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# THEORY

Consider a belt which moves on the pulley with the small angle of lap, . Consider that T is the
tension at point a, and T + dT is the tension at point b. R is the small surface for the pulley rim
and the touching belt (see Figure 1). Figure 2 shows the triangle force, where R can be measured.
Assume that the change on angle is so small, d and the change of the belt tension is dT,
therefore ;

R = T d---------------(1)

The coefficient of friction (COF), also known as a frictional coefficient or friction coefficient,
symbolized by the Greek letter , is a dimensionless scalar value which describes the ratio of the
force of friction between two bodies and the force pressing them together. The coefficient of
friction depends on the materials used; for example, ice on steel has a low coefficient of friction,
while rubber on pavement has a high coefficient of friction. Coefficients of friction range from
near zero to greater than one under good conditions, a tire on concrete may have a coefficient
of friction of 1.7.

When the surfaces are conjoined, Coulomb friction becomes a very poor approximation (for
example, adhesive tape resists sliding even when there is no normal force, or a negative normal
force). In this case, the frictional force may depend strongly on the area of contact. Some drag
racing tires are adhesive in this way. However, despite the complexity of the fundamental physics
behind friction, the relationships are accurate enough to be useful in many applications.

The force of friction is always exerted in a direction that opposes movement (for kinetic friction)
or potential movement (for static friction) between the two surfaces. For example, a curling stone
sliding along the ice experiences a kinetic force slowing it down. For an example of potential
movement, the drive wheels of an accelerating car experience a frictional force pointing forward;
if they did not, the wheels would spin, and the rubber would slide backwards along the
pavement. Note that it is not the direction of movement of the vehicle they oppose, it is the
direction of (potential) sliding between tire and road.

## The coefficient of friction is an empirical measurement it has to be measured experimentally,

and cannot be found through calculations. Rougher surfaces tend to have higher effective values.
Most dry materials in combination have friction coefficient values between 0.3 and 0.6. Values
outside this range are rarer, but Teflon, for example, can have a coefficient as low as 0.04. A
value of zero would mean no friction at all, an elusive property even magnetic levitation
vehicles have drag. Rubber in contact with other surfaces can yield friction coefficients from 1 to
2. Occasionally it is maintained that is always < 1, but this is not true. While in most relevant
applications < 1, a value above 1 merely implies that the force required to slide an object along
the surface is greater than the normal force of the surface on the object. For example, silicone
rubber or acrylic rubber-coated surfaces have a coefficient of friction that can be substantially
larger than 1.

Both static and kinetic coefficients of friction depend on the pair of surfaces in contact; their
values are usually approximately determined experimentally. For a given pair of surfaces, the
coefficient of static friction is usually larger than that of kinetic friction; in some sets the two
coefficients are equal, such as Teflon-on-Teflon.

In the case of kinetic friction, the direction of the friction force may or may not match the
direction of motion: a block sliding atop a table with rectilinear motion is subject to friction
directed along the line of motion; an automobile making a turn is subject to friction acting
perpendicular to the line of motion (in which case it is said to be 'normal' to it). The direction of
the static friction force can be visualized as directly opposed to the force that would otherwise
cause motion, were it not for the static friction preventing motion. In this case, the friction force
exactly cancels the applied force, so the net force given by the vector sum, equals zero. It is
important to note that in all cases, Newton's first law of motion holds.

While it is often stated that the COF is a "material property," it is better categorized as a "system
property." Unlike true material properties (such as conductivity, dielectric constant, yield
strength), the COF for any two materials depends on system variables like temperature, velocity,
atmosphere and also what are now popularly described as aging and deaging times; as well as on
geometric properties of the interface between the materials. For example, a copper pin sliding
against a thick copper plate can have a COF that varies from 0.6 at low speeds (metal sliding
against metal) to below 0.2 at high speeds when the copper surface begins to melt due to
frictional heating. The latter speed, of course, does not determine the COF uniquely; if the pin
diameter is increased so that the frictional heating is removed rapidly, the temperature drops, the
pin remains solid and the COF rises to that of a 'low speed' test.
Known that the coefficient of friction, = friction / action of touching surface, therefore

dT = R --------------(2)

## Replace (1) into (2) ;

dT = (Td) dT/T = d

## From the equation (3), e antilog of log 10 x = a

Antilog of 0.4342

= angle of lap

T1 = m1g

T2 = (m1-m2) g

=m2g

= 90

Log e T1/T2 =

## Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley, = [Log e T1/T2] /

=0.66/ 90 = 0.0073
EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY APPARATUS

wall with ;

## Flat belt groove, large

groove, and fit groove

1 Flat belt

1 V - belt

hook m2

2 Surface plate

500g, and 1kg.

PROCEDURES

## 1. Prepare the apparatus of experiment as shown in figure 3.

2. Fix the flat belt at an angle of 60 degees and through the correct groove.

## 3. Hang the 500g at bottom end of belt.

4. Wind the cord as many as you can on pulley in the opposite direction of flat belt and hang
500g weight hook at the end of cord and state 500g as the first value of m2.

5. Support the weight hook m2 by hand at early stage to avoid from moving downwards due
to the rotation of pulley. Then add load little by little at weight hook m1 until m2 become
stable. State the load as the value of m1.

6. Repeat step 4 and 5 by using the value of m2 as 700g, 900g, 1100g and 1300g. state the
total load of m1 and m2.
7. Then, repeat step 2 until 6 by fixing the belt at different angle of lap, 90 degrees , 120
degrees and 180 degrees. State the total value of load m1 and m2.

## 1. Prepare the apparatus of experiment as shown in figure 4.

2. Fix the V-belt at an angle of 90 degrees and through the incorrect V-groove at (b).

## 3. Hang the 500g at bottom end of belt.

4. Wind the cord as many as you can on pulley in the opposite direction of flat belt and hang
500g weight hook at the end of cord and state 500g as the first value of m2.

5. Support the weight hook m2 by hand at early stage to avoid from moving downwards due
to the rotation of pulley. Then add load little by little at weight hook m1 until m2 become
stable. State the load as the value of m1.

6. Repeat step 4 and 5 by using the value of m2 as 700g, 900g, 1100g and 1300g. state the
total load of m1 and m2.

7. Then, repeat step 2 until 6 by fixing the belt for the V-belt with correct fitting of groove
(c). state the total value of load m1 and m2.
RESULTS

Table 2- Test 1

## Angel of lap of flat belt,

No 90 120 150 180
m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g)
1 1400 500 1200 500 1000 500 900 500
2 2200 700 1700 700 1400 700 1300 700
3 2700 900 2200 900 1900 900 1700 900
4 3300 1100 2700 1100 2400 1100 2000 1100
5 3500 1300 3200 1300 3000 1300 2400 1300

## T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N)

1 13.73 8.83 11.77 6.87 9.81 4.91 8.83 3.92
2 21.58 14.72 16.68 9.81 13.78 6.87 12.75 5.89
3 26.49 17.66 21.53 12.75 18.64 9.81 16.68 7.85
4 32.37 21.58 26.49 15.7 23.54 12.75 19.62 8.83
5 34.34 21.58 31.39 18.64 29.43 16.68 23.54 10.79
T1/T2 1.52 1.69 1.87 2.18
loge
[T1/T2] 0.66 0.73 0.81 0.95
Angel of lap of belt, at angle of , = 90
No Flat belt (a) V-belt large groove (b) V-belt with correct / fit groove (c)
m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g)
1 1400 500 600 500 600 500
2 2200 700 800 700 900 700
3 2700 900 1100 900 1100 900
4 3300 1100 1300 1100 1400 1100
5 3500 1300 1400 1300 1500 1300

## T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 - T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 - T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 - T2 (N)

1 13.73 8.83 4.9 5.89 0.98 4.91 5.89 0.98 4.91
2 21.58 14.72 6.86 7.85 0.98 6.87 8.83 1.96 6.87
3 26.49 17.66 8.83 10.79 1.96 8.83 10.79 1.96 8.83
4 32.37 21.58 10.79 12.75 1.96 10.79 13.73 2.94 10.79
5 34.34 21.58 12.76 13.73 0.98 12.75 14.72 1.96 12.76

Table 3-Test 2

OBSERVATION

A cord was stuck into a screw when we change the pulley into angle 180 and was make a
rectification to the result.

When we increase the angle of lap, the value of weight that we need to stabilize the m2
hook also decrease.

In the test 2, flat belt need more weight,m1 to stabilize the hook,m2 than the V belt large
groove and v belt with correct or fit groove.

When we increase the angle of lap, the value of tight belt will decrease as we can look at
table 2-test 1.

CALCULATION

Calculation to get T1 :

T1 = m1g
We assume that gravity, g is 9.81 m/s

## Example : we take m1(g) no 1 from angle 90 = 1400g @ 1.4 kg

T1 = 1.4x9.81

= 13.73 N.

Calculation to get T2 :

T2 = (m1-m2)g

## Example : we take m1 and m2 no 1 from angle 90 :

m1 = 1400g @1.4 kg

m2 = 500g @ 0.5kg

T2 = (1.4-0.5)9.81

= 8.829 N

= 128.51N

## T2 = 8.83 + 14.72 + 17.66 + 21.58 + 21.58

= 84.37 N

T1/T2 = 128.51/84.37=1.52

= 0.66

= 90

Log e T1/T2 =

## Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley, = [Log e T1/T2] /

=0.66/ 90 = 0.0073

DISCUSSIONS

1. Based on data T1 , T2 from TEST 1, plot the graph of T1 versus T2 according to the
angle of lap on the same graph paper. Discuss the relation between the changes of driving
force with the angle of lap.

From the graph of T1 versus T2, we can see the relation between the changes of driving
force with the angle of lap. The relation is when the angle of lap increase, so the force
that we need to stabilize the m2 hook also will increase.

2. Based on data from TEST 1, plot the graph of log[T1/T2] versus angle of lap. Then
calculate the value of coefficient of friction of flat belt and review on the result.

= 90

Log e T1/T2 =

## Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley,= [Log e T1/T2] /

=0.66/ 90 = 0.0073

= 120

## As we know from formula (3),

Log e T1/T2 =

Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley, = [Log e T1/T2] / =0.73/ 120 = 0.0061

= 150

Log e T1/T2 =

= 180

## As we know from formula (3),

Log e T1/T2 =

Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley, = [Log e T1/T2] / =0.95/ 180 =
0.0053

As what we can see from a graph log e[T1-T2] versus angle of lap, we can say that when
value angle of the lap increase, so the value of tension, T will decrease. And from the
value of coefficient that we get above , we also can say that, when the value of angle lap
increase, the value of coefficient will be decrease.
3. Based on data from the TEST 2, plot the graph (T1-T2) versus T1 according to the
different type of belt on the same graph. Review the results.

From our observation of the graph (T1-T2) versus T1 , we can say that V-belt large
groove(b) need more tension (T) to stabilize a m2 hook than the V- belt with correct or fit
groove (c) and flat belt. So we can say that , the V-belt large groove posses a less friction
than the V- belt with correct groove and flat belt.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, from this belt friction experiment, we can learn the relation between tight belt and
angle of lap for flat belt. From the result f this experiment, we can say that the tight of the belt
will be decrease when the angle of lap for flat belt increase. Beside that, during this experiment
student also can look and compare the driving force at certain angle of lap of the flat belt, v belt
with incorrect groove and v belt with correct groove. We also can make a conclusion that the
ideal belt is that of the lowest tension which does not slip in high loads.

REFERENCE

## 1. Engineering laboratory IV (BDA 2721) lab sheet-belt friction, FKMP UTHM

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friction

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belt_(mechanical)