could pay to ride on carriers carts.

Social effects
In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines. However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel—child labour, dirty living

conditions, and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution. Factories and urbanisation

Manchester, England ("Cottonopolis"), pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory. Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised. The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated

industries of Manchester, nicknamed "Cottonopolis", and arguably the world's first industrial city. For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs. Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler. The transition to industrialisation was not without difficulty. For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites

formed to protest against industrialisation and sometimes sabotaged factories. In other industries the transition to factory production was not so divisive. Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers. One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen, known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement. By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system.

Child labour

A young "drawer" pulling a coal tub along a mine gallery The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase, but the chance of the surviving industrial childhood revolution did not improve infant



mortality rates were reduced markedly).[46][47] There was still limited opportunity for education, and children were

expected to work. Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult labourers. This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution between the 18th and 19th centuries. In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the

workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children.[48] Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible. Many children were forced to work in relatively bad conditions for much lower pay than their elders.[49] Reports were written detailing some of the abuses,

particularly in the coal mines[50] and textile factories[51] and these helped to popularise the children's plight. The public outcry, especially among the upper and middle classes, helped stir change in the young workers' welfare. Politicians and the government tried to limit child labour by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labour. In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth

under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law. About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden. These laws decreased the number of child labourers; however, child labour remained in Europe and the United States up to the 20th century.[52] By 1900, there were 1.7 million child labourers reported in American industry under the age of fifteen. Housing

Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c. 1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities

Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers. Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets. These homes would share toilet facilities, have open sewers and would be at risk of damp. Disease was spread through a contaminated water supply. Conditions did improve during the 19th century as public health acts were introduced covering things such as sewage, hygiene and making some boundaries upon the construction of homes. Not everybody lived in homes like these. The Industrial Revolution created a larger middle class of professionals such as lawyers and doctors. The conditions for the poor improved over the course of the 19th century because of government and local plans which led to cities becoming cleaner places, but life had not been easy for the poor before industrialisation. However, as a result of the Revolution, huge numbers of the working class died due to diseases spreading through the cramped living conditions. Chest diseases from the mines, cholera from polluted water and typhoid were also extremely common, as was smallpox.

Accidents in factories with child and female workers were regular. Dickens' novels illustrate this; even some

government officials were horrified by what they saw[citation

. Strikes and riots by workers were also relatively



The Leader of the luddites, engraving of 1812 The rapid industrialisation of the English economy cost many craft workers their jobs. The movement started first with lace and hosiery workers near Nottingham and spread to other areas of the textile industry owing to early industrialisation. Many weavers also found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver. Many such unemployed workers, weavers and others, turned their

animosity towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery. These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd, a folklore figure. The first attacks of the Luddite movement began in 1811. The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government took drastic

measures using the militia or army to protect industry. Those rioters who were caught were tried and hanged, or transported for life. Unrest continued in other sectors as they industrialised, such as agricultural labourers in the 1830s, when large parts of southern Britain were affected by the Captain Swing disturbances. Threshing machines were a particular target, and rick burning was a popular activity. However the riots led to the first formation of trade unions, and further pressure for reform. Organisation of labour See also: Trade union#History

The Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, 1848 The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people. The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production. Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining. The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action. Many strikes were painful events for both

sides, the unions and the management. In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. Even after this, unions were still severely restricted. In 1832, the year of the Reform Act which extended the vote in England but did not grant universal suffrage, six men from Tolpuddle Agricultural in Dorset founded to the Friendly against Society the of




lowering of wages in the 1830s. They refused to work for less than 10 shillings a week, although by this time wages had been reduced to seven shillings a week and were due to be further reduced to six shillings. In 1834 James Frampton, a local landowner, wrote to the Prime Minister, Lord

Melbourne, to complain about the union, invoking an obscure law from 1797 prohibiting people from swearing oaths to each other, which the members of the Friendly Society had done. James Brine, James Hammett, George Loveless, George's brother James Loveless, George's brother in-law Thomas Standfield, and Thomas's son John Standfield were

arrested, found guilty, and transported to Australia. They became known as the Tolpuddle martyrs. In the 1830s and 1840s the Chartist movement was the first large scale organised working class political movement which

campaigned for political equality and social justice. Its Charter of reforms received over three million signatures but was rejected by Parliament without consideration. Working people also formed friendly societies and cooperative societies as mutual support groups against times of economic hardship. Enlightened industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class. Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike. In 1842, a General Strike involving cotton workers and colliers was organised through the Chartist movement which stopped production across Great Britain.[54] Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to

support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party. Other effects The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation. During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically. The percentage of the children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730–1749 to 31.8% in 1810–1829.

Also, there was a significant increase in worker wages

during the period 1813-1913.[55][56][57] According to Robert Hughes in The Fatal Shore, the population of England and Wales, which had remained steady at 6 million from 1700 to 1740, rose dramatically after 1740. The population of England had more than doubled from 8.3 million in 1801 to 16.8 million in 1851 and,

by 1901, had nearly doubled again to 30.5 million.[58] As living conditions and health care improved during the 19th century, Britain's population doubled every 50 years.[59][60] Europe’s population doubled during the 18th century, from roughly 100 million to almost 200 million, and doubled again during the 19th century, to around 400 million.[61] The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanisation and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities,[62] a figure that has risen to nearly 50% at the beginning of the 21st century.[63] In 1717 Manchester was merely a market town of 10,000 people, but by 1911 it had a population of 2.3 million.[64]

Objective of the study

The study focus the present labour in India .

condition of the child

To know the position of india regarding the child labour .

• • • •

To know the rules and act regarding the child labour ? To study the International norms for child labour . To study The child labour act 1986,2006. To create a area of awareness regarding child labour

The project report covers the problem of the child labour in the society , small Business are focusing to attain labour

which is cheaper and more work output May be drawn . Thus we are evaluating the condition of the society to the context of the employment of children into several

undertakings this is a exploitation of the future of the nation and is not supported on the ethical grounds.

1. There is presence of child labour at an large scale. 2. There are norms but are not strictly implemented. 3. There are several organizations ,national as well as international which are focused over this problem. 4. There are defined rules regarding employment of child labour. 5. There is a need to create more awareness regarding prevention of child labour in our society.

The condition of the children in the society is at an decline day by day but there are several norms or regulation regarding the employment of the child labour in any sort work. There problem are more related with the social and ethical standard of the human beings where in we should focus at the changing the behavioral thinking Of the masses towards the upliftment and prevention of the child labour in the society. The need is to change the thinking of the people in the society.


To evaluate the data and to collect the required information for the presentation of the condition of child labour in india . Secondary data are here by collected by the internet and available constitutional Document regarding the provision of the child labour. A due and authentic survey regarding the evaluation of the primary data was performed all over Aligarh and a visual data was evaluated to represent the presence and position of child labour in our society.

The study is an document of view regarding the condition of the future of a nation And introduction of small children’s into the hazardous works and industries is an legal offence and a social and ethical crime in the society. Thus the government has provided with several rule and regulations but these norms should be implemented strictly by the government.

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