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Modern Russian 1

Library of Congress Cataloging in PubUcation Data

Dawson, Clayton L.
Modern Russian.
Includes indexes.
I. Russian language-Grammar-1950-
2. Russian language-Spoken Russian. I. Bidwell,
Charles E\leretl. 1923- joint author. II. Humesky,
Assya. joint author. III. Title.
PG2112.D36 1m 491.7'83'421 775837
ISBN o.8784().1695 (\I. I)

Copyright 1964 by Georgetown University

All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
International Standard Book Number: o.8784().169-5
ABOUT Modern Russian

In February 1960 the University of Michigan sponsored a conference of scholars to "develop

criteria for a two-year college sequence of spccialized materials for learning the Russian language."
In its proposal to the U.S. Office of Education for funds to support the conference, the University
of Michigan stated its view that "The urgency of our national need to improve and increase the
study of the Russian language in our schools and colleges and the comparative dearth and inadequacy
of existing materials for this purpose dictate the collaboration of the U.S. Office of Education with
the Russian language specialists ... in the production of a complete two-year colJege level course
in Russian." The proposal advised that "pcrtinent decisions regarding personnel, institutional
sponsorship, and methodology for the production of such a course should be made only on a broadly
established basis of consensus among a widely representative group of scholars and specialists in
this field." The twenty-seven scbolars and specialists listed on the page opposite collaborated at tbe
conference to achieve tbat consensus, and designated nine persons, similarly listed, as an Advisory
Committee to the project.

Recommendations arising from the February 1960 conference and from the Advisory Committee
resulted in the naming and empowering of the Working Committee-: Dr. Clayton L. Dawson,
Professor and Chairman of the Slavic Department at Syracuse University (project coordinator);
Dr. Charles E. Bidwell, Associate Professor and Chairman of the Department of Slavic Languages
and Literatures, University of Pittsburgh; and Dr. Assya Humesky, Associate Professor of Russian
Language and Literature, University of Michigan. Syracuse University undertook to house and
administer the entire project, and assumed responsibility for the preparation of the new materials.
Both the University of Michigan conference and the University of Syracuse project to produce the
two-year course were supported by the U.S. Office of Education, under authority of TiUe VI of the
National Defense Education Act.

The University of Michigan, the University of Pittsburgh, and Syracuse University coopcrated by
granting leaves of absence to Drs. Humesky, Bidwell, and Dawson respectively. Along with these
universities, The American University, the Foreign Service Institute, Georgetown University,
Indiana University, 51. John's University, the State University College at New Paltz, New York,
and the University of Washington participated in the field testing of materials prior to publication,
providing helpful suggestions and encouragement. Generous help was provided in typing, advising,
and recording by a large group of native Russians teaching in the Slavic Department of Syracuse
University. Professors Robert L. Baker of Indiana University and Tatiana Cizevska of the University
of Illinois contributed timely information on culture and current usage out of their recent experience
in the Soviet Union. Finally, special critical evaluations and recommendations were provided by
Professors Baker, Richard Burgi of Princeton University, Kurt Klein of the University of Illinois,
and Laurence Thompson of the University of Washington.

Modem Russian, together with the recordings and the teacher's manual prepared to accompany it,
unique in both content and techniques in the Russian field, is the fruition of this cooperative group

Emma Birkmaier University of Minnaota

Deming J. Brown University of Michigan
Edward J. Brown Brown University
William S. Cornyn Yale University
Clayton L. Dawson Syracuse University
Horace W. Dewey Universily of Michigan
William B. Edgerton Ifldiana Universily
Gordon Fairbanks Cornell University
Wayne D. Fisher Universi,y of Ch~ogo
A. Bruce Gaarder U.S. Office of Education
Fruma Gottschalk University of Chicago
Frances de Graaf Bryn Mawr Col/ege
Ernest F. Haden University of Texas
Morris Halle Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Heien Jacobson George Wtuhington University
Walter C. Jaskievicz FordJuun University
Harry H. Josselson Waylll! State University
Horace G. Lunl Harvard University
Thomas F. Magner Pe1lJJS}'Ivania State Universily
Fan Parker Brooklyn College
Lawrence Poslon University of Oklahoma
Peter Rudy Northwestern University
Leon Stilman Columbia University
Laurence G. Thompson University of Wtuhinglon
Leon Twarog Ohio State Universi'y
Donald D. Walsb Modern Language A5SOCiaiion
Francis J. Whitfield Universily of California


Robert L. Baker Indiana University

William S. Cornyn Yale University
William B. Edgerton Indiana Universi'y
Gordon Fairbanks Cort/ell University
Ernesl F. Haden Universily of Texas
Carleton Hodge Foreign &rvice Institute
Harlan Lane University of Michigan
Laurence C. Thompson University of Wtuhington
Francis J. Whitfield Universily of California
Introduction: Using Modern Russian

The matcriaJs of Modern Russian, like those of its prototype, the Modem Language Associa-
tion's Modern Spanish, provide a new kind of language course based on audio-lingual principles
and aimed at speaking proficiency within the framework of tbe traditional language program.
Modern Russian consists of two volumes of eighteen lessons each, designed for a two-year course
meeting from three to five hours a week.

Stressing the fundamental structural features of the contemporary spoken language, the thirty-
six lessons present a total vocabulary of some 2700 items. Magnetic tape recordings, available to
accompany the written materials, are an integral part of the two-year program. In addition, long-
playing disk recordings of basic portions of tbe lessons are obtainable for home study.

Audio-lingual principles assume that fluency in a foreign language is acquired less by intellectual
analysis than by intensive practice. Awareness of structure is acquired not by memorizing rules and
paradigms but by imitation and repetition of basic language patterns and by performance of drills
carefully constructed to capitalize on the leamer's natural inclination to analogize from material
already learned. Language learning thus properly begins with listening and repeating and only later
proceeds to reading and writing. These first two stages are of primary importance if the student is
to gain even a minimwn control of spoken Russian; for this reason we recommend strongly that
most material be presented and practiced with books closed, both in class and in the laboratory.

A lesson consists of the following parts designed to be used as suggested:

Preparation for Conversation. Anticipating the Conversation to follow, this part presents the
basic elements of the Conversation in the order of their appearance, together with parallel English
equivalents and, where needed, wilh phonetic transcription. This material provides a basis for
understanding and assimilating the Conversation. Supplementary related words and phrases are
also given here.

Conversations. Simulating situations of contemporary Soviet life, these introduce the basic
lexical and structural items of the lesson in dialogue form and in colloquial Russian. The first

four lessons contain a single Conversation each; the remaining lessons each contain a pair of Con-
versations. Notes explain points of cultural difference and of usage and style. For the first five
lessons a parallel English equivalent of each Conversation is provided. A phonetic transcription of
the Russian is also given as an aid to proper pronunciation in learning the materials; this is presented
consistently in the first ten lessons, but only to clarify special problems thereafter. The Conversations,
basic to each lesson, are best assimilated to the point of complete memorization. These are recorded
on the tapes-and on the records as well-for individual repeated listening and imitation. They are
presented in four stages: (I) the entire dialogue at natural speed without pauses; (2) the individual
sentences, broken down from the end, with pauses for student repetition; (3) complete utterdnces,
again with pauses for student repetition; and (4) the entire dialogue once again at natural speed
without pauses.

Bask Sentence Patterns. These are sets of patterned sentences, deriving from the Conversa-
tions and illustrating the major structural points of the lesson with the use of new and review
vocabulary. They are to be mastered through repeated practice. The Basic Sentence Patterns are
paralleled by English equivalents.

Pronunciation Practice. To instill habits of correct pronunciation, every lesson provides pro-
nunciation drills, frequently contrastive ones. Additional pronunciation drills, not appearing in the
text, are given in the Teacher's Manual and on the tapes. Lessons 6 through II each present an
Intonatioo Practice treating the fundamental patterns of simple sentences.

Structure and Drills. These form the grammatical heart of the course, generally treating four
or five major structural points per lesson. Each structural point is developed in five to twelve different
drills, with an average of ten responses. The student imitates the models given (generally there are
two, the first with an English equivalent), by responding orally to sentences, questions, and/or cues
in Russian provided by the teacher. The drills are widely varied: repetition, substitution, question-
answer, subject reversal, transformation, structure replacement, integration, expansion, and pro
gressive substitution. All drills are fully recorded on the tapes with appropriate pauses for student
responses, followed by the confirming responses. To make the procedure clear, the desired responses
for the first two lessons are printed in fuJI. A discussion of a structural point generally follows the
drills in which it has been developed.

Reading and Writing. Essentially a recapitulation of the lexical and structural items in lhe
lesson and a review of past items, this part is a reworking of the Conversation materials and provides
practice in reading. The portions presented in handwritten form invite practice in dictation or
copying (easily self-corrected), as well as in reading a cursive script. Translation of the readings is
not recommended; comprehension can best be checked by questions in Russian as provided in the
Teacher's Manual.

Experience suggests that presentation of dialogues is most effective when delivered at a normal
conversational speed in natural word groupings (not as words in isolation), with a natural intonation.
Class choral repetition is helpful in presenting new Conversations in order to bring the class into
active participation, and choral recitation of the parts of the dialogue by designated groups of the
class provides a useful check on memorizing the Conversations. Memorizing the Conversations,
though not indispensable, does result in higher achievement in the structural drills. Intensive drill
on the Preparation for Conversation and class practice on the Conversation, followed by the use
of the tape in the language laboratory and/or the records at home, can make memorizing the Con-
versation a relatively simple task.

Practice in writing-whether mere copying or writing out drill responses specifically assigned
for that purpose-should not be neglected, despite the strong oral emphasis of Modern Russian.
The writing of selected drills tends to reinforce mastery of the structure and to check on progress
being made.

Normally a lesson will take five meetings to cover, though clearly the longer the time spent on
a lesson, the more complete the mastery of it is likely to be. The first four lessons are shorter and
may therefore be covered in four sessions each. Where classes meet only three hours a week, drills
which cannot be covered in class may be assigned for performance in a language laboratory. A course
of three class hours a week has been successfully given by Syracuse University with these materials
on just such a basis.

The Russ.ian sound system 3

1 The Russian (Cyrillic) alphabet and the writing system
Remarks on stress
Discrepancies between the sound system and the writing system 8
Preparation for Conversation: JO
Crylletrr II CT)'Ahr'rxa Boy student and girl student 12
Basic sentenoe paltems IJ
The present tense of tbe first conjugation verb IlJ(ni 14

Preparation for Conversation: 19

2 ,llUliO .ac: HC H.D.eJT J haW'n"' seen you lor (J long time
Basic sentence pallems
Correspondence bctYI'CCII Cyrillic vowel letters and the vowel sounds 23
The present tense of the first conjugation verb pa60nn. 25
The Russian handwriting system 28
Syllabification of words in RussiaD 33

Preparation for Conversation: J5

3 JIy'lllle 063)],00, 'fb.t IIHKorJl,li. Better late than
Basic sentence pauems
ne~er J7
The altemation of voiced and voiceless consonants 39
The present tense of the second oonjugation verb cueu.m. 43
Masculine, feminine, and plural endings of short-ronn adjectives 45

4 Preparation for Conversation:

Puroe6p. o6weJO.u Conversation in fM dormitory
Basic sentence patterns 52
Introductory remarks on the Russian case system 53
Remarks on Siems and endings: tbe concept of '''zero'' ending 54
Past tense of the verb 6Wn. 55
The accusative fonn of inanimate masculine and nouns 57
Preparation for Conversation: 61
5 "ITo Ha oMA? Wha/'s/or dinner?
Preparation for Conversation:
BW noo6tJ1&JbI? Have you had dinner already? 65
Basic sentence patterns 66
Pronunciation prnc:tioe: hard versus soft consonants (ltJ \IS. [tl, Id] vs. [~I. [oj \IS. ['1D 68
Grammatical gender of nouns 69
Verbal aspects 10
Replacement of nouDS by third person pronouns: 611, oHi. ottO. and _ 12
IntcfTogatives kTO and omS 73
Introductory iTo 74
The irregular present tcose of xOTin. 75
The past tense 76

Preparation for Conversation: 83

6 nepewii . . . . )'tIlIBeparrfre
Preparation for Conversation:
AMepMK'8HC1Ol.i CTylt(\wr 88
Basic sentence panams 89
Pronunciation practice: hard vel1lus soft consonants ((s] vs. [~l, [z] ...S. (~l, Ir) ...s. [rJ) 91
Intonation practice 92
The four noun declensions in Russian: cr6JI-, oKH6-, .eKi~, and lIBipb-class nouns 94
The accusative singular of nouns ending in ... and ....
The second conjugation verb roBOpWn.
Possessive modifiers
The perfective future of the first conjugation verbs uoini and a:Dn. 102
The second conjugation verb BJiJ.lnlo 104
Second person imperatives: familiar versus plural-polite forms 105
lITi:Iote ..o.MO 107

Preparation for Conversation: 109

7 it 3A6Wn csOi 1JOI'T+Vao
Preparation for Conversation:
Cry,/lbrrw JJ:IfWor 0 IIapOJIllX CCCP 114
Basic sentence patterns 115
Pronunciation practice: haed versus soft consonants ([P] s. lRJ, [bJ vs. ~). [m) s. (I{IJ) 118
Intonation practice: part I--questions without question words 119
The nominative plural of nouns 120
The nominative plural of possessive modifiers 125
The prepositional case: singular and plural endings of nouns 127
Prepositions .. and Ha with the prepositional case 131
The personal pronouns and interrogatives KTO, 'fTO in the prepositional case 133
Remarks on stress shift in nouns 135
'heHHe K DMCb.'I10 136

Preparation for Conversation: 139

8 rae totOi cnod,..!
Preparation for Conversation:
B lW"a3IitIe 143
Basic sentence patterns 145
Pronunciation practice: hard versus soft consonants (Iv) '15. [y), [f) '15. [fl, (1] s. un 147
Intonation practice: part II--questions without question words 149
SIllucrt1ll.E AND DRIUS
To haw in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the present tense 150
To htn-e had in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the past tense 152
The genitive singular of nouns 154
The genitive of KTO, 'ITO, and the pen;onal pronouns 156
The genitive case in Hb coostructions 158
The genitive case in "" 6wJIo constructions 160
lfTCmte III DIIaoM6 163

Preparation for Conversation: 167
9 3aM611811Te u MeHii ~o!
Preparation for Conversation:
8~n 171
Basic sentence patterns 172
Pronunciation practice: hard consonants lkJ, [g), and Ix) and their sort counterparts ~J, lil, and I'll 176
Intonation practice: emphatic statements with rising-falling contours 177
The prelX)Sition y; further uses with the genitive case 179
Prepositions meaningfrom: 113, C. and OT 182
Other prepositions requiring the genitive case 185
Verbs with infinitives ending in ..... : MOon. and CM6<u. 188
Further past tense drills 190
lfTi:ne IDIaoM6 192

10 Preparation for Conversation:

8 cy666T)' 6yA)'T riKuw
Preparation for Conversation:
Oner AYM8eT nom ~"M1f6 200
Basic sentence patterns 201
Pronunciation practice: unpaired consonants (~I, (f). Ie]. It], [~J. and [jJ) 204
Intonation practice: review of falling intonation contours 206
The accusative of tmi, 'ITO, and the personal pronouns 208
The accusative singular of nouns 210
Second conjugation verbs with a stem consonant change in the first person singular
present-future 213
The future of&.:m. and the formation of the imperfective future 215
KyJd and r.: directional versus Iocational conceptS 218
'Il..-e-e II DC:IIoMO 221

Preparation for Convenation: 225

11 B KIIJt6
Preparation for Conversation:
n6cJle~ 230
Basic sentence patterns 231
Pronunciation practice: double consonants 234
Intonation practice: review of rising and rising-falling contours 235
The present-future of first conjugation verbs patterned like pa66Tan. and ~ 237
The genitive plural of nouns 240
The accusative plural of nouns 243
The genitive case with lie fijJ1el' constructions 245
The genitive case for the direct object of negated verbs 246
Demonslrative trOT in the nominative, accusative, genitive, and prepositional ca~s 248
lf~ MIDICIoMO 250

12 Preparation for Conversation:

M.:i .
8 MoaaM! 258
Basic sentence pauems 259
Pronunciation practice: special consonant clusters 262
Two-stem first conjugation Yerbs 263
Genitive plural noun ending!>: special problems 266
The use of the genitive after numbers 268
Unidirectional versus multidirectional verbs of motion 269
Long-fonn adjoct.ives: nominative singular and plural m
lfn-e mte:Wot6 276

Preparation for Conversation: 279
13 tUmine ~ t O Moa<sp
Preparation for Conversation:
nOCJJjwaeM Rllacnitaal 285
Basic sentence patterns 286
Pronunciation practice: initial clusters with [f} or [rJ 289
The fonnation of the second person imperative 290
The declension of adjectives: Dominative, accusative, genitive, and prepositional cases 295
The declension o f . and the possessive modifiers: nominative, accusative. genitive, and
prepositional cases 299
Review of second conjugation verbs 302
lfTe-e .. mK:loMO 306

14 Preparation for Conversation:

Ha TllHllU.
Preparation for Conversalion:
JiIl'B uD.XM8TW 313
Basic sentence patterns 314
Pronunciation practice: final clusters with Ir) or (r) 311
The dative of KTO, orrO, the: personal pronouns, and the reflexive penonal pronoun cdHi 318
The dative case in impersonal constructions 320
The: dative case with ..y..a1, H)'Qd, HjmIo, and ~ 323
The imperfective verb JUlun. and its perfective .a,jn. 325
Suggestions that include the speaker: part I-perfective verbs 327
Adverbs and short-form neuter adjectives ending in 0() 330
1.f1'fHHe H nMCbMo 331

15 Preparation for Conversation:

notaeM to: Hi.~ Ka ,,-..uDcy-..
Preparation for Conversation:
n.JlIII Dod3bfBaeT ~nny (20011'" 341
Basic scDtence patterns 342
Pronunciation practice: consonant clusters with [I) or UJ 345
The dative of nouns: singular and pluml 346
Dative constructions with H8Jlo 350
The past tense or the imperfective verb Jl.L{Ili and its prefixed perfecti~ derivatives 352
Suggestions that include the speaker: part ll-imperfective verbs 355
Impersonal constructions using the subjectless third person plural verb 356
1.fTituIe .. l:I'IlaoM6 358

16 Preparation for Conversation:

Hec"uliC'T'HWH cnY'IaH
Preparation for Conversation:
y LtOKropa 367
Basic sentence patterns 368
Pronunciation practice: the voKing of ordinarily unvoiced consonants 371
Prepositions requiring the dative: ll; and go 371
The dative endings ofhar, 'Iii, and the possessive pronoun modifiers 375
The dative endings of adjectives: singular and plural 378
Reflexive verbs-part I 380
HpaJllrrl>CJl, DOlipliBHThC1l 383
1.fmlNe H UHCJoM6 385

17 Preparation for Conversation:

]a f]MI6i.\UI
Prepamtion for Conversation:
nllp6r c f1l'M6a._ 394
Basic sentence patterns ]95
Pronunciation practice: the unvoicing of ordinarily voiced consonants 398

Nouns in the instrumental case 400
The instrumental oflO'6, 'ITO, the personal pronouns, and the rdl.e~ve personal pronoun ce6li 404
The instrumental ofiWT, ..ei, and the possessive modifiers 406
Reflexive verbs-part U 408
Nouns with declension irregularities: Min., A6-r... cWlI, ,ltipeeo, JDiicr 412
'lTi_ 11II IlJfCIoM6 414

Preparation for Conversation: 419

18 npowii, ua.:&na!
Preparation for Conversation:
npollliJu.Hu ~... 426
Basic sentence patterns 428
Pronunciation practice: clusters beginning with the letters c and] 431
Use of the instrumental in the predicate with verbs of ~illg and becomillg 433
The instrumental of adjectives 436
Adjectives and pronouns (in adjectival form) which function as nouns 438
Rene;live verbs--part III 440
Perfectivization by prefix 110- to indicate a limited amount of the activity 443




Recordings for Modern Russian

Modern Russian 1

Side A: Side B:
Cassette Lesson Page Minutes Lesson Page Minutes
I I 3 45 2 19 31
2 3 35 46 4 49 31
3 5 61 30 5 74 25
4 6 83 43 6 99 39
5 7 109 28 7 122 29
6 7 127 25 7 III 27
7 8 139 54 8 156 55
8 9 167 29 9 180 27
9 9 185 26 9 189 24
10 JO 195 26 10 209 25
II 10 213 26 10 216 26
12 I1 225 23 II 237 24
13 II 240 30 II 245 30
14 12 253 40 12 268 36
15 13 279 30 Il 293 30
16 13 299 24 13 303 23
17 14 309 25 14 320 24
18 14 323 29 14 327 28
19 15 335 49 15 351 51
20 16 361 47 16 376 46
21 17 389 26 17 40 I 24
22 17 403 27 17 409 27
23 18 419 24 18 424 23
24 18 436 31 18 441 31

The Russian sound system

Russian sounds may be divided into two basic groups: vowels and consonants.

A. The vowels

Russian has five basic vowel sounds, all of tbem shorter than the very approximate English
vowels given here for the sake of a rough comparison. l
[al star [tam, vas]
[0] po,1 [6n, n6s]
[el met [eIU, jel]
[i I machine [i, ivan]
luI lunar, soon [nu, kum]
As aids 10 pronunciation, we also give two additional symbols to represent positional variants
of [al and Ii].
sofa, about [papo, 6k,Ja I
ship, weary [bik, sin]

Sound Drill I: Practice the Russian examples illustrating the vowel sounds,
imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. 2

B. The consonants

Russian consonants fall into two main groups, which we call "hard" and "soft." Hard con-
sonants are pronounced with the main body of the tongue flattened, creating a hoJlow, open, mouth
cavity. Soft consonants, conversely, are pronounced with the tongue raised in an are, creating a
narrowed mouth cavity and a restricted passage of air.
The consonants may be divided into four subgroups: those which occur in both soft and hard
varieties regardless of what sound follows, those whose hardness or softness depends on the sound
that follows, those which are only hard, and those which are only soft.

, In illustrating the sounds we use a transcription based on Latin characters. some slightly modified in form.
I Sound Drills 1-5 are recorded on tape and printed in the Teacher's Manual.

1. Consonants which occur in both hard and soft varielies regardless of the sound that follows. I

[mJ moose [m6st, tam]

[", ] ","use [rpesb, rpM:;;]
[bJ boots [bab:>, buduJ
PI] beauty PIll, a'l&l.J
[pJ poor [papk., slapl
[eJ pure [sei , Il6sJ
[vJ voice [yam, sI6Y.1]
[yJ view [yiZ:), yeLk~ J
If] food em, s16f]
m feud [fin, astaO
[nJ DOW (n6s, v6n]
[QJ menu [Q6s, QCl)
[dJ do Ida, dim.)
[~] adieu, shouki you [~~', Ilim.]
It) stool (t6t, tut]
[II costume, what youth [16k, mall
[zJ zoom (z6n~, vw]
[~J presume (British), he's young (pma, vqmu]
[sJ SW'm (s6k, viis]
[IJ as."iiwne, lhis youth [lidu, eilm6 J
[rJ trined r (as in Spanish or Italian) [rnka, ur6k)
[r] soft trilled r (no equivalent) erika, govafll J
PJ belt [lampo, st61)
m million [lagn, still

Sound Drill 2: Practice the Russian examples illustrating these hard and soft
consonant pairs, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you
can. Notc that Russian consonants do not have the slight puff of breath char-
acteristic of such English consonants as p, t, and k in certain positions.

2. Consonants whose hardness or softness ordinarily depends on the sound that follows.
The consonants [k], [gJ, and [x] are ordinarily pronounced hard, but are replaced by their soft
alternates [~], [3J, and [;OS] respectively when followed by the vowels eel and [i]:
(kl skill, scal [kak, drukJ
[~J acute, cure [1pn6, ~em)
[gJ go [gum, g61:ls)
[gJ argue [n631, nage)
[x) (no English equivalent; something [xud6j, ax]
like the Scotch or German dJ. in
loch or adJ.)
[~) (son variety; no equivalent) (JPrpik, bran:sit)

Sound Drill 3 : Practice the Russian examples illustrating these sounds, imitating
your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

, In the transcription, I small hook under the k:tta marks the soft COlUOl1Int. Notice thaI lhe.soft COlUOl1IDt has.some-
whal the effect of a "y-like" glide rollowing the consonant.

3. Consonants which occur only in a hard variety regardless of the sound that follows:
[c] its, waltz [capC:::l, alec]
[<) shrimp [<Hr, !Utko)
[1] azure, leisure [!Uk, uze)
Sound Drill 4: Practice the Russian examples iUustrating these sounds. imitating
your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note that the Russian
[c] is a single sound unit. and that both ~J and (1J are articulated farther
back in tbe throat than the comparable English sounds.

4. Consonants which occur only in a soft variety, regardless of the sound that follows:
[f) doeap [Cis, doc)
!"J fresh cheese or wash sheets (pro- ~i, ji~]
nounced as a single sound unit)
yes, boy Ua, m6j)

Sound DrillS: Practice the Russian examples illustrating these sounds, imitating
your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

The Russian (CyriUic) alphabet and the writing system

Russian does not use the Latin alphabet employed by English and such Western European
languages as French. Gennan. Spanish, and Italian. Rather, Russian uses another alphabet, called
the Cyrillic. It is basically modeled after the Greek alphabet, but is supplemented by additional
symbols for certain sounds occurring in the Slavic languages but not in Greek. Other Slavic peoples
using the Cyrillic alphabet include the Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Bulgarians. Macedonians, and
Serbs; while the Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Croats use tbe Latin a1pbabet.
The Russian (Cyrillic) alphabet is given below in its conventional order, together with typical
pronunciations of the letters and illustrative examples. Note tbat most letter.> are pronounced in
more than one way, depending upon wbere tbey occur or the place of stress in the word.'



A a [aJ a,TiM
[a) MaMa
Ii 6 [b) 631(,6a6a
llIJ 66e. re6e
[P) 666, 6a6"a
B B [v) B3.M,B6T
[y) ,..;.
[I] BT6M

r r [g) roT6sa, T6ra

[gJ 6ere. T6re
[1<) 6er. M6r
[vJ TOr6. Ku6ro
I Stress is marked with all acute (.) accellt over the vowel.

)I, II IdJ Aa,.abM
[~] r,rt, BOJle, oach
[t] 06tJl, r6A. B6JlKa

E e [el o6tD.. Dena, Te

Ue] eM, e,neT
Ii] .n.6Me. 6e,aa
Ui] W, erb
r e 10] Mi.a.. TeTe
Uo] te, Moe
J1(lIC If] .aa*e. m.6a
3 3 Iz] 38.86.a.. 6:ba
I~] JeB611:, &eXT
Is] 063,

11 Ii] iii, JKM3, r8A

Ii] xNBi:T

Aii U] MOM. TaJC6ii, MaiKa, iO.IJ.

KK [kJ Kh, eOlt.ka

[%] KCM. lunij:j

JI Jl PI n6*I3, BHnxa,BHnen
m JlCA JIlho. 60neJHf

MM [m] Mbil, T3.M

['l'] Mtn, ttMJI
H. [0] HO, OHA
IQ] NeT, oHJj

00 [oj .nOM, 33.BO.ll.. OO,ltKa

raj OKII6, CJlO83
[al Mana, MOnOll:O

fIl] .nlrJ, rJtlllJe
p p [r] pyKa, Milp
III ped, MOpe

Cc IsJ acWIOI. BaC, Jloaca

IiI cent CeMent He<=H

TT [I) TaM, npHoeT

ru liM, TeK

Yy [ul trPo. KY.n3, HlO'

<1>01> In 4t6PMa, +An
10 cIleVTa, 4)K/uinn

Xx Ix] ax, x6noJJ.Ho. xn66

I~] XHMHJ:. XuTp6B

Un [e] OTtn, napHQa
[], nO"lTa, Bpa..
ill w [I] wap, WYM, xopow6

11\ lU [!] mH, OOplU, erne

],1> (hard sign)'
bI bI [;1 TW, BbI, 6Wno, pa,llbl

b b (soft sign)'

:3 , [el tro, :TrOT, iTH, no:h

10 10 [u] BalDO, BCJO, 61Op6
Gu] tOOka, CBOtO, MOIO
jig [a] naTb, OnSTb. roeopiT
[i] mrrn, TSIXeno
Gal ., TB01i, CToD
G;] II3b1K
!P], JlO cBHll!mul

Remarks on stress

A. s~ in the word

A stressed vowel is one pronounced wiLb greater intensity or loudness than an unstressed vowel.
Words of more than one syllable can have only one syllable which is stressed in Russian. This con-
trasts sharply with English, when::: many words have more than one stress, for example:
ENGLISH propaganda
RUSSIAN npouaraKJ],a [p~pag{md~]

When words are combined in a sentence in Russian, certain short words may receive no stress.
For example, prepositions such as y and Ha, and the negative partjcle He arc nonnally pronounced
as though they were part of the following word:
yuee [UQij6]
H3 nO'iTy [nap6tul
He BH.a.CJl [Q;Y;Qil]
B. The major segment

A Russian sentence may consist of a single word or of one or more groups of words. Each group
contains one word which has an even stronger stress than any of the other stressed words in the
group. We call the groups major segments and the strongest stress in each group the major stress.
We call the remaining word stresses in the major segment secondary stresses. The boundary between
major segments represents a point where a short slowing up or pause may be made in speaking. In our
transcription, the major sentence stress will be indicated by a double accent mark ("), and the sec-
ondary or word stress will have a single acute accent mark ('). On the material printed in Cyrillic,
only the single accent mark will be used for both major sentence stress and word stress.
I The hard sign nipll.wii m&K and son sign Mlin.:1Ii 3Hh have no sound value. For a dC'$Criplion of Iheir function, see
page 9.

Division of a sentence into major segments will often depend on the individual speaking style
and tempo. A given sentence in rapid speech will be spoken with fewer major segments than the same
utterance in slow deliberate speech. But the segmentation is not arbilrary--there are some places
where a major segment boundary may be made and others where it will be rare or nonexistent. For
example, a major segment boundary does not occur between a preposition and the following word,
and it rarely occurs between an adjective and the noun it qualifies.
In neutral, unemphatic style, the major stress usually falls on the last word of each major
segment. In statements, a shift of the major stress (0 another word in the segment shifts the emphasis
to that word:
NEUTRAL .sf H).Ij ,ll,oM6U. [jf!. idli dam6j] I'm going home.
SPEClAL .sf.H,/.\Y ,lJ,OMOH. [ja idfi dam6j] I am going home.
or .sf W,ll,OMOH. (ja idli dam6j] Fm going home.
To sum up, we indicate the degrees of stress (loudness) as follows:
I. Major stress (one per major segment}---double accent mark on transcription, single accent
mark on CyriIlic.
2. Secondary or word stress (no more than one per word}-single acute accent mark.
3. No stress--no accent mark.
EXAMPLE Ii H,ll.y Ha notTy. [ja idu napi)Ctu]
Above all, the student should bear in mind that the best guide to accurate pronunciation is
the way a native speaker actually pronounces the words, not the written representation of stress.

Discrepancies between the sound system

and the writing system
A. Use of the same consonant letter to write both hanl and soft consonant varieties
As we know, most Russian consonant sounds come in hard and soft varieties. It is a peculiarity
of the writing system and the alphabet, however, that the same letter often represents both a hard
and soft consonant in writing. For example, both hard [n] and soft fQ] are written H in Cyrillic;
only the following letter can tell us whether it is hard or soft. Compare HOC [nos] with Hee [Qos].

B. Double set of vowel letters in the writing system

To preserve the distinction between hard and soft consonants in the writing system, the Russian
alphabet employs a double set of vowel letters which may be termed "hard-" and "soft-series"
vowel letters. [n themselves the vowels are neither hard nor soft; rather, they indicate the hardness
or softness of the preceding consonant. Thus "hard-series" vowel letter a typically follows a hard
consonant, and "soft-series" vowel letter H typically follows a soft consonant.


a a
a e
bl H

0 C
Y 10



WlUlTEN 6. 60 6y 6. 6", 6. 6e 6H> 50 6"

PRONOUNCED [ba bo bu be hi1 [i}a i}o i}u i}e i}i I
WRITTEN ,,. AO Ay A' A'" AR .ae AH> Ae AM
PRONOUNCED (da do du de di) Ilia 40 4u 4e 4iJ
PRONOUNCED [rna mo mu me mil ['Pa 'Po 'P u 'Pe <piJ
te ""
[\" 10 IU


The special symbol h indicates the softness of a preceding consonant when no vowel letter
follows. I Remember that this sign is not a vowel, Le., it has no independent sound value. It is merely
an alphabetic device to show that the preceding consonant is soft. It is written principally at tbe
end of a word or between consonants.

WRITTEN cn\. table cr6m. so much

PRONOUNQ:D (stolJ [stoll
WRITTEN 6pAT brother 6pan. to taJc:e
PRONOUNCED [brat) [brall
WlUTTt'N yroll comer yrollh roa1
PRONOUNCED [ugolJ {ug:)U

WIUTTEN nOfu:a shelf nOm."a polka


C. Soft-series vowel letters at the beginning of a word or following another vowel letter
Tbe soft-series vowelletlers ii, e, e, and 10, also serve another function. At the beginning of a word
following another vowel leller, they arc written to represent the consonant sound m
(written else-
where ii) plus a vowel. Thus H in these positions is equivalent to ii plus a; e is equivalent to ii plus 0;
e is equivalent to ii plus 3, and 10 is equivalent to ii plus y.


PRONOUNCED maja jO! maj6 majej juk maju]

The soft-series vowel letter H differs from the others in that tbere is usually no preceding [j]
sound in initial position, and there is a ratber weak [j] between vowels:
(iIp:)] [maji] or [mail
D. The bani sign ... and soft sign h

There are two leHers in the Russian alphabet with no independent sound value. They are
called nep1lhlH 38llK hard sign ... and MTKKii 3HllK soft sign h.

'See item 0 below, fOf fuller treatment of this symbol.


Of the two symbols, the soft sign 10 is much more frequently encountered and serves two major
a. To indicate consonant softness at the end of a word or before another consonant: onlo
[gatl five, TOJlbKO [t6lb] only, 'INTin. [titiU to read.
b. To indicate that a preceding consonant is soft and that the next vowel is preceded by the
sound [jj: cer.tbli [~iqlja] family, nbU [IDot] he drinks.
Note: Although the soft sign is sometimes written after the consonants and w for historic *
reasons, these consonants are nevertheless pronounced hard: Mymoli [mtdjaj husbands, H./leuu.
[i46~j you're going.


The hard sign 1> in modern Russian is only used after prefixes ending in a consonant followed
by a softseries vowel. It indicates that a [j] sound precedes this vowel: cWn [sjel) he ate Up. on..i3.a:
(atjest) departure.


Except in certain fixed expressions, nouns are first given in their nominative case form. The nomina-
tive case is primarily used to indicate the subject of a sentence or clause. Russian nouns are of three
genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Masculine nouns usually terminate in a consonant letter,
feminine ones in -a or ....., and neuters in -0 or -e. The gender of nouns will be indicated in the
Preparation for Conversation only where it is not obvious from the nominative form, as for example:
. . . (f) door, Abn. (m) day. For the time being verbs and adjectives will be given only in the form
in which they occur in the conversation.

cryll,eHT (stu4ent] student

Ii) and
CTy.neHTK<l [stu4entka] girl student, coed
EureHidi liivgeQijJ Evgeny
HHHa [Qina) Nina
npHB';'- [Pri~l) greetings! regards! hi!
" _.... H"IIIIA."
.~" Hi, Nina!
Ubi H./leTe [vi i40ti] you're going, you're on your way
KY.lla [kuda] where, where to, to what place
KYlJ,a BY H/teTe? Where are you going?
ypC" (ur6k] lesson, a lesson, the lesson 2
Ha ypCk [n~urok) to the lesson, to dass
OeHMe fJleQ.ip] singing
ypCK neHHjI (ur6k ~Qi'p] singing class, a singing lesson
Ha yp6K oettu. To a singing lesson.
Ii HflY Ua iduJ I'm going, I'm on my way
R HJti Ha ypOK ne.u.. I'm going to a singing lesson.

a (a] and, but. by the way, how about

JloMoif (damojJ home, homeward
A BW .LJ:OMOB? And are you on your way home?

, Boldface sentences in the Preparation for Conw:rsalion are those lhat appear in the Conversation itself.
l Notice thai Russian does not haw: definite or indefinite anie1es corresponding to English Iltt. a, on.

10 I...R'iSON I
HiT [Qct] no
nO'ITa [p6Ct~ J post office
H8 no'lT)' [oap6Ctu) to the post office
HeY, Ji HJ.tY 118 no'lT)'. No, I'm on my way to the post office.
OHCbMO [gi~mo J a letter
nOCJlliTb nHchMo [paslat gi~m6J to send a letter
A HJti' HS ooarl'y nocmin. DHCbMO. I'm going to the post office to send a letter.
co6pAHHe [sabralJj~] meeting. a meeting, the meeting
6wo [bil~] was, there was
B'Iepa [~ir3] yesterday
B'Iepa 6brnO c06pafme? Was there a meeting yesterday?
CK<UlCHTe [skaziti] say! tell [me]!
Ctca:lKH-re, B'Iepa 6"'no C06p8.HHe? Say, was there a meeting yesterday?
6hLno [bil~] there was
He 6b1J10 [Qebila] there wasn't
Her, He 6b1J1o. No, there wasn't.
K.ITj6 [klup] club
B KJJj6e [fkhi~i] in the club, at the club
8 KJly6e? HiT ..e 6wno. At the club? No, there wasn't.
3ason [zav6t] plant, factory
Ha 33Bone [nazavQ4i] at the plant, at the factory
A KS laaO.lle? How ahout at the plant?
T3.M [tam] there
Ji He 6b1J1 [ja Qcbill I wasn't
.st T3.M He 6b1J1. I wasn't there.
HO [noJ but
6blJlO, HO Ii T1i.M lie 6b1n. There was [a meeting), but I wasn't there.

Hy [nul well
JOBKHHTe [izyiQ.iti] excuse [me]
Hy, M3DMnne. Well, excuse (me].
aBT66yc [aftobus] bus
MowasT06yc [moj aft6bus] my bus
ao,. u.nCT [vat iQol] here comes, there goes
80T lIJl:eT MOM BBT06yc. Here comes my hus.
no CBHJt3,1UIR [d~s'{idalJj;)] good-bye, I'll be seeing you
)],0 CBllLI.iJooI. Good-bye.


Ji HJtY [ja idu] I'm going

,,;, HAeWb [li iQM] you're going I
OH HlleT [00 iQat] he's going
oHiI H./l.CT [ana iQ6t] she's going
MhI HJleM [mt iQ6mJ we're going
BbI H./l.eTe [vi iQati] you're going l
outi HJl.Yr [aQi idut J they're going

, Tw you is used in addressing a dose friend or a member of one's family. BLt)'OIl is u!iCd in addressing a person where a
more formal relalionship e~ists. and it is also used whenever more than one person is addressed.


The following are some of the classroom words and expressions your instructor will be using.
Be sure you are able to recognize them when you hear them.

eme p<b [ji~C6 ras} once again, once more

nOBTopiITe (paftapti] repeat!
rIOJl<a.J1yMCTa [pazal';Jst<l J please
l"OBopiITe [g:waritil speak! talk!
rp6M'Ie [gr6mCiJ louder
BCe BMecre [f~e vrpestiJ all together
'1HTaMTe [citaj\i] read!
xopowo [x';Jm~61 good, fine, all right
[lJIOXO [plox;)J bad, poor, not good
JJy'lwe [Iuc~i] better

Boy student and girl student

The following symbols are used in the transcription of the conversations to give the student some
notion of the inflection of the voice at the end of a phrase or sentence:
.J, indicates a dropping off of the voice
t indicates a rise of the voice
I indicates voice level sustained
E. - EBn~HHH (Cl)',OeIlT) Evgeny (a student)
H. - HHH3 (CTy.neHTKa) Nina (a girl student)

E. TIpHeeT, HlbIa! priyet -Qin;) 1 Hi, Nina! Where are you going? ebl lIlti:he? kuda vi iQoti 1
H. 2 Ha ypOK neHUR. n;}urok geQij;) 1 To a singing lesson. And you're
A ehl nOMoii? a vi damoj 1 on your way borne F

E. 3 Hh, vet j No, I'm on my way to the post

}:\ H.uY Ha OOlf1)' ja idu napoctu I office to send a letter.
nocJulTh mfcbMo. pas I,,! gijrn6j
H. 4 CKa)KHTe, skaZiti 1 Say, was there a meeting yester-
8lfepa 6bIJIO co6paHHe? fCinl bil;) sabraQj;) 1 day?

E. 5 B KJIy6e? fklii~i 1 At the club?l No, there wasn't.

HeT, ved
He 6hIJIO. Qebil:-J 1
H. 6 A Ha 3aBOll,e? a n;)lavOQi i How about at the plant? 4,j

E. 7 EhUlo, bil, I There was, but I wasn't there.

HO 51 TaM He 6h1Jl . n6 ja tam -Qebil !
Superscript numerals in the Conversation refer to the Notes immediately following.

H. 8 Hy, H3BIHlHTe. nu I izyiQit i ! Well, excuse me. Here comes my
BOT JUlCT vot i46t bus.
Moii a8T66yc. m6j aftobus 1

E. 9 Ao cBH,naaH.SI. ddSyidciQjd 1 I'll be seeing you.

H. 10 Ao CBH,aaHHjl. dosyida~j. j Good-bye.

NOTES I The terms ay.neHT and CTY~a refer only to university students, as com-
pared with y'feIIKK and yqemiqa which designate pupils or students below university
level. Russians make a much sharper distinction than we in the teIlllS used for
university level as opposed to pre-university level, for example:
npo~p profenor }"IHTenb (m) Y'lItTe.rlbllHU,a (f) teacher
yHKBeptH"ra university mK6na school
nexI.UUI lecture yp6K lesson, class
1 Russian has two words K and a both meaning and. 11 is used as a simple con-
boy and girl student
whereas a is used to point up a contrast or to introduce a new topic:
.R itA)' Ha ypOK. A Bbl llOMOA 1 I'm going to a lesson. And you,
are you going home?
) KJ1j6 means club in the sense of a group of working associates who meet for
recreational or informal educational purposes. Clubs in the Soviet Union playa
political-educational role in encouraging useful bobbies such as radio, photography,
or airplane modeling; or in the study of technical subjects, malhematics, botany,
zoology, and so forth. Recreational activities include amateur performances, dances,
and games such as chess.
.. II is not uncommon in the Soviet Union for university students to work in
a factory during the day and attend classes in the evening. Unless they are excellent
students. secondary school graduates generaJly must work for two years before
entering the university.
, Notice that at in Russian is H8 in H8 Juone at the plant, but B in B ICJly6e
at the club. Certain nouns require the preposition 118 in this meaning, while other
nouns require B. In the same way, when these prepositions are used in the meaning
to, Ha must be used with JoOn (118. JaB6A 10 the plant) and B must be used with
1CJtj6 (8 1CJIj6 to the club).

Basic sentence patterns

The material in this section gives some of the possible variants of utterances found in the con-
versation. It is designed to provide the student with certain basic paltems before an analysis of the
structure is given and before be is asked to manipulate the specific grammatical items. In this way
it is hoped that he will not only be able to observe the over-all structural patterns of Russian, but also
have some ready-made utterances for active use when be begins to converse. The material should be
thoroughly drilled as repetition practice with books closed as the first step. After this, it may be used
for reading practice.

I. KY,1l;3 Bbl liJlCTe? Where are you going?
- Ha ypOK nemul. To a singing lesson.
- R lilly Ha yp6K m~lIml. ('m going to a singing lesson.
- Ha n6'lTy. To the post office.
- R 1i.n:Y Ha nO'lTY. I'm going to the post office.
- Ha c06p3HHe. To a meeting.
- R II,1l;y Ha c06pfulHc. I'm going 10 a meeting.
- Ha 3aa6Lt. To the plant.
- R li/.{y Ha 3aa6,11;. I'm going to the plant.
2. Kywl Tb' HlleWb? Where are you going?
- Ha n6'll")' nOCmlTh nHChM6. To the post office to send a letter.
- R HJJ,Y Ha nO'!Ty nOCJlaTb T1I1ChMO. I'm going to the post office to send a letter.
-):loM6H. Home.
- .R J.fJ.l:Y ,1I;OMOH. I'm going home.
- 8 KJ1Y6. To the club.
- R It,ll.Y B KJlY6. I'm going to the club.
3. 801' liLtCT M6H a.BTo6ye. Here comes my bus.
____ Ean~lIllH. _ _ _ _ Evgeny.
____ HHlla. _ _ _ _ Nina.
____ CTy,u,eHT. _____ a student.
____ cTy.n.eIlTKa. _ _ _ _ _ a girl student.
B6T llJI.y,. EareRHii Ii HHHa. Here come Evgeny and Nina.
____ CTy.n.CHT Ii e1)',1I;eHTKa. _ _ _ _ a boy and a girl student.


The present tense of the first conjugation verb lIJ\T1i

Ii H.lly I'm going, I'm on my way, I'm coming

Thl li,1l;eWb you're going, you're on your way, you're coming
6H It,ll.CT he's going
alia Ii,1l;CT she's going
Mhl li,1l;eM we're going
abI It,ll.eTe you'rc going
OHH liLty,. they're going


Listen to your instructor (or the tape) and repeat the above pronoun-verb model until you can say
it perfectly.


Repeat after your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can, imitating both the individual
words and the sentence intonation. Then, on hearing only the subject pronoun, give the fuIl sentence. 1
I Complete student answers are given in the first two lessons only. Allhough instructions for the drills are addressed 10

lhc student, he is advised to perfonn them without looking at the printed page, preferably with his book closed. Boldface type
always indicatcs the "model" sentence to be spoken by the studenl; the corresponding lightface sentence is the "model"
to be spoken by the teacher. The English translation appears in italic Iype.

14 LE'SSON 1

I'm going home I'm going home.

ii: My JJ.OMOU. A IIJJ.Y JJ.oMoii.
TM un.ewb .D:OMOj:j. Tbl HJJ.ellU.. AOMO".
68 lIJ],CT ):lOMO". Oil H,!{e-r nOMOH.
Qua HJler llOMOii. 01130 lUleT AOMO".
Mbi un.eM llOMO". M bi H,lJ;eM ,D,oMoii.
Bbi: H,lJ,eTe nOMoH. Rbi HJleTe .a.oMoii.
OInt HAYr lloMon. OK" ItllYr JJ.OMOH.


Answer the question, using Ha oO'fTY with both short and full answers. (In class two students may

Where lire you going? To the post office.

Where are you going? I'm going to the post office.
KyJJ.3. Rbi H/lere? Ha nOln)'.
KYlla BbI HlIere? A KJti HS OOorTy.
KYAa 1"W ltlleWb'" Ha n6'1T)'.
KYA3. n:. HJ],emb? A MAY H3 n61(1)'.
Ky.n3 611 H,LleT? Ha n61fT}'.
KYllO. 611 MeT? 68 H,Aih H3 no'tTy. Mhz H,1l,eM? Ha n6lfT)'.
Ky,ui Mhi H,J.teM? Mba: HJleM H3 no'rry.
Ky~ OHa HJJ,eT? Ha n6'O)'.
KYM OHa H,/I,CT? QHa u,aeT H3 no'iTY.
KYAa obi: H,Qrn? Ha n6'fTY.
Ky.n:a Obi u.n.eTe? ii: HJl.y H3 n6lJTY
Ky~ QUM HJJ;jT? Ha nOlTy.
Ky.nA Olllt H,I:{jT? OHK ~ H3 nOlTy.


Answer the qucslion, using Ha c06pauHe. with both short and full answers.

Where are you going, home? No, to a meeting.

Where are you going, home? No, I'm going to Q meeting. Bbi R,l.ten:, .noMoii'! Hh, ua co6piHHe. Bbi It,Llere, .nOMO"'! Hh, Ii HJJ:i Ha co6piHHe.
KYJl:a 611 R,l.teT, .nOMa"? Her, lIa co6pallHe. OH R,l.teT, .nOMon'! Her, Oil R,lleT Ha co6pAHltc. Olla lIJl.eT, .nOMa"'! HtT, H3 co6p3.HHe.
Ky.n3. Olla lIJl.eT, .nOMO" '! HtT, oua H.lJ.CT Ha co6p:iHue.
Ky.n3. Mbi lIJl.eM, .nOMOit'! HtT, H3 co6p3Hue.
Kyna Mbi lIJl.eM, .nOMa"'! Her, Mbi H.lJ.eM H3 co6pbute.
KYJl,a OHM IIJl.Yr, Jl,OMon '! Her, U2 co6prome. OIlU IIJl.Yr, .nOM6H? HCT, OH" HAYr H2 coGpaHHe.
Kyna TLi HJl,eWb, .nOMOit? HCT, lIa co6p:iuHe. rn HJleWb, .nOMOit '! Her, Ji HAY H2 co6pIDflte.


Answer two ways, using liS ypOJ.: ueIIHH.


Where's Nina going? To a singing lesson.

Where's Niffa going? Nina's going 10 a singing lesson. HJl,eTHHlla? Ha ypOK neHK",
KYAa HJl,eTHHHa? HMua Ha YpOK 001"11. HJl,CTEDreHH"? Ha yp6.IC nellHJI.
KY.ll.a H,QCT EDreHH"? EBreH"" HJleT Ha yp6K neHH.liI.
Ky.n.3 HJleT CT)'.ll.eHT? Ha yp6K DeHIIII.
KY.ll.3 HJlCT CTY.ll.eHT? CTy.ll.eHT HllCT Ha yp6K neuHJI.
Ky.n.3: H,QCT CTY.ll.eHTKa? Ha yp6K neHHJI.
Kyna HJler CT)'neHTlCa? CTyneHTICa HJl,eT lIa yp61C neu.HJI.


Items to be cued by the teacher are indicated in parentheses.

J. The studenl is going to a meeling.
CTylleHT HJl,er lIa co6piurne. CTynewr HJJ.eT "a co6p2nHe,
(CrY.ll.eHT H c:ry.ll.eHTK:a) __ CTyneHT H CTY.ll.eHnr::a HJlYr Ha co6pAHHe.
(OH) _ 6H HJleT lIa co6pAHHe.
(OHa) _ OHa n.n.CT Ha co6~He.
(OHM) _ ORu HJJ.Yr Ha co6p3.HHe.
(E''''HH.) _ EBreHHA lUl.eT ua co6pauHe.
(HRHa) _ HUHa IUl.CT lIa co6pAHHe.
(EBreHHA H HHHa) _ EBreUII" H HHlla HJJ.jT lIa co6palme.

2. Here comes my bus.

8M HJJ,eT MoA aBTo6yc. BOT HJl,(IT MO. llBT66yc,
8M lUl.eT HUHa. BOT HRna,
_ _ _ (E''''HH.). 8M HJl,eT EBreHHA.
_ _ _ (CTY.ll.CIIT). 8M HJJ,CT CTYAeIlT.
_ _ _ (CTYHeHTXa). B6T HneT CTYAeUTka.
_ _ _ (M6A aDT66yc). BOT UAeT MoA aBT66yc.
_ _ _ (EBreIlHA H Huua). 86T HJl,Yr EBreHHH H HHlla.
_ _ _ (C'rY.ll.eHT H CTYAeIlTKa). BOT HAYr CTYAellT H CTYAeIlTKa.


Answer the following questions, using a pronoun and B KJly6 in the answer.

Where's Ihe student going? He's on his way 10 ,he club.

Kyna HJl,eT c:ryJJ,enT? 0" HJJ.eT B KJlY6.
Ky.n..3 HJJ.jT c:rynellTKa H CTY.ll.euT? Qmi HJJ,jT B JCJlY6.
Kyna lUleT EBreHKH? 611 K,llCT B J(JJY6.
Ky.n..3 ItJl;jT HHua H EBreEDdi? OHli "nYr B kJIj6.
Ky.aa H,ller BMlla? Qna K,llCT B J(JJY6.
Kyna HllYr c:ryneHT H c:ry.neHTK:a? OHM HllYr B XJJj6.


As you have noticed, the endings of the verb H,a:n1 in the prescnt tense change for each person
in the singular and plural. Thus the first person singular is Ii MM, second person singular ThI HJJ.Wn.,
third person singular OH (or ollli) HJJ.eT, and so forth.
The present stem of the verb is H.z:t-, and the stress is on the endings throughout the conjugation.
Note that the stem consonant .z:t is hard in the first person singular and third person plural, but is
son in all the 01 her fonns.


J .....j rid-ill II,il-eM [ill-<\m J

2 M,lI--ilUb I [ill-<\'I II,il-<::Te [ill-<\VI
3 .......... [iq-ot) 1I,il-Y"r lid-uti

This pattern of endings is typical of firs! conjugation verbs with the stress on the endings. There
are only two conjugations in Russian; the second will be discussed later.
It is important 10 Dote that IlI{Tli means both to be going and to be coming. It describes motion
in process and is generally restricted to going on foot.

, II is. convenlioa ill Russian 10 spell the socoud person singular ending wilh a ... even ll'lough the consonanl w cannOI
be pron<:lllCCll sort. NOIice abo thai since lbe Ieua i Qb"QY~ carries the SITC$S. it is unnec::e$5ary to mark the S~ funher.



He BH.Il.en [Qiyi~iIJ haven't seen, didn't see

Bac [vas] you (dir obj)
.Il.aBHO [davno] for a long time, a long time ago
,llaBHo DaC He DHJJ.eJl. I haven't seen you for a long time.
BC.o 3HMy [f~u ;pmu] all winter, all winter long
&.0 llhfy RaC He RM.Il.e.JI. I haven't seen you all winter.

K3K II.eJl3. [kag \lila] how is everytbing

:i long [il) ah,oh
A, KHpH.!I.!1 niB..rlOBM'f! Kite ,Il,cmi? Ah, Kirill Pavlovich! How is everything?
xopowo {x;)raS6) well, fine, good
cnacli60 [spa~ioo] thanks, thank you
XOPOlllo., cnacM60. Fine, thanks.
6oJlbHbi: [balni] sick, ill
ew 6wlIl [vi bili] you were
BbI 6wIH GORbIlM. You were sick.
Ji CJlWWaJI Uil sli~l) I heard
jl CJlblmaJI, Rbi 6bmH 6oJlbllbi. I heard you were sick.
3.1l.op6B [zdar6f] healthy, well, recovered
Teneph (\jgerl now
TCnePh li 3.1l.0pOB. I'm well now.
enORHe [fpaIQe] completely, fully, quite
}')ICe [uze I already, by now
Teneph Ji }')Ke BUORHe 3.1l.0p6B. I'm completely well now. (Lil. Now I already
completely well.)
HO [no] but
na Ida) yes
Ai, HO TCuepb Ii y:e 8110.!1..e lllOp08. Yes, but now I'm completely well. (Lit. Yes,
bUI now I already completely well.)

ropcooeT [gorsa yet) gorsovel (city council)

B ropcooeTC (vgorsa yeti I at the gorsovet
Bb! pa60Taere [vi raoot;)jiti) you work, you've been working

8b1 pa60TaeTe B ropcoBlhe? Do you work at the gorsovet?
Bee Cute [f~ jiCo] still, yet
B" Bee ewe paooTaue B ropc:oehe? Do you still work at the gorsovet?
j paOOTaIO [if!. rab6bjuJ I work
J],li, li see cute pa66r.uo 8 ropcoBm. Yes, I still work at the gorsovet.
TO.C (t6ti] too, also
ceua (~na] wife
.lti, II .eMa TO.e. Yes, and my wife [does] too.
aHa pa66TaeT (ana rab6l;)jitJ she works
J],a, H 'lKeHa TO)Ke pa66TaeT. Yes, and my wife works too.
CmdWaTb [sli~\l to hear
:lTO let;)) that, it, this
pa.. [,at) glad
Pi.a iTo e.m.auan.. Glad to hear it.
)laBHO? For a long time?

bee (0 [~J fall, autumn

C 6ceHH lsO~iQ.i] since autumn, since fall
,Qi, c OcetDl. Yes, since fall.

li enemy [ja sRi~uJ I'm hurrying, I'm in a hurry

Ha aBT66yc [n::mft6bus) for the bus, to catch a bus
.st enewy Ha aBTo6yc. I'm in a hurry to catch a bus.
113BMIII....e, Ii enemj Ma SBT66yc. Excuse me, I'm in a hurry to catch a bus.

npltBCT 1Kene (Priyed fiQe J regards to your wife, say hello to your wife
.lto CBIt.ltiHMIl. npM8k *ene. Good-bye. [Give my] regards to your wife.
acero xOpOwero [f~ivo xaro~iY.)) good-bye
cnacM60 [spa~ib::l) thanks, thank you
CnacWo. 8n) xop6wero. Thank you. Good-bye.


My,..: [mu~l husband

MYJtc H lKena [mu~ i fina) husband and wife
Tbl pa66Taewb [ti rab6l;)ji) you work, you've been working,
you're working, you do work
'"e [g~eJ where, at what place '
rAe nd pa66TaeWb? Where do you work. ?
- .st pa60TalO B KJIy6e. I work at the club.
OHH paOOTaIOT [3.Qi rab6t;)jutJ they work
r.lle OInt pa66TaIOT? Where do they work?
- OUM pa66TaIOT ua 3aBO.lle. They work at a plant.
Mbt pa66raeM (mi rab6l;)jim) we work
Mbt pa66raeM ua D<)'1Te. We work at the post office.

I There arc two words for ...hert in Russian: rAi and I(Y.d.
..:yIl,li 10 "'hOI plou.
r. means ...htrt in the 5tTlS<: 01 whur plou as opposed to

Compare rtti I .. pa60TlIen? - HI 31161lt. B ICJTY1le. Iii OO'ITt.

with Ky.d I" Illlfn? - HI hUll. B ICIJjfi. HI D60rry.

,lI,aBHo BaC lie BUlleJl

1 haven't seen you for a long time

K.n. - KHPHnn: naBJIOBH'i UapaUXHH

Ce!>. - CCMeH <1>H.n1t.nnOBH'I XHTpOB

K.n. I CCMCII CllHJTHnnoBH'",l ~irp6n ftlipic! Semyon Filipovich! I I haven't

BctO 3HMy r~u ~imu seen you all winter.
eac He BUllen. vas Qiyi~il !

c.'!>. 2 A, H Ah, Kirill Pavlovich! 1 How

KHpHnJI naBJIOBUtI! ~irilpaliC) is everything?2
KaK nemi? kag \tila)
K.n. 3 Xoporno. cnacu60. x~raso I spa~n)O)! Fine, thanks. I heard you
oR CJlblWan, jli sli~l I were sick.
Bbl 6WlH 60JlbHhl. vi bili balni !
c.'!>. 4 !la. dill Yes. But now I'm completely
Ho renepb no ~ger I well. 2
Ii YJKC ja uie
B0011l1e 3,O,0pOB. fpah;;IlS' zdarM J.
K.n. 5 Bbl vi Ate you' still working at the
BCe ClUe r~6 jisco gorsovet ?J
pa60Taen raootaji\i
BropcoBe-re? vgorsaye\i!
c.'!>. 6 !la, diU Yes, and my wife is too.
II lKeHa TO:lKC. i :bna toti !

K.n. 7 lIa? da 1 Is that so? Glad to hear it.

Pa.a. :ho CJTblWaTb. rat eta slis::l\ ! For a long time?
,llaBHo? daVDO t

C.11l. 8 C ceeHM. soiQi J. Since fall. Excuse me, I'm

H3nmnfTe, izyiQit i ! hurrying to catch a bus.
}j enewy H3 3ST66yc. ja s~isu n::lafl6bus J.
K.n. 9 Ao cBHllaHHSI:. dasyidaQj:;, J. Goodbye. (Give my]
npHBb :lKeHc. pri yed iiQc ! regards to your wife.
c.eJ>. 10 Cnac60. spa~ib:} J. Thank you. Goodbye. 4
Bcero xopOlllero. f~iv6 xarosiv;) !

NOTES I Adult Russians commonly address each other by the first Dame and a middle

name derived from the father's first name. naBJIOBH'i and CbHJlltDDOBH'i are middle
names, or patronymics, formed by adding the suffix -OBIPI to tbe stem of first
names naDM Paul and CbHJlliJlII Philip. Daughters of naDM and CbHJUilln have
patronymics nliBJIOBI13 and CbHJllillllOBH3 respectively. with the feminine suffix

-08Ha. Ir the rather's first name ends in -H, the patronymic suffix is spelled -eBH"t
(for the son) and -eBNa (for the daughter).
HHKOJl3.H Nicholas HHKOJl3.CSII'l' HIIKonaeBHa
EBreHi-IH Eugene Esrel-ll1eSH'I EBreHHeBHa.
Halm John l1aauoBH'I I1BaHoBlia
CeMeH Simon CeMeHOBH'I CeMelloBHa
Patronymics are usually shortened in speech, for example: CCMeti lKJ1IfIlDOBH't
is usually pronounced hirp6n (ilipiC); KHpLrL'l niaJlOBH"t [~paliC); HHaa
CCMeHOSH3 (~n~ ~i1Jl6nn~].

Observe that the present tense forms of the verb to be (corresponding to

English am, is, are) arc usually not expressed in Russian:
KAx .nena? How is everything? (Lit. How things?)
..sf BIlOJlHC 3.nOpOB. I'm completely well. (Lit. I completely welL)

ropcoBiT (short for ropo1lcK6ii cosh) means city council and includes aU of

the administrative offices necessa.ry to run a city.

4 Beero xOpOUiero and 110 CBHlIli.HHK are used marc or less interchangeably in
saying good-bye. Note that both Been) and xOpOwero spell their last consonant
with a ,. but pronounce it [vJ: [r~iv6 xar6~iy,)J. This pronunciation of r as [vJ is
regular for adjective and pronoun endings spelled -oro and -ero.

Basic sentence patterns

I. rn pa66Taewb? Where do you work?

- ..sf pa6oTalO B rop:;oBere. I work at the gorsovet.
_____ B KJlY6e. _ _ al the club.
______ Ha ___ in a plant.
_ _ _ _ _ _ Ha n6'1TC. ___ at the post office.

2. Tb.i .naSHO TaM pa66Taewb? Have you been working there long?
- )la, .na8HO. Yes, J have.
- .l.(a, YJKe .naBHO. Yes, for a long time now.
- )la, c OceHH. Yes, since fall.
- ,na, H )l(eHa TO)l(e. Yes, and my wife too.
- ,na, H My)l( TO)l(e. Yes, and my husband too.

3. ..sf BCIO 3"My sac He BH.AeJl. 1 I haven't seen you all winter.
~ .nasltO sac Ite BH.D.en. I haven't seen you in a long time.
..sf s':Iepa sac He 8w.a.en. I didn't see you yesterday.
- ..sf TOJKe sac He BH.nen. I didn't see you either.
I Tn.:, past lense (onn .i.!tM is u$Cd only wben the subject is masculine. II is replaced by."!ttJUl when the subjtt1 is
feminine: J1: acID :JUly de He UnCJl8.. J1: ,UIlHO de lie Il~. J1: I I . Ilk IlC UnCJfIl. JI T6lft de "e ....... M .

4. I1JBHHHTe. R enemy. E",cuse mc, I'm in a hurry.
>l: enewy Ila 3BT66yc. I'm hurrying to the bus.
~_ _ Ha Ja80D.. _ _ _ _ _ to the plant.
~ Ha nO'iTY. _ _ _ _ _ to tbe post office.
_ _ _ 8lU!Y6. _ _ _ _ _ to tbe club.
_ _ _ B ropco&e"r. _ _ _ _ _ to the gorsovcl.
____ D.OMO". _ _ _ _ home.

Correspondence between cyrillic vowel letters

and the vowel sounds

The Russian vowel letters have already been discussed, particularly with reference to their
functions as indicators of softness or hardness of the preceding consonant. We bave also discussed
the particular function of the soft-series vowel letters, ii, e, M. e, to, as indicators of the presence
of a preceding UJ sound under certain conditions.
Ln the following paragraphs the Cyrillic vowel leiters will be presented, with examples of their
occurrence in both stressed and unstressed syllables. Observe carefully the correspondence between
the Cyrillic vowel leiters and their sound values, noting particularly that the position of a vowel in
relation to the stressed syllable often determines its sound value.

A. The Cyrillic letters Hand bI have appro",imately the same vowel sound in unstressed syllables
as in stressed syllables, [i) and [iJ respectively. Except for w, *, and Q, all consonants before Mare
pronounced soft; all consonants before bI are pronounced hard.

Kn" [iii! 0' BbicOKHM [v;s6lpj] high

HMeTb [""ell to possess 116BblH [n6vij] new
JIlOD.II Ilu~i] people 6bln3. [bila] was
MHIIjTa [J11inut~l minute
,,;, [Ii] you

B. The Cyrillic letters K) and y have the same vowel sound in unstressed syllables as in stressed
syllables: [u].
At the beginning of a word and after 'b, b, or a vowel, however, the letter 10 is pronounced
Uu]. Consonants preceding 10 are always pronounced soft; except for .. and lIl, all consonants before
yare pronounced hard.

ymma [uliQ] street rOBOptO [gov'ro! I speak

MUHyC [J11inusJ minus 3H3.K> [maju) I know
D.pyroj:j [drug6j] other nbtOT IJ!iUI] they drink
py6mt [rubiiJ rubles 00", Uug.] of the south
n"IDYl" LRi~ut) they write
JByK [zvukJ sound
yKCyC [uksus] vinegar
YlOTHO [ujutn:)] co'y
M6pK> [m6 ru ] to the sea
m061tTb Ilul>i\l lo love

C. The Cyrillic letter e occurs only in stressed syllables and is consistently pronounced with
the vowel sound (0).
At the beginning of a word and afler I., h, or a vowel, the letter e is pronounced Uo]. Except
for w and *, consonants preceding e are pronounced soft.

He<: [QasJ he was carrying enKa Oal><.) spruce

TeMHblH [\6mnij] dark npllCM [ppjam) reception
Hj],eT [i(lat] he's going nbeT !Riat) he drinks
Note: In our text e will be consistently written with two dots to keep it distinct from e. Except
In textbooks and dictionaries, Russians do not normally make a distinction between e and e in

D. The Cyrillic leller 0 has the sound value (0] only in stressed syllables. In the syllable im-
mediately before the stress and at the very beginning of a word it is pronounced [a]. In aU other
positions the Cyrillic leller 0 is pronounced [~J. Except for. and w, consonants before 0 are aJways
pronounced hard.

060POT [abarot] turn ouo [anaJ it

xopowo [x;)ra~oJ good Bonp6c [vapr6s] . question
ropoJJ.oK [g;)rad6k] small town
onoao [ol~v)] tin
Monok6 [m:>Jak6) milk
TOnl>kO [talk.) only

E. The Cyrillic Jetter e has the sound (e] only in stressed syllables. In other positions it is
pronounced as [i), varying in value from the sound of the Englisb e in emit or react to a shorter,
more obscure sound as in the first syllable of dispatch.
In certain grammatical endings it is pronounced by some speakers as short [i] and by others
as [::I], for example, nOlle p6li] or [p6t::l). Remember that at the beginning of a word, or following
I., h, or a vowel, the letter e is pronounced with a preceding UJ sound. Except for w, *, and ..,
consonants before e are pronounced soft.
'{eJ]OselC [Cilayek) petron GOnce lb6lijiJ more
Moe" [majej) my ~nH [sjeli] they ate up
Jleno [(lel'l business oTbt3J1l1 [atjezcb] of the departure
Tenepb l\iRtr1 now '1be" [cjej) whose
nepcBeJlHTe [gipyi(li\i) translate
MeHI1 ['l'iQa] me
Ocn" OtsliJ if
eme Oi!C6) yet, still

F. The Cyrillic lelter:J occurs chiefly in words of non-Russian origin and almost always at the
beginning of a word. When stressed it has the sound value [e]; when unstressed it is heard as [I).

3TO let;)] this 3HeprHjI (iQ.ergij;)) energy

3TH \i) these :HaeH [ita1iJ floors
,xo [ex~J echo
3K3aMeil [igzaftlin] examination
)JleMeIJT [iliTJIent] element

Some Russian speakers, however, tend to pronounce ') as Ie) wherever it occurs, for example,
:Jri. [etM] or fir-at}.

14 LfSSON2
G. The Cyrillic letter H has the vowel sound la] in stressed syllables and the vowel sound Ii]
in unstressed syllables excepl for certain endings, where it has the value (;)]. Consonants preceding 11
are always pronounced soft. At Ihe beginning of a word and after b, "b. or a vowel, the leiter A is
pronounced with a preceding U] sound.
min lRall five JiCHO Uasn;)] clearly
nonJi [P*I fields RnTa Ua!t;)] Valla
MellJi ['l'iQaI me 113b1K OUikl language
MOpJi [maral seas
IIJlni lRili) five
rnA,lteTh [glillerl to gaze
; Oal I


The present tense of the first conjugation verb pa60TaTb

Ji pa66mlO I work, I'm working, I've been working

ThI: pa66TaeWb you work, you're working, you've been working
(m paoomeT he works
OHa pa66meT she works
Mbi' pa66TaeM we work
Ubi pa66TaeTc you work
OHii pa66TaIOT they work


Listcn to your instructor (or the tape) and repeat the abovc pronoun-verb model unlil you can say
it perfcctly.


Repeat after your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can, imitating both the individual
words and the sentence intonation. Then, on hearing only the subject cue, give the full sentence.


I. fm working noll'. I'm working now.

R Tenepb pa66TaJO. A Tenepb paooTaJO.
QHM TenCpb paOOTaJOT. 011I11 Tenepb paOOTllJOT.
Tw Tenepb paooTacwb. Tbi' Tenepb paoomewb.
Rbi' Tencpb pa66TaeTe. 8b! Tenepb paooTaeTe.
Mbi' Tencpb pa66TacM. M WTenepb paoomcM.
OH Tcnepb pa60TaeT. OH -renepb pa66TaCT.
Olla Tem!ipb pa6oTaeT. OHa Tenepb pa66TaeT.

2. Il'I'ork roo, I work too,
..sf TOlKC pa66TafO. A TOloKC paooTslO.
Obi TOJKC pa6onurrc. B';' TO:C paooTaeTe.
Tbi TOJKC pa60Taewb. Tbi To"'e pa60TaClUh.
)f(ena TOJKC pa60TaeT. )Kena TOJKC paOOTaeT.
Omi TO"'C pa60TaeT. OHa TOJKC pa66TaeT.
My,.: TOlKC pa66TaeT. MYc TO*C paOOTaeT.
On TOJKe pa66TaeT. On TO.C paOOTaeT.
Mb.i TOJKC pa66TaCM. M';' TOJKC paOOTaCM.
OHM TOJK:C pa66TaJOT. On" To:ce paOOTaJOT.


Answcr the qucstions in the negativc according to the models givcn.

Do you work? No, I dont.
Thl pa66Tacllih? He'r, lie pa60I'alO.
Dhl pa66TacTc? He-r. IIC pa60TalO.
)KCHa pa66TacT? HeT, lie pa60TaCT.
My,.: paOOTaCT? HeT, He paOOTaeT.
011" paOOTaJOT? HeT. HC paooTalOT.
OHa pa60TaCT? Her, He paooTaeT.
Ou paOOT3CT? HeT, HC pa6oTacT.
Using Kll nO"fTc. answer with both short and rull answers according to the models givcn.
Where do you .....ork? At the post office.
Where do you 'work? We .....ork at the post office.
r.l{e Obi paOOTaeTe? Ha no-rre.
rne 8b1 pa66TacTe? Mw PSOOTaeM as nOorre.
rne OHa paocnacT? Ha nO'fTe.
Cae OHa pa66Taer? OHa pa60TaeT Ha nO'fTe. Thl pa66Taewb? Ha nO'fTe. TbI pa66Taewb? ..sf pa60TaJO na nO'fTe. OH" pa66TafOT? Ha nO'fTe. OU" pa6oTafOT? Omi pa6oTalOT Ha nO'ITc.
rJIC OH pa6oTacT? Ha nO'ITc.
rll,e OH pa66TacT? all pa66TaCT ua nO'lTC,


He's been working there for a long time. He's been working there for a long time.
On naSHO riM paOOTaCT. DM AaBHO TaM paOOnCT.
)Kena naSRO TaM pa66TaCl. )Ke.ui Jl8SHO TiM pa6lrraer.
(ESreHII") _ ESreH"" .aaOHO raM paOOTaCT.
(HHua) _ H"na )laOHO niM paOOTaCT.
(Oua) _ OHa ,naSHO TaM: pa66TaeT.
(CeMeH) _ CCMeH ,nasnD T3.M paooraer.
(Ou,,) _ Olli, .naSHO TaM paOOTaIOT.
(Kllpllrtn H CeMeH) _ KHPK.rm 1.1 CeMeH A3SflO TaM paOOTaJOT.
(My,.J _ MYJK naBHO TaM paOOraCT.
Following Ihe models, give both shorl and full answers.

Ha)'e you been working at the club long? Yes, for a long time, since fall.
Have you been 'Working at the club long? Yes, Fve been working there sincefall.
Bbi .naallo pa60Taere B KJlj6e? lli, JJ.aBHo., c OceHK.
8WltaBHO pa66T'.teTe B XJlj6e? Ali. Ii paOOTatO TiM c 0ceI1H.
Oil ,naBllo pa66TaeT B xnj6e? JIa, ,naBIIO, C 6ceHH.
Oil ,naallO pa66TaeT B xnj6e? .D.a, Oil pa60TaeT TAM C 6ce1l1l.
dm! ,naallo pa60TaloT B ICJly6e? Aft, ltaBH6, c bcelm.
OHM J.taBIlO pa60TaK>T B ICny6e? ,Qfl. OHl-l pa60nUOT TaM C OceHIl.
OHa J.taBIIO pa60TaeT a ICny6e? .!l.fl, .lla8110, c OceHH.
Olla naBHb pa66TaeT a KJly6e? .!l.fl, olla paOOTaeT TaM c OceHH.
KHpiUrn ,nullb pa66TaeT B xJIj6e? Aa, ,naBuo, c OceHH.
KllpiUrn ltaBllb paOOTaeT B KJly6e? ,[la, ou pa66TaeT TAM C OceHH.
Tt:.! naBHO pa60TaellIh B KJJj6e? JU, .naBHO. c OceHH.
TbI: ltaBHb pa66Taelllh B KJly6e? Aa, R pa66TaK> raM c OceHH.


Like tmTH, the verb pa6ch8'rL belongs to the first conjugation. It differs from tmTH in thaI its
present stem appears to end in a vowel (pa60Ta-), whereas that or tmnt ends in a consonant (Il)t,-).
This is only a convention of the writing system, however, since the actual present stem of pa60ntTb
ends in the consonant sound [j). As we know, when [j) occurs between vowels it is expressed through
the "sort-series" vowel letters which follow. Thus we may contrast the written stem and endings
in the chart below with those of the transcription, which show the real division of stem and ending.


STEM paooTa- rab6I~j-

SINGUlAR I pa6c)-ra-1O rab6I:>j-u

2 -elUb -i
3 -eT -it

PLURAL I -eM -om

2 -ere -iti
3 ->aT -u.
It is only in the imperative forms that tbe UJ or the stem is written with a separate leiter i:
paoonii (paooTaH-re)! work!
PaOOTaTb is typical of the "j-stem" verbs in that it has a fixed stress which falls on the same
syllable of the stem in aU forms.

The Russian handwriting system
A. The alphabet


A a -----!;JL"-'L---'Cl/"""---_ K K _JJLX-"'---'K-"'----_ x X _-""X""--,,X,,-_

I> 6 ----"ffi=---"'--d_ JI JJ _-"~'-"---"vV"'___ L\ n UY;

B B -----"",$,----.-".-t_ M .. _--,af?&="--,,vU.-=_ 'I

r r~r~'V~~ H H _-"Ji'-"--'-rG-""---_ 1II m _-'LYt"",-""UV"--.

)l, n -----<?:>L~_';fy'----".'iJ,,--- o 0 _-"0'------"17'-----_ U\ m -m-"-,+--,,,"iI_

E e -----"G"----'/"'---~ n n _o'f(;"--",-v--,-~-,,,-_ b "

11 e -----'~"'--'e--"-----~ p ~qlLP----1-'!'V"---
P bILI =_
JK '" ---"JfC"-"----"'=-""'--_ c c C e.- h b ----',,'---_

3 3 ---z-:3--;1,f---'L-3_ T T _oJi(",-,-,/
V'----'-I1"-'=_ 3 3 _""'-3-----".3~_
11 H _U-""----"'Ck"---_ y y --------":!1"-----'fi<-- 10 10 _-,Jf),,--,,---,-/~~_

iii "--'U"-"----"'u:"----_ <I> oj> ----""jJ~1J'---- _-"Jl""--'..>l/""---_

B. Reading practice
Conversations from Lessons I and 2 are given below in handwritten ronn as an introduction Lo the
handwriting system. Now that you are familiar with the conversations, you should have no real
difficulty reading them. Refer to the printed versions if necessary.

28 LfSSON 2
~-a4w-~~ ~.
~ fP~ / ~ J'M1f fa.e- 1- ~.
-.Il, ~ :f(;J,~/Xu:- r?-~~
~, Jt- ~,~
"'- k:.AM<&V? - ~ . .JCo. ~
-~_ .- ~ ~. _c;a"",? ~ 9fflq ~ . ~~?
-e acu=. ~, Jt- ~ +<4- ak+- -%-~-
+MJ<. ! .r~ :J>CU<l- / - ~. ~ ~ /

C. How the letters llrc formed


0 a Il 6 The first three lettcrs are formed in practically

the same way as in English. The leuen 6 and.
begin the same way as o. In 6, a vertical line
J- f then goes upward and curves at the top to tbe
right. In .,., after the first circle, a straight ver-

G<{J tical stroke goes downward and then back up

along the same line, returning to the initial
I , 3 point and continuing up and clockwise to form
another circle.

y H jj The letters y and M are formed like the English

- handwritten y and u; ii is the same as M, but

IN W with the addition of a short half circle above.
(Write it immediately lest you forget.)

The leiter II is also written like N, except thai
~ 1M.. ~
it ends in a small loop below the line. Hand-
written wand w consist of three vertical lines
of equal height with a final drop to the line
(unlike the English written w). The UJ has a
small tail loop like 1(.

b bI Make a small figure 6 to form the sort sign.
The wriuen hi starts with the same downstroke
and loop as b, swings up to a sharp peak. goes
down again. and then curves to the right. Both
letters are shon compared with the handwrit-
, ~ 3 ten B.

The first letter is written like onc variant of

the English handwritten r. The second is similar,
but ends in a small circle, resembling a combi-
nation of "t and b. (Some Russians replace 1.
with an apostrophe.) The third differs from the
first in that it does not have the short horizontal
line at the (OP, but is rounded.
These three leiters begin with a small hook
slightly above the line (remember this when
n M
joining these leiters 10 others). To form iii, begin
& with the same upward stroke as in 11 and /lI.
Then make a small counterclockwise circle at
the top, returning to the same point and ending
, :t >- 3 in a line down (Sf looks like JI with a small loop
to the left oC its top). Do not make the Russian
JI as tall as an English I.

The first two letters. D and T. arc Cormed

n K
much like the English handwriuen nand m. The
Russian to is written like tbe printed English k;
it is never tall with a loop as in the English

, ... 3
written k (Ie not Iu.

For II, start Crom the top down, then go back

" 10
halCway up the same line, turning to the right
and upward, then finally coming back down to
the line. To fonn fO, Collow the directions Cor II,
but continue the last stroke back upward to
, ,I. 3 Corm a circle.

For handwritten 3, begin at the top and

make a balf circle clockwise, then cui il in
'" half by a small horizontal line. For :4>:. start al
the top and makc the same halC circle, then
slant back up 10 the right, then straight down
and again up to the right; finish with anothcr
halC circle (like the English writtcn c) going in
the opposite direction.

e 8 0 J These lellers are all formed much the same

l!- I
cr Jp}
way as in English. The letter e must be written
~(ne\ler -'-); the Ictter B must be wrillen tall
p c x and kept distinct from .. <.tversuskJ.

f(P)II c :x. (XI7

NOle: Russians do nol print words, even when they fill oul official forms by hand .


Practice copying the small leiters above until you can write them easily and accurately.


A B iJ. K These arc similar to the English letters with

corresponding shapes.
o.IL :B 9J oX
H 0 C X
;X () e.- X

lK 11 ft JI M These are the same as their corresponding

;)J( U 11. JL, ~
small letters but taller and larger.

III ll\ L\ 3 10 JI
1JL ~ U ;) ;}{/ a..

r n Ii <I> All four letters start with a basic line that

[J X s;- iP curves downward, turning to the left. The

fourth letter differs from the others only in
that it starts with a small flourish at the lOp.
d The same stroke in the first, second, and third
is the curved line from left to right that caps

{cj5J each leiter. The second has another downward

stroke, ending toward the right before the cap
is added. The third letter has as its third stroke
a large loop at the bottom (like a closed, looped
6gure 2). The fourth has two loops on either
side of the down stroke which resemble a
figure 8 on its side.

, Russian capital letters are used only al lhe beginning of the sentence, in proper names, and in the first word of a tilk.
Russians do nOi capitalitt the names of months, nationalities, centuries, professions, or ranks; nor do lbey capitalize the
personal pronoun Ii within a sentence.

E Certain varieties of the English written
capital are acceptable. Start outside and make
~ the small top loop; the bottom half circle must
be larger than the upper onc.
For If, begin with an upward, clockwise
q curve, then make a downward, "u-shaped"
curve. slanting back and down, finally curving
~ tG, to the right on the line.
Capital Y is like the preceding Ictter, ex-
cept that the curved downward stroke goes to
y the left. Unlike its small counterpart, capital


Y starts high above the base line and mllst not
extend below the line.


Practice copying the capilal leiters until you can write them easily and accurately.

D. Summary remarks on the handwriting system

I. All Russian capital letters except m and U have their base on the line and extend above it;
Wand U. each has a small loop which extends below the linc.

2. Small handwriuen letters are of two types: long and short.

a. Long lellers
Three long letters have their base on the line and extend above it.

t d ,ndd
Five long letters have their base on thc line and extcnd below it.

b. Shori letters
All the remaining letters are of the same height and are wrincn on the line except wand II,
each of which has a short loop below the line.

3. Most Ictters are joined together in writing; however,

to the following leher.
are usually not connected

4. The IClIers 1, A, p. r. :lIld x, may be handwrillcn in two ways.

'}. 3 rr,7 10. IV

The first variant in each pair is the one used more frequently. Some Russians draw a horizontal
linc above +n..-. and below Ut.- to make these letters stand out better. The student is advised to use
the first variant of +n...- be:::-he cannot substitute the usual English written tfor Russian-{-.


J. Copy the handwritten versions of the first two conversations, ~ing careful to observe tbe
connections of the letters. 2. Return to the first two conversations in printed form and copy each
in handwriting.

SyUabification of words in Russian

80th in pronouncing words by syllable and in dividing them at the end. of a written line, there
are certain important principles that should be followed.
In pronunciation, the basic pallern is to end a syllable with a vowel wherever possible.
cna--cH-60 [spa-~i-ooJ thanks
pa-66-Ta-e-Te [ra-b6-ta-ji-ti] [you] work
IUl--cbM6 l!l;-lm6] letter
CKa-)I(H-TC [ska-fHi] tell [me)! say!
no-BTo-pH-Te [p....fta-r>-\;) repeat!
Consonant clusters beginning with p, n, H, and" are usually divided after these consonants.
Final consonants are, of course, treated as part of the syllable which they end.
Ka-paH-,nalli [Krran-dM] pencil
'ut-tiH-re [c;.-taH;) read!
nOJJ-ka [p6l-k,) shelf
'j-HI+--BCp-cH-Ter [u-Qi-yir,i--v~t) university

In dividing wriuen words at the end of a line, these same general rules apply, but there is
slightly more leeway in the division f)f clusters of consonants. For example, cecrpa may be divided
ce-cTp:i (as in pronunciation), cec-T]ta, or cecr-pi. Doubled letters are always divided when carried
over to the next line, for example, AH-aa and ooA-AiT... Single letters are never left at the end of
onc line or at the beginning of the next.



J1y'lwe [hic~i) better

00311110 (p6zn~] late
'1CM [cern) than
IIHKOr,na [Qikagda] never
Ry'llUC n03JJ.HO, 'IeM IIHKOflla. Better late than never.
3,llpaoCTByiiTe [zdraSluHi]' hello
Jle., 311pauCTByiiTe! Hello. Lev!
Rbi CneWHTe [vi SRi~itil you're hurrying
KyAi. 0':' coeuofyc? Where afC you hurrying to?

}'lIllOCpcHTCT'{i~itetJ university

B ytlHaepcHTe-r [vuQiyir~i\et] to the university
~ cnewy B YHHBePCItTeT. I'm hurrying to the university.
KOHuepT [kancert J concert
H3 KOHuc!:pr [n:Jkancert} to a concert
B yHHOepcHTCT, U3 KOiluepr. To the university, to a concert.
.R enemy B ytlIlOCpcMTCT, lIa KOIIU:(:PT. I'm hurrying to the university,
to a concert.
IlllTepeCHO [intiresn:>] that's interesting
6ecIlJlaTHo f9isplatn:>] r",.,
HKTcpeclto. 3m 6ecnmlTHo? That's interesting. Is it free?

1I0HTI-l to go
[Obi] xOTIhe [vi xaVtiJ you want
XOTiiTe nom? Do you want to go?
YAoB6nbC"nme (udav6lstyij~1 pleasure
C YJlOBOnbCTBHeM! [sudav6tst yij:)m I With pleasure! or I'd Jove to!

, l~)"iTe is simplJliod In pronunciation to something that rangd from (zdrastuWlto Inlrf,~HiJ. dependmg on the
tempo of speech and the informality of the speaker. Note also that ..ol!UlO is pronouna:d without lI. : [p6zmJ. Oustet'$ of
three or more oon50nants are usually simplified. and Jl and T lire usually omitted between COlllOnan\$ except lit the: beginning
of a word: lIpil!lHMl<: Iplf,~,kJ holiday.

Db! .aenacTe [vi \Iel;)jiti] you're doing
'fTO [SIO) what
4TO Db!: .aenaeTe? What are you doing?
KCraTH [kst3.ti) by the way, incidentally
Kcd:TM, 'ITO 8W Tenepb ne..lJane l' By the way, what are you doing now?
na60paTopHSI (Iaooratopj;)] laboratory
D na60paTopHH [vl;)ooratorijiJ in a laboratory
A pa66TalO 8 na60paTopHH. I work in a laboratory.
13K CKy'lHO [tak sku~n;)J I [it's] so dull, [it's] SO boring
TaM Tal' CKfllHn. It's so boring there.

D enroll at the university! enter the univer
(JxlsIUpaW VUlJi yir~itet] sity!
TaK [t;)k] in that case, then
Tal' flOCTYUaiiTe B yHHBepclITiT. Then enroll at the university.

lInl DW! You can't mean it! or You're oat serious!

Y)Ke 0(3)),HO [u:fe pozm~ ] it's already late, it's too late
Mite [mQc] for me, to me
Mue YJKC n03JJ.Ho. It's too late for me.
Mue Tenepb yJto.-e Deh/lHo. It's too late for me now.

rOBOpn [t-lvaratJ they say, people say

[BW] 3UaeTe [vi znaji\i) you know
3HaeTe, rQBoph... [znajiti g:'lvarat] you know [what] they say ...
3Uline, r080JHiT: uJ1yllwe u03A1ln, llhot You know [what] they say: "Better late than
lIHKOI,/.ui". never:'


palla early
Eme pallO. It's early yet or It's too early.
33.IUlT (m) he's busy, occupied, tied up
3allrn (f) she's busy, occupied, tied up
33.IUlTbi (pi) we're busy, occupied, tied up
BbI: 33.HJlTbl? Are you busy?
- ,[I,a, Ii 3aHSIT (or laIlSITa). Yes, I am.
'laC,.o often
.st 'faCTO pa6oTalo D na60paT6pl1H. I often work in the laboratory.
pe,QKO rarely, seldom
.st pe./l.KO pa66T3.1O D na60paTopHH. I rarely work in the laboratory.
HHor,na sometimes
.st HHOOta pa66T3.lO D na60paTopHH. I sometimes work in the laboratory.
IlHKOr,lta ne never
Ii HHKor,na He pa66TaJO D na60paTopHH. I never work in the laboratory.


OTseq,Hhe latyicajti] or OTUeTbTe answer!

[atyeni ]
OTlipOihe KtIHrH. (alkrojti KQigi) Open your books.

, cq-'IIIO IS pronounced [slni~n;)] by some spc;lken. jskutn;)] by others.

'3uKpo'nTe Klllint. [zakroj\i k~ligil Close your books.
npaBIUlbiiO [pra Yiln;) J right, that's right
lIenpaBHnbBo [Qipra yiin;)] wrong, that's wrong
rocnomiH [g:>spaQin} Me.
rocnmd [g~spazaJ Miss, Mrs.
rOCl' [g;:Jspada 1 ladies and gentlemen, everybody, everyone
laKpOHTe KIlHrl1, Close your books, everyone.
Obi: nOIUlMaeTe? (vi IX'Qimajiti] Do you understand '1
~ If nOIlHM{uO. Un IX'Qimaju) I understand.

JI yqrne m>J.llHO, qeM HOKOr.lla

Beller late than never

M.-MHna Jl. -JICB

M. fleB, Iff! Hello Lev. Where are you

3,ll,paBCTByHTe! zdrastujti 1 hurrying to? ObI CneWHTe? kuda vi SRisiti 1
JI. 2 B yllH6CpcilTb, vUQiYiI1itet 1 To the university, to a concert.
Ha KOHUCpT. n~kancert 1
M. 3 HHTepeeHO. in\iresn~ t That's interesting. Is it free?
31'0 6ecnllaTllo? et~ l?ispltHn~ t
JI. 4 .lIa. diij Yes. Do you want to gO?1
XOTHTe nOHnt? xati\i pajti t
M. 5 C y,uoaollbcTBHCM! sudavolstyij~rn 1 I'd love to 1

JI. 6 KCT3.TH, kstii\i ! By the way, what are you doing

'ITO Dbl Tenepb sto vi tiger now?2
,Ll,enaeTe? ~eloji\i !
M. 7 Pa60Talo rabot~ju I work in a laboratory. It's so dull
B na60paTOp"H. vl~ooratoriji 1 there!
TaM 1'3.K CKY'H10! tam tfik skusn::ll
JI. g TaK nocTymHiTe t::lk PQstupajti Enroll at the university then. J
B yHHOepcHTeT. vuQ-iyiqitet 1
M. 9 41'0 abl! 5tO vi! You're not serious! It's too late for
MHe Tenepb mQ-e tiger me now.
p<e n03JtHo. uze pozn;) 1
JI. 10 3HaeTC, znajiti 1 You know what they say: "Better
rOBoph: ~vara( I late than never."
ttfly'lwe n03AHo, lucsi pOzn::l t
'1eM HHKorAa. cern Q.ikagd1i 1

NOTES , Verbs in Russian almost always come in pairs called "imperfective" and
'perfectivc.' noiini is the perfective member of the imperfective-perfective pair of
verbs HllTH and noiint. The imperfective member of the verbal pair usually describes
an action viewed as a process (HATli to be going); the perfective usually describes
an action in terms of its accomplishment or result (nom to go). Verbal pairs
usually have the same root, but differ in their prefix or in their stem. The system
of paired verbs is called "aspect," and the choice of which verb to use-imper-
fective or perfective-depends on how the Russian speaker views the action.
In these early lessons, the student will encounter verbs of both aspects and will
practice them as he meets them, without being expected to know both members of
a particular pair or how one is formed in relation to the other.
J Russian adverbs. unlike those in English, are usually placed before the verb:
4TO 8M Tcnepb ,ll,e.naeTe? What are you doing now?
B'fcpa 6W110 c06p{uHte? Was there a meeting yesterday?
Jj nl.\t He 6b1J1. I wasn't there.
It is also normal to place direct object pronouns before the verb.

Jj BOO 3ilMy uae

lie BH./te11. I haven't seen you all winter.
Jj llalmO saeHe Billle11. I haven't seen yOIl in a long time.
Pan. iTO CJlblwan.. Glad to hear it.
) The stressed word Tit.: in TiK cKj'fHO means so and differs from the un
stressed TaK [bk] in TaK oocrynaiiTc B )lIHsepetrreT, which means then, ill rhat case.

Basic sentence patterns

I. KYl1a Tbl cnewHwb? Where are you hurrying to?

- B YIU18epcI1Tth. To the university.
- 8 "11Y6. To the club.
- Ha co6piIrne. To a meeting.
- Ha nO'fTY. To the post office.
- Ha KOHUepT. To a concert.
- Ha yp6K. To class.
- Ha ypOK neHHjI. To a singing class.
- Ha aBT66yc. To the bus.
- Ha 3aJlo.n. To the plant.
- AOMOi!. Home.
2. KYl1a Bbl cncuuhe? Where are you hurrying to?
- Jj cnemy B IUIY6. I'm hurrying to the club.
_ _ _ _ B YJlHBepcHTb". _ _ _ _ _ to the university.
_ _ _ _ Ha co6pimtc. _ _ _ _ _ 10 the meeting.
_ _ _ _ Ha no'lT)'. _ _ _ _ _ to the post office.
_ _ _ _ lIa ypOK. _ _ _ _ _ to class.
_____ lJa ypOK nblilH. _ _ _ _ _ lO a singing class.
__~__ Ha aBT66yc. _ _ _ _ _ to the bus.
_____ lIa 33BOJJ,. _ _ _ _ _ to the plant.
_____ AOMOH. _ _ _ _ home.

3. XOTIhe nouni Ha KOIIUepT? Wanl 10 go to the concert?
_ _ _ _ _ _ Ha c06pflHHe? _______ to the meeting?
_ _ _ _ _ _ ua nO'fTy? _______ to the post office?
_ _ _ _ _ B KJly6? ______ to the club?
_ _ _ _ _ _ B )'HHBepcHTeT? ________ to the university?
_ _ _ _ _ _ B)'HHBePCHTeT, Ha KOHUCpT? ________ to the university, to a concert?
4. XoniTe nouru B KJly6? Want to go to the club?
--c y~oB6~bCTBHeM. I'd love 10.
-- Lla . .st ~aBH6 TaM He 6hl~. Yes, I haven'l been there for a long time.
-- )lao .st ~aBH6 TaM He 6hl~a.1 Yes, _
-- HC"r, Ii 3amrr. No, I'm busy.
-- Hch, Ii 3amrra. 1 No, _
-- He-r, Ii )')ICe TaM 6blJl. No, I was already there.
-- HeT, Ji )')ICe TaM 6blmL I No, _
-- Hh, TaM TaK CKy'lHO. No, it's so boring there.
- H&r, )')ICe m')3,IJ,HO. No, it's [too] late.
- HeT, ell.le paHO. No, it's still early.
5. tho Bbl Tenepb .QenaeTe? What do you do now?
- Pa6oTalO B na60paT6pHH. I work in a laboratory.
_ _ _ _ _ Ha _ _ at the plant.
_ _ _ _ B KnY6e. ___ at the club.
_ _ _ _ _ B rOpcOBere. ___ at the gorsovet.
_ _ _ _ _ a yUHBepcJ.:l.TeTe. ___ at the university.
_ _ _ _ _ Ha nO'fTe. _ _ at the post office.

6. Kymi cneWHT flea, Ha 3aBo.n? Where's Lev hurrying to, the plant?
- HeT, 113 coGpau"e. No, to a meeting.
- HeT, ua yp6K neHlIR. No, to a singing lesson.
KY.ll.a cneW:lT HUlla H KHpH.nn? Where are Nina and Kirill hurrying to?
- Omi cnewaT a KJlY6. They're hurrying to the club.
- Omi cnewa-r a na60paTopmo. They're hurrying to the laboratory.
KY.ll.3 Bbl CneUlHTe, EartH"u? Where are you hurrying to, Evgeny?
- R cnemy B yllilBepcHTeT. I'm hurrying 10 the university.
- R cnemy Ha KOHUepT. I'm hurrying to a concert.

The alternation of voiced and voiceless consonants

Besides the important feature of hardness and softness, the Russian consonant system is
dominated by another significant element: the presence or absence of what is called "voice."
A voiced consonant is one pronounced with an accompanying vibration of Ihe vocal cords.
For example, the Russian [b,~; v, y; d, 9; z,~] are all considered voiced consonants. So, too, are
the English b in boys, v in view, d in dog, and z in zip.
In contrast, a \'oiceless (or unvoiced) consonant is one pronounced without this accompanying
vibration of the vocal cords. For example, the Russian [p, g; f, f; t, t; s, ~] are all considered voiceless
consonants in the system. Similarly, the English pin poise,finfew, t in togs, and s in sip are voiceless
The main difference between the Russian and English treatment of tbe voiced and voiceless
consonants is that in Russian there is a systematic replacement of one by the other under prescribed
circumstances while in English there is not. We can pronounce the English gooseberry wilh either

I Feminine speaker.

an [s] or a (z) sound, and both are acceptable. Russian, however, requires that the written JJ. of
.o!lKa be pronounced (t) because it occurs before (k), an unvoiced consonant: [votb).
Although all Russian consonant sounds may be characterized as voiced or voiceless, not all
occur in opposed pairs. The following chart shows the regularly opposed pairs.

Voiced b \> v y d Q z f z g
Voiceless p R f r I \ s I ! k

The consonants (x, ~, c, c, ~l are all voiceless, but do not have voiced counterparts that operate
independently in the system. They can, however, affect the pronunciation of a preceding consonant.
The consonants (r, f, I, l, m, rp, n, Q, j) possess voice, but have no corresponding voiceless counter-
parts. They are considered "neutral" because they do not determine the pronunciation of other
consonants occurring in combination with them.
In terms of the Russian writing system, the paired voiced and voiceless consonants may be
indicated as follows:
Voiced 6 6b B Bb Ab , '" r
Voiceless n nb 4> 4>' T Tb C Cb W <

Since the writing system does not accurately refleci the spoken language, it is essential for the
student to know which consonants are voiced, which are voiceless, and, especially, which are paired
in terms of voice or absence of voice. This is important because, in certain positions, only consonant
sounds of one or the other series are spoken, regardless of the spelling. The automatic alternation
of voiced and voiceless consonant sounds operates, UDder the following conditions. within a word
or combination of words spoken together as a unit. 1

A. At the end of a word, consonanlS ordinarily voiced are replaced automatically by their
unvoiced counterparts.
roTOR [geIOf] ready rOTo8a [gatov;)J ready
,..OA [zavot] plant JasolU>l [zavOdi] plants
rpH6 [gpp[ mushroom rpH6b:i [gribi] mushrooms
6'lepe.n b [6<!ir i\] line 6lepe.IDt [6<! ir iQi] lines
B. Consonants in clusters, either within one word or in adjacent words pronounced without a
break, are assimilated to the extent that the entire cluster is pronounced either voiceless or voiced.
Note, in the following examples. that it is the second or last voiced or voiceless consonant in the
series that determines how the preceding consonant(s) will be pronounced.

B" in R'fCpa yesterday [IC] in [lCira]
'A n0e3JJ. train [st) [p6jist]
6< Kop66Ka bo< [pk] [karopb]
acT B CTOile in the desk [fst] [fsta[c [
A< 80JJ.h"3 vodka [Ik] [v6tk~]
, .
BtvTj6e at the club [fk] [fklu\>;)
, SilKlC' the rn:utnli oonsonanls p. iI. II. lot. and i do noc playa pari in lhe alternallon of voiced and voicelcss oonsonanlS.
lhey win be excluded from chis disclls.~ion.


Kli.. ltcJl3 how are things [g~) [kag~ila)

'" np6c..6a request [fbI
'" [peofoo]
rdJ..-..:e likewise, too [gfl [tagfi)
The consonant B (ab) must be considered a special case. Allhaugh it undergoes unvOIcmg
(i.e., it is pronounced as [fJ or [0 either in final position or when followed by an unvoiced consonant),
it docs nol cause a normally voiceless consonant preceding it to become voiced. Thus, both .JBiJtH
(with cluster (zvJ) and cs.ari (with cluster [sv)) in Russian.
To summarize, we may say thaI the assimilation of consonants is a regressive process in Russian:
the last element affects tbat which precedes it. Thus, in the following series, Position 2 dctcnnines
the quality of Position J in terms of voice or its lack.


a. Ordinarily voiced consonants

are pronounced voiceless here when a word boundary or pause
! ~
roTtle follows.

b. Ordinarily voiced consonants are

pronounced voiceless her wben a voiceless consonant
SOJ.lKa follows.

c. Ordinarily voiceless consonants are

pronounced voiced here when a I'oiced consonant (other
TalOKe than B) follows.


Read the following Cyrillic words, noting the automatic changes in pronunciation that take place
in certain positions.
6 pronounced [p 1 61. pronounced w] 8 pronounced (11
""6 (rap) CkOp6L [sko'll] XPYWCS [xrulMl]
cna6 [slap] JJl:6b [pg] JIes Oel]
rpH6 [gpp] ."oob [deogl Typreues (turgeQif]
[zig] ""'"
3y6 (zlip J pli6h [ragl enoB [slol]
.ll:Y6 (dup] rpa6b [grag] 6eTpoB [Ost...1]
pli6 [rapi 66b [ogl "epa (ri]
pes [rol]
o6phlB [abrill
CH';" [s~al]

L!OSON 3 41
Db pronounced [0 r pronounced [k] .It pronounced [t]

nplf63.Bb (PriMO war [ID) pa~ [ralJ

3aCT3.Bb [zastaO CHer [S9 ok J ca.n [sal)
6yp3.Bb [bur.\O 6eper PIOpkJ 06e~ [a\>OIJ
JUOOOBb OubOO lIer 06kJ lIell 061J
MOpKOBb [man:oO mHr [kk) BUll evil)
6p6Bb [br60 nup6r !Jlir6kJ rO.n [g61J
KpOBb [kr60 .npyr [druk) ropoll [gornt]
HOBb [n60 Kpyr [kruk) p"" [rat)
'!ePBb [~rO lOr OukJ cTh<~ [stlt)
66yBb [6buO

JJ.b pronounced ltl )I( pronunced ~] :J pronounced [s]

~b [Iitra\l uap6Kb [narB) rh [gasJ
lIOWa,llb 06! il) ell: 06!J pacel:b {raskas]
nlIOWa.Ab (p16!Ci\l
MeM ['l'o\l
[strll ]
O'lepellb [6CipI! y>< [ul] MOpa3 [mar6s)
6Yllb [bUI) My>< [mu~J COI03 [sajus]
3aM}0lC [zamulJ

:Jb pronounced [~]

M83b [m"';) CjJb [SU~)

lI83b O"';J rplOb [W~J
ClIO,. [s[<jJ CBlOb [sya~J
p&lb [~J KU.H3b [k9a~1
cmbb [sV~) 6i3b l1Ia~ J
Bp63b [vr6~l


B pronounced [f] 6 pronounced (p J r pronounced [k)

DCIO [r~uJ 06ul.ldi: [6p!Cij) 6OrcTBo PIOkSlVoJ

B'Iepa [ffulI) pw6u [ripk.) KOlTli [k6k \'l1
8XOll [fx61) pi6'!"x [[lIpelkJ u6rTll [n61<\')
aBT66yc [aft6busJ y.n66cno [udopsoo] lKenuHH [f6k~ijl
ooua [afcaJ lUle6ua [xlo"",,] 3Arc [zaksJ
npo.n.a8wHua [proxiafStic:l] Kop66Ka [kar6pb] .neITJI' [~6kl'J
B 'laC [rcas) Boo6we [Y.)ap~] miITe [[akll)
B Kop66Ke [fkar6p~i] nOCTpHrwH [pastrik~jJ
BOOJme [fpa1 9oJ

A pronounced It) .. pronounced [~] J pronounced [s)

JloJlKa [Iotk~] IOUfJKKa [k~lb] 6mbKo IbIJsk,]

UOXO.llKa [paxotbj HeYx'ro [oju~t~] CK3.JKa [sUsk,]
6moJllte [b[uteo] noxKa [16Ik,] n6e3.ll [pOj;",]
MOJlO.lluU [m~latciJ Ha,ae)kJl [na'iClt] alllr [yJsk]
80.llJt::a [v6tk~] HY>ut [nult) M03r [m6sk]
Jar.ia.K3 (zagath) HeMHO)kICO [oimno~k~1 .llp03.ll [dr6st)
HMuHCh (na'gil] H3 TaHl(3 [istAnb]
no./t cHeroM [paISoeg;lm) CJle3Ka [sI6sb]
HM co66" (n:ltsab6j]


.. pronounced (gJ c pronounced (z] T pronounced (d]

r.\D<e [tagZi) CTOpaTh [zgarall OT [adgor;xb]

KaJ:: [kag4Jla] c6m [z~i\] OT 6paTIl [adbrat~]
BOnin [v3gzal] croaop (zg6wr] OT66" [adOOj]
JoaMell [igWjUnj c60p [zOOr] QT)kaTh [adfall
alleKJlOT (aQigdot] c66pml.K [zOO '\lJk] (Yr.u". [bdzif]
K :lKene [gZJQc] c.lla<Ja [zdalo] OT 3aaHCTH [adzayJl\i]
K3HMe [lW'l'c] C TOphi [zgari) OTIKHJI [bd!il]
K 6a6c [gba~ij OT6p6cbl [adbrosiJ
I( JI.6My [gd6mu) OT )KeHbl (adzini]
K3.KGbI [kagbi] oTra,naTb [adgadall

Ch pronounced [~] n. pronounced (~)

np6ct.6a [pr6p.o] ce.ruiTb6a [li~'ibo]

Kocb6a (ka~ba) :(eHHn.6a [fiQi'ib,j
MOJIOTb6il [m,la'iba]


The present tense of the second conjugation verb CJleunfrL

li cnemy I'm hurrying, I'm in a hurry

TlJ CneWHrnb you're hurrying, you're in a hurry
Oll cneuuiT he's hurrying
OHa CneW"T she's hurrying
Mbl cnewliM we're hurrying
Bbl CneW"Te you're hurrying
011" cnewfn they're hurrying


I. Listen to your instructor (or the tape) and repeat thc preceding pronoun-vcrb model until you
can say it perfectly.
2. fm hurrying to a lesson.
T: .sf enewy 113 yp6K.
S: )1 cnemy Ha }'POK'.
QHM cnewaT Ha yp6K.
8b1 CnernHTe ua ypOJC.
Qua cneWMT ua yp6JC.
Mbl cneWHM lIa yp6K.
011 cneWHT Ha yp6tc.
TbI: cneWHWb lIa yp6JC.


I. Where are you hurrying to? 2. Where are you hurrying, home?
We're hurrying to a concert. No, rm hurrying to the post office.
T: Ky.a3 Bbl cnewHTe? T: Kyna BbI: cnewHTe, nOM6"?
s: Mw cnewlOt Ha KOOuepT. s: Her, Ii cnewj IdI D6arry.
T: Ky.a3 on cnewHT? T: Ky,aa oml cnewHT, nOMoit?
s: Oil cneuuiT Ha kOfulepT. s: Her, 0lU1 cneunrr Ha u6orry.
KYM OlUt cnew3T? Ky.n3. OHM cnew3.T, .aOMOn?
Ky.oa TbI cnewHwb? Kyna Oil CnelUHT, LlOMO"?
Ky.rta OIU\. cnewMT? Ky.rta TbI cncwHwb, nOMO"'?

Using B Yluu~epcHTe-r, Student I first replies Using Ha aBT06yc, answer the question
with a short answer. then Student 2 replies with both short and full answers.
with a full answer.

3. Where are )'ou hurrying 10? 4. Where are you going in such a hurry?
To the un;~ersity. To catch a bus.
rm hurrying to the university. rm Illirrying to catch a bus.
T: Ky.aa Obi CnCW"TC? T: Kyna aLI TaK cllcwHTe?
51: 8 yllHBepcHTlh. SI: Ha aB'l'66ye.
S2: )1 cneUlY B yIIHBcpcHreT. S2: )1 enemy "a a8T06ye.
H"Ha, KHP"JlJI, Kyona Ohl ellCUl"Tc? Kyna 611 TaK CnCWH'"?
Ky.aa Tbl cncUJ"Wb? Kyn3 OUH Ttu< cncwaT'1
KYll,a 6n cncwHT? Kyna Mbf T3K eIlCUHtM?
Ky.rtfl amI. cncwHT? Ky.aa Tbl TaK CtrCWltWb?
KY1l<l 011" cncwftT? Kyna alia TaK CnCUlliT?

5. Where are you hurrying 10, the laboralory?

No, fm }/lIrryi1lg to the club.
T: KYll,a abl cnewHTe, B Jla60paTopmo? Kyna 611 cncwHT, 0 Jla60paTopHf{)?
s: He-r, j cnemY B KJlj6. Kyna OIlH cnew3.T, a Jla60pUT6puf{)?
T: Kyna TbI cnewHwb, a Jla6opaTopmo? Ky;:u\ TbI: cnewMwb, B Jla60paT6pllf{)?
s: HeT, j cnelUY B K'Jlj6. Kynit aHa cnewHT, B Jla60paT6pHf{)?
Kyna obi: enewHTe, a Jla60paTOpHf{)?

, Beginning wllh thIS lesson, both tnc teacher and student sentellCe$ an: Included in tnc same column.

44 LffiSON 3

CoernHn. is a second conjugation verb with the stress on the endings.


I mew-y cnew-HM
2 -IfWb -om:
3 -1fT -aT
Second conjugation verbs have linking vowel H, (cncwHwb, cnewHT, CllCWHM, cnewHTe) where
first conjugation verbs have e or e (pa66Taewb, lflleWb). Where first conjugation verbs have Ihe third
person plural ending in -yr or -toT (HlJ,jT, paOOTatoT), second conjugation verbs have -aT or -lIT
(cnewaT, rOBOp"). It is only in the first person singular (hat first and second conjugation verbs share
(he common ending -y or -to.

Examples of other second conjugation verbs so far encountered:'

c.'lbiwan. to hear
CnJ:dut-y, e.m:1ut-HWb, c..nbIut-HT, CJ1LlllJ-HM, cnL'lLU-HTe, CJIb1LU-aT
rOBOpH"fI> to speak. say
rORop-lo, roeop-Jiwb, rOROp-IIT, rORop-HM, rOBop-RTe, rOBop-liT
CTOliTb to stand
CTa-IO, erD-RWb, CTa-IIT, cTa-liM, CTD-HTe, era-liT

Masculine, feminine, and plural endings of short-form adjectives

MASCULINE .R (rn, Oil) JaUSlT. I'm (you're, he's) busy.

SUBJECT pa. glad.
JlI 0 POB. well.
66nell. sick .

FEMININE ..s1 (Tbl, ollii) JallRTa. I'm (you're. shc's) busy.

pa.aa. glad.
JJlopOea. well.
6onbHa. sick.

PLURAL Mbf (BM, OHIt) J3HJ1Tb1. We're (you're, they're) busy.

SUBJECT paabl. glad.
3JlOpOBbl. well.
6onbilLI. sick.


Listen to your instructor (or the lape) and repeat the above models until you can say them perfectly.

I These verbs arc given here primarily 10 show ending and Slress panems. They will be drilled laler.

USSON 3 45

Repeal after your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can, imitating both the individual
words and the sentence intonation. Then, on hearing only the subject cue, supply the full utterance
according to the given model.
I. rm blLsy now. 2. Are you glad 10 hear il?
T: .sf Tenepb 3aIUlT. T: Tbi pan iTO C1Ib1WaTb?
s: A Tenepb J.iuwr. S: Tw pliiJt iTo em:uua..... ?
T: 01130 Tenepb 33IUITa. T: OHa iTO C1IbIWaTb ?
s: ORa Teneph 3aum. s: Olui paJta :ITo ClIbuuan. ?
(OHM, ShoI, HHHa, :lKellli, M~, MhoI, MH.rta) (CeMell, omi, U:apanICuII, BbI, MMa)

3. Tm completely well. 4. Tm sick.

T: .sf snonue 3.ll0pOS. T: .sf 60nell.
s: A aooJIIle 3.ll0pOS. s: Jt MJlCH.
T: Omf SnOnHe 3JJ.0p6Sbl. T: Om't 60111011<1.
s: 0111' SDOJIIle 3JtOpOSbI. s: Olla 6oJIblla.
(Sbl, >KeHa, omi, EsrcHilii) (MHJla H CCMell, Bhl, EBremiH, Mhl,


I. Lev, are you busy? 2. Nil/a, are you still sick?

No, Fm not busy. No, Fm completely weill/OW.
T: 11es, ill :lAHn? T: "Hila, Rbi see eme 6onbllbl?
s: HeT, Ii He 3aun. s: Hh, Ii nnepb BoolIue 3.lopOaa.
T: HMlla, ill 3aurn? T: KllpliJut, ill ace eme 6611ell?
s: Hh, Ii He JaHsrra. s: Hh, Ii TeuePh BDOJlHe 3.llopOa.
(MMa, XIrrp6s, Kllpw nWOSH'I, CeMeH <DHJlHOnOBH'I, Bhol aee eme 6onbllbl?
HMlla CeMenoslla, CeMell) MHna, TbI see eme 6onhu3?
EBrefllul, TbI Bee cme 66ncII?
Kllpw na01l0DH'I, Dbl Bee ewe 601lbubl:?


fm glad to hear that.

T: .sf pan iTO CJJblwaTb.
S: Jt pa,ll, no CJlbIlUaTb.
" (M ~) ,------,---_-,--
s: Mw paw.. iTO CJwwaTb.
(OIlH, K"pw, :lKella, CeMell
<DHJlHnnOSH'I, 01130, HHlla H Mlina, Oil)



- -a -Y

The shorl-form adjectives agree with their subject in gender or number. Note that those used
wilh masculine subjects have no ending, those used with feminine subjects end in -a, and those used
with plural subjects end in _..... 1
Note that the stress may shift 10 the ending, particularly in the feminine form: OKi laRg-ni.
(Compare il wilh OK :u'IUIT.)
If the slem ends in more than one consonant. the masculine fonn may contain a vowel that
does nOI appear in the other forms. This vowel appears belween the last two consonants of the
slem. Compare Ott M.!lett with oHli 6oJW:li, W 6o.rn.itW. The soft sign is written in the feminine and
plural forms to indicate that the 11 is soft.


The conversalion for Lesson 3 is presented here in handwritten form for reading and copying

-J(J,' ~ ~?rfU7':~~
~ 2

-$ 1H.a- ~.- ~8tno-

~(M?U<.(Y 1- - :ita. ~ C ~tr'
.1.. -

J.17~, - ~I V>u>- k ~ p--

v<ahtn. 2- - $akn.a.r j! -t-ado/z-anu7j'U<AA.-, .71~

tn~ ~. -~ rf- ~-
i'nur k ,I JliH.e ~ tpt-e ~,I
1-o-t-~ "Jl~ /U'r7','Ur/ U',M:.

, T1'le neuter short adjective ending _0 is excluded from this disclrnion for practical reasons since Ihe subjects used
""th these: adjI:Ctlvc:s are mostly masculine, feminine. or plural.

L.ESSON 3 47


06WeJkHTHe [apSeiti~ij~] donnilOry

B06weDntH [~pti1i\ijiJ in t.he donnitory
paJroB6p [~zgav6rJ conversation
PaJrOBOp B 06l1.teJKHl"HH. Conversation in the dormitory.
BOHni (prv)1 (vajti] to enter, come in, go in
MQ:lkHQ (m6tn;)) it's possible, one may
M6tHO 80m? May I come in?
kOHe'fHO [ka9csn;)] 2 of course, certainly
3aXOJlHTb {~x.a4iU to drop in, stop by, call [on someone]
3aXO.rtH l~xaQi] come in!
33.nepri 1~l1irlal) locked
llBePb (f) [d yel J door
~aepb He JanepTa. The door isn't locked.
3axo.nH! ){Bepb He Janeyra. Come in! The door iso't locked.
6bITb [bill to be
.Ii 6blm't. [ja bila] I (f) was, I've been
311l1Tl.. [zna\] to know
Tbl JllaClllb [Ii znajis] you know
3H<'t.ewb, r.Qe Ji 6bI1l<1? Know where I've been?
Bee YrPo [r~ (Jtm] all morning
lwi.eulI>, rJU~ li 6b1JUi Bee jTpo? Know where I've been all morning?
r6poJ], {g6171] city. town
B r6po~e Ivg6~iJ in the city, in town, downtown
A 6WJui B ropo,tl,e. I've been downtown.
no~apoK (padAr"k] gift, present
i nOlcynana [ja ~kupAl,,] I (f) was buying
nOKynaTb [p;lkupa\l to buy, (0 be buying

I The abbreviation pl-, will be used for tbe perfective aspect aod ipf-, for tbe imperfective.
) KtmeWll is pronoonced lkaQletn;) by many speakers.
I Two prononciations are po$$ible: (z;llirtiJ and [ziIllirl:)).

.st nOicynana OO.napoK. I was buying a present.
HilHe [QiQi] (for] Nina
sl: OOKynina OO,lllipoK """e. I was buying Nina a present.

ax [ax] oh!
Ax, .na! Oh, yes!
At". (m) [~tQ) day
.neHb poJK.lleHWI (~eQ. raZQeQij~] birthday (iii. day of birth)
y Hee [uQijO] she has (lit. by her)
Y Bee Jl.eUb poxmeBIUI. She has a birthday or It's her birthday.
""'Tpa [zAft,,) tomorrow
Y uee 38BTp8 .neal> po~fI. She has a birthday tomorrow.
KyOUTb (pfv) {kugi\} to buy
ThI: Kyoli.rIa [ti kugib] you (Q bought
ljT6 n:i lCymlna? What did you buy?

OOCMO~ (pfv) lJ;osmatreU to take a look

[m] X6<tCUlh [Ii x6C:iJ] you want
X6oleun. 1lOCMO'I"ph.. ? Want to take a look?

Kop66Ka [kar6pk~] box (cardboard)

B Kop66Ke [l'kar6pip] in the box
ry-r [tut] here
BOT TjT, e KopOOKe. It's here in the box.
(m) [part[tl]
UOpTojJtm. briefcase
Aocn\Tb (prv) [dastall to get
Tbl .nOCTana [li dasta.l~] you (f) got nd .nOCTana? Where'd you get [it]?
nopTlW"! Tbi.noC'TliTla? A briefcase! Where'd you get it?

rYM [gum) GUM (State Department Store)

rYM' [vgUqU) at GUM
Kp3CHBbIH [kr~ivij] handsome, pretty, lovely
opae.a.a LPnivd~] isn't it (lit. truth), rpaCKablu? Handsome, isn't it?
B rYMe. ", KpaCHeblH? At GUM. Handsome, isn't it?

6<teHb [ociv-l vcry

o..eul> KpaCHeblii. Very handsome.
.n6nro [d61~] long. a long time
CTORTb [stajaU to stand, to be standing
Thr CTOMa [ti slajal~J you (f) stood
Tbi .nOJlro CTO'rna? Did you stand for a long time?
o<tepe.llb (f) [ocirj~l line, turn
B 6'lepen. [v6tiri~iJ in line
Tbi .noJJrO CTOua B O'tCpeltM? Did you stand in line a long time?
HeT, He O'tftll>. No, not very [long].


,nenaTb [c;!el,,\] to do, to be doing

lIT6 Bbl Jlenaml? What did you do? or What were you doing?
- HII'Ier6. Qi~iv6J Nothing.
r.Qe BM 6WlH? Where were you?
cny:ll:Ga IslUtb~] job, work, service
- Ha C1I:y:6e. At work.
lIT6 8b1: KymUlH? What did you buy?
MaTepH9.n [m;)\itial] material
nnaTbe [pla\i~ J dress
- MaTepll9.n Ha nnane. Material for a dress or Dress material.
KOCTtOM [kas\um] suit
- Man:pllan lIa KocnOM. Material for a suit or Suit material.


JI3..n:bWe (dal~i] continue! go on! (iii. further)

lIHTiHn: JIanbwe! Go on reading!
nHWH-re b2i~i\i] or lIartHwJfTe [Del2i~i\i] write!
lIa JIOCKe ( on the board
HanHWHTe IIa JIOCKe! Write on the board!
ItAHTe [ic;!i\i J go!
IC ,nOCKe [gdas\eJ to the board
I1.nHTe IC ,nOCKe! Go to the board!
lOMemtTe [izrpiQi\iJ change! make a change!
JaMelllITe (~lJli"Qi\il substitute! make a substitution!

PaJrOBOp B 061llelKUTHH
Conversation in the dormitory

c. - Cawa (CTy,neHT)
o. - 6ml (CTYJlCHTKa)

C. I KT6 TaM? kto tiim l Who's there?

o. 2 3TO .Ii, 6J1lL et, jii l 6\, j It's me, Olya. May I come in?
M6)KHO BOHTH? m6zn~ vajti!

C. 3 KOHe"mO. kaQS,n, l Of course. Come in. The door

3aXO,llH. z:>xa4il isn't locked.
,[I,Oeph He 3anepTa. dyer Qi~Rirta 1

O. 4 3Haewh, r,lle .Ii 6bJna zDajis g4e ja biHi ! Know where I've been all
Bee Yrpo? flo iHr;d morning? Downtown. I was
B r6po,lle. vgor04d buying a present for Nina.
nOKynana nO,llapoK ~kupal\) padarnk
HHHe. (llQd

l..ESSON 4 51
C. 5 Ax., .na! ax da! Dh, yes! It's her birthday
Y Het: 33BTpa uQij6 zaftrn tomorrow. And what did you
JJ.CHb P0)KllCHHR. QeQ raiQeQija I buy?
A 'fTO TbI Kyruina? a 5tO L.i kURiI~ 1
O. 6 XOlfewb nocMorpen? x6Cis IXlSmatre\ 1 Want to take a look? It's here in
BOT TjT, 8 Kop66Ke. vot tut I f1caroplp I the box.
C. 7 nopT4Jenb! partreJ I A briefcase! Where did you get
rnf: Tbl JJ,OCTana? g,1e ti dastal3! it?
O. 8 B rYMe. vgiirpij In GUM.2 Handsome, isn't it?
n pae.u3, KpacHBwH? pravd~ kra~ivij i
c. 9 6lieHb. otiQ I Very. Did you stand in line a
ThI Jlonro CToJina ti d61g.:J stajAI:> long time?
8 6'1epe,llH? vociriQi I
O. 10 H6T. Qet! No, not very.
He 6.. eHb. QiociQ I

NOTES I Infonnally Russians address each otber using nicknames based on the first
name, for example: Cawa for AJiCKCa"lW, OJi. for Om.ra. Such names aft compar-
able to our Bob for Robert, Gene for Eugene, Betty for Elizabeth, and so forth.
Others are;

)KeHSI fo' EareHl-IH Eugene MHna fo' Jho,llM"na Ludmilla

KonJi HHKOllaHNicholas KATJI EKaTepHHa Katherine
neTS! nOTp Peter 3Hua 3HHaH.rr.a Zinaida
Anetua AneKceH AJexis lli06a JIJ066Bb Amy
ce"" CeMeH Simon Mawa MapRJ! Mary
liopSi liOpHC Boris lleHa EneHa Helen
B0110)1S1 BnWMHp Vladimir JlH3a EnH3aBeTa Elizabeth

2 rYM (rocyJ],apcrBelUl....ii YHHBepdnbllhlii ""81'83"") is the State Depart-

ment Store, which is located in Red Square opposite the Moscow Kremlin. Note
that, although GUM itself is written with capital letters, its declensional endings
are written with small letters: " rYMe in GUM.

Basic sentence patterns

I. KTO raM? Who's there?

- Ji, 011J1.
3TO It's me, Olya.
_ _ _ _ EOreHHH. _ _ _ Evgeny.
_ _ _ HHHa. _ _ _ Nina.
~ KHpHlUI ITas1l0BJlll. _ _ _ Kirill Pavlovich.
_ _ _ _ CeMCH <I>lUuinnOBH'l. _ _ _ Semyon Filippovich.

____ UapaDXHH. ___ Tsarapkin.
____ XllTpOS. ___ Khitrov.
_ _ _ MiUJa. ___ Mila.
_ _ _ 1IeB. __ Lev.
2. Cawa, r.a.e Thl 6b1:JI Bee yrpo? Where were you all morning, Sasha?
- Jt 6blJl H3 co6paHHH. I've been at a meeting.
_ _ _ _ U3 yp6xe neHH~. ____ at a singing lesson.
_ _ _ _ H3 3aBOAe. _ _ _ at the plant.
_ _ _ H3 n6'fTe. _ _ _ at the post office.
_ _ _ _ H3 l:oHU,epTe. ____ at a concert.

3. OM, fAe TbI 6bUla see YJpo? Where were you all morning, Olya?
- .It 6b1m\ 8 I was in town.
_ _ _ BrYMe. _ _ at GUM.
_ _ _ _ 8 o6Wl2Knrn. _ _ in the dormitory.
____ B Y!Ul.8epcHThe. _ _ at the univenity.
_ _ _ _ B ropooBCTe. _ _ at the gorsovet.
_ _ _ _ B UIj6e. _ _ at the club.
_ _ _ _ 8 na60p3T6pKH. _ _ at the laboratory.

4. tIT6 TbI JlCnaJI 8 r6po.a.e, CAwa? What were you doing in town, Sasha?
- Jt I1ol:ymi..n oo,naPOI:. I was buying a present.
- Jt oOKynan Do.a.apol[ HHHe. I was buying Nina a presenl.
- $I CTOM B 6'!epe.nH. I was standing in line.
- Jt nOl:ynan nopnpenb. I was buying a briefcase.
- Jt nOl(ynan MaTepHan H3 lCocnOM. I was buying suit material.
5. A 'ITO Tbl .a.e.nana. OM" And what were you doing, Olya?
- .st TOJll:e 6bUla B r6poJI.e. I was in lown, too.
- Jt TO:ltCe nOKynana nO,llapox. I was buying a present, too.
- A TO)fCe CTolina B 6'lepeAH. I was standing in line, too.
- Jt nOKynana IlJIAThe. I was buying a dress.
- Jt nOKynana MaTepUan H3 nmin.e. I was buying dress material.
- Jt lloxynana Marepuan H3 KocnQM. I was buying suit malerial.

6. r.a.e Dbl3TO AOCTMH? Where did you get Ihal?

- B r6po.a.e. In town.
-B rYMe. At GUM.
- B YHHBepc~fTlrre. At the university.
- B o6we'tl:ltTJ.U1. At the dormitory.
- B KJlY6e. At the club.
- 8 na6opaT6pHH. At the laboratory.

Introductory remarks on the Russian case system

By now you have noled that Russian nouns may vary Iheir endings in accordance with the way
they function in a sentence. Thus, in the following examples, the Russian word for laboratory changes
its ending according to whether it indicates location or destination.
lOCATION Qua pa66Tae-r B na60paTopHli. She works in a laboratory.
OfSTtNATION QHa ".neT B na60paTopHlO. She's on her way to the laboratory.

Ll'SSON 4 53
Compare the examples with English, where the word laboraTory does not change but a different
preposition is used: in for location and to for destination.
In Russian the same preposition (8) is used but a different "case" form of the noun is required:
prepositional case for location and accusative case for destination.
There are six cases in Russian, used in both the singular and the plural. They are given below
together with a brief comment on their primary function.


NOMINATIVE NOM or N grammatical subject of sentence

ACCUSATIVE ACC or A direct object, complete goal of action

GENlTIVE GEN or G possession, absence, limitation

PREPOSITIONAL I PREP or p location or focus of activity

indirect object, person affected (in impersonaJ


instrument or means of accomplishment of ac-


The nominative form is customarily used in citing nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in diction-
aries or otherwise out of context.

Remarks on stems and endings: the concept of "zero" ending

Since Russian, like Latin and German, relies heavily on changes in the fonns of its nouns,
adjectives, and verbs for grammatical purposes, the student must be able to identify and manipulate
both stems and grammatical endings.
Briefly stated, the stem is the part of a word that remains relatively constant; the ending is the
part that varies to show grammatical changes. Compare the following sets, observing that both
existent endings and the absence of endings provide important grammatical information.

MOCKBa Moscow s MOCKBy to Moscow

OKHO window Ha OKHe on the window
o.u.uo CJI0BO one word MHoro cnos many words
cron table Ha crone on the table
6H 3J1.0pOB he's well omi 3,IlopOBa she's well
OH 6bi.n he was 0HiJ. 6blJUi she was

The concept of the nonexistent or "21:ro" ending is a very important one for Russian. Nouns,
verbs, adjectives, and numerals all have forms where a "zero" ending contrasts with explicit endings.

, The prepositional case is also frequenlly called the loco/ill/! ca5/!. II is the one case in Russian that is used without
a preposilion.

For example, most masculine nouns have a "zcro" ending in their nominative singular case fonn.
A "zero" ending also occurs after the suffix JI in the masculine past tense fonn, contrasLing with the
feminine ending -s, the neuter ending -0, and the plural ending -H. Furthennore, mosl feminine
and neuter nouns have a 'ozero" ending in the genitive plural, in contrast with all of their case fonns
that occur with an ending. Compare cOOBO word, CilOB8 words with CIt6B ofthe words; and KHMra book,
.mn books wilh IOlIir of the books.


Past tense of the verb 6Lrrb to be

MASCULINE >1 6bui TaM. I was Ihere.

SUBJECT Tbt 6bl.J1 TaM. You were there.
6H 6b1:JI T<lM. He was there.
nopT~m> 6w T3M . The briefcase was there.

FEMININE .sf 6blJ1a T<lM. I was there.

SUBJECT T bI: 6b1J1a TiM You were there.
QHa 6bUla T3.M. She was there.
Kop66Ka 6b1JJ<\ TaM. The box was there.

C06palll1e 6wno TaM. The meeting was there.

PLURAL Mbt 6bUlH riM. We were there.

SUBJEcr Rbi 6hIJIH raM. You were there. I
QUH 6WH TiM. They were there.
ReB H HHua 6WH TaM. Lev and Nina were there.


Lislen 10 your instructor (or the tape) and repeat the above models until you can reproduce them


I ~'as at the plant.

T: .st 6w oa
S: 11 6WI "8 3aB6Ltc.
(611, ami, cawa, Hima, 6ill1 H Res, BbI,
alia, Mbt)

, Note thai aW. the plural-polite pronoun you. is Ircalod grammatiCIIlly ali. plural even when it refers to .singk person.
Thus.. r. aW~? can be addressed 10 one penon who is DOl an intimate friend, or 10 more than DDC penon. Tw. on
the olher hand. can only be addressed 10 one persoD.


t. Were they in the dormitory (oo? 2. Halle you already been to the club, Nina?
Yes, they were. Yes, I have.
T: OHlf n':I)KC 6WIH B 061l{e)I(HTHif? T: Bbl }')Ke 6MJHt a Kny6e, fnlHa?
S: Jl,a, 6WnH. s: ,lJ;a, 6bUlll.
T: 68 TO)KC 6hUl B 06mC>KHUtH? T: BM )?Ke 6hlllH B KJly6e, flea?
s: Jl,a, 6LuJ. s: ,lJ;a. 6Lrn.
(lIeB H KHpn1UI, 00<1, CArna, 6JUI) TbJ }')Ke 6bIm't B KJly6e, MJi.n:a?
TM )?Ke 6wJI B KJly6e, CAwa?
Bbl )?Ke 6hJJIH B KJly6e, 6J1S1?

3. Where were you, Sasha? 4. Nina, where halle you been all morning?
I was in the laboratory. r lie been in town.
T: r.lleru 6bm, cawa? T: HilHa, fAe Bhl 6WUf Bee YrPo?
s: A 6w B ns60pswpHH. s: Jt 6L1J1a B n:'poAe.
T: DI,e Tht 6WT<l, HltHa? T: Cawa, rAe Thl 6blll see y-rpo?
s: Jt 6bV1a B ns60pawpHM. S: Jt 6w B rOpoll.e.
r,lI,C Shl 6hl1JH, KHpU1UI? 61Jlt, rn.e ThJ 6blJ1a Bee y-rpo?
f,lI,e BM 6MJlH, MUlla? KlipH1Jn, rn.e Thl 6hIJl Bee YrPo?
r,lI,e 6" 6hUl? JIcs, rn.c SM 6M.rrn see YrPo?
r,lI,e ami. 6bImi? 6J1S1 Ii HlfHa, fAe Rhl 6MnH Bee y-rpo?
f,lI,e MbJ 6blnIf? flell if KliPKnn, fAe 8M 6blJlH Bee y-rpo?
rn.e OKU 6MJlH?

5. Was she at work?

Yes, she was.
T: QHa 6bIJia Ha CJI0K6e?
s: ,lJ;a, 6wJlli.
T: OHit: 6hJnH Ha CJl~6e?
s: ,lI,a. 6LrnH.
My)f( 6hlll Ha cn~6e?
aHIf 6hlllH Ha cny)l(6e?
KHpJi.n:JI 6MJl Ha CJl~6c?
)KeHa 6bUla Ha cn0K6e?
KltpnJlJl It JIcs 6hlJIH Ha CJl)r"JK6e?


Thc past tense differs from the present and future in Russian in that it is nol based on personal
endings but on gender-number endings. The past tense of the verb 6h.1.Th to be illustrates this


Masculine Feminine Neuter

6hUI 6bIJHi 6MJI-o 6hm-H


..sf TAM lie 6L1J1. I (m) wasn't there.

8bi 6b1J1H 6oJlhlrbl:. You were sick.
QHa 6h1J1a 8 ropo.lte. She was in town.
B'lepa 6bu1o co6paHlfe. There was a meeting yesterday.
In the last example, 6bu1o agrees with the neuter noun co6pauHe.

The accusative form of iuauimate masculine

and neuter nouns


>1: cnewy Ha yp6r::. l'm burrying to a lesson.

____ Ha yp61C neHHJI. _____ to a singing lesson.
____ Ha XOHUepT. _____ to a concert.
_ _ _ H8 a8T66yc. _____ to the bus.
_ _ _ Ha 38B6ll, _____ to tbe plant.
_ _ _ Ha co6pAHHe. _____ to a meeting.
>1: HAY 8 }'JIHBePCHTtr. I'm on my way to the university.
_ _ BxnY6. ______ to the club.
_ _ B ropcoser. ______ to the gorsovet.
_ _ B r6po.a.. ______ to town.
_ _ BrYM. _ _ _ _ _ 10 GUM.
_ _ 8 06Wel:Kme. _ _ _ _ _ _ to the dormitory.

Till yx<e BK.a.eJ1 ropo.a.? Have you already seen tbe city?
_ _ _ _ _ nOlla-pol:? ________ the present?
_ _ _ _ _ nopnPeJlh? _______ the briefcase?
________ the club?
_ _ _ _ rYM? _______ GUM?
_ _ _ _ _ YHHoepcHTtT? _________ the university.?
______ nItChM6? ________ the letter?
______ o6U\e)l(}I.THe? ________ the dormitory? Bbl.ltOcTA.JlIt no.a.apoK? Wbere did you get the present?

_ _ _ _ _ _ nopTct>eJlh? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the briefcase?
_ _ _ _ _ _ nHCbM6? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the letter?


Repeat Ihe models after your instructor (or the tape), noting Ihal the accusative fonn is like the
nominative for these masculine and neuter nouns referring to inanimate Ihings. Note also that
certain nouns require the preposition. and others require ua.

l..ESSON 4 57

I. Site's going to class. 2. She's going to the club.

T: QH<\ If.D:ih Ha yp6K. T: OHa H.D:eT B {wy6,
S: OBa M.D:eT 113 ypOK. 5: Oua HJJ.eT B KJJY6.
T: (Ha n6'lTY). T: (8 ropcoser).
5: OBa lIJl.eT Ha no'ny. S: QlIa HJJ.eT B roPCOBiIT.
(na KOHUepT, lIa 3aB6.D:, (B rYM, B rOpo.D:, B 06mC)I(lITlfC,
Ha c06paHHC, Ha ypOK neHHiI) B ymmcpcHTer, B KJly6)

3. We're hurrying to the bus. 4, rye already seen the present.

T: Mbl CnClUHM Ha aBTo6yc, }'JKe BH,i.{eJl nO,l],apoK.
S: M':' COCUlltM Ita 8Brooyc. s: ji yaul BIi.uen: nOAapoK.
T: (B rYM). T: (06mC:lKHTIlC).
5: M':' COewHM B rYM. S: ji y*e BN.t.eJJ 06me'llMrMc.
(ua ypOK, B 06mC:lKHTHe, (ropoA, rYM, nHchM6, KJly6,
Ha KOHUepT, B yHKBepc"TtIT, YHl1.BepCHTer, nopnl>eJlh)
Ha 3aIlO.D:, B r6po.D:, ua c06paHI1e,
B KJly6)


Masculine and ncuter nouns such as ypOK, nopl'4Mh, c06pallHc, and IDIChMO, which refer to
other than living beings, have the same form in the accusative case as in the nominative. The
accusative case is used in Russian for the direct object of a verb, or for the object of certain preposi-
tions such as B or Ha, used in conjunction with verbs of motion. It is important to remember that
in the meaning to, certain nouns require the preposition B while others require the preposition ua.
B ropo.D: to town Ha KOHuepT to the concert
B rYM to GUM Ha aBT66yc to the bus
B oGme>KHTHC to the dormitory Ha ypOK to class
B KJly6 to the club lIa n6'lTY to the post office
8 YllllBepCl1TeT to the univcrsity Ha C06paHl1C to the meeting

58 lmSON4

~"1" t f7'du,s~wn.uU-
-:ltnur ~ ~ - drntr $ / aa. ~rr ~ .z
-~.~. J~ It<! J~' -k.~/
~a.. ~. ~ ?- JJ ~, .Y~tldi2
'lj- .!l-

~~ ~. -./h ja- / .JI IU'/' ja-hyta. ~

jW""C~' Jt /Wntr /?UC. ~ .2. - ~ /U7--

~ e.~ ~ -tf K~, -J7/tyzmf"<U.6-z'

~e /nM. ~ ~ ~-.7J YY..&:e..~a. ~
~?- -~.$tuy~un.<7'~a.~ ~ ?
- JC'e...n. / H-e ~.

I...ESSON 4 59


o6eJl [a~l] dinner

ua o6e.n (n;)3~t) for dinner
lho ua ooeJl? What's for dinner?
K3.K HaC'Ier (Uk nascot] how about
K<ix HaC'IeT How about dinner?
KiK "a~ 06eA8, Oner? How about dinner, Oleg?
OTKpbrra [alkri!:!] open
CTon6Ball (slaI6v:lj:l] dining hall, cafe, restaurant, dining room
CTOn6BaJl OTKpblTa. The dining hall's open.
CrOJJ08&a AUnG O'nCpbn"8. The dining hall's been open for a long lime.

06e.nan (a~:lU to dine, eat dinner

H,AeM (itJ6m] let's go!
l1.D,eM 06e.naTb! Let's go eat dinner!
XopomO. I1nel\4 OOC.ll8n.. Fine. Let's go eat dinner!
ronoAcH [g6l:x;1inJ hungry
R }')l'e rOJlOJl.CH. I'm already hungry.
cero,/uur [~iv6dQ;')J' today
th6 cer6JUU1 ua 06e.u? What's for dinner today?
HIITtpeeHO [in\iresn:l] I wonder (lit. (it is] interesting [to meD
J1KTepkuo. "ITO ce.-OJllUiI as ooe.a? I wonder what's for dinner today.
CMOTpCn. (smatreU to look
Tw CMO'I"pi.'I? Did you look?
Bcer,lla [f~igd3J always
Kale BCen:ui. [Same] as always.
nltwa rnj~:)] farc, food, diet
HaWa [mi~] our

, NOle that .. is p..-onounced (v) in nr6!l11_I,iv{x!l;P:;lJ loday.

uuf (PI) [!ti) schi (sauerkraut soup, cabbage soup)
,na [d;lJ' and [kab] kasha (cooked cereal, porridge)
l'UlH .lUI Kama - miu.ut tUiwa. "Schi and kasha is our diet:'
66Jlhwe [b61~iJ more, bigger
66J1bwe IICh fb6li get] there isn't any more, it's all gone
pbl6a [riixl] fish
6wnli. pW6a, NO 60JIMUe HiT. There was fish, but it's all gone.
~nca..a ldasada] annoyance, aggravation, disappointment,
BOT ~oc8JJ.a! How annoying! or What a nuisance!
lie XO"leTCSI [Qix6~it~] [one] doesn't feel like
Ty~a [Iuda) there, to that place
He XO'leTCJI H.LtTJJ I don't feel like going there.
~IDKe (dan] even
llli.e K.lJ;I"ii rylUl He xO"eTC1I. I don't even feel like going there.


rOJioJtIlli.(f) [g;}ladna] hungry

HHH3, TI:>l rono.nHa? Nina, are you hungry?
r6110MbI (PI) [g61:xini] hungry
Ow r01l0,IUlbf" Are you hungry?
oopm [bMc] borsch (beet soup)
tho H3 ooett. 66plll? What's for dinner, borsch?
'6<1>< (ol) Ikof>]' coffee
X6'fClllh K6$e? Want some coffee?
IlHTb (gill to drink
R min K6<Jlc. J was drinking (or drank) coffee.
,Ii' (m) [Uj] tea
A min "aH. I was drinking (or drank) tea.
He.aaeuo {QidAvn:J] awhile ago, recently. not long ago
.sf Hell,aeHO min '13.M. I drank tea awhile ago.
MOJlO"O (m:Jlak6] milk
R HemlBHo min MonoK6. Awhile ago I drank some milk.

I Do nOI confu$e unsu~ lllI [dOli (IIId With stressed .ld (da] ~J.
2 K0+e is considered a masculine noun by some: speakers; Olhers Ireal it as II. ne:Ule:r. II is one: of a small numbc:t of
indeclinable: nouns. i.e:., nouns thaI usc: the: same: fonn in all cases.

qTO us 06"1I?
What's for dinner?
O. - Oller
fl. - JIes

Jl. I KaK HaC'Ie-r o6cna, OJH~r? kak nascot a1ldo alek I How about dinner,
CTonosaSi .ll.aBHO OTKpbITa. stal6vaja davn6 atkrita! Oleg? The dining hall's
been open for a long
time. I

O. 2 Xopow6. xaraSQ ! Fine. Let's go eat

l1.o.eM o6e.uan. i<;l6m a~edoll dinner. I'm already
.si Y)f(e rOJ1o.ueH. j<i ufe golaejin ! hungry.
Jl, 3 I1HTepecHo, intiresna 1 I wonder what's for
'iTO cero.uH)I H3 0OO.u. st6 ~iv6dQa n~a1?et ! dinner today. Did you
ThI CMOTpCJI? Il smatpS'l T look?
O. 4 )l.a. daj Yes. Same as always,
KaK Bcerna, kak fligdii I "Schi and kasha is
I.l(u aa dwa - sci do kiiso I our diet.''2 There was
miu.J.a mlllJa. RiSea nasa! fish, but it's all gone.
bhIlIa phl6a, bila rib:} !
HO 60JIhWe HeT. no b6lsi 'fel !
JI. 5 BOT Jl.oc3..n;a! vot dasadd! How annoying! I
Aa)f(e "nTH TynB. dazi ini tuda don't even feel like
He XOl.leTCSI. Qix6Cit~ ! going there.

NOTES CTOJJ08alll is a feminine adjective which functions as a noun. It is derived


from CTOJJ08aJf KO;\-lHam table room. CTOJJ08aH is used here as dining haJJ, but it
also means [second class] restaurant as well as dining room.
1 <dlJ;1i Il,a KaUla - millla HaUla is a colloquiaJ expression illustrating the humble
food that comprises the Russian rural diet. tnH is a soup made of sauerkraut or
cabbage. Kama is cooked cereal. which may be served at any meaJ and eaten with
butter. salt, or gravy; or with milk and sugar. lioplll is a vegetable soup, primarily
made of beets.

LfSS()N 5 63

noooe,ltaTb (poa1?C<bU to eat dinner, have dinner

Bbi yxe noo6e,ltMH? Have you had dinner already?
pe6.m [p~a..) children, kids, fellows, guys
npHOCT, pe6ha! Hi, fellows!
npHoh, prom! DbI yre noo6ell.aJlH? Hi, fellows! Have you had dinner already?
eme Ui~6] yet, still; else, some more, another
Hh eLl.le. Not yet.
omZTb [anaU again
B CTOJlOOOH [fstalov;)j] at (or in) the dining hall
8 CTO!IOBOi omin. wIi H nDUl. At the dining hall it's schi and kasha again.
ce.n:e,[lXa hilotkOl] herring
A Ji KyTIliJJ ceJle,llKY. But I bought herring.
KaK p:b [kakras) just, it just happens
A Ji Ka1C pob KyoHJI ceJle,ltKY. Well, it just happens I bought herring.
A Iii KaK plb KymiJi ceJlellKY. Xome? Well, it just happens I bought herring. Want
~pyr6e , [drug6jOl 4eb) another matter, a different thing
31-0 ~pyr6e ,lttno! That's different!
Cenelll--a - iTo ,lQ)yrOe ,lttrlo! Herring! That's different!
y HaC OCTb lunas j~U we have (IiI. by us there is)
""e6 [xlep) bread
XJJe6 y HaC OCTb. We have bread.
orypubI (agurcl] cucumbers
OryPrnJ TOl"Ke. Cucumbers too.
X.'100 yuac en... Ol'")'pl.lbl ro-e. We have bread. Cucumbers too.

"'. [Ii] (unstressed emphatic particle)

Cae.e OHM? Where are they?
wd<l> ~ka~ cupboard, wardrobe, dresser
B lllIta<l>Y (flkafU) in the cupboard
r,lte:IKe omi? 8 wn.9j? Where are they, in the cupboard?
OKHO (akno] window
Ha OKHe [n<:lakl}e] on the window [ledge]
Hh, Ha No, on the window [ledge].
Hapex.. ! [narB) slice !
Hapexb orypubi! Slice the cucumbers!
O;m-, Hapim. 0f'}'P...w! Oleg, slice the cucumbers!
RIllHK UMtik] drawer, bo;( (wooden]
B JiUlHKe [vja~i1p] in the drawer
HO)l( B Jiul,Ju:e. The knife's in the drawer.
cron [slol] desk, table
o CTOJle {fstale] in the desk, in the table
Ho* CTO!.e, IiintHKe. The knire's in the desk drawer.

BU)I(y [yizll] I see
He BU)Ky [Q.iyizuJ I don't see
He 81hky. I don't see [it].

8Unxa [yilka) fork

SUnKlt [yil)p ) forks
TY'r Tom.lCo sWorn. There are just forks here.
nO;l(a [losk:;)] spoon
JlOJKICH [Io~JP] spoons
TOJlhKO [t6lk:;)) only, just
Trr T6m....-o BJiJlKII H n62LKH. There arc: just forks and spoons here.
"a CTOne [n:)Stale) on the table. on the desk.
BOT OR, H8 CTOJU~. Here it is. on the desk.


CMO-rpeTh B OKH6 to look out the window. look in the

OH CMOTpCn B OKUO. He was looking out (or in) the window.

BM YlKe DOOlleI\3J1H?
Have you had dinner already?

K. - Knpw o. - Oller R. -Res

K. OpHBCT. pe6liTa! ppyer T pilal> ! Hi, fellows! Have you had

Bw )')I'e noo6eJlamt? vi uze ~a~dali ! dinner already?
o. 2 Her eme. Qet jisco i Not yet. At the dining haJJ it's
B CT01l0BOH fstalovaj schi and kasha again.
oruiTb lUit " dwa. aRa\ sci i kasa 1
K. 3 A " KaK pcb a ja kakras I Well it just so happens I bought
KynitJl CeJIellKy. kugil jil6lkU 1 herring. Want some?
XOTJt:Te? xatil i T
Jl. 4 CeneJJ,Ka- jilotk> ! Herring! I That's different!
:ho Jlpyr6e lle.nO. eta drugoja fJelal
o. 5 }(ne6 y HaC CcTb. xlop un:is jell! We have bread. Cucumbers too.
Orypu;bJ TOJKe. agurci t6Zi !
K. 6 r llC ",e ORe? g4eii atil! Where are tbey, in the
B wKaifly? f'lkafii T cupboard ?2

o. 7 HCT, Qel! No. on the window [ledge}.

Ha Otme. noakQe!

n_ 8 Oner, alek 1 Oleg, slice the cucumbers. The
nape)l(b oryPUbt. nares agurci 1 knife is in the desk drawer.)
HOiK B CTone, no! ISlaie I
8 siutHKC. vjiiscits: i !
0_ 9 He BH>Ky. Qi yiiu 1 I don't see it. There are just
TYr TOJlbKO BHnKH IIit lolb yilJ>i I forks and spoons here.
H J16:lKKH. i 1611p 1
K- ID BOT OB, vol 6n 1 Here it is, on the desk.
H3 CTOlle. n:;Jstale!

NOTES I Herring is a very common food in the Russian diet; it is served not only as
an appetizer, but as a main course as well.
2 Each room in a university dormitory has its DlKicll. which may serve both
as a cupboard and as a wardrobe. (Built-in closets are not to be found in the
Soviet Union, nor are they generally found elsewhere in Europe.) Each floor in
the dormitory has a kitchen where students can prepare tea, snacks, or light meals.
J Auttil' is used
here as drawer, but it also means box. It differs from KopOOKa,
which designates a small box or onc made of cardboard, in that it is usually larger
and made of wood. Note also that nOn means both table aDd desk; the latter
comes from mtCLMelIH.... ii crOJi writing table.

Basic sentence patterns

I. HHTepCcHO, '1T6 cer6.a.llR na 06e.a.? Wonder what's for dinner today?

- W,u 1-1 l:3.wa. Schi and kasha.
- Ii6put H xawa. Borsch aDd kasha.
- Cene.a.Ka. Herring.
- Pbl6a. Fish.
- 66put H pt:J6a. Borsch aDd fish.
2. 6H He.o.fumo min 'IaiL He drank tea awhile ago.
DHa OHJla _ She draDk _
DnH minH _ They drank _
6H He.a.aBHo n1ln Kcxpe. He drank coffee awhile ago.
DHa n"Jla _ She drank _
DHH rlIinlJ _ They drank _
6H He.a.3.BHO n1U1 MOJlox6. He drank milk awhile ago.
DHa nHJla _ She drank .
Dmt OWU! _ They drank _

3. OTKpblTa" Is Ihe dining hall open?

Jla6opaT6pH.It OTKpt:JTa? _ _ laboratory open?
06'fTa OTKpt:JTa? _ _ post office open?
Kop66xa OTlCPblTa? _ _ box open?

D,aePb OTKpbfTa? Is the door open?
3aBO.n: On:PbIT? _ _ plant open?
KJIY6 orxPbl'r? _ _ club open? OTXpbl'r? _ _ drawer open?
ropcoatT on:pblT? _ _ gorsovet open?
nopTlCnb orxPhn"? _ _ briefcase open?
C06paHHe oncPhn"o? _ _ meeting open?
OlmO orxPbrro? _ _ window open?
06m.e:llCHTHe OTKpblTO? _ _ donnitory open?

4. 8w y:ce r6no)),HhJ? Are you already hungry?

- D,a, Ii )':lICe rono.n:eH. Yes, I'm already hungry.
- )l,a, Ii )':lICe Yes, _
- D,a, Mbl )':lICe rono.lUlbi. Yes, we're already hungry.
- HtT, Ii ewe He rononeH. No, I'm not hungry yel.
- HtT, Ji ewe He rOJloJIHa. No. _
- Hb, MbI ewe He rOno,lJ;Hl:>l. No, we're not hungry yet.
5. 8b1)':l1Ce noo6eJ:ta.Jrn? Have you already had dinner?
- )l,a, Ji y:ce noo6e.n:an. Yes, I've already had dinner.
- Jl.a, Ii )':lICe noo6e.n:ana. Yes, _
- ,l{a, MbI y.e noofie.n:anH. Yes, we've already had dinner.
- Elll.e OCT. Not yet.
8b1 }':lICe ofienanH? Have you already had dinner?
- Her, Ji eme lie o6Cnan. No, J haven't had dinner yet.
- Her, .Ii emc He o6C.n:ana. No. _
- Her, MbJ ewe He Ofie.n:aJIH. 1 No, we _

6. Y HaC ten. XJle6. We have bread.

___ 60pw. _ _ _ bon;ch.
____ p";6a. _ _ _ fish.
____ dwa. _ _ _ kasha.
_ _ _ wHo _ _ schi.
_ _ _ orypo..:.. _ _ _ cucumbers.
_ _ _ _ ':Ill". _ _ _ tea.
_ _ _ K6<j>e. _ _ _ coffee.
_ _ _ _ MonoKo. _ _ milk.

7. r.n:e:llCe UO:llC? Wherc's the knife?

- Ha CTOne. On the table.
- 8 JiLWiKe. [n the drawer.
- Ha OI01e. On the window sill.
- B CTOne, a lhuHlte. In the desk (or table) drawer.
- B nopnptne. In the briefcase.
- 8 Iop66Ke. In the cardboard box.
- BlllIa4JY. In the cupboard.

, In both the question and answer, either the imperfective oM.itll.ll or tlie perfective IIoo6enaJI may be used. The difference
in meaning is slight. with IK)(l(iiLUlll focusing on the completion of the activity: H(ne you alrMdy finiJhed eating dinner?
NOle. however. thaI in the ncgative answers, only o6b.aJI is used.

lBSON 5 67
Pronunciation practice: bard versus soft consonants

A. III vs. 10 Usual Cyrillic spe~ling T; also Th,.a t or lU>.

Note the pronunciation of hard [IJ in the following:

[na~tu] to the post office

[stuQent] student

and compare it with soft [lJ:

[SRi~iti] cnellutTc you're hurrying

(paslilU nOCJIaTb to send, mail

The formation of Russian hard [I] differs from that of English t in thai the tip of the tongue
closes off the air stream by making contact against the back surface of the upper teeth. whereas
English 1 is fonned by stopping the air stream Carther back, on the ridge of the gums behind the
teeth. Sort Russian ltJ. on the other hand, is formed by a closure of t..he front part of the blade of
the tongue (not the tip) against the ridge of the gums and has the effect on the ear of being followed
by a ylike glide. In addition, neither Russian hard [t] nor soft [tJ (nor any other Russian consonant,
for that matter) ever has the puff of breath that usually accompanies English I.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [t] and
soft Itl, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Be sure
to avoid the puff of breath that often accompanies the English I.

B. (d] vs. [4] Usual Cyrillic spelling A; sometimes Ab, T, or Th.

Note the pronuncialion of hard [d] in the following:

[davn6] .ll.aSll6 for a long time

[zdar6vi] 3.ll.op6obl healthy
[kudil] "yaa where to
[;du] HJlY I'm going

and compare il with soft [4]:

Iy;~il] BliAeJI saw

1~;lil] ~enil affairs
[n~zav64i] 113 3a86.ue at the plant
li~6lJ HJleT is going

Russian hard [d] is made wilh the tongue in the same position as Russian hard (t] and [nJ,
Ihal is. well forward of the posilion for making the corresponding English sounds and with the

tongue touching the teeth. Russian soft [4J is made with the tongue in the same position as for
Russian [\1 and [9].

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [dJ and
soft [4J, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

c. [n] vs. [Q] Usual Cyrillic spelling H; sometimes lib.

Note the pronunciation of hard [n) in the following:

[n:>ur6k] Ha ypOK to the lesson

[napot!u] ua n6<JTy to the post office
[nul nJ' well

and compare it with soft [9]:

[Qin: Hiiua Nina

[d:>syidAQj:>] )l0,DillI good-bye
IrpaJ~el DUOJlDe fully. completely
l~e~J )leHb day

Russian hard [n] is formed, like Russian hard It], by closing off the air stream with the tip of
the tongue which strikes the back surface of the upper teeth. (Be careful not to make an English n.
where the air stream is closed farther back on the gums above the upper teeth 1)
Russian soft (Q] is formed like Russian soft It], that is. with the front part of the upper surface
of the tongue against the ridge of the gums above the upper teeth and with the tip of the tongue
touching tbe teeth. It has the effect of being followed by a ylike glide and sounds something
English ny in such words as canyon and onion; however, the y*like glide in Russian must never be
separated and made a separate consonant sound as it is in English.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating hard [n] and soft {Q],
imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice par*
ticularly that before [k) and [g], Russian [nJ does not take on the ng sound
that occurs in such English words as bank and finger.

Grammatical gender of nouns

All Russian nouns belong to one of three genders: masculine. feminine. or neuter. Besides
distinctions based on natural gender. such as we find in English, Russian assigns all nouns to one
of the three categories.


CT)'.neHT student CT)'.neHTKa student rntChM6 letter

KJJj6 club :lKemi. wife OICUO window
ypOK lesson n6'1Ta post office II1Ian.e dress
'!Mi- lea pbi6a fisb co6pAHJle meeting
r6po.n city truth o6llte:lKihHe dormitory
y'l.JtTCJIb teacher JIa60paT6pHJI laboratory

It is essential for the student of Russian to know the gender of each noun be encounters. This
is important because such words as adjectives and past tense verbs vary their form in agreement with
the gender of the noun they accompany.


MASCULINE SUBJECT M6ii nopT<PCnb 6WJI TaM. My briefcase was there.

FEMININE SUBJECT Moli 'lKeUa 6b1JIa TclM. My wife was there.
NEUTER SUBJECT Moe nHchM6 6LIJIO TaM. My letter was there.
The gender of most nouns can be predicted from the written nominative singular form. Nouns
whose final letter in tbe nominative singular is a bard consonant, "I, lit, or ii (i.e., with a zero ending),
are masculine. Similarly, most nouDS ending in -a or -II are feminine, and nouns ending in -0, -e,
or -e are neuter.


My>< husband ceCTpa sister Yrpo morning

o6eA dinner 3HMa winter nepO pen
CT6JI table Kop66Ka box (cardboard) Aeno business
H6", knife U1X6JIa school M6pe sea
11... Ivan J1PHRa Irina n6JIe field

........ existence

Nouns ending in -8 or --JI are masculine, however, if they refer to a male person: JJ.iJIK uncle,
.neAYUlKll grandfather, BaM Vanya (Johnny), MHma Misha (Mike), Crenll Styopa (Steve), rpHwll
Grisha (Greg), BJiCSil Vasya. Most of tbese are nicknames.
Nouns whose gender cannot be ascertained from the written fonn alone are those wbose nomina-
tive s.inguJar ends in the soft sign ....... Most of these nouns are feminine, but many are masculine.
They will be identified as m (masculine) or f (feminine) in the glossaries. for example, Ocettb (f)/all,
OOiepem. (I) line, ,a:aePb (f) door, I10pTtenb (m) briefcase, aetu. (m) day; otherwise the gender of nouns
will not ordinarily be indicated.

Verbal aspects
Compared with the higbJy complex system or tenses in Englisb, the Russian verb is structurally
very simple. English makes considerable use of such auxiliary verbs as do, have, be, and will in form-
ing its many compound tenses. Russian uses only a single compound tense used to fonn one kind

70 La'iON 5
of future; otherwise, past, present, and future in Russian verbs are expressed by simple, one-word
verb forms.
To illustrate the economy of forms in the Russian system, compare the following:

pa60TaJJ worked, was working, did work,

used to work, have worked,
had worked, had been working
Similarly, all of the following English verbal concepts can be expressed in Russian by the simple
present verb paOOTafO: [I) work, [I] am working, [I] do work, [I] have been working, [I] have worked.
Despite its structural simplicity, bowever, the Russian verb possesses an added dimension
called "aspect," which enables it to make refinements comparable to the English. The system of
"aspects" involves two contrasting categories: imperfective aspect versus perfective aspect. The aspect
a Russian speaker uses depends on tbe way be views the action.
Broadly speaking, the imperfectiW! aspect focuses on tbe activity as a process, without regard
to ils tenninaling point in time. The perfective aspect, on the other hand, focuses on tbe activity
as a completed (or to be completed) action marked off in time, often emphasizing the result rather
than the process. Compare the use of the two aspects in the past tense of the verbs oo...- ymin. and
IMPERFECrtVE 1t uOKynarra nomipo.:. I was buying a present.
PERFECTIVE 4TO JKe BY KyniUtU? And what did you buy?
Note also the differences between tbe following:
IMPERFECTIVE Mbi He,l],3.BHO miJlH 'UiH. We drank (or were drinking) tea not long ago.
PERFECTIVE My y;e BbmJuuI 'tali. We already drank (or finished drinking) tbe tea.
IMPERFECTIVE Om\ CM'OTpMB B OIWO. She was looking out the window.
PERFECTIVE Qlla UOCMo~a B OKHO. She took a 'ook out the window.
tMPERFECTIVE 4TO Bh"1 ,l],emu.:H? What did you do? Or What were you doing?
PERFECTIVE 4TO ab! CltenaJJH? What did you do? Or What did you get done?
Or What have you done?

Imperfective and perfective verbs often differ structurally only in that one is prefixed and the
other nol. Both imperfective and perfective verbs may be used in the past and future. In the present,
only imperfective verbs are used.



IMPERFEcnVE I was looking I'm looking 1'1/ be looking
Iloaked I look I'll look

Ii nocMoTJ>C:]1 Ji noeMoTplo
I took a 'ook I' /I take a look

Note that it is almost always the perfective verb that is prefixed:


ruiTb ab!nHn. nOCMOTpCn.

,l],tnaTb c,l],enan. "OHTlt


Replacement of nouns by tbird person pronouns:

oU, OH8, ouo, and OHM:


rll,e KHpHJUl? - 8M 611. Wherc's Kirill? Here he is.

r./le noprq:.enb? - 8M 611. Wherc's the briefcase? Here it is.
Cue HpHlla? ~ BOT Qlla. Wherc's Irina? Here she is.
rll,C Kop66Ka? - 8M OHa. Wherc's the box? Here it is.
rll,e 06UAC)fOITlfC? - 8M QUO. Wherc's tbe dormitory? Here it is. nl1CbM6? - BOT 0116. Wherc's the leiter? Here it is.
rll,C K"pliJIJI 11 HpHHa? - BOT ami. Where are Kirill and Irina? Here they are.
rne orypu.b.l? - BOT OHil . Where are the cucumbers? Here they are.


Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape) until you can answer the questions
automatically according to the pattern.


1. Where',s the student? 2. Where's the briefcase?

He's here. It's there.
T: rJJ,e CTYIlCHT? T: rae nopTlenh?
s: O"TYr' s: OHriM.
T: Cae cry,actfn::a" T: rae nO'lTa?
s: OBi TYr. s: OBi ri.",.
(HHua, Uapam,HH, EBreHHH, Mlina, (nHcbMo, co6paHHe, lUIy6, na60paTopHg,
::teeHa, My::, Oner, 6ml, neB) 06me)KHTue,, .I;Bepb, Kop66Ka,
O'lepellb, 'Iaii, OKllO, nOiKICa, BKnka, lilllHK,

3. Where's the knife, 011 the tab/e? 4. Is the knife there?

Yes, it's 011 the tab/e. Yes, it's lhere.
T: rAe 1I0)l(, Ha crone? T: HO)l( TaM?
s: )la, OH H8 CTOJU~. s: ){li, On T8M.
T: rAe 'Iail, 113 crone? T: Pbi6a TaM?
s: )la, 6ft H8 crone. s: .lI;a, nHa riM.
(66pm, nopnPen.b, ll:op66rta,;a, (rrnChMO, orypubr, 'IaH, coUpaHHe, CT6.n,
nO:ll:lCH, BHmrn, orypubf, rrnCbMo, 'laM, aSTooyc, ICOlltlepT, nOAapolC, nopTcpe.m.,
MaTtpHan, MonOJ:o, 06eA. XJlOO, pblOO) pbl6a, nnaT'be, wd<t


The masculine pronoun 08 substitutes for masculine nouns such as nOJi lab/e, BanH Vanyo,
ypOK lesson, and ,/leHb day.
The feminine pronoun om~ substitutes for feminine nouns such as ""eHa wife, ceJlCltKa herring.
Jla60pn6pHR laboratory, and epem line or lurn.

The neuter pronoun OliO substitutes for neuter nouns such as nHCbMO letter, 01('110 window,
jTpo mornil/g, and nJTli'rLe dress.
Oil and OHa mean he and she respectively when referring to person and iJ when referring to
things. Ouo means only if, since one does not use oHO in referring to persons. l

Interrogatives KTO and 'ITO


KT<) TaM 6w.? Who was there?

- TaM 6hlJla HJ.lHa. Nina was there.
- TaM 6bln Hoal... Ivan was there.
- TaM 6bllIH HHlla H YlaaH. Nina and Ivan were there.
YT() 6bll1O lIa CTone? What was 011 the table?
- Ha CTOne 6b.ln no.aapoK. There was a present on the table.
- Ha CTone 6blmi. pbJ6a. There was a fish on tbe table.
- Ha crone 6b.lno nJICbMO. There was a leuer on the table.
- Ha CTOne 6b.lnn Orypubl . There were cucumbers on the table.


Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape) until the verb agreement becomes auto-
matic. (Note that in the question 6w is used with KTO and 6Y.'TO with 'ITo.)


The following drills should be performed as 'simple repetition drills until the student(s) can answer
automatically. (During the repetition stage the teacher may ask for both group and individual

l. (Mila) Who was there? 2. (a lable) What was there?

Mila was there. There was a table there.
T: (MHna) KTO TaM 6bln? T: (CTon) lho TaM 6bUIO?
s: TaM 6L1na Mlina. s: TaM 6w crOJl.
T: (XJI-rpOO) KT6 T3.M 6bln? T: (pw6a) YTO TaM 6uJlO?
s: TaM 6buJ XHTpOB. s: TaM 6L1Jui pbi6a.
(M}0k, :ella, HHHa, JIeo, EoreHHii, (mlcbMO. ypOK. co6paHHe, KOHU.Cvr, no-
CeMeH, Oner H OJlR, H,iHa H HoalL ,l],apoK. 66pm, ilIlaThe, Kop66Ka,,
CTy,l],eHT H CTY.QeHTKa) 'fail, xnoo, oWorn H nO)ICJl:H)

, The Russian pconouns 611, Old, and 0IIli are used only in rd'erem:e 10 a specific masculine. feminine. or neuter- noun.
They are never used to Iranslale lhe emplY English inlroouctory if in such sentences as: I(s fUff!. The it of such sentenco:s is
simply omitted in RllS$ian.
EXAMPLES Y:a: noollffo. It's already late.
Tbf 6Wno KHTepCcuO'? Was it interesting then:'?
Em!! pano. It's still early.

3. (Nina) Who was standing there?
Nina was standing there.
T: (Hlllia) KTO TAM CTOli.n?
s: TiM c-roina Hua.
T: (nes H MJina) KTO TAM CTOJln?
s: TiM C"fOJirIH Jlea H MiiJIa.
(CTYJteHT, CTY,QeHTl:a, OIler, 6Jll1., lla-
panJ:HH, XHl"pOB, CT}'JteKT H CTYJteuna)


In terms of grammatical agreement, t..-rO who is treatoo as masculine singular even though the
person asking the question may know that the referent will be a female person or more than one
person. Similarly, "ITO is treated as neuter singular. Note that "TO what is pronounced [sto).

Introductory :ho

liTO :)TO '! What's that?

- 3TO fiHCbMO. It's a letter.
A 3TO "ITo? And what's this?
- 3To nOJtapox 6Ile. It's a present for Olya.
~~~ . v.. ?
Is that you, Kirill?
..::7TO Tbl, IUlPHJUI
- Her, no Ji, ReB. No, it's me, Lev.
:no Jtpyr6e Jteno. That's different.
liTO :no, orypubi? What 3re those, cucumbers?


The item to be substituted is to be given first, followed by the question and then the student answer.
1. (a letter) What's that? 2. (Evgeny) Who's there?
It's a letter. It's me, Evgeny.
T: (nHCbMO) liTO :iTo? T: (EsreH"") KTO T<iM?
S: 3TO nHChMO. s: 3TO Ii, EBrelIHH.
T: (JiWHK) liTO :)TO? T: (HHHa) Kyo TAM?
S: 3TO~. s: 3ro Ii, UHua.
(CTon, pw6a, kAwa, ceneJtxa, .ztBtPb, (KHpw, ReB, CeMeH,llapanxHH, MJina,
omo, UOpTlenb, 'fan, x6le, 3BT66yc, XHTpOB, KHpW, 6nbra, Oner, CeMen
UOllC) <l>It.1IH:nnOBH'f)


The introductory word iTo usually indicates something not previously described or specified,
but about which some statement is to be made. It can be translated as this, that, these, those, and
sometimes (particularly in a rejoinder) it.

The irregular present tense of XOTeTb


J1. XO'ly naunt Ha KOHuepT. I want to go to tbe concert.

Tbi X6..ewb _ You want _
Ou XOlfeT _ He wants _
Mbi XOTHM _ We want _
Rbi XOnITe _ You want _
OHli xOTn ~ _ They want _


Repeat the model afier your instructor (or the tape) until you can reproduce aU forms accurately.


She wants to go (0 the concert.

T: 0ua XO'feT noiint H3 kOHuepT.
s: QHa xO..eT nom 118 ti:OHJ.lepT.
(KHplffin, ThI, Ii, "liHa, Mbl, OHU, BbI, Oner
II CArna)


Don', you want 10 go there?

No. I don',.
T: DbI He xOTiITe ItJtTI't:"
s: He-r. He xo"lj.
T: 6n He XO'leT HJ1TH
s: HeT, He xO<teT.
(ThI, carna, EerCIlHH. OHM, MHna. BbI, HHHa
Ii Oner)


The verb xOTh.. has an irregular present tense. It follows a first conjugation pattern in the
singular and a second conjugation pattern in the plural. Note that the final stem consonant is 'I in
the singular and T in the plural, and that the stress is on the endings except for the second and third
persons singular.



The past tense

MASCULINE 6H 6Wi 8 He was in IOwn.

SUBJECT A .nasuo oac He BlI.rteJI. I haven't seen you in a long time.
Tw Kymi:Jt cene)lKy? Did you buy herring ']
Ceromul Mj)K He 6b1Jf lIa My husband wasn't at work today.
FEMININE QHa 1138110 B3.C He BH,a;eJla. She hasn'l seen you in a long time.
SUBJECT Hillla, n;, 6t.vJa B r6ponc? Nina, were you in town?
.[la, Ii OOk"Y"ana nnan.e. Yes, 1 was buying a dress.
11 .n6nro CTma 8 OlfCpeJlH. I siood in line for a long time.

NEUTER B'lcpa 61.71110 co6pallHc. There was a meeting yesterday.

SUBJECT nUCbMO 6bU1o fla CTOne.
Monol<o cTolino IIa oKHe.
The letter was on the table.
The milk was standing 00 the window sill.
PLURAL A rne !:lb' 6bu1H? And where have you been?
SUBJECT OIlH CToilJlH B 6'lcpe)lH. They were standing in line.
4TO Dbl JtCJUlJIH? What have you been doing'?
Mbl IIc.rtaBHO liMN 'fail. We drank tea awhile ago.
116)1(101 6bmH 113 CTone. The spoons were on tbe table.


Repeat tbe above models, observing the basic pattern. The past tense is regularly signaled by tbe
suffix -n, usually added to a vowel-ending stem. The endings that follow are gender-number endings,
with zero for masculine, -8 for feminine, -0 for neuter, and -II for plural. Note that the past tense
fonns always have a hard n in the singular, but a soft n in the plural: nM (gil] versus mimr (gitil,
CToliJl [stajal] versus CTo!i:n:. [stajaliJ.


1. We drank tea not long ago. 2. Ivan was hurrying to the meeting.
T: Mbl HeJl3..BHO mim.. 'laH. T: HBllH cneWHn lIa co6pa.lHe.
s: MY HeJlUIlO n".Jul .. aii. 5: JiBall CUernHn lIa c06paIlHe.
(MYJK. ami, EBremlH, Hlilla, On", Bhl, (Thl, HHHa, Mf.'K, Bbl, )KeH8., aHa, li, Mhl,
cry,nellT " cTYJleHTKa, )l(eBa) MY>K " )KeHa, OIlH, 6u, olUi)

3. He hasn't seen you in a long time.

T: Oil JlaBII6 BaC lie BH,aen.
s: Ou JUlBHO BaC He BtiJJ.e.rr.
(w, Mj:lK, )l(eua, O..IUI, rAmI, w, OHIt.


I. The borsch is on the table. T: finan.e Ha crone.

The borsch was on the tab/e. S: fLn:jn.e 6Wro Ha CYMe.
T: 66pLU Ha CTOne. (n6)l(, KOp66K3., OHCbM6, nOJ],apoK,n6:lKKa.
s: I)6pI..Q 6LI.'1 Ha CTO.'1e. n6JKKJ1,, 'laH, 06eJ],. mH, xne6)

2. The herring is in the cupboard. T: MaTcplia..n 0 wKa4JY.
The herring lI'as ill the cupboard. s: MaTCpHM 6LIJI 8 wli'alY.
T: CeJle,nKa 8 wKa4JY. (orypubl, pbi6a, Kama, "faH, OKnxH,
S: CeJIe~ ...-a 6h1Jui 8 WKa4!Y. nO)i(KH, lUle6, UOPT~llb, nHCbMO,


I. Where was Evgeny? 2. What was she doing?

He was aJ the meeting. She was standing in line.
T: 6bm Eoreu""? 1': 41'0 aHa .a.enana?
s: Ou 6Wi Da cOOp'tlMH. s: Oua CT'Oina B o-tepe.a.lf.
T: r~e 6wui Hfuta? 1': 41'0 0" ,nenan?
s: Qua 6t.u1li H8 co6p8HHK. S: OK crotin B O"lepe,llJl.
(On,., KupuJUI, CT}'~eHTKa, :lKeml, lIeo Ii 41'0 ami .nenana?
Oller, cry,neHT Ii crY,l.l,eHTKa) 41'0 Obi .nenana, CeMCH?
41'6 abl ,ucnaml, MMa?
3. Where's O/ya, dOWlltOWII?
41'0 TW ,, Cama?
No, bur she was downtown.
lIT6 Tb' .n:e.nana, HJ.lHa?
T: OnJl, 0 r6po.o:e?
s: HeT, 110 OHa 6blJUl 8 rOpo)l,e.
T: EOreHHH, 0
S: HeT, 110 OH 6bvi 8 rOpo)l,e.
(UapinxHll, KJlPHJUI naenOOIi"f, OH,
OHU, aHa)


Where was O/ya sJanding?

Where was she standing?
T: r.o:e crOlina O.JlJl?
S: nte Ofta CT01iJIa? I
T: r.a.e crain EoreHHH?
S: rAe OK croM?
r.o:e CTO.liJrn KupHm1 II CeMeH?
(HIIHa, 11eo, Mlflla, MY:lK Ii )KelH'i)


t. What did you buy, O/eg? 2. What were you doing, O/ya?
I bought bread and herring. I was buying a briefcase.
T: lho obi: Kyrnirrn, OJIcr? T: liTO Obi .n:e.nanH, Omr?
s: H li'YmUi XJlOO H CeJle.rtKy. s: A IIoKYrulJla nopr(lenb,
.... A ?
T: ""ITO Obi KyrnuDI, T: LITO SbI .n:enanl1, lIes?
s: A Kymina xne6 H ceM,llKy. S: ~ aOKynall nopTlMb.
LITO Obi Kymurn, pe6lin? (MMa, KIfPH.rtn, HHtta, CeMeH, Cama)
LITO Kymin 11eo?
LITO Kymina O.JlJl?
4TO Kymina )i(r.;':r?
4TO kymin Mt.?

, In I'{Ji questions of this Iype the pronoun must puc~ (he verb: Cf.e otdi crOli.rla! A noun, however, may appear either
bc:foll: or after the verb: rne Om.n crotina! (Or rlle crojna OJlW"a!)

The past tense of Russian verbs is expressed by the past tense suffix -JI plus the appropriate
gender or number ending to agree with the subject.
With most verbs the past tense suffix is added to a form of the stem ending in a vowel: 6':'-n,
AYM&-J1, nOKyna-n, BHn.e-n, cToli-n, rOBOpH--n, and so forth.
Stress. The stress is usually the same in aU four forms of past tense, but may shift to the ending
in the feminine fonn, particularly with the shorter verbs. Compare 6bvi, 6':'Jlo, 6WH with 6l.1na (t);
also nHJI, n"Jlo, nHJDI with DHna (t). In the combinations uii 61:>1J1, HC 6l.1J1o, and lie 6b1nH, the stress
shifts from the verb to the negative particle He, Note, however, that it remains on the verb in the
feminine form lie 6wJla.


Infinitive Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural

6W'L be 6hlJl 6h1n-a 6blJl-O 6hl))-H

min. drink min nHn-a nHn-o rrHJI-M
3HaTL know 3H!vI 311M-a 3HiuHl 3Ha.JI-H
nocmiTL send nocn3.n nOCJllln-a nocniuJ--o nOCJ1aJJ-M
,1I,CJlaTL do nenan nenan-a nen3n-o JJ.CnaJI-H
JJ.ocTaTL get .l:IOCT3.n AOCTan-a AOCT3.n-O LIOCT3..JI-H
CJrbuuaTL hear CJlblll.lan CJIbIWan-3. CJ1hlWaJI-o CJlbIWaJl-H
pa60TaTL work pa66Tan pa66Tan-a pa6oTan-o pa60TaJI-H
06e,1l,aTL dine o5eAan o66n.aJT-a oGeAan-o oGeaaJl-H
noot}CAaTL dine noo6ellaJI noo6ell.aJJ-a noore.ll:aJJ-o no05cLIaJJ-H
nOKymh'L buy lloKyn3.JI nOKymi.JI-a nOKymlJl-o nOKynan-H
Kymin. buy KynHJI KyoHJI-a KynHJI-o KyoHJI-H
cnelmtTL hurry CnClllHJI CneWHJI-a CneWHJI-o CneWHJI-H
BH,neTL ",e 8H,uen BH.ll:CJI-a Blf.rr.eJl-O BH,uCJI-H
CMOTpCTL look cMoTpCn CMoTpe.rr-a CMOl'pen-o CMOTpe.rr-H
nOCMoTpCTL look nOCMOTpeJi nocMorpen-3. IlOCMOTpCJI-O OOCMOTpen-H
XOTeTL want XOTeJI XOTeJJ-a XOTe......... XOTCJI-H


J, :J



nepOblH ,neHb the first day

nepSblH ,neUb S yHJtBepcHme. The first day at the university_
,neBnb nine
no'fTIi almost
Y:lKt 00...... 1I,eawn.. It's almost nine already.
napa time, it's time
nopi 1U{Ili. It's time to be going.
rOT08 (m), rOT08a (f) ready
Ho li ewe He f'OTOBa. But I'm not ready yet.
PY<tK3 pen, penholder
MOJi my pen
[H]3H3.Jo I know
He lHlUo. r,a;e M01f PYOUI:a. I don't know where my pen is.
n6JlKa shelf, bookcase
lIa nonICe on the shelf, on the bookcase
SOH TaM over there, over yonder
A BOU TiM, aB. uomce, lie omi? But over there on the shelf, isn't [that] it?
TeTp3Jlb (I) notebook
3T" TeTp3..AH these notebooks, those notebooks
ace 3TH TeTp8M: all those notebooks
Te6e for you, to you
33.'1CM why, what for, for what purpose

H 31..33'1CM Te6e
Te6e ace in T~!
why do you need
And why do you need all those notebooks? truth; it's the truth, tbat's right
~a. Yes, you're rigbt.

KH"ra book
""".... (pfv)
to take

[Ji] 803bMY I'll take
>1 803bMY TOJIhKO KHHrH. I'll take just the books.
OlIHY TeTpMb one notebook
Bo3LMY TOJu"KO KIIIinI H OAHY TeTp8ro:.. 1"11 take just the books and one notebook.
803bMH take! rn pencil
H kapaH.lJ.Aw BOObMH. And take a pencil.
H ewe .... pa.u.a8.tu a03LMIi, And take a pencil too.
noUJJtH let's go! we're off!
Hy, noumii! Well, let's go!
see all, everything (here all set)
H Y ace, n(llll.llli! Well, all set, let's go!
Here's the university!

lhe chanccllor, the presidenl (of lhe

OH 6Y.aeT rOBopHTb hc'lI speak
n.e 6Y,ller rOBOpH-rL pCKTOp? Where will the chancellor speak?
3.aaHHe [zdaQj;)] building
60JlLWOe 3.aaltHe the large buiJding
Tbl: 8H.zJ.HWb you see
Tb.i 8H.n.uWh 6oJIhrnOe 3JJ.3.HHe? 00 you see tbe large building?
B6H TiM. BH,.amrn. 60JlbrnOe 3.Q.3.HHe? Over there. Do you see the large building?
6H6mto-reKa library
up6THB 6H6JIHOTeKH opposite the library
80H riM. KMIIHlIJL fionbUJ6e J.aiHae Over there. Do you see the large building
np6nm 6H6mtoTelOl? opposite the library?
,lIa, BDiy. Yes, I see.
Torna then, in that case
nod. SO long
Hy, TGrll,a nod. Well, so long then.


nepo pen point, pen nep6? Where's a pen? or Where's a pen point?
'leU (m) whose
4eu 3TO KapaHJJ.3m! Whose pencil is this?
-Mou. Mine.
""" (I)
4bJl .iTo KHHra? Whose book is this?
-Moli. Mine.
'"" (0) whose
4bt no fiHCbMO? Whose letter is this?
-Moe. Mine.
3an hall (room within a building)
BOT 3an, rlle 6YAe-r rOBOpHTb Here's the hall where the chancellor
ptKTOp. will speak.

IIePBLIH )leu.. B yUUBepCUTeTe

H. - HHKomBi (K61l.ll), 6pAT

r. - ranHHa (ranJl). cecTp3.

H. raJUI, gal' !
YJKC DOlfTH ):leBRTb. ufe patli ~eyil !
napa H.ATH. para illi!
r. 2 Ho H eUle He rOTOB3. no ja jisco !J.igatov;) 1
He :malO, Qiznaju I
rAe MO" py'lK3. I g~e maja rutb!
H. J, A BOH HiM, a v6n lam I
H3 neniCe, napol~i!
He 0",1? Qiana i
M: 3a'lCM Te6e i zatem Ii lie I
Bee 3TH TeTpa)l,J.t? rle eli lilra~i j

r. 4 .lI.a, npaBLl3. da j pravda j

B03bMY TOJ1bKO KHHni va~mu tolb kQigi I
H O,llHy TeTpa,ab. i adnu titnit 1
H. 5 M ewe KapaHltam B03bMH. i jisco k;:>randas vappJ 1
r. 6 Hy BCe. nu rio j
nowmiP palli j

H. 7 BOT H ynHBepcHTh! v6t i uQiyir~i\et!
r. 8 r.n.e 6y,neT rOBopHTb pCKTOp?l g~e bu~il govapI rSkl,r j
H. 9 B61:1 TaM. von lam 1
BH,uHWb 60JlbWOe 3.a.aHHe yi~il balloj. zdaQj. I
npoTHB 6H6J1110TeKH? protir lI ib !ia lelP j
r. 10 }:la, BIDKy. dii j yifu j

H. 11 Hy, Tor.uA nOKa. nu tagda pad 1

NOTES 1 Of the two words for pen, py"Ka is more commonly used in the Soviet
Union now than nepa. More specifically, PY"tK8 means penholder and nep6 pen point.
Notice that these teons all refer to the old-fashioned type of pen used with an
inkwell. Fountain pen is aBTOpy"lK8.
let's go is actually the plural past tense fonn of noiiTIi to go, to set off
2 DOUlllN
used as a special imperative in highly colloquial style. Compare it with the English
expression we're off.
PeKTOp is comparable to our university or college president or chancellor. At

the beginning of eacb academic year freshmen assemble in a large hall to hear an
address given by him.


aMepHlCaucKHH American (adj only)

aMepHkauclCHH cryAeHT an American student
6H aMepHXanCICHH cryAeHT. He's an American student.
TaOH nepSblH ,a,eHb your first day
npoRTH (prv I) to pass, go by
npowen passed, went [by]
IUiK npornen TB6ii nepln"H ,!leu.. ? How did your first day go 1
HH"Icr6 all right (lit. nothing)
lfHqer6. All right.

OJUln (m) one, a

aMepHXaHeu American
OroiH aMepHk3.Hen an American
TiM 6blJ1 OmlR aMepHXaHeu. There was an American there.
neUUUl lecture, class (at university level)
Ha neICWtH at the lecture, in class
y HaC Ha nellauUf at our lecture, in our class
Y HaC Ha nekUHH 6bui OMH There was an American at our lecture.
TbI 3Haewb you know
3Jllietub, y IISC Ha mSh.'"UHM You know, there was an American at our
ow. oAHu aMepHKaneQ. lecture.
OR crOUT be's standing, he stands
6H TAM CToHT. He's standing over there.
TOT, Til, T6;"Ii that (over there, yon); that person, that one
SOH Tin that person over there, the ooe over there
BOa TOT, "ITO TiM CTOHT1 That fellow standing over there 1
MO)l(:eT 6bm. [moZ(Kl)bi~] maybe, perhaps
M6>eT oWn., .oH TOT, "ITO That fellow standing over there perhaps 1

TaM """"

Tat>: iTo ())HJlHtm rpallT. Why that's Philip Grant.
er6 him; his
Tbl ero 3H8.CWb 1 Do you know him 1
n03I1a"OMHTbCH [J)Qznakoqtitc:l] to become acquainted, meet, be introduced
I1HTepeeHo n03RakOMHThCJI. [It'd be] interesting to meet [him].
lW er6 lH8euu.? KHTepkao Do you know him 1 [It'd be] interesting to meet [him].

:no MOR cecTp3. This is my sister.

npHBfi, ())HJlNIBI. ~o MOti cecTpli Hi Philip. This is my sister Galya.
6pAT brother
3TO MOR 6pAT KOnJI. This is my brother, Kolya.
ceH"IaC' now, just now, right away
.>t sac ceH"IaC 8HJlCJt. I saw you just now.

I This word may be pronounoed either [~i~sl or [~iMsJ.

JdtJKeTC~ it seems
Jt BaC, KfmeTCSI, ceii'lac BH.aen. It seems I saw you just now.
ayJtHTOplUI auditorium, lecture room, classroom
B ayJ.tHTOpHH in the auditorium
R TOM ayJtHTOpHH in that auditorium, in the auditorium there
J1: de, n*e-rCK, ceirlac 8Jtnen 8 T6ii It seems I saw you just now in the auditorium
ayllllT6p1D1. there.

IJ.i, Ii rl." 6LvI1i. Yes, I was there.

no-pjccxu Russian
Rbi roBoprn you speak
Rbi rOBoprn no-pyccKH. You speak Russian.
A 8Y xopoo.o roBOpH're . .pyttKH. You speak Russian well, by the way.
Rbi J(jMaeTe you think
MHe d)l(eTCSI it seems to me
BW AYMae-re? A MOe d]Ke-rCR - You think so? It seems to me I don't
lie O'lCtlb. [speak it] very [well].
'tTO BbI ('iTO BbJ rOBopine)! you're not serious! what do you
mean (lit. what are you saying)!
Hy 'ITO BY! Bno.rme xop0w6. Why what do you mean! [You speak] quite well.

BbI YIflUm: you studied

pyCCXHH lOW: Russian, language Russian
Ca.e BbI y'Uirnt PYccKHH ~3b1.K? Where did you study Russian '1
WJCoJia school (below university level)
B WKOJle in school
Where did you study Russian, in school?
Ha, 8 ymmepcIfTbe. No, at the university.


AMepHKa America
On Y'lHJI pyCCKHH S13b1K R AMepHKc. He studied Russian in America.
aMepHKanKa [an] American (f)
KTO aHa, aMepHxaUl<a? What is she, an American '1
H r080piO I speak
A rOBopiO no-pYccKH. I speak Russian.
A rOBopiO no-aJlTmHickH. I speak English.
A He roBOp.o nO-aHTmiiickH. I don't speak English.
HenJ10XO not badly, not too badly
Rbi Hennoxo roBOPH're nopYccxH. You don't speak Russian too badly.

H. - HlfKonaH (K6nSl)
r. - ranHHa (rA..rur)
41. r. - 4IlfnHnn rpallT (aMepHK3lleuj

H. KaK npomen kak pra~ol

TROit nepBblit .n:eUb, Iv6j gervij QeQ!
ramI? gal' j
r. 2 HH'fero. Qicivo 1
3HaeWb, znajis !
y HaC H3 neKUHH unas nalekciji I
6blJl O.n:HH 3MepHK3Heu.. I bi! aQin arpirikaQic 1
H. J MO)KeT 6bTTb, BOH TOT. moz(id)bi~ von toil
'iTO TaM CTOHT? st";) tam slajil T
TaK :ho <llmninn fpaHT. I";)k el";) fitip granl !
r. 4 Tbl ero 311aewb? Ii jivo znajis T
J.1luepeeHo n03HaKOMHTbCJI. in\iresn~ p~znakorpit~ 1
H. 5 n PHBe-r. <l>HJlHnn! ppyel filip j
3To MOJl cecTpa ranJi. el~ maja ~islra gal;,)!

<1>. r. 6 3.n:paBCTByitTe !2 zdrastujti !

ii: BaC. KA)KeTCl'I, ceii'iac BH.n:en ja vas kazit~ ~icas yiQil I
B TO" aylHtTOPIHf. ft6j aUQit6riji !
r. 7 Jja. da j
g TaM 6b1na. ja tam bila !
A Db!: XopoWO a vi x~raS6
rOBopHTe nopyccKH. g:wari~i panjs~i 1
<1>. r. 8 Bhl nyMaeTe? vi dum~ji~i 1
A MHe K3)KeTCJI - a ffiQe ka1itc-;)
He OleHb. QiociQ j
H. 9 Hy, 'ITO BM! nu. sto vi!
BnonHe xopomo. fpalQe x-;)raso!
r. 10 fne Bbi Y'lHJlH pyCCKHH $lJhIK. gQe vi ucili rus~j jizik 1
B llJKOne?) 15koli 1
<1>. r. J 1 HeT. Q<t I
B yHHBcpcHTe-re. vUQiyir~i~e\i 1

NOTES 1 The nouns aMepHK8Helt and aMepKKaHKa refer to an American male and
female respectively. The adjecLive &MeptlKaHc!'HH can never be used alone 10 refer
to the person. Thus alHepllKllHckHii CTYJl.M or aMepHriHCKIlJI CT)'J1.e.mca is used for
all American sludent, but only a\tepHK8HeQ or aMepHKiHl.-a for an American. Notice
that none of these words is capitalized in Russian.

2 When introduced, Russians usually say simply )JlpasCT8yiiTe hello. With
older people or distinguished individuals, however, one should use the more polite
ronns corresponding to our Very pleased to meet you: O<tetlb (or OqOOL
npUmo DO:utaKOMllTLCll (c !liMN}).
l PjCCt.':HM Klbo\ is used for Russian here, but the adverbiaJ form no-pYCCt.':N
is used with such verbs as roBOpm to speak, oomin. to read, and llllcin. to write.

Compare Bbi lHaeTe pyccKllii 1I3boc? Do you know Russian?

r,Qe ebi )"'IWm PYCCKJlM K3WK? Where did you study Russian?

with Bbi rosopiITe no-pyCCKII? Do you speak Russian?

Bbi 'lHT3.eTe no-pyttKH? Do you read Russian?

Basic sentence patterns

I. 3TO Moil nepBLrii ).leHL B yHHBepcHTere. It's my first day at the university.
_ _ _ _~ B wK6ne. _ _ _ _ _ in school.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 na6opaTopltH. _ _ _ _ _ _ in the laboratory.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 06lUe:lKHTHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ in the dormitory.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ua :saa6Jle. _ _ _ _ _ _ at the plant.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H3 CJIy*:6e. _ _ _ _ _ _ on the job.

2. napa Hllut, KomI. Tbi ytlCe rOTOR? Time to be going, Kolya. Are you ready yet?
- Aa, rOTOB. Yes, I am.
- Her ewe. Not yet.
- Aa, Ji Y'ke rOT08. Yes, I'm ready.
- Her, A ewe He rOT08. No, I'm not ready yet.

3. nopa HJJ;TIi:, raJUI. Tbi ytlCe rOTosa? Time to be going, GaJya. Are you ready yet?
- Aa, rOToBa. Yes, I am.
- Her eme. Not yel.
- )la, A yxe rOToBa. Yes, I'm ready.
- Hth, .Ii ew:e HC rOTo8a. No, I'm not ready yet.
4. nopa HllTH, pe6liTa. Bbl )"Ke rOTOBLJ? Time to be going, fellows. Are you ready yet?
- J].a, Mbl rOToBbL Yes, we are.
- Hheute. Not yet.
- Jl.a, Mbi )')Ke rOToBbI. Yes, we're ready.
- Her, MbJ ewe He rOTOObl. No, we're not ready yet.

s. Y:lKe napa HJJ:TIt Ha neKUHJO? Is it already time to go to the lecture?

- 113, yxe nopA. Yes, it's already time.
- ll.a, ,QaBl:IO napa. Yes, it's long since time.
- )la, 'flKe ).leBRTb. Yes, it's already nine.
- )la, noomt. n.eSJlTL. Yes, it's almost nine.
- )la, nOWJIH. Yes, Jet's go.
- Ha, ewe pano. No, it's early still

6. J1D.eM 0 )'ltHBePCHTCT. Lei'S go to the university.

_ _ 8 6H6JIHOTe"y. _ _ _ to the library.
_ _ 8 aY.Q.HTOpmo. _ _ _ to the auditorium.

I..ESSON 6 89
J.1JleM 8 l(nY6. Let's go to the club.
_ _ B 06ll.le)fOtTJ.fe. ____ to the dormitory.
_ _ B na60pn6pHIO. _____ to the laboratory.
___ 8 r6po,ll,. _____ 10 town.
7. >t enemy H3 pa66Ty. I'm hurrying to work.
___ H3 n6'fTy. ______ 10 Ihe post office.
____ Ha KOHUepT. ______ to the concert.
___ H3 neJW.HlO. ______ to the lecture.
___ Ha co6panHe. ______ to the meeting.

8. ~TO Moli cecTp3 raJlll. This is my siSler Galya.

__ 1016H 6ph K6JU1. __ my brother Kolya.
__ Moli ",eHa. __ my wife.
__ M6H MYc. __ my husband.
9. >t B3C BH.a.en Ha nenum. I saw you at Ihe lecture.
_ _ _ _ D. co6pAHHu. _____ at the meeting.
_____ H3 1C0Hltepre. _____ at tbe concert.
_____ H33aa6p;e. _ _ _ at the plant.
_ _ _ _ 8 repone. _____ downtown.
____ B rS'Me. _ _ _ in GUM.
10. OH ttnepb 8 )'HHBt'pcHT're. He's at tbe university now.
_ _ _ B<nj6e. __ at the club _
_ _ _ _ 8 06ll.leIHTHif. __ in the dormitory _
____ 8 aynHT6pHlf. __ in the auditorium _
_ _ _ _ 8 6H6nH01i"e. __ at the library _

II. Ow He rOBOpHre no-pyccDS? You don't speak Russian, do you?

Bw Henn6xo r080plrre no-pYccKH. You don't speak: Russian [tooJ badly.
_ xopow6 _ You speak Russian well.
_ scer.d _ You always speak Russian.
_ T6JKe _ You also speak Russian.
_onnb _ You're speaking Russian again.
_ 6'feHb xopow6 _ You speak Russian very weU.
_ BnonHe xopow6 ~_ You speak Russian quite well.
12. Obi rOBOpHTe nO-3Hrmrn:CKH? Do you speak English?
- .Qa, r080p.o. Yes, I do.
- .QA, Ji rOBop.o no-aHrmiitckH. Yes, I speak English.
- .Qa, HO He 6'feHb xopow6. Yes, but not very well.
- Her, He rOBop.o. No, I don't.
- Her, A He rOBop.o no-aHrJlHHCKH. No, I don't speak English.
13. Bbi nOHHMae-re nO-aHrnHHCKH? Do you understand English?
- .Qa, nOHKMAJo. Yes, I do.
- .Qa, Ji nOHHM8.1O nO-aHrJlKHCKH. Yes, I understand English.
- Her, He nOHHMcUo. No, I don't.
- Her, li He nOHHM8.1O no-aHrmmCKH. No, I don't understand English.
14. BWlCyminH cene.axy? Did you buy herring?
_ _ _ _ pw6y? _ _ _ _ fish?
_ _ _ _ ""Hry? _ _ _ _ a book?
_ _ _ Te"l"j)3Ab 1 ______ a notebook?

~, _____ bread?
....... ,
____ tea?

---_.""" .
_ _ _ _ Monox6?
____ 0""'...'
_ _ _ _ TeTpaaH?
_ _ _ _ _ cucumbers?
_ _ _ _ _ notebooks?

Pronunciation practice: hard versns soft consonants

A. lsI vs. I~J Usual Cyrillic spelling c; sometimes e... 3, or :lb.

Note the pronunciation of hard [s] in the following:

[vasl ",;C you

[aft6bus] aBT66yc bus

and compare it with soft [~]:

l~iIjl6nl Simon
If~uJ all
!Il;~m6J Jetter

Russian hard [s] is fairly similar to English s. Soft [~) is made by bringing the front part of the
blade of the longue toward the upper gum ridge. It has the effect of being followed by a ylike glide.

Sound Drill; Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [s] and
soft [~]. imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

B. [zl vs. I~I Usual Cyrillic spelling J; sometimes lb, C, or a..

Note the pronunciation of hard [z] in the following:

(zdrastuWJ 3JJ;paoCTByilTe hello

[zdar6vi] J.ll.OpOBbl healthy
[nozav~1 Ha JaBo,D;e at the plant

and compare it with soft h:J:

Ipmul JHMy winter

Ipnol 3Hua Zina

Russian [zl and [~] are made with the vocal organs in the same position as for Russian Is]
and I~],
but, in addition, they are voiced.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard Izl and
soft [~l, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you caD.

c. ['I vs. [rl Usual Cyrillic spelling p; sometimes ph.

Note the pronunciation of hard [r] in the following:

[zdn\stujti] 3JJ,pfl.BCrB yihe hello

[n~ur6k] 113 ypOK to the lesson
[zdar6vi] 3.D:OpOObl healthy
[x::lras6] xopow6 good, well

and compare it with soft [r]:

fIIipl] KJ.lpHJlJl Kirill

[g~varat] rOBopRT they say
[tiger) Tenepb nnw

Russian hard [rJ is unlike any variety of American English r. It is something like the "rolled"
Scottish r and practically identical with the r of Spanish, Italian, modem Greek, Serbo~Croatian.
or Polish. In pronouncing Russian [rl, the tongue is trilled or vibrated, making one or more taps
against the ridge of the gums behind the upper teeth. (American children sometimes make such a
trill in imitating the sound of a machine gun or an airplane engine.) Soft [rJ is formed similarly,
but the middle surface of the tongue is arched higher giving the effect of a y-like glide. l

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [r] and
soft [rl, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

Intonation practice
Introductory remarks
Within any major segment of speech some syllables are spoken at a higher relative pitch level
than others. We designate these as 1 low, 2 middle, 3 high, and 4 extra-high, with the extra-high
level occurring much less frequently than the other three.
These levels are indicated graphically by a line which we call the intOflmion contour, drawn
above the major segment through the primary and secondary stress points and ending in an arrow.
An upward stroke indicates a slight rise in the voice (typical of certain kinds of questions), and a
downward stroke indicates a falling of the voice. The primary stress point is indicated by a small
circle and the secondary stress points by small black dots on the intonation contour directly above
the stressed syllables.

HHHa 6hJJla 8 rYMe.

, One hears something like the Russian [r] in certain imitations of upper-class British speech, for example, in the pro-
nunciation of lerribly when the r sounds almost like a d.

Intonation drills

A. Slatemel1ls with fo//ing contours. In contours of this lype lhe high peak occurs in the first
part of lhe segment, dropping gradually thereafter and making lhe sharpest drop on or immediately
before the syllable with primary slress. The basic range is from 2 or 3 down to I, although the slarting
point may be an upward rise from level 2 to level 3. These countours are typical of neutral statements,
exclamations. and commands.

lmilale lhe leacher or tape as accurately as you can.

4 4
2 2
on:pbrra. B'iepa 6bu10 co6paHHe.
B Kop06Ke. Y HaC ecn. KAwa.
Ha :JaBCme. Tenepb omi 3AOpOBbI.
B JiUUtxe. I1pHHa 6b1J1a B rYMe.
rOnoAcH. OliH 6buut B rOp<)J1e.
4 4
2 2

BM MeT aBT06yc. .H AaBHo aac He aHnen.

TaM 6wno HHTepecllo. 6H B'iepa lie 6bUJ H3 CJ1p!<6e.
BM MarepJ.tan Ha nmlne. Mhl ceronHR 6WJ1H B ropo.ue.
4 4
2 2

OGen rOTOB. M~ Hell3aHO oMJ.t 'taM.

OrypuW Ha CTone. Jl He.naello riM 6bu1.
Ha CTOne 66pm. 6H rOBopiIT Bnonue xopow6.
B Kop66Ke MaTepJ.tan. ran. l""C TIIM 6bJJ1a.

B. Questions with falling cOntours. The contour is similar to thai of statemenls, but the range is
wider, starting with level 4 and dropping gradually thereafter to level 2. The primary stress may be
either on the question word itself or on the last stressed syllable. This contour is typical of questions
beginning with a question word. Note that the voice does not rise at the end as it often does in English.

Imitate your teacher or the lape as accurately as you can.

4 4
2 2
KT6 aHa? l.ITO TYr a Kop66Ke?
KT6 :no? r.c Hawe c06paHHe?
'!T6 :ho? KTO yxe rononeH?
Kyna BW? KTO He 6bUl Ha CJ1)0K6e?
r ne ",e OH? 3a'ieM BaM CneWHTh ?

4 4

3 3
2 2
rlle 110;1 Ky.aa 8M H,ltCTe? orypu;bi? rae Db! 6bum?
Cne KHpiUtn? KTO BAc BH.neJI?
4TO Db! .aenanH?
ami: CTOJiJflt?
tlTo DbI 8H.aeJUf?
4TO 6brno B Kop66Ke?

The four noun declensions in Russian:

CTOJl-, OIWO-, *eHft.-, and ,lI;Bepb-ciass nouns
According to the pauerning of their case endings, Russian nouns may be divided into four
basic types. We shall usc a model noun to represent each basic type.

1. crM-class 2. OI.. uo....class 3. *clla-class

1. CroJl-ciass nouns are masculine. Their nominative singular ends in a consonant letter
(including -ii) or -to.
aBTooyc, npHBh, ypOJ:. KHpH.n.n, CeMeH, Mp:, UJj6. ylUlBCpcHTeT, 66plll. 'faH. Atm.,
2. OKBO-class nouns are neuler. Their nominative singular ends in the letter -0, -c, or-e.
nHcbMo, y-rpo, a61o. lIJIan.e, co6pallHC, m!HHc singing, 06Ulc"ofTHC, 6eJlbC linen.
3. JKeaa-class nouns arc chiefly feminine; a few thai refer 10 maJes are masculine. Their Domina-
tive singular ends in the letter -a or -H.
cnPt<6a, pbl6a, cene.a.Ka, na6opaT6plUl, Kop66Ka, npaBna, HiiHa, Miina, riJul,
K6n.H Koiyu, MHwa Misha, lIW uncle.
4. .LJ.gept.-c1ass nouns are feminine. Their nominative singular always ends in the lelter-h.
JUU:pb, 6cellt., 6lfepeJtt., TeTp3,L(b.


Arrange four columns with the following heads:

I. aM 3. *eM'
Put each of tbese nouns in its proper column:
TCJIe$SH, yooPlUHua, aeno, O<iepe.lJ.b, nnan.e, wxona, neKltlUl, C06p3HHC, 'Iaii, OKIIO, .H3b1:K, UDOlf,
IfCTOplUl, kapaH,ll,3.W, K3.pTa, 6ce:Hb, lPUJn.M, repOii, lIe,a,enSl, nepO, CBHJl3,lOte, y-tHTenbHHua, nemre,
yron, MOpe, TcTp3.nb, MonoK6, pe3ym.T3.T, c.rrYJtc6a, JleB, Kawa, orype[{, aeut., nop~b, K6n.H.


The accusative singular of nouns ending in -a and -9


.R KynHn cenCAKY. I bought herring.

_ _ _ pbI6y. _ _ _ fish.
_ _ _ PY'ikY _ _ _ a pen.
_ _ _ BMkY _ _ _ arork.
_ _ _ J10)I(KY _ _ _ a spoon.
_ _ _ n6nxy. _ _ _ a bookcase.
_ _ _ KIIHry. _ _ _ a book.

R DIDiey HHHY. I see Nina.

___ MHJlY __ Mila.
_ _ _ CTyn.CHTKy. __ (he coed.
_ _ _ ceCTPY __ my sister.
_ _ _ :lKCUY __ my wife.
_ _ Omo. __ Olya.
_ _ _ K6Juo. __ Kolya.
_ _ Cl.tuy. __ Sasha.

.st u.nY 8 na60paT6pHIO, I'm going to the laboratory.

_ _ B aYAHTOpHlO. ____ to the lecture ball.
_ _ B 6H611HoTexy. ____ to the library.
_ _ B UlKony. _ _ _ _ to schooL
_ _ liB n6ITy. ____ to the post office.
_ _ HB CJTjx6y. ____ to work.
_ _ HB nCKlUDO . ____ to the lecture.


Repeat the above models, noting that when nouns ending in -a or -'IiI in the Dominative singular
serve as the direct object or the object of a preposition after a motion verb, the endings -a and ......
are replaced by -y and -fO respectively.


I. Where's the wxlka? 2. There's the post office.

Did you buy Yodka? Yes, I see the post office.
T: rAe BO,D;l:a? T: T3M nO'ITa.
s: BY KyminH aOJJ.KY? s: ,na, JilUf:Y uO'IT)'.
T: rAe pbl:6a? T: T3M na60paTopIl.Jl.
s: Rbi KymirrH p.:.6y? s: JJ,i, , BM*y Jla60paTopKtO.
(KJllfra, BKJUca, nO)l(Ka, nonKa, cene,lJ;Ka, (Kop66Ka, pbI6a, dwa, aYllHTOpHlI,
py'lKa) nO)l(Ka, BllnKa, HUlfa, 6IU1)

3. The schoors open. T:.AYJlHTOpWI OTKpblTa.

rm going to school. s: A HJtj B ay.LUIT0pKtO.
T: llh:ona onpbf'ra. (na6oparopltJl, 6H6nItOTeKa, UIKona,
s: a w.nY BlUKOny. aYAHTOpWl)

4. Nina was al the lecture. T: Komi 6hJ:n ua neKl.UUf.
Did you see Nina? s: BbI BH.rteJ1H KoJIlO?
T: HHHa 6bfJHl Ha (cecll'a, MHna, 6nR, raJIS!, carna,
s: BL:I 8H.tteJIH HHHy? CTY.QeHTKa HfuIa)


(a lecture) Where are you going?

To a lecture.
T; (neKl.J;HJl) KYM flbl HJJ:CTC?
T: (6lf6nHoreKa) BM H,ue-re?
S: B 6HMHoreKy.
(CJlpc6a, n6lfTa, wKona, aYll.I.fT6pHR,



-a and-~ -y and -to

)KeHs. )Keny
pw6a pbl6y
ceneAK3 cenc.QKY
ran,. ramo
6 6mo
Kont! K6ntO

The direct object of a verb or the object of a preposition accompanying a motion verb is in the
accusative case. )KeHs.class nouns replace -3 and --51 of the nominative singular with -y and -10
respectively in the accusative singular. Note that while most of these nouns are feminine, some are
masculine; TaM 6blJl KonH Kolya was there; R BMJJ;en Komo I saw Kolya.
Inanimate CTM- and oKUo-class nouns have accusatives which are like their nominatives both
in the singular and the plural:
.sf BfuKy cTOn. I see the table.
_ _ _ CTonw. __ the tables.
_ _ _ OKUO. __ the window.
_ _ _ Olma. __ the windows.
_ _ _ orypeQ. __ the cucumber.
_ _ _ orypn;bi. __ the cucumbers.
All ~p ..-class nouns (animate and inanimate) have singular accusatives like their nominative
singular. (In the plural, the accusative is like the nominative only if the noun is inanimate.)
51 BOY JJ;sepb. I see the door.
_ _ _ ...ePM_ __ the doors.
_ _ _ Jho66Bb rTerp6BHY. __ Lyubov Petrovna.

The second conjugation verb rOBopHTb

PAST fOBOpUJl, rOBOpHlla, rOl~OpHJlO, rOBopHlHf

PRESENT rOBoplO, rOBOpHrnb, roBOpHT, rOBopHM, rOBopiITe, rOBopsiT


1. You ta/kedfor a long lime. 2. He speaks Russian.

T: Bbl .QOJJro rOBopHlm. T: 6H rOllopkr no-pYccKlf.
s: Rw .n6JIro rOBOpH.rlH. S: OR roBOpHT Ilo-PYCCKH.
(ou, 08<1, OHlt, TbI, Mbl, Bbl, si) (OHH, Bbl, Ii, Mbt, T1:d, OHa, MbJ, 6H)


I. Do you speak Russian? 2. How do I speak Russian?

Yes, I do. You don't speak Russian [tooJ badly.
T: Bbl rOBopHTe no-pyccKU? T: Kflx Ji rosopIO no-pyccKH?
s: lI,a. rOBopw. s: Bbi HeWlOxo roBOpHTe no-pycCkH.
T: Qua rOBoplh nO-PYCCKH? T: KaK OHM rOBopJi'r no-pyccKlf?
s: .lI.a, r080pHT. s: Olla HeWloxo roaopliT Uo-pyCCKH.
(TbE, ami, <l>81111nl1, Bbl, aMepuKaneu, (all, MM. TbJ. OHa, Rbi:, Ii, $lfnHnn,
rpaHT) aMcpmd.Heu rpfl.lfT)

3. Does she speak English?

No, she doesn't.
T: Omi roaoplIT no-aJlfJUIHcKU?
s: HCT, He rOBopliT.
T: Tw rOBopllWb no-aHfmHkKU?
s: AeT, He I"OBOPro.
(Komi, BW, 6paT, OH", ceCTpa, ru)


I. (Tsarapkin) Who's speaking? 2. (the chancellor) Who spoke?

It's narapkin speaking. The chwlcellor spoke.
T: (UapaoKuu) KTO rOBopHT? T: (pCKTOp) KT6 rOBoplrn?
s: rOBOpHT LI.apallKHR, s: rOBOpaJl peKTOp.
T: (Hima) KTa rOaOpH:T? T: (era iKeHa) KTO rOBOpH.n?
s: fOBOpilT H.rn8. s: fOBOpaJl8 ero *ella.
(KlfPH.rr.n naBJlOBH'l, pCKTOp, Hima, (aMept1KaHeu fpiHT, XHTpOB, HHKOJlaH,
EareHlf", 11eo) MHJla, EBrcmdi, HHHa, f3JI.H)


The second conjugation verb l'OBOpH-rb, unlike COeIUHTh, has its stem ending in a soft consonant.
The spelling ending of the first person singular of rOBOpKTb is -w, and that of tbe third person plural
is -AT: rosop.o, rOBopn. Since CnernHTb has its stem ending in a hard consonant, the firSI person
singular has the ending ~Y and the third person plumJ has the ending -aT: enemy, cuernaT. The stress
paltem is the same in both verbs. The endings for the other persons are written the same for both
verbs: -Hmb, -tIT, --HM, -tITe. Note from the transcription following that p is soft throughout in
rosopal"b, and that ill is hard throughout in CUernHTb. (It is only a convention of tbe spelling system
that H and not LI is written after hard consonant Ill.)

f'Osop-JO [g:;Jvar---il .......-y ["IIiH
-Kwb ~i~ -Kwb -u
-HT -it ->IT -it
-HM -im -HM -1m
-MTe -tti -MTe -I\i
-b -at] -AT -at]

Possessive modifiers


:no ero CTOn. This is his table.

3TO ee cron. This is her table.
:no Jix C'T6n. This is their table.
3m ero noma. This is his bookshelf.
:no ee noma. This is her bookshelf.
3m '" nOnKa. This is their bookshelf.
3TO er6 nHCbM6. This is his letter.
:no ei rutCbMO. This is her leuer.
3m lix nHChuO. This is their letter.


"lei :ho nopTQ:lC.lJb? Whose: briefcase is this?

- :no M6i DOpnpem.. It's my briefcase.
- 3ro nOI ""p*"". It's your briefcase.
lIJ.iI .no .Il:HHra'1 Whose: book is this?
- :no Moi .Il:HHra. It's my book.
- :no ~ DUtra. It's your book.
lfJ.i 3TO nHQ>MO'1 Whose: letter is this?
- ::no Moe DHCbMO. It's my letter.
-:no....oe OHCbMO. It's your letter.
"lei .no cron? Whose table is this?
- :no HUD CTon. It's our table.
- :no Uw CTon. It's your table.
lft.j no n6nxa? Whose: shelf is this '1
- 3TO ..ama nom:a. It's our shelf.
- 3TO aawa n611ka. It's your shelr.
'b.i no 06m.e:llC.HTHe? Whose: dormitory is this?
- :n-o R.iwe 06w.a:Hnte. It's our dormitory.
- :no Uwe 06warne. It's your dormitory.


Repeat Ihe above models observing the pattern. Note that there are two types of modifiers:
I. Those thai do not change Iheir form to agree with the word they modify: en>"ee, Hx.
2. Those that change their form according 10 the word they modify: ..ei, 'IhK, Moi, Moli, Haw,
BJiw, TOOii.
Observe also that TB6ii, TBOli, and noe relate to n:., while aaw, aawa, and same relale to Bbl.


I. Where's my briefcase? 2. WIJere's our dinner?

Your briefcase is on lhe lable. Your dinner is there.
T: rll,e MOU nopnt>enb? T: rae Haw 06ea?
s: Raw DOpT+em- Ha cyone. s: Raw ooeA d.".
T: rae Moil M3TepHan? T: r.a.e Ham 66pm?
s: Raw MaTeplllin Ha CTOJIe. s: Raw 66plQ ni.".
(li:w.KI, 66pw, K3paHllaw,, HOJIC) ('1aH, JaBoa, wd*, CTon, XJJe6)
3. Where'of my sisler? 4. Where's our school?
Your sister's here. Our school is lhere.
T: rae Moli cectp3.? T: rae Hama ~ona?
s: Rima cecrpi TYr. s: Hlitua III.k'"6Jla ,-a,,,.
T: rAe Moli KHHra? T: rae HaWa kHura?
s: Rawa ICIIlira TjT. s: Hliwa IOUira TA.".
(,aBi:pb, .emi, pY-tKa. WKona, TeTp3..ah, (nonKa,.wrepb,CTOn08aA)
5. Where'of my husband? 6. Where's your malerial?
Your husband is lhere. My malerial is lhere.
T: rae MOil My:*? T: rll,e nM MarepHan?
s: TaOii My" TiM. s: Moii MaTepKU TAM.
T: MOil CTOn? T: rae noii CT6n?
s: TaO" CYOJJ dM. s: Moii CTM TliM.
(noa3poK,A~,6paT,nOpTeJJb,WK3.*) (KapaHa3.W, 66pLU, Mj)K, o6eJI)


Whose pencil is lhal?

T: L):ei:i iTO Kapalf,A3w?
S: lfeii iTO KapllHJlliw? (MarepHan, 1IJ1l'tTbe, pbl6a, R1UltK, 6opw,
T: (n,p6) 1 ,UBepb, OKHO, nHebMo, 1I0)J(, Kop66Ka,
S: l.ft.e iTO "ep6? nopTq,enb, CTon, nonKa)


I. Whose letter is that? 2. Whose pen is lhat, yours?

Thar's my lelter. Yes, that's my pen.
T: 4..e iTO "HCbMO? T: 4bi5 iTO nepO, Bame?
s: ~o Moe IDtCbMO. s; ){Ii, iTO Mae "epO.
T: 4bR iTo Dura? T: 4eA :iTO nopnflCnb, BAw?
S: ~TO MOli: ...'"rira. S: D,... iTO Moii nopTten..
(nopT4ltnb, .wrepb, omo, HO:lll:, Rwme, (mitra, llBeph, JiJ.QKI, TeTpA,lu., OkHO,
KOp66Ka,CT6n,nnaTbe) KapaH.ll3.w, nonn)

L.E5SON 6 99
3. Whose dress is that, yours? 4. Is that your pencil?
Yes, it's my dress. No, it's his pencil.
T:>C :ho nniin.e, TBoe? T: 3To dw UpaH)l3.w?
s: )li, STo Moe wuin.e. s: HeT, iro ero Kapaa!titu.
T: \.IbJi:iTO KAma, TBoJi? T: 3TO same "cpO?
S: )),li, i"ro MOll KlIma. s: HliT, iTo erO nep6.
(u6)1(, CTon, o6e.n., pw6a, 1l:00000M, 'faH, (nopTll!:Jlb, CTon, ,a,aepb, 'Iau, KHHra,
ll:opOOn) "HCbMO, :lKCUa, UO:llC, cecrpa, mmo,

5. Is that your dress? 6. Is this our bread?

No, that's her dress. No, that's their bread.
T: 3To noe MaThe? T: 3TO HaW XJIe6?
S: HeT, :iTO ee wuln.e. S: HliT, iTo Iix xnOO.
T: 3To TaM MYx? T: 3To HaWa cene,Q,Ka?
S: Hh, iro ee MY"'. S: Hh iro Mx
(TBOJi TeTp<i.m., nep6, 'IaH, "HChMO, (CTon, 'laM, KHHra, OKHO, Ma-repH3.n, UO:llC,
cecrpa, omo, MaTepuan) KOpOOll:a,06tn,nonxa, ~a)


I. This is my briefcase. This is my briefcase.

3m Moil OOpTcPCnb. :no Moii UOpT~.
_ _ _ (KHHra). ~ro MOll KHHra.
_ _ _ (UHCbMO). 3To Moe nHCbMo.
_(TBoe) _ 3TO TBoe IIHCbMO.
___ (TO"'.....). 3TO TBoJi TeTpa.nb.
____ (KapaHqam). 3T0 TBOM Upa.JJ.t{3.w.
_(BiuJ) _ :no saw xapatt.Jt!w.
___ (no'ITa). 3To sawa nO'ITa.
___ (o6W;elKHTHe). 3To sawe 06w;a:JITHe.

2. This is our dormitory. This is our dormitory.

3To HaWe 06me:lKHTHe. 3TO mime 06mnl.:HTHe.
_ _ _ (no.n). 3ro Hawa oW....:a.
_ _ _ (nO"apoK). 3To HaW DO.n.aPOIl:
_(M6H) _ 3TO MOM no.aapox.
_ _ _ (=rpa). 3To Moli c:ec'I"p3.
_ _ _ (omo). 3To Mot: omo.
_(TBoe) _ _. 3T0 TBOO omo.
_ _ _ (Il:Op06Ka). 3TO TBoli ll:op66Il:a.
_ _ _ (Ma-repHin). 3TO TBOH Ma-repH3.n.
_(Bilw) _ 3T0 Bam MarepHan.
_ _ _ (llII:ona). :no aawa wJ(Ona.
_ _ _ (06mez me). 3To aawe 06ma:K'THe.
_ (HaWe) _ 3-ro Hawe 06mexHTHe.
_ _ _ (nHwa). 3To HaWa mhua.
_ _ _ (CTO.). 3-10 lIam CTOJI.

100 LESSON 6
3. Here's our chancellor.
T: BOT miw (>CHOp. BOT name "liChMO.
S: BO'r lIliw peKTOp. _(Moe) _
T: (o6ute:JIOITHe). _ _ _ (nep6).
S: BOT nawe 06ntexainfe. _ _ _ (nopTcPe Jlh).
_(BaWe) _ _ (TBOU) _
BOT BaWe 06We:lKHTlIe. _ _ _ _ (m:lChMO).
_ _ _ (aBT66yc). _ _ _ (KHHra).
_ _ _ (yp6.). _ _ _ (KapaHJlaw).
_ _ _ _ (JleKu,HlJ). _ _ _ (nnaTbe).


There are two types of possessive modifiers in Russian:

1. Those that do not change their form to agree with the word they accompany.

en) his, its

ee her, hers, its
Hx their, theirs

Note that era is pronounced (jivo].

EXAMPLES e.6 nopTcPeJIb ero ceCTpa e.6 nlfChMO ero l'eTpi.ulf

ee nopTcPeJIb ee ceCTpa ee "UChMO ee<
HX nopT$CJrh Hx ceCT'" HX nHCbMO HX TeTp:l.J{H

2. Those with grammatical endings which change to agree in gender, number, and case with
the word tbey accompany:


'leu 'lbll '1hi: whose

Moil MOll Mae my, mine
TBOH TROll TBoe your, yours
H'rn HaWa Hame our, ours
Barn sHrna BaWe your, yours

Note thai l'BOH, T801i, and 1'8oe refer to n:a, while Baw, Barna, and Blime refer to BLI.

'1eil KapaH.ll:aW 'lbll cecrpa '1be ffilChMO

whose pencil whose sister whose letter
Moii KapaHA3w MaR CCCTpa Moe nHCbMO
my pencil my sister my letter

BaW Kapau,n:l.w BaWa cecrpa Barne nHcbMO

your pencil your sister your leiter

LESSON 6 101
The perfective future of the first conjugation verbs noitTo
and 83HTh

11 noH.D:Y lIa KOHu.epT. I'll go to a concert.

Tbl noii,neWb _ You'll go _
On noH.1.leT _ He'll go _
MbI nO~eM'---_ _ We'lIgo _
Bbl nOH,neTe _ You'll go _
Omt noHJJ.Yr _ They'll go


Repeat the model after your instructor (or the tape) until you can reproduce all the forms accurately.
Note that the endings are exactly like the present tense endings of the imperfective verb IIJl.nI, but
that the meaning is future.


I. fm going to go to a dinner. 2. rll go to the library tomorrow.

T: >t nOHlIY 1:13 06eA. T: >t now B 6H6J1HOTeKy 3asTpa.
s: jl DOHJJ;y US 06C.a. s: Jt now B 6M6mloTelCy 38BTpa.
TO (OUH) _ " (6u), _
s: Qmi noWT U8 ooeJl.. s: On noii.nh B 6H6nHon~KY Janpa.
(0113., Tbl, Bhl, Mbl, Cawa, (MbJ:, 6pAT, ccc-rpa, Thl Bbl, OHlt,

Komi H r<i:JuI, Ii) 6ph If ceCTpa, li)


Fm going to the dormilOry.

FlI go to the dormitory. T: TLT MeWh a 06me:lKHnle.
T: .sf HaY B 06me:lKHTHe. s: Tw DOH,aelUb B 06rn.eDnle.
s: B DOiiI.tY 8 06we)Kme. (MW, HHKonaH, r3JUI, OHH, BbT, OH)


Are you going (0 the club today? T: OHH HJJYr B KJI)'6 cero,llTUl?
No, FlI go there tomorrow. s: Hh, OuK noii.rtjT TY.n;s 3S81"pS.
T: Bw MeTe B Kny6 cer6AH.II. ? (EareHHH, -rbI, MbI, om\, ceCTpa, HHHa,
s: HeT, Ii uoiiAY Ty.n;S lSBTPS. L{apamCHH)

.s1 a03loMY TonhKO KHHrH. I'll just take books.

Tw B03bMeillb _ You'll __ take _
6H B03bMeT _ He'll __ take _
Mhr a03loMeM _ We'll __ take _
Bw B03bMeTe _ You'll ~_ take _
OHK B03hMYr _ They'll __ take _

102 LESSON 6

Repeat the model after your instructor (or the tape) until you can reproduce all the forms accurately.
The pattern of endings is the same as for the present tense of M,a:nt and the perfective future of
nom. Note that since B3m is a perfective verb, the meaning of the forms is future.


1. They'// take these notebooks. 2. ru take these books.

T: Om-I B03bMYr 3TH TeTp3.nH. T: .st B03bMY iTH KHHrH.
S: Omf 803bMjT 3TH nrpW. s: s1: 803b.\tY iTH KIUInr.
T: (Jt)I _ T: (0"0)1 _
s: s1: 803bMY 3TH nrpiJJ;H. s: QHi 803MteT iTH KHHnt.
(rami, Thl, Bba, Mbr, cecTpa, OlTer H (KHPH.nn, Thl, Mbi, OKM, 6ph, 6JU1, cawa
KHpiUul, Thl, li) H K6JU1, li, Bba)


(I)Who'// take these Mtebooks?

I wiJ/.
T: (li) KT6 B03bMer iTH Te-rpa.nH?
S: s1: B03b.""'.
T: (6H) KT6 B03bMer 3TH Te"Tp3.J:tH?
5: Oa 803bMe-r.
(OHM, Mba, BbI, Thl, cawa, HHHa, 6paT)


The perfective verb nom is the aspect pair of the imperfective verb tI)ITIi. Both nom and 83m
10 lake are first conjugation perfective verbs which take the same set of endings in their perfective
future as MJl,ni does in the present.

SINGULAR noiiJI.-y I'll go B03bM-Y I'll take

-eWb you'U go -eWb you'll take
-eT he (she)'ll go -eT he (she)'11 take

PLURAL -eM we'll go -eM we'll take

-cre you'll go -eTe you'll take
-y, they'U go -yr they'll take

For convenience, we may call such endings as these "present-future" endings. Although they
are the same for both imperfective and perfective verbs, they have different meanings, depending
on the aspect of the verb. When the verb is imperfective, the endings signalize the present tense; when
the verb is perfective, the endings signalize the future. It is important to note that the perfective
future has in it the particular limitations inherent in the perfective aspect. It describes a future action
in terms of its realization, completion, or result; thus it contrasts with the imperfective, which
focuses on either the process itself or its repetition.

LESSON 6 103
The second conjugation verh BUllen.


H (ilia 8HlteJ1a Omo 8 rYMe. Nina saw Olya in GUM.

!lca 8HlteJ1'- _ Lev saw _
MbI B",uelHl _ We saw _

11110n;Ul 11 BIi:Jy KOJJlo B KJlY6e. Sometimes I see Kalya at the club.

_ _ _ Tbi BIIJl,.HLUb _ _ you see _ _ ~~_
_ _ _ 611 BHJ.tIlT _ _ _ _ he sees _
_ _ _ Mbi BH.nIlM _ _ _ _ we see _
_ _ _ Sbr 8HltHTe _ _ _ _ you see _
_ _ _ OlUf SWT _ _ _ _ _ they sec _


Repeat the given models, noting that in the first person singular, prescnt tense, replaces the final
stem consonant JJ., which occurs in all other forms.


I. J oflen see Nino in lown. 2. He oflen used 10 see Nina in town.

T~ ~ 'IaCTO BH:lKY HHUy 8 roponc. T: Oil '1aCTO RH.nen HilHY B
s: Jl ..aCTO aM"'y HKUy B roPOJJ.e. S: Oil "aero BK.a.eJ1 Hli:tty B rOpo,lte.
T: (M,;,) _ T: (O,;,)!- _
s:: Mw ..aCTO BMJUIM HliHy B ropo,lJ,e. s: Bw "aCTO BM./leJIlI HNHy a roPC>lle.
(HlHconau, rut lit BbI, Moli cecTpa, OIlH, rw, M6H 6ph, MhI,
(Mali ccCTp<i, Olllt,
Moil 6p3T) Hawa Y'urrenbHHu,a)


I. I rarely saw Ga/ya there. 2. We sometimes see Nina Ihere.

I rarely see Golya there. We sometimes saw Nina there.
T: J1 peAkO TiM oMen ralUO. T: Mbl IfllorAA T8.M OH.nIlM HUIIY.
s: A pCJt,KO TliM BH:.Ky ramo. s: Mhi HIIOI-"a Tli.M BJi"eJIH HUHY.
T: OH" pellKO TaM BIUteJUl rtUIlO. T: !lnKomBI TaM Bll"IfT Hlilly.
s:: Ollfi pCAKO nlM BKnHT ramo. S: HHK'Wlllit TllM BH"en HUny.
(611, Mbl, Bbl, $i, cecTpa, Tbl, ami, Mbl, $i) (li, Tbl, Bbl, omi, cecTpa, 6paT, Mhl)


Do yOIl see Ihe knife?

No, I don't.
T: Tbi B"A1iWb 116*'
s: Her, lie RK-,y.
T: Rbi 8".nIlTC .16*1
s: Hh, lie BIi;l;:y.
(011", 611, ami, Tbl:, RbI)

The verb aJi.ncn. differs from tbe other second conjugation verbs already discussed (cneunin.
and rOBOpHTb) in that there is an alternation of stem consonants in the first person singular of the

104 LESSON 6
prescnt tense. In BH.a.el'l., the .a is automatically replaced by *
in thc first person singular and the
ending is -yo Compare the three patterns of second conjugation verbs:

cneuMri. to hurry rOBopm to speak BH.a.Cn. to see

PRl:'SENT ST'E.'d cnem- rOllOp- flH.a.-

cnew-y rOllOp-.o fllblc-y

-Hrnb -KWb fllia-HWb
-liT -itT -HT

-KM -liM -HM

-KTe -liTe -HTe

-aT -JiT -OT

PAST STEM cneunt- rOBopli- BHJl,e-

cltcwli-n rOflopH-n flKAC-n

-na -na -na
-no -no -no
-nH -nH -nH

Second person imperatives: familiar versus plural-polite forms


CX<m.K. rlle ill fl'lepa 6bm? Say, where were you yesterday'!, Bbi B'Iepa 6butH? Say, ?
H3BIUIK. li enemY Ha aBT66yc. Excuse me, I'm hurrying to catch a bus.
H3BHHHTe. li enemy Ha aBT66yc. Excuse me. _

3axo.nH. AaBRO Te6li He BIi)len. Come in, I haven't seen you in a long time.
3axo.luiTe. AaBH6 BaC lie BH,nCJ1. Come in. _

Hapc,Kb. nO:lKanyHCTa. orypt..u:1. Please slice the cucumbers.

Hape:lKbTc. noxanyHCTa. orypu,bl. _ _ slicc _

B03bMH 3TH KHHf"'. Take these books.

B03bMHTe 3TH kmlrH. Take _

3.np3BcTByH, Oller! Hello, Oleg!

3JtP3:scTByiITe, pe6liTa! Hello, fellows!


Repeat the given models, noting that the plural-polite imperative is exactly like the familiar imperative
except for the addition of the unstressed suffix - Te. I

, Atlhi$ Slage the student is oot expected to fonn the imperative: rather. he should recognize those which he encounters
and either add or delete the formal-plural suffix -Tt- Thus, given the familiar imperative ..lfrii! rUld! he will Ix expecled to
know that the fonnal-plural is ",""li'Te!

L'iSON 6 lOS

J. Slice the bread! 2. Look, here comes Nina.

T: Hape:b xnoo! T: CMOTpHTe, BOT HJJ.eT HHlla.
s: Ha~I>Te XJle6! s: CMorpH, IMh _,neT HKHa.
T: JaXO.lllt, nO:lKa.nyikra! T: BOJbMlITe 3TH DuirH.
s: 3axomiTe. oo*iJJyiicra! s: BoJbMII 3TH KHIinI.
CI(IDKH, B'Iepa 6buJO co6paHHe 1 JaxotuiTe, n.eePb He 3aJ1epri..
BoJbMH TOJlbKO O,ltlfy TeT'J)3.nb! XJ100 H orypu.W.<iBcTByH, neB! HJSHHKre. j cnewY oa ypOll:.
HJBHHH, BOT Moii aBT66yc! He rosopKre!
nOCM<Yfl>H! nOCT}'IlaHTe B ynH.oepcHTt:T!
nOCTyn3.ii B )'lIllBePCIfTt:T! 4 HTaHTe 004PYcctc"!
4HTaii !
He cnew"!


Imperatives call primarily for action rather than a verbal response. The most common type is
tbe second person imperative.


nO:3..nyHCT3.3aXO,ltHTe! Come in, please!

H3BHHHTe. BOT HJ1er Moii a.oT06yc. Excuse me. Here comes my bus.
CMOTpH. BOT Mer CMHpHOS. Look, there goes Smirnov.
Hap6Kb orypu.W. Cut the cucumbers.
CK~Kre, B'Iepa 6b1no co6paHHe 1 Tell me. was there a meeting yesterday?
The familiar imperative (used in addressing Thi) differs slructuraUy from the formal4pluraJ im-
perative (used in addressing .oM) only in that tbe unstressed suffix -Te is added in the latter form.


nape)l(b Hape)l(bTe cut!

CMOTpH CMoTpHTe look!
cnpocH cnpocHTe ask!
OTBeTb oTBe-rbTe answer!
nODTOpH nOBTOpHTe repeat!
1f3MellH 1f3MeltKre change!
33MeHli JaMeHHl'C substitute!
3.npaSCTByH 3D.pa8CTSyHre beUo (lit. be healthy)!

106 LESSON 6

Uqj'UUlO?n~-"7?U, ~ ~ ,/
Uq;tak.:-nuI1~-'U:, e/!d ~,/- ~ --k
n-t<X!C ~ 2 ~ ~ ; ' -~, ~

~,dk~?-.. /;t'~'
2t rJ..,w ~ ~,- ~, ~
-2J.o ~,/ ~ ~,/

LESSON 6 107


ceo" nopTq,eJlh my briefcase

3a6b.rTb (prv I) to forget, leave (inadvertently)
Jt 3a6but cao" nopTlf:nb. I forgot my briefcase.
TeJle$On (TeJle<POHbI) telephone (telephones)
3BOHHTh (11)1 to ring, to phone
3BOHHT Tenetjx)H the phone is ringing.
Mawa (variant of MapHSI) Masha
Mawa, 3BOH11T TeJJe+t)a. Masba, the phone is ringing.

It: to (or toward) the telephone
nOllOK-rH (prv I) to approach, go up to
nonoW It Tene4M>"Y! Go to the phone!
nOJl.oii.rot, OmKlistyiicra, K' Tefle~! Go answer the phone, please!

a.rtnO [a16) hello

CJljwan. {I} to listen
A1U16! $i CJJjWlUO. Hello! (Lit. Hello! I'm listening.)
nonpocHTb (prv II) to ask, request
nonpocltTe j.1BaBa HHKOn3.CBll'l3 It TeJlC$6uy! Ask Ivan Nikolaevich [to come] to the phone!
nOhpoCMTe, UmKaJl}'Hcra, Mealla Please ask Ivan Nikolaevich to come
HHKOJIIICBH'Ia K TeJlclft6ny! to the phone!
KTO rOBopuT7 Who's speaking? or Who's calling?
Ceii'tic. A KTO roBOpMT? Right away. And who's calling?
KjPO"tKHH. Kurochkin.

y Te1lee:p6Ha on the phone, on the line (lil. at the

Hello (/il. I'm on the line), Boris Mikhailovich.
ACno (.a.em\) tbing(s), matter(s)
B '1eM in what
B ..eM JJ.e.rto? What's the matter?

I The symbols (I) and (II) stand rot the rmt .nd second conjugations. Henoeforth Yab aspect will be indicated only rot
perfective ~'erbs. Thus, (I) means that the verb is imperfective and first conjugation; (pfv I) means that the verb is perfective
and first conjugation.

y sac at your place; you have
n" whether, if (question particle)
He 3a6WI nH J1 didn't I forgel, whelher or not I forgot
He 3a6btn nu J1 y sac COOK nopT4J6Tb? Didn't I leave my briefcase al your place?
YlH3.Th (pfv II) to find out, learn, recognize
Jt XOTe.!1 pH8T'1>o He u6bui JIM Ii y CB6H ue I wanted to find out whether or not I left my
OOJITojoem.. briefcase at your place.

MHHYnY just a minute

HHr.lle nowhere, not, .. anywhere
MIfIIjn.'"}', Hn, HHr.lle He BIVq. Just a minute. No, I don't see it anywhere.
OCT3.BHTh (pfv II) to leave
MOlEn 6brrb BY 8 yHHBeparre-re OCTliBJI1IM? Maybe you left it at the university?
uonYMan. (pfv I) to think, think a bit
0, 06, 060 (plus prepositional case) about, of, on (concerning)
06 J,TOM about that, of that
KaK 9 06 :7roM lie nOAyMan! How is it I didn't think of that!

TyAa there, to that place

BOHn!: 1)')),3 to get in (lit. to enter there)
CMO'ib (pfv I) to be able, can
Ji CMory I'll be able
Ho,; lie (:M0rY T)'Ai 80m. But I won't be able to get in.

.naepH (pI of .n:aePb) doors, door, doorway

,lI.aepil Y*i :uinepn.l, The doon; are already locked.
y66puuma (y66puv",,,,) cleaning woman (cleaning women)
A y66pWHQa? How about the cleaning woman 1
on:pbrrb (pfv I) to OpeD
MO'Ib (I) to be able, can
aHa MOxer she can
A }WpuuIII3.? Otui MO.eT OTIq)bm., How about the cleaning woman? She can
open [the doors).
1U1K>'1 (KJUO'lH) key(s)
Y Hee ecrb [uQij6 je~U she has
Y nee ecn. KnJ01(H. She has the keys.
o HeH about her
KOHe1(HO. jf 0 HeR 3a6w. Of course. I forgot about her.
COBceM completely, altogether
Kone'lHo. Jt 0 neii OOBc:eM 386bvt. Of course. I forgot all about her.


saXTep (saXTepbl) custodian(s) (compare Fr. concierge) saxrep? 6u MO.CT OTXpbrTh .asepH. Where's the custodian? He can open the
3BOH6" bell(s), doorbell(s)
4TO :ho, 3BOHOl(1 What's that, the bell?
n03BOHlfTb (pfv II) 10 phone, call on the phone
Oua .nOMa". She telephoned home.

H 3a6b'JI caou nopTll>eJIL

M.H. - Hean HHKomleBH'I (npo4)eccop OpnOB)

M.H. - MapH.lI HsaHOBH3 0PJl083 (Mama, ero )Kena)
IJ.M. - Sopite MHxaH.nOBH'f (npo4leccop Kypo'lKHB)

11. H. Marna, rna!:> j

3BOHHT Tene$6H! zvaQit \iliron !
nOJIOHtlH, nO:JKanyHCT3. podaj~i pazal,s', j

M.I1. 2 AJIJlo! al6 T C.njW3JO! I ja shibju!

6. M. J nonpocH"re, nO)l(MyuCT3. p~pra~i\i paza!:;lst:;l I

I1BaH3 HHKOnaeBH<fa K TeneqxJHy. ivan:;l QikalijiC-:l kVlif6nu 1
M. 11. 4 CeH'fac. jiM' j
A KTO r08op,h? a kt6 g~varit !
6. M. 5 KypO'lKHH. kiiroC~in j
H. H. Y TeJle$oHa, ja u\ilif6n:J I
60pHC MHdHnOBHlf. baps rpixa.liC !
B ..eM .acno? ffern ~el, j
6. M. XOTe.n: y:maTb, ja xatel uzm'it I
He 3a6bUl JIM Ii Y BaC Qizabilli ja uvas I
cacH nopTepMb. 2 svoj part[el j
11. H. 8 MHHyTKy. rpiniilku!
Her, Qetj He BHJKy. J Qig~e Qiyifll j
MOiKeT 6b1Tb, moi(id)bi\ I
ObI B yHHBepcHTCTe OCTaBHlUt. vi vUQiyir~i\e\i astayilil

Ii. M. 9 KilK Ii 06 3TOM He no.nyMa.n! kak ja abet~m Qipadum-:>I!

Ho Ii He eMory TyJ13 BOHTit:. no ja Qismagu tuda vaW i
)lBepH Y)l(e 3anepTbl." dyeri uze zagirti 1
H. H. 10 A y66pIUHua? a ub6r~6~ 1
QHa MO:lKeT OTKpblTb, ana m6zit atkrit!
y nee ecrb KJlJO'IH. llQijo jell klllCi j .
S.M. 11 KOHe'tHo! kaQesn, j 0 8eii cosceM 336w. ja aQej safjim ubil j

NOTES I Russians answer the telephone in various ways, corresponding to our heJJo:
..sf y TeJteqx>Ha.
Ann6! or A..nn6, Ii cnywaJO.
Ita? or )].a. A cnywafO.
[..sf] cnywalO.
Despite its spelling, a!L'IO is pronounced with a single n, usually soft: [alo].

LESSON 7 111
2 The possessive modifier CBOH is equivalent to MOM in this sentence. CBoii
means one's own and can refer to any person. It is not used to modify the subject
of a sentence, but refers back to 'he subject for its meaning:
R 3a6bu1 csOM nopT<Pe.nb. I forgot my briefcase.
Tbl 33.6brn CB6ii nopTl6tb. You forgot your briefcase.
Omi 33.6brna cBbii nopTlC.nb. She forgot her briefcase.
l Note that IIHf"Jle nowhere is used in a double negative construction in Russian.
This is true of all such negative constructions: mo..'"Ormi, HMt4erO, HMKYJla, and so
R er6 H....Jle He BlfJKy. I don't see it (or him) anywhere.
DbI HNKorJla He rOBoplhe no-pycckll. You never speak Russian.
R HM<ferO 06 nOM He 3H31O. I don't know anything about it.
R HMKyJUi, He HD.Y. I'm not going anywhere.
.. Russians often use the plural form ABepn to mean a single door as well as
more than one door. In the meaning doorway, the plural is used:
6H CTOlUl 8 ABeplix. He stood in the doorway.


HapO.Qb.ICCCP the peoples of the U.S.S.R.

o lIapO.Qax CCCP about the peoples of the U.S.S.R.
nHeaTh (I) 10 write
CTy.QCHTbI OHcinH 0 Hap6.nax CCCP. The students wrote about the peoples of
the U.S.S.R.
pe3ynbT3T (pe3ynbT3Tb.I) result(s)
HellJlOXOH not half bad, pretty good
HennoxHe pe3YJlbT3Tbi pretty good results
nO-MoeMy in my opinion, I think
no-MocMy, pelYJl.bTsn.r IICIIJIOXHC. In my opinion the results are pretty good.
Dbl 0 'leM ;ho? (full form Dbi 0 'leM 31'0 What's that you're talking about?
3K3a.MCII (3K3a.Mellhl) examinatioo(s)
DbI 0 ..tiM iTo? 06 3K3aMeuax? What are you talking about? The examina-
paOOTa (paOOTbl) work(s), paper(s) (written)
a pa66T3x C1)'llCItT08 about the students' papers
HiT, 0 paOOTaX CTyAewrOB. No, about the students' papers.
OttM mtd.'," 0 HapOAax CCCP. They wrote about tbe peoples of the U.S.S.R.
S6T k3.K! really! you don't say! is that so!
r.Qc HX pa66Tb.I? Where are their papers?
BOT K8K! rJJ.i HX paooTl.r? Is that so! Where are their papers?

112 LESSON 7
cTyn (CT)'nblt) chair(s)
3.u6clo here
BOT 3J1.Ccb, na crYlJe. Right here on the chair.
ara [aha] aha! ahhh!
Ani. B.o..y! Aha, I see!
"KYr ("KYrbl) Yakut(s)
nOT (m), 31<1 (t) . .h o (n) this, that
3Ta pa66ra 0 ltKYrax. This paper is on the Yakuts.
ylCpaHHCu. (YJCPUHHlI,bJ) Ukrainian(s)
3TH paOOTbl these papers
3TH paOOTbf 06 ylCpaHHU,3X. These papers are on the Ukrainians.
:ha pa60Ta 0 tu..-jTax, int 06 YKPaKuuax. This paper is on the Yakuts, and these are on
the Ukrainians.
HanHc3Tb (prv I) to write
A 0 ..eM HaoHCan KOl.lJ()8? And what did Kozlov write about'!
rpy3HH (rpy3HHbI) Georgian(s)
K03J108 HanHcln 0 rpY3HHax. Kozlov wrote about the Georgians.
oTJUi'lHO excellently
o rpY3Huax. 11 OT1IM"IHO HanHci.'1. About the Georgians. And he wrote
MOJlO,lleu. (MOJlO, one who does an outstanding job
Ou MOJlOAtU! He's terrific!
Pli.a. 3TO cnw.uan! Glad to hear it.
D,oD6J1eH, ,lIODOJlbHa, -0, -bl pleased, satisfied
npo<j>Cccop (nP"'l><=opa) professor(s)
Bee npo<J>eccopa ,lJ,OBOJlbHbl. All the professors are pleased.
HM hy him, with him
Bee npo$eccopa HM .n080JlbHbl. All the professors are pleased with him.
Bc:e uaUIM npo~C'Opa lOt .nOBO.rlbHLI. All our professors are pleased with him.

pyCCKMC the Russians

o PycclOtx on the Russians, about the Russians
A DOT pa66n 0 PYCCKJlX. And here's a paper on the Russians.

neTpoaa Miss Petrov

:ho neTp08a lIaOKCana, Miss Petrov wrote that.
MH6ro much, a lot, a good deal
o HCH about her
)l,li? J1 0 oeM y....e MIIOro CJlbouaJI. Yes" I've already heard a good dcal about her.

Jly'lUJHe CTyttefITbi the best students

aHa 1-1 K03J168 - JlY'!UJHe CTy,lJ,eUTbI. She and KozlOv are the best students.
$ucYJlbTCT (lakYJlbTtn.r) department(s)
lIa $aKYJlbTere in the department
Ha 3TOM laIC)'JlbTere in this department
OHa H K03Jt08 - lIy'flllHe CT)'~ ua She and Kozlov are the best students
:iTOM tllKyJlbTbe. in this department.

USSON 7 113

CO'lHJlCIUlC composition
M bt IUlc8.Jm CO'lHHCUHC. We were writing a composition.
y'lHTenb (Y'IHTCmi) teacher(s) (below university level)
OJ!saw Y'lI.tTCJlb? ]s he your teacher?
Y'IHTe.nbJlHUa (y'lHTCJIhHHU,bl) female teacher(s) (below university level)
QHa saws y'lltTeJ1bHHua? Is she your teacher?
rpynna (rpynnbl) group(s), section(s)
8 rpynne in the group, in the section
QHIt Jly'lwHe eryLleHTbI 8 now They're the best students in this group.

11. H. - HeAH HHkonae8H'I

E. M. - SOpltC MHX3.AnOBH'I

Ii. M. n O-MOeMy, pamojimu I

Pe:JynbTaTbI HennoxHe. pzultati Qipla"iji.l
11. H. 2 Bbi 0 'IeM 3TO? vi acorn el:l !
06 3K3aMeHax? abigz3q:tin~x !
6. M. 3 HtT, Qel I
o pa60nx crYJIeHToB. araool;lx slUQent;lr!
OHit mfC3.nH aQi gisali
o HapOJIaX CCCP. I anar6d;lx eseseser !
11. H. 4 BOT K3K! 'lot Uk 1
rJIe HX pa6oTw? g4e IX raboti !
6. M. 5 BOT 3AeCb, v6d z4el!
113 cTYne. nastuli'l
11. H. 6 Ani, aha I
BH)I(y. yitu I
3Ta pa60n 0 }fKYT3X, et;l rab6ta ajikut~x I
3TH 06 YKpaHllu3x. eti abukrain~x !
A 0 'leM H3nHC3.n K03J10B? a acorn n;lgisal kazlOf i
E. M. 7 0 rpy3Hu3x. agru~in;lx 1
11 OTllH'IHO H3nHcAn! i 3 tlicna n;lgisall
6H MOllOAeU!2 6n m;llaQec 1
11. H. 8 Pan. 3TO CJlblW3Tb. rat eta sli~t 1
Ka:lKeTCR, kazit~ I
Bee HaWH npotpeccopa r~e nMi pr;l(isara
HM AOBOllbHbl.) im dav6lni!

114 LESSON 7
Ii. M. 9 A BOT pa60Ta 0 pyCCKHX. a vot rabot~ arils~ix !
:)TO ne-rpOBa HanHcana. 4 et~ Ritr6v~ n~Risal~ !
H. H. 10 }:\a? dar
.st 0 HeH )lJKe MHoro CJlI~wa..n:. ja aQej uze mn6g~ sli~l!
OHa H K0311oe- ana i kazlOf t
l1y'lwHe cry.neHTbI JUdiji stucJenti I
Ha :hOM 4>aKyl1bTCTe.! naet~m f~kulte\i !

NOTES 1In the abbreviation CCCP U.S.S.R., the letters stand for COIOJ COOCTCKHX
COUH3JlHCTlf'leCKHX Pecny6muc Union of Soviel Socialisl Republics. Unlike rYM,
CCCP is not declined:
Compare. rYMe in GUM with B CCCP in lhe U.S.S.R.
1 The noun MOno. is a term of praise that can be applied to anyone who does
a good job or comes through suce::essfuUy. It is onen used when we would say:
nice going! fine! good boy! good girl! i.e., as an exclamation of approval.
1 npo+etrop is grammatically masculine, but may refer to a woman as well
as a man:
Qna HaW npo<peccop. She's our professor.
Compare it with the masculine noun yooiTe.m., which has a corresponding feminine
equivalent rnrrenhUHQ&. Note, however, that the masculine plural )"tHTerui can
refer to a mixed group of teachers, but that the feminine plural rnrreJlbUMUbI refers
only to women teachers.
.. nnp6u is the feminine form of neTp6B and may mean Miss or Mrs.
Petrov, depending upon the context. It is not considered impolite to refer to a
man or woman simply by using the last name; for example, BOT lIlIeT u.api..aK1Dla
means Here comes Miss (or Mrs.) Tsarapkin. In addressing the person, however,
either the first name and patronymic or the nickname is usual. rOCOOrofH and
rocoo~i are used by Russians only when referring to foreigners or by emigre
J lJ)sKynbTu does nol meanfacully in the American sense, but corresponds to
the branches of the university we call schools, divisi01Lf, or departments. For
example, +HJIOJlont'lecKHi +8KynbTeT (4JHnrflAx for short) means departmenl of
languages and Iileratures, and Me,!I,JIUHItCKMii 4!8Ky.'IbTU school of medicine.

~N7 ItS
Basic sentence patterns
1. rae orypUbJ? Where are the cucumbers?
____ their papers?
_ HX paOOTbI?
, , ___ the keys?
_ KJJfO'Ui.
_ _ 8HJlkH.
, ____ tbe forks?
____ the spoons?
__ n6)KXH?
, ___ the books?
_TeTJlWt? ____ the notebooks?

2. cryAeHTbf?
_ _ Y'fHTeJ1bHHl(bl
, Where are the students?
_ _ _ _ the women teachers?
__ Y'!Httml" . _ _ _ _ the teachers?
_ npo<J>e<:copa? _ _ _ _ the professors?

3. 8M XIUO'IH. Here are the keys.

_ TeTpA.a.H. _ _ _ the Dotebooks.
_lOtHrH. _ _ _ tbe books.
_ _ BH.nI:H. _ _ _ the forks.
_nbC.IH. _ _ _ the spoons.
_ orypubi:. _ _ _ the cucumbers.
_ H:x pa66Tb1. _ _ _ their papers.

4. rlle nHcbMa? Where are the letters?

- B6T 3.1lecb, HB CIjne. Here on the chair.
_ _ _ _ _ _ H3 oKHe. _ _ on tbe window sill.
_ _ _ _ _ HB CTOne. __ on the desk (or table).
_ _ _ _ _ 113 n6nKC. __ on the shelf.

5. rAe "HCbMa? Where are the letters?

- 86T 3ltecb, B lI111HKC. Here in the drawer.
_ _ _ _ _ B nopT<l>6Je. __ in the briefcase.
_ _ _ _ _ _ B KHHre. _ _ in the book.
_ _ _ _ _ B TeTp3JJ.H. _ _ in the notebook.
_ _ _ _ _ B Kop66KC. __ in the box.

6. .st 0 Hei{ MII6ro CJII.dwaJ). I've heard a lot about her.

_HCM _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ him.
_ H"X _ _ them.
_,.;c _ _ ynu,

7. 0 X6M Thl r080p"Wb? Whom are you talking about?

- 0 BaXTepe. About the custodian.
- 0 KHp".IU1e. About Kirill.
- 0 L(apanxHHe. About Tsarapkin.
- 0 H"He. About Nina.
- 0 K6ne. AboUl Kolya.
- 0 rane. About Galya.
- 0 came. About Sasha.

116 LESSON 7
8. 0 KOM omi rOBopliT? Whom are they talking about?
- 0 np<><jJCccope. About the professor.
- 06 I1Balle. About Ivan.
- 06 y66pwHlle. About the cleaning lady.
- 06 Y'lMTeJle. About the teacher.
-06 One. About Olya.
- 06 aMepmC3.HlCe. About the American (woman].
- 06 aMepHIC3.HUe. About the American (man).

9. 08 rOBOpKn
0 EBt-eIIHH. He was talking
about Evgeny.
____ 0 MapiDt. _____ about Maria.
_ _ _ _ O,..,."a.nH. ______ about the notebook.
_ _ _ _ 0 na60paTopHH. _____ about the laboratory.
_ _ _ _ 0 C06p<ilUlH. _~ about the meeting.
_ _ _ _ _ 0 CO'lHHeHIIH. _ _ _ _ _ _ about the composition.
____ 0 ,asepH. _ _ _ _ _ about the door.
____ 0 JlCICUHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ about the lecture.
_ _ _ _ 06 06meIHnrn. _ _ _ _ _ about the dormitory.
_ _ _ _ 06 OceHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ about autumn.
_ _ _ _ 06 o'lepe.Q.H. _ _ _ _ _ about the line.

10. 0 'leM Bbi rOBOpHTe? What are you talking about?

- 0 ""l'6e. About the club.
- 0 About the plant.
- 0 6opme. About the borsch.
- 0 lCoHuepre. About the concert.
- 0 nopT<t>ene. About the briefcase.
- 0 rnK3.4>e. About the cupboard.
- 0 'lae. About tea.
- 0 cene.nlCe. About herring.

II. 0 'leM Thl rOBOp"lllb? What are you talking about?

- 0 wKone. About school.
- 0 I1HCbMe. About a letter.
- 0 MOnOKe. About the milk.
- 06 Y1UfsepcHTcre. About the university.
- 06 3K3aMelle. About the exam.
- 06 aSTo6yce. About the bus. About dinner.
- 06 oKue. About the window.

12.0 '{eM nHcl.nH CTYAeHTbI? What did the students write about?
- OH" mtcl.nH 0 Hap6.nax CCCP. They wrote about the peoples of the U.S.S.R.
_ _ _ _ _ _ 0 RKYralC. _____ about the Yakuts.
______ 0 rpY3HHax. _ _ _ _ about the Georgians.
______ 06 YKpaHHUllX. _ _ _ _ about the Ukrainians.
______ 06 aMepltXamvu. _____ about the Americans.
______ 06 aMepm::amax. _____ about American women.

LESSON 7 117
Pronunciation practice: hard versus soft consonants

A. [PI vs. [ul Usual Cyrillic spelling 0; also 11I>, 6, or 6...

Note the pronunciation of hard [P) in the following:

[nap6etu] 113 nO'iTy to the post office

[palll3S13 J no:lKanyiiCTa please

and compare it with soft [g):

[SRi~iti] cnCWHTe you're hurrying

lJlC",ij] nepObl" first

These are labial consonants, fonned (Like the English p) by completely closing the lips. Soft m]
has the effect of a y-Iike glide following it.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating bard (PI and
soft rnl.
imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Be
sure to avoid the puff of breath that often accompanies the English p. Note
that before [il, a w-Iike off-glide is often heard after hard [PJ.

B. [h) vs. Ill] Usual Cyrillic spelling 6; also 61>, n. or Db.

Note the pronunciation of hard [b] in the following:

[h,6ji\l 6p6cHTb to drop

[aft6bus] aBT66yc bus
[spa~ib;)] cnacu60 thank you

and compare it with sofi ~ J:

[:>alitt) Ha o6e.n for dinner

[ndu~iJ B kJlY6e at the club
[.asIUf~il Ha c.njx6e at work

Russian [b], like the corresponding English sound, is made by completely closing the lips. The
soft [tIJ will
usually have the effect of a ylike glide following it.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [h] and
soft [9], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note
that before (il, a wlike ofTglide is oflen heard after bard (b].

118 LESSON 7
c. ImJ ". ['1'J Usual Cyrillic spelling M; sometimes Mh.

Note the pronunciation of hard [m] in the following;

[pmn) 3HMY winter

[m6j] MM my
IR;jm6) UJiCbM6 letter

aDd compare it with soft lip):

[jUp6n) SemyaD
[qUI.) Mila

Russian 1m], like Russian [b] and {P] and the corresponding sounds in English, is made with a
complete closure of the lips. The sort {Ip] usually bas the effect of a ylike glide following it.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard 1m] and
soft [rp], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note
that before Ii], a wlike ofT-glide is often heard after hard [m).

Intonation practice: part I-questions without question words

Questions with a rising contour. This contour is characteristic of questions without question
words; these sentences usually present an alternative which can be answered "yes" or "no." In
such questions the final word carries the major stress. The pitch begins at about level 2 and rises to a
peak on the major stress. It is either sustained or, in unstressed final syllables, it may drop.

Practice the following drills, imitating the tape: or the instructor.

/ 4
Oil ryT? Bbl cncWlhe Ha yp6K?
PbJ.6w neT? 66pUl)"KC rOT6s?
:$co TbJ.? ABT66yc)"Kc HJJ.eT?
l.ItlA CCTb? Oryp.LU:d )"Ke Ha CTone?

4 4
3 3
2 2
06e.a. rOT6B? TaM co6p3Hlte?
A Bb! AOM6H? OH B ropcoeeTe?
Xonrre nOHTH? Cron68Wl oncpblTa?
Oncr 3Jl0p68? Ew.e ue n63JlHo?
:no HHTepeenO?

L.ESSON 7 119
4 4
3 3
-- 2
ObI yxe It,ltere? Tbl 06 nOM f10AYMan?
0mi pa66Tacrr 8 WKOJlC? Bbi }"IKe noo6e.llaJHI ?
AsePH cme ue J3nCpTbI? Qui! rOBoplh' 06 3I<)aMCllax?
31'0 TYr B Kop66KC? 3TO pa66ThI CTYAenT08?
a,;, HJl.ere us nb'ny? Tbi er6 3HaeWb?


Pronounce the following questions as statements.

4 4
3 3
2 2 --~
On IUl,CT? On
3TO 'taii ? 3<0
DlUi -ryT? DIID
OrYPt.t.b1 H8 CTom:? OrYPubl tla CTom~ .


Pronounce the following statements as questions.

4 4
3 3
On It,ltCT llOMO". 68 HJl.CT llOMOU?
P:bl6hl ooJlbwe HCT_ Pbl6bJ OOJJl>UJe Her?
ABTo6yc H,lteT. ABT66yc )')ICe H,llCT?
B<[cpa 66pLU. 8'lCpa 6hrn 66pUl?
06e,n rOToD. 06en }')Ke rOTOO?


The Dominative plural of DOunS


KaK lIena? How are tllings?

Y HaC CcTh orypllW. We have clIcwnbers.
Ty-r TonbKO BMJIKK H 110-......."". Here are only forks and spoons.
rlle ee TeTpaJUI II Killinl? Where are her notebooks and books?

120 LESSON 7
):{sepn Y)I(e 3anepThi. The doors are already locked.
Y lIero eCTu K'JUO<iJi. He has key.~.
Pe3ym.TltTbl l:leWlOxHc. The results aren't bad.
r~e I1X pa6on.J? Where are their papers?
o 'leM OHearUl cTy~eIlT"'? What did the sludems write about?
r~e Y<iHTeJltl? Where are the teachers?
Bee npolj)eccopa 11M AOBOJ1bHbJ. All the professors are pleased with him.
Bee 3~aHHJI 6blJ11f 33nepThI. All tbe buildings were locked.


jKClla-ciass nouns and oK'HO-ciass nouns and

~epL-ciass nouns
most cTO.rI-ciass nouns some CTtl)J-c!ass nouns



I. The ending -H occurs instead of ---bl in the hard stem nOJl- and *eHa-ciass nouns whose final
consonant is *, 01, 14'. r, or x: 1100h.-H, K'apaJIAalUH, aMCpHK'3.IIKH, KUHnt, JlO:llOCH.

2. Some eToJl-ciass nouns take the nominative plural ending -a or -H, which is practically always
stressed: npolj)eccopa, yU....eJIH, ropoAa.

3. Many nouns have a different place of stress in the plural than they have in the singular.
Compare *CH8 with *elll>l, oteHO with otcns, UHCLMO with mtCLMa, f"opo)J, with ropoA8, and cecrpa
with cccrp....

4. Some cToJl-class nouns have an inserted vowel in the nominative singular which does not
appear elsewhere in the declension. Compare the singular AellL with the plural AUH, 3BOuOIC with
3BOfiKIi, and IJOLtapoK with 1I0Ltap1CH. Most nouns ending in -eLt in the nominative singular have this
feature. Compare aMepHICauen with sMepHICtUlI(LI. YK'PaHHClI with yK'paHnl...., and Of"ypeQ with OI)'pQY.

5. A few CTOJI- and O~1l6-class nouns have their stems soften<.'O and expanded in the plural by
the addition of [j]. The nominative plural of such nouns is written with -I. plus II (-MI). Compare
nepci with nepbll, 6paT with 6paTbH. and cryJl with CTyJlLH. In the plural of My*, the soft sign is
written but the * is not pronounced soft: My:lKbH [muijaJ.


Nominative singular to nominative plural.

I. Where was tlte bus? 2. There was a book on the shelf

Where were the buses? There were books on the shelf
T: rAe 6blJ1 aOTo6yc? T: Ha nome 6blna KHMra.
S: rAe 6bmH SBTOOyC"'? s: Hs uOJlKe 6bmH KHHnt.
T: rile 6b1Jl3 UlXOJ1a? T: Ha nonxe 6bui silll,HX.
s: r AC 6btJlH UIKOm.t? s: Ha n6JIKe 6WIH RutHICH.
(3aRoD, CTOJl, MaTep"aJI. TeJle~IOI:l, (xopo6xa. TeTP3ilb, oHJIxa.
YIiIfOCPCHTeT, KOllllep1'. 3K3aMen. pa6oTa, nopTJCJlb, JUliO'!)

3. Where's the key? 4. OrlQV was here.
Where are rhe keys? The OrIQv!>' were here.
T: Cae iUttO'f? T: OpJ16a 6blJ1 3.nCcb.
s: fJIe KJltO'fJ1? s: Opn08b1 6iJ:JIH :mecL,
T: KJUO'fli 1 T: KYpO'fKHH 6bln 3ltCct..
s: fAi nOjltKH? s: KYpooIKHULI 6LiJJ. l.nOCL,
(JlBepb. nOJllca, p}"fKa, nopnfx:.m.. (UapanKHH. aMepHKanKa, XHTJ)6B,
O'fcpeJlb) y6opU!Hua, CTYJIeHT. CTy.neUTKa,
}"IHTeJ1bHH ua)


Nominative plural to nominative singular and vice versa.

I. The windows are there. 2. The knives were in the drawer.
The windbw is there. The knife was in Ihe drawer.
T: 61ma riM. T: HO:lKH 6b1JlH 8 lillUt&"e.
s: OkKO riM. s: H~ 6WJJ *wKKe.
T: OKHO TAM. T: Kapa.u.nArn 6b1Jl 8 lillUt&"e.
S: OKHa riM, s: KapaHJl.llllDi 6WJJ liuvuce.
(roPOJI3, ropo.n, npo4>eccop, (HO::, lCapall.nawH, HO::H. Jtapaa.nam)


Nominative singular to nominative plural and vice versa.

Where was the be//?
Where were Ihe bells?
T: 6b1Jl380u6x?
s: f.a.e 6baJJH 38OHK1l?
T: 6blnH yKpaHHUbl?
s: 6Lan yKpUHeq?
(orypeu, 3801lKH, aMepHKaHeu, YKpaHHel.{,
orypUbl, no.uapoK)

Nominative plural to nominative singular and vice versa.

I. The chairs are here. 2. Where's Ihe chqir?

The chair is here. Where are Ihe chairs?
T: crynbJl 3.necb. T: rM CTyn?
s: CrYJI 3Jtea.. s: fJle C"rYJlLfI?
T: SpAT 3JlCcb. T: fJle 6paTbR?
s: 6paTLII 3,1lb. s: f,lle 6piT?
(nePbJl, M}'), 6p3TbJl, M}0K, ncpO, crYlI) (M)'JIC, nepbR, CTyllbJl, 6paT, M)'JKbJl}


I. The students have already found out about it. 2. The student a/ready found out about it.
The student has a/ready found out about it. The students a/ready found out about it.
T: CTy.u.euTbI yce y:JH3..rut 06 jTOM. T: CTy,l.l,etlT 'j)I(e )'3HM 06 jTOM.
S: CTylliHT ~e pfUU. 06 :STOM. S: CTyll,e.rn.. p..-e YlHW 06 :iTOM.
T: Y66pUJ;HJ.tLI yce )'3HanK 06 :ITOM. T: )Kel:la 'j)I(e y:JHana 06 jTOM.
s: Y66puuma Y*i y3fuiJIa 06 jTOM. s: )l{em.. r-e y.nui.mI 06 :hOM.
(y-LHTeJlbHHI..lhI, :a::eubI, My;KbJl:, 6pa.TMI, (My*, 6paT, cecTp3., )"uiTenb, yOOpUOfua,
cecrpbl, }"IJf'TeJlJi, n~pa, ~1epH npo<peccop, )'J:paHHeu, aMepHx:ama)
dHDI, aMepmr.:aHUhI)

3. You don't know where the knife is, do you?

You don't know where the knives are, do you?
T: TbI: He 3uaeUlh, rAe HO)l(?
S: Tw He 3tltieun.. HOD?
T: Thl lie 3UaelUb, rAe upaH,nallJ?
S: TY He 3Haeun., Kapa1uuumf?
(nopl'<PeJlb, KHHra, KJItO'l., TeTpa.ub, SHJlKa,
nJlaTbe, CO'l.HHeHHe, nOll,apok, CT)'n)


I. Was Professor Or/ov there? 2. He's a student, but who are they?
All the professors were there. They're students too.
T: nporpeeeop Opnos 6bul T3.M? T: 6H CTy,ll6rr, a no OHM:?
s: Bee npo+eccopi 6w.m. riM. S: Omi T6.e cry,l.l,etrrw,
T: CTyAeHT K03JIos 6bul TAM? T: Qlla )"IHTc.nbHH1t3, a no OHti?
s: Bee cry,l.l,e.m.. TiM. s: Omi TOOKe y'
CTyAellTXa nerp6Ba 6blJ1a. Tfw? 6H n~p, a no OuM?
Haw rp)'3HH 6bul T{w? QHa y66plJ.lHlt3, a no ami?
Haw YKPaHueu 6WJl TAM? 6H Y'!M:TeJlb, a no anti?
HawSlKjT6bulT3.M? On )'kpaM:ueu, a no OIill?
Ha.wa rpYnna 6b1JJa. TaM? OH rpy:JtiH, a no omi?
Baw ynhenb 6bui TflM? OH S1kYt", a lITO ami?
QHa aMepmr.:{mxa, a no OHlt?
OH aMepHxaucLI, a KTO Oil"?


Nominative plural to nominative singular and vice versa.

I. You don't know where the pens are, do you? 2. Is there a chair there?
You don't know where the pen is, do you? Are there any chairs there?
T: Tw He 3HaeWb, rAe py'fXH? T: TaM ecn. C'ljIl?
S: Tw He mtieun.., p:f'uc:a? S: TAM ecr.. crjm..?
T: Tw He 3UaelUh, rAe nnaThSl? T: TiM ecn. nep6?
s: Tw He 3H8.eun., r.c.,e wuin.e? s: Ta.'\4 ecn.. uepu?
(CO'l.HHeHHJI., co6paHlUI, CTyJlhSl, Y'!HTCJlj(, (xop66x:a, wdiP, 01010, orypeu, I10)l(xa,
lUxaiPbI, nepbSl, TeTp3JlH) Jl:WHJ:)

LESSON 7 123


cniJI-dass Oh....o-class *etuidass Juu~p..-dass

- ... or ..... - ... or-N only -lit

(in most instances)

-8 or-li -8 or-II
(in some instances)

I. All JJ,Ilep..-class nouns spell their nominative plural ending with -N (usually unstressed), which
replaces -I> of the nominative singular: .IlBiPb, AUptI; OotepeJJ.b, o..epeJJ."; nT'pliJu., TeTpW.
2. Most oKH6-class nouns spell their nominative plural ending with -a (replacing nominative
singular -0) or -II (replacing nominative singular -e or ~): OKR6, OK'fUl; Aeno, Aemii; co6plimte,
co6pliJuul: Min.e, Man.JI.
3. Some aMclass nouns spell their nominative plural ending with -a or -II, which is almost
always stressed: npo+ettop, npo+eccopa; ropoA, ropoJJ.a; rnrreJU., Y'fHTe.ruI; Kpaii, KpaJil regions.
Note that the plural ending -JI replaces ........ and -ii of the nominative singular in the spelling of these
4. All *etulc1ass nouns and most croJl-ciass nouns spell their nominative plural ending with
--Ltor -H: .eua, :lKem.r; crOJJ, CT01tW; aBTooyc, aB'rooycw; cecTPa, cecTpw; K'JltO.., 1(!IIO..ti. Note that
nouns ending in -II, -ii, or - .. in Ihe nominative singular replace these letters with -II in the nomina-
tive plural: IlCTOpHlI, HCTOptrM history; 'I:iii, 'laM; UOpT+en". UOpT+enM.
Hard stem ZeH.8.- and crM-class nouns take the ending -H instead of - ... if their stem ends in K, r,
x, w, or *: ypOK, ypOKH; KHIira, KHMnI; no*, HO.... ; KapallJuiw, KaPa.ll.Aawti; Kop66Ka, KopOOKIlI.
Note that K, r, and x are then pronounced soft before-No

Inserted vowels and alternation of stems

As compared with endings, which regularly change, stems are relatively stable. However, some
stems show a regular paUern of alternation, with a vowel occurring in certain forms and not in
others. In Ihe examples below, nole that the nominative singular contains the inserted vowel 0 or e
as its next to last letter, while the nominative plural occurs without the inserted vowel.


aMepHKilHeu aMepllxa.luthI aMepll Kilut-

MOJlOAeli MOJlOAl(bl MOJlOllU-
yKpauneu yKpaHHUbl yKpaHlut-
J80HOK J80llKH )801IK-

orypht orYPllbl OI"ypn-

124 LE'iSON 7
The vowel is inserted between the last two stem consonants and serves not only to break the
cluster, but also, frequently, to carry the stress. Such inserted "c1usterbreaking" vowels typically
occur in case forms with a zero ending. i.e., in the nominative singular of CTOJI-c1ass nouns and in the
genitive plural of *etta- and OIOi6-class nouns.

Expanded stems in tile plural

Although singular and plural stems are usually the same, some nouns have a plural stem that
differs in certain respects. For example, some OKHO- and CTM-class nouns with a singular stem
ending in a hard consonant, soften this consonant (if it can be softened) and add a liJ for the plural
stem. Note that in the Cyrillic writing system, the U1 is expressed by means oft. followed by the soft-
series vowel letter SI for the nominative plural.


6pOT [brat) 6pATbM [bniti]

nep6 [uuoj ncpu rued')
MjlK [mils] M)')Kt.Ji (mufja)
cry" [still] crY1IMI [stau)

The nominative plural of possessive modifiers


qt.. 3TO VlJO'lH? Whose keys are these?

MOIi VlJO'lIl s My keys are in the briefcase.
3To nooi TeTp3nH. Those are your notebooks.
Bee Hiunt: opoleccopA HM ,nOSOm.Hbl. All OUT professors are pleased with him. aiuof ICtufrn? Where are your books?
r.nC lix pa66Tb1? Where are lheir papers (lit. works)?


I. Is lhal your key? 2. Whose book is thaI?

Are those your keys? Whose books are lhose?
T: 3TO B3.W KJUO'l? T: 4bJi TIO KHitra?
s::no ai.w:M kJIIO<lli:? s: lfbli :ho KtUfnI?
T: 3ro B3.rne CO'lHHCHHe? T: 4t.e:ITo nepO?
s: :no ai.unI cooometnur? s: 'fwi :Jro nepla?
(lUIan.e, OICHO, nopnpe.nt., ICOp06lC:a, (CTOJI, pa60n, CO"lKHeHHe, Ory-ptll,
.n;sepb,, HOX, TeTpaJlb, crOll) M3TepHaJI, HO:JIC, rapalt,lJ;aw, 001l)(a,
nopntJenb, lUUO'l)

LESSON 7 125

Whose pens (Ire these? T: 4bH jTO KapaHllaWH?

These are our pens. S: 3TO HliUIH KapKHJl:KunI.
T: 4bH :ho nepbSl? (KHHrH, TeTpa,ll,H, CO'lltHCHHSI, pa60Tbl,
s: 3To HlUllH nepLK. MaTeplta.Jlbl. Kopo6KH, lI~HKll, HO)f(H)


Singular to plural and vice versa.

Where is your brother? T: rJle TDOH cecrpw?

Where are your brothers? S: rAe TBOR cecrpa?
T: r,ne TOoH 6pAT? (p)"lKa, nopTtPeJIH, nomca, 3K3aMCHhI,
S: rtJ,e TBOM 6p3.TLA? CTon, y'lHTCJUI, llBCpb, KJlJO'fH, HO)J(H,
KapaHJI.arn, TeTpa;.u,)


I. A re those his keys? 2. Whose notebooks are these?

No, those are my keys. Yours.
T: 3TO er6 KJUO'l"? T: 4 bH :ho TCTpaJlI1 ?
s: HeT, :ho MOM KJIlO'lll. s: TBOH.
T: 3TO era orypu.hl? T: 4bliiro KHHm?
S: He'T, :ho MOM oryp1lbl. s: TBOH.
(nopTenb, nopTtPenlt, Kop06Ka, KH"flt, (CTOJI, CO'lHHeHlte, U1Ka(/)bJ, Kopo6KI1, pa-
pa60Ta, ncpb$!, HOlK, cTy,neHTbI, nepo) 60Ta, nepo, nepb$l, HOlK, KapafUlarnl1)


I. Here's my sister. 2. This is my pencil.

The.~e are her books. And whose is this?
T: BOT MO$! cecrpa. T: 3TO MOti KapaH,tl,arn.
S: 3TO eli KHHrH. S: A :l'rO'leH?
T: BOT Moil 6pAT. T: 3TO MOH TCrpallll.
s: 3TO era KHHrH. s: A :l'ro 'ibM?
(MOIl CTy.l.l,{:HTbI, Moli cecTpbJ, MOR Y'lH- (OKHO, HO)J(H, Kllla'lH, CO'lHHCHHe, 'fail,
TenbHJ.fUa, MOM My:.K, MOH 6paTbSl, Moil 001lKa, KHHrH, nOpTQ>e1lb, xne6, py'fKa)
npexpeccop, MOH Rpo$eceopa)


I. Where is your brother? r.n:e

TDO$! )"lHTeJlbHllua?
T; r,ne B<1W 6ph? _ _ _ (6KHa)?
S: r }tt~ BalU 6p;h'? __ (Harne) _ ?
T: (6paTbSl)? _ _ _ (aBT66yc)?
S: r,ll,e RautH 6paTLlI? _ _ _ (KJIIO'fH)?
T: (c&TPbl)?
S: r,ll,l;~ BalUN cec-rpbl?
_( _ _ ?
_ _ _ (My,.)?
_ _ _ (Y'lHTCnblIHn a)?

2. This is my briefcase. 3TO MOH nepMI.
T; :)-rO MOH nOpTlt~Jlb. _ _ _ (Kop66Ka).
S::}yo MOii IIOJIT+em-. _(ero) _
" _ (ero) . _ _ _ (KOpOOlClt).
S: :}'fO en) nop'rtenb. _ _ _ (}''fHTenb).
T: (KapaUlIaW). _(HX) _
S: ~ro ero Kapatl,luiw. _ _ _ (Y"HTellli).
_ ~_(nepO). _(e') _
_(MOlf) _ _.


All possessive modifiers of the changing type have Dominative plurals that end in -M.

whose my, mine your, yours our, ours your, yours

'tbH MO" TBOH HllWH BarnH

The third person possessives, ero, ee, and Hx, never change their fonn and thus have no special
fonns for the plural.

rlle ee paOOTbl? Where a~ her papers?

r,lJ;e er6 paOOTbl? Where are his papers'1
rlle Hx pa66Tb1? Where are their papers?

The prepositional case:

singular and plural endings of nouns


rlle Bbl Y"Kmt pyccICIfii S13but, B wKOne? Where did you study Russian, in school?
- Hb, B yUHBepcKThe. No, at the uTlil'ersity.
A BaC BHAM ua miKltMM. I saw you at the lecture.
sf BaC BHAen B SYJUfTOP"M. I saw you ill the auditorium.
86T 116*, us CTOJIe. Here's the knife on the table.
OHa 6blJ1a B rOpolle. She was in tow".
3m TeOH KUHrH us oOJJKe'1 Are these your books on the shelf?
On H neTp6Ba - nyliwHe CT)',IJ;eHTbl II noi He and Miss Petrov are the best students in this
rpYnne. group.
86T HX paOOTbl, 3J1ect. ua C"'IjJle. Here are their papers on the chair.
Bblllonro CTOliJlH B 6..epeLJ;H? Did you stand in line long?
o ..OM Bbl ):JjMaeTe? Whom are you thinking abaul?
- 0 MapH". AboUl Maria.
- 06 Haaue. About fl'an.
- 0 JI,,&e. About Lev.
CTYlltUThl n"can" a "apOllax CCCP. The students wrote about Ihe peoples of the
K03JIOB n"can a rpp,"ax. Kozlov wrote about the Georgians.


most CTOJ1-, 01(110-, and ",eml-c1ass ,1J,BepL-c1ass nouns and all nouns ending
nouns In -Kii, -UH, and -He in the nominative

-e -H

Ha CTOne B 6'1Cpe,1J,K
B wK6J1e o EBreHHH
06 Y"HTCJle 06 06meiKH-rHH
o nlHiThe B 3,1J,aHJlH



Ha CTomlx
B lllK()JIax
B o'lepemix
B ll.BepAX
06 ylfHTemix 06 06me)ldiTHHX
B 3,1J,aHHHX

Note: The prepositional case is always used with a preposition, usuaJly one of the following:
8 (or 80) in, at
Ha on, at
o (or 06, or 060) about, concerning, on, of

The alternate form of B is BO, used before certain consonant clusters: 80 8eeM in everything,
80 (J)paIlQHH in France.
Alternate forms of 0 are 06 and 060. 06 is used before words beginning with a, 0, y,:I, and H:
06 :iTOM, 06 yKpaHttlt3x. 060 occurs only in a few fixed phrases, such as 060 Mne about me and
060 DCeM about everything.

Repeat the models given above until you are familiar with the endings of the prepositional case.


I. (Lev) She \lias talking about Lev. 2. (Ivan) We were thinking about iI'an.
T: (JIeB) ami rOBOpHna 0 JILBe. T: (MBaH) Mbl llyMaJIlf 06 I1nalle.
s: Ollli roBopMJla 0 JILBC. s: Mb.i llYM3J1H 06 I1BllHe.
" (6ph) (OHa) _ T: (o6en) (Mbl) _
s: Olili rOBOpMJla 0 6plhe, s: Mb.i ".yM3J1K 06 ooclle.
(cecTPa, M)'iK, np<Xfleccop, rallSl, ropo.u, (ypOK, Y'l.UTeJIb, yHlfBCpcUTCT, OpnoB,
.KHlira, Kapalfllaw, HOiK, .ueno, nOJIKa, 3K3aMCIl, y'lUTCJlbHHua, 06tUCiKuTue,
'1aH) Ocellb)

128 LESSON 7

Cue should be given beron: the qucslion is asked.

J. (Kirill)
Who are you fhinking about? 2. (han)Whom are you talking aboul?
Aboul Kirill. Aboul Ivan.
T: (KHpW) 0 Il:OM 8bl ttYMaCTt:? T: (Wsau) 0 kOM ill roBOpJ"IWb?
s: 0 KNpKnIlC. s: 06 HBauc.
T: (KonJl) 0 XOM 8W .aYMaCTt:? (OnSl, Y'HfTeJlb. y'fHTeJlbUilLUl, OpnoB,
s: 0 KOJle. aMepHll:aHk8, y6oPLUHua)
(TaJIJI. K03JIo8. CeMeu, Mapnfl, Marna,
HHua, E8reHHii, Uapanll:HtI, !>oplfC, Ky-
po'fIl:HH, HmwJl8ii)

3. (Professor Orlov) Whom is he asking oboul?

Abollt Professor Or/ov.
T: (npo$eccop OpnOB) 0 KOM OH cnpaWHBaeT?
s: 0 lIPO~CCOpe Opno8c.
(WBnH, HHHa, KonJl, aMepUKaHK8, MapuSI, y'flfTCJlb. y'lIlTeJlbHHua, Oner, HItKOJlaH)


I. Hal'e yOIl /orgollen aboul Lev? 2. Were you thillking about Lev?
No, I haven'tforgollen about Lev. Yes, I was thinking about Lev.
T: Thi 3a6hui 0 JIbBe? T: TblllYMart 0 JIbBe?
s: Hh, Ii He 386t:VI 0 JlLBC. s: .li, Ii n.YMll.II 0 JlbBC.
T: Tbl 386b'ut 0 JBOHKe? T: Tbi11YMart 06 }"IHTeJle?
s: HeT, Ii He 386bin 0 JBOH"e. s: .la, Ii .l\tMll.II 06 Y'flhene.
(06 8MCpUld.Hue. 06 yKpaHHue, 0 JIbee, (0 npo$eccope OpnoBe, a cecTpe, 0
o lBOHKe, 0 no.napxc, 06 aMepHKllmre) rane, 0 6paTe. 0 Kone, 06 WeaHe
neTpDOHlfe, 06 WpltHe neTpDOlle)


1. She forgot about Ihe students. 2. han didn'l write about the schools.
She/orgol about Ihe studenl. Ivan didn't write about the school.
T: Omi 3a6blna 0 CTy.neHTax. T: WoaH He n"ci.n 0 WKOJlax.
s: Ollli la6bina 0 CTy.nCIl"l'C. s: WBan lie UHciin 0 IUKOJIC.
T: OHa 3a6blJla 0 npQ(l~ccopax. T: Haall lie O"ci.n 0 npoQ>eccopax.
s: Ollli 3a6blJla 0 upoepcccope. S: Wealllle IDlC8.rJ 0 upoepcccopc.
(0 6paTbl'IX, 0 cecl'pax, 0 KHHrax, 0 (06 y'fUTeJ!HX, 0 6paTbHx, 0 KIIHrax, 06
WKOJlax, 0 neKUHRX, 0 ncpbRx. 0 nnaTMIX, ypoKax, 06 ylllmepcHTeTaX, 0 rOpD.nax,
o pa6oTax) 06 O'fepeJ1.llX, 0 rpyJHHax)

3. Do yOIl want to find out aboUl Ihe exam? 4. What "ave you heard about her brother?
Do you want 10 find OUI aboul the exams? What "ave you hf!(Jrd about her brolhers?
T: Rbl xonhe yJHaTb 06 .3I03McHe? T: 4TO Obl CJ1bllUaJlJI 0 ee 6paTe?
s: Obi xoniTe y:JHaTb 06 :teoaMeHax? s: LITO Bbi CJlbnuaJIH 0 ee 6p8.TbIlX?
T: Rbl xOnf"re y:maTb 06 ypOKe? T: 4T6 Bbi cnh.nnartH 0 ee cecTpC?
s: 0 ... xonlTe y:J.luin 06 ypO"ax? S: LITO Dbi cnbuull.llK 0 ee cec"fpax?
(06 aBT06yce, 06 o6ene, 06 y'fIlTeJle, 0 (0 era npo4x:ccope, 0 ero Y'I"TeJlC, 0 ee
nCn.lHH, 0 co6palllm) Y'fHTeJ1bHIlUe, 0 ero CO'fIlIlClIlIH, 0 ee

LESSON 7 129

The sislers forgot about Ihe brOlhers. The book if in tire drawer.
The brothers forgot about the sislers. Tire books are in tire drawers.
T: Cecrpbl Ja6butH 0 6paTbHX. T: KHiira B siml-nce.
s: fipaTMI Ja6NJJII 0 cecTpax. s: KIIHrH B liulHKax.
T: npexpeccopa Ja6bl11l1 0 CTY.QeHTax. T: PY'lKa Ha CTOile.
s: CryncHTbl Ja6bllu. 0 npocfleccopax. s: PY"IKII lIa C"l'oJJax.
M)')KbJl Ja6buJH 0 :lKellax. 1<JttO'{ B nopT~e.
CTYAeUTbI 336bmll 06 Y"IITe.11J1X. nOMpoK B Kop66Ke.
Y66pUUtU,bl Ja6butH 0 npo4leccop3.x. CryACHT Ha neKullll.
rp)'JHm.l: 336b1JlH 0 JlXYnu. Cecrpa Ha :noaMeue.
Y"pal-fHU,bl Ja6wnH 0 rp)'Jl-fHax. CTYACHTbI B aYAHTopHII.
Y'lHTerui Ja6bUHt 06 y'lTeJlbIlHuax. Y'{ffTenb B 6116;IHOTcKe.


(The meelings) What did they write about?

About the meetings.
T: (C06p3.KH'I) 0 '{eM Oll nllcalm?
S: 0 c06paIlHIIX.
T: (HapO)lb1 CCCP) 0 'JCM au mtcanH?
S: 0 CCCP.
(KHHrn. era pa60Tbl. '1Jb!KH. neKu,IIH.
3K33MeHbI. aMepHXaHU,bl. Y"HTe.IIR.
ropoAa CCCP)


I. Singular: -e and -II

a. Most CTOJl-. 01\110-. and *CHa-<:Iass nouns take -e as their ending in the prepositional singular:
Ita CTOJIe. 06 oKHe. 0 eette. 0 pLl6e. 8 ropoAe. 0 MaThe, 0 ra..'Te. 06 "salle. 0 J1hae.'
Hard consonants are regularly replaced by their soft counterparts before -e in the prepositional
singular. Compare crOIl [stolj with Ita cro.'Ie [n:)Stale) and 0...'H6 [akn6] with B oKHe [vakQeJ. )g, m.
and u remain hard in this position since they have no sort counterparts: y66puoma [uborSCico],
06 y66pu.\lIlle [abub6r~~ici].

b. All JJ.BepL-c1ass nouns and those nouns with a nominative singular ending in ......ii. -Mil, or ......e
spelilheir prepositional singular ending with -M: 0 .ltlIipH, 8 O-.epellH, 06 0cettH, 0 co6paHHH. 0 neHIIH.
06 EBreuK, 0 lltliuu.

2. Plural: -ax and -'IX

a. Nouns whose stems end in a hard consonant or .. or Ul spell their prepositional plural
ending -ax: 0 KJDO'tax, 0 lQax, 0 croJlax. 0 *euax, 0 KHHrax. 0 nOJIKax. 0 npo4teccopax, 06
YlCpaHlluax. 0 IIHcLMax.
b. All others take the ending -fIX in the prepositional plural: 0 JJ.8eplix. 0 nopTeJlinRx. 06
y-.KTemix, 0 IIJJliThRX, 0 6pan,1IX. 0 nCpL1IX. 0 co6pauHIIX, 0 CO"lHBCIIHRX.
Note that -b is written in the prepositional plural only if it is also written in the nominative
plur,ti: Compare 0 MyeLliIx (nom pi Myebli) with 06 o-.epe,l],lix (nom pi O"IepeJl,tl).

, Note that the name)ln. U~ has the inserted vowel e in the DOminative: singular only. In the other forms... must he
inserted to preserve the softne5$ of the 11: 0

130 LESSON 7
Prepositions Band ua with the prepositional case

rne sam 6pAT? Whcre's your brother?

- Ha pa66TC. Al work.
- Ha 06CJ1e. At a dinner.
- Ha KOHuepTe. AI a concerl.
- Ha OOliTe. At the post office.
- Ha 3k3aMeHC. At an exam.
- Ha yp6Ke. Al a lesson.
- Ha co6paHHH. At a meeting.
- Ha neKUKH. AI a lecture.
- Ha 3386ne. At the plant.
- Ha CIlYJK6e. At work. BAwa cecrpa? Where's your sister?

- B YIIHBepcHTrn. At the university.
- B Im:6ne. At school.
- B Jla60paTopHlt. At the laboratory.
- B 6H611HoTcKe. AI the library.
- 8 cYMe. At GUM.
- B ropo,ae. Downtown or In town.
- B aYJlHTOpH". In the auditorium.
- 8 "")i6e. At the club.
- B 06ll.leJKKnrn. In the dormitory.
- B ropcoBeTc. At the gorsovet.


Repeat the models given, noting tbal with certain nouns only Ha can be used, with others only B.


They're noll' al Ihe exams. T: OHH Tcnepb Ha nCKUlfjfx.

They're now af lhe exam. s: OHN Tencpb us neKuHH.
T:Omi Tcncpb Ila :')K33.MCllax. (Ra co6pamurx, lIa, Ha ypoKax,
s: OliN Tcnepb Ha JKJlb,elle. B 6H6nHOTeKaX, B ayD,HTopHSlX, B
o6meiKHTHJlx, B na60paTopHJIx, B
11IKOnaX, B Kny6ax)


I. (singing Jesson) Where were you? 2. (laOOralory) JUSI where is she?

A t a singing lesson. Al lhe laOOralory.
T: (yp6K nemur) r.a.e BbI 6MnH? T: (na60paT6pHJI) r.a.e l:e olla?
s: Ha ypOKC ueHMIl. s: B Jla60paT6pHH.
T: (pa66Ta) r.a.e Bw6htnH? T: (r6po.a.) r.a.e.e olla?
s: Ha pa61he. s: 8 r6poJl.e.
(o6e.a., 3aaoD" nOlfT3, 3103Mcn, KOlmCpT, (rYM, 11IKon3, 1UIy6, ay.a.HTopHJI,
co6pallHC, cnyx6a, nCKUHjf) 6H6nHOTeKa. ytlHSCpcHTeT, 06IJJ,CJKHTHc)

LfSSON 7 13J
3. (work) Where is he now? 4. (meetings) Where did they hear about it?
At ....wk. At the meetings.
T: (paoora) Cae 6" -renepb? T: (c06paHHlI) rae Olllt 06 :)TOM
S: H a pa6che. S: Ha c06pUHJIX.
T: (UJ.JCona) rne ou renepb? T: (.3K:.aMeHbl) Cae omi 06 nOM CJIb1WaJlH?
S: B WKMe. s: Ha ::n.-:sattteuax.
(}'HHBepclITeT, nO'lTa, 3K3aMeH, na60pa (JaBoabl, ropona, ypoKH, WKOJ1bl, 6"-
TOpHJI, co6pallHe, laBOn, KOIIL\ePT, ro- 6JIHOTeKH, yHHaepcHTeTbl, na6opaTopuu)
pon, ypOK, o6en, neKLlHH)


There's the school.

Kolya's in school.
T: B6T wtcona.
T: B6T JaSO,ll,.
s: Komi 118 3aBo.a.e.
(nona, lUly6, ayaHTOpHJI, yHltBepcUTeT,
rYM, na60paTOplU~, 6u6nHOTeKa, WKO-
na, 06meIltTHe)


(planl) Where's Ivan? (neKtJ.HH) Cae CT)'J1eHThI?

At the plant. (ropoA) rJIe JIea?
T: (3aaoA) rll,c MBan? (aYJIHTOpHJI) f.ue KupHnn?
s: Ha 3aBone. (3K3aMeH) rtte npoq,eccop OpJIOB?
T: (wKona) fae HHna? (na6opaTopHJI) Cae MHna?
s: 8 UIKOne. (XOHUepT) fAe TBO" 6p;h?
(ytrnBepcmeT) rae ptlITOp? (o6eA) fJIe TBoJi cec;rpa?
(pa60Ta) rae Oirna? (06wexHnle) Cae CTYJIeHT1Ut?


I. Irina lvanovna was in town. 2. My brother is dowmowll.

T: Hpillla HaalloBlla fibUla B r6poJ1e. T: MMi 6paT Bropo.a.e.
s: I1pliHa "ulloBHa 6wul B n~pone. S: M6ii 6pliT B ropone.
T: (BArna cecTpa)~ . T: _ (cecTpA) _
s: 88ma ce<::T])8 6wni B ropone. S: Moti cte1lla B
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (noorre). _ _ _ _ _ (wx6ne).
_ _ (6,3<) _ _ (6pAThH) _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (co6'am<H). _ (3aBone).
(E,o) _ (Ee)-----
_ _ (Y"HTO'''') _ _ (nCKL\HHx).
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (3IOaMeHaX). _ _ _ _ (rYMe).
_ _ (CTytteHTbl) _ _ (MYx<) _
(H....) (TB6ii) _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (3K3flMeHe). _ _ _ _ _ (06ute:HTlflI).
_ _ (npo<j>eccopA) _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ()'IIHaepcHTe-re).

132 LESSON 7

English in (i.e., in (he interior) is usually rendered by Russian 8 and English on (011 the surface)
by Russian ua.
BCTone in the desk (or table)
ua CTOne on the desk (or table)
B 1t1llfre io the book
"a )Quire 00 the book

However, the English concept at may be rendered by either Hll or .. especially if the place
described is viewed in tenns of its function or the activity carried on there. In such instances, the
choice between ua or a is not dictated by the idea of position "inside" or "outside;' but is fixed for
a particular noun and must be memorized by the student as a set phrase. As a general rule, B is more
commonly used if the place is a building or enclosure, and ua is used if the place is described in
tenns of the activity carried on there.


lIa C06p<iIlIlIl, Ha C06P<iU1l.llX at a meeting, at meetings

113 3K311MeHe, H3 3K3aMellax at the exam, at exams
!fa, H3 3aB6.aax at the plant, at plants
lIa yp6Ke, Ha yp6Kax at the lesson, at lessons
Ha neKUIIH, ua neKUII.IlX at the lecture, at lectures
Ha oO'ne at the post office
"a CJlYx6e at work, on the job
ua pa66Tc at work
ua 06e.a.e at a dinner

2. B
B UJj6e, B Imy6ax at the club, at (or in) clubs
B 6H6J1HOrelCe, B 6H6nHOTt;ICaX at (or in) the library, at (or in) libraries
B 1l1l(OJlC, B at (or in) school, in schools
B YHHBCpcHTCTe, B ymmepciITtTax at the university, at universities
B rYMe at (or in) GUM

The personal pronouns and interrogatives KTO, 'ITO

in the prepositional case

a ..eM OlUi nllcA.Jm? What did they write about?

a K6M BblrOBopiITe? Whom are you talking about?
aua rOBOpHJla 060 MMe. She was talking about me.
_ _ _ _ _ 0 TOO<. _ _ _ _ _ _ about you.
_____ 0 aac. _ _ _ _ _ _ about you.
-,- 0 Hic. _ _ _ _ _ _ about w.
R0 HiM MII6ro e.m:una..n. I've heard a lot about him.
_ 0 ...0 ~
_ _ _ _ _ _ about her.
_ 0 UJix _ _ _ _ _ _ _ about them.


Practice the models until you are familiar with aU the fonns.

LI?SSON 7 133

I. Were you thinking about Nina? 2. Who was he writing about, me?
Yes, J was thinking about her. Yes, about you.
T: BbJ AYMaJIll a Hi1HC? T: 0 .cOM 6u nucilJl, 060 MHe?
s: .l{a, Ii ~MaJI 0 HiN. s: l{li, 0 Te6e.
T: Bbi AYMamt 0 Kone? T: 0 XOM OU nHcAn, 0 Te6e?
s: .l{a, Ii .n;YMaJI 0 HeM. s: .l{a. 060 ,..,.e.
(06 }"IHTeJTbllHue, 0 rane, (0 Bac, 0 HHX, 0 HeM, 0 Heit,
06 J.1aaHe, 0 ero ceCTpC, a nac, 0 Te6e)
o ee 6paTe)


I. She was tMnking about me. 2. Oh, you're here!

About whom? We were just talking about you.
T: Qmi AYMana 060 MHe. T: A, Bbi 3,uecb!
s:Q "OM? s: M.bI KlUI': pal roBOpM.rrM 0 de.
T: Qua llYMana 06 yp6ke. T: A, ThI 3,!1ecb!
s: O..eM? s: Mw KIlK pa3 1"000pKnM 0 TOOe.
(0 WKone, 0 raJIe, 0 Te6e, (OR, OHH, alia, Komi, HHua,
o Hac, 06 3K3aMeHax, 06 )"IHTene, ranJl)
o co6paHHH, 0 cecrpe)


(You) Whom was he asking about?

About you.
T: (Bbi) o KOM OH cnpaw"san?
o 1Uie.
" (Tho) o ICOM OH Cnp3.wHaan?
o Te6e.
" (jI, OHa, MbI, BbI, OU, OU")


Who is he? T: KT6 Bbi?

I haven't heard of him. s: H 0 sic He CJJWWaJI.
T: KTo 611? (OIlR, TbI, aHa, all,
s: H0 HeM He'I. Bbl, OHa)


I. rye heard a lot about American women. 2. She's terrific.

What have you heard about them? The professors speak highly of her.
T: Jt
MH6ro cnbuuan 06 aMepHJ:3.HKax. T: Qlla MOnOlleQ.
s: If.TO aW 0 mix c.rn:nuam.? s: Opo+eccopa 0 iteR xOpornO f"OBopfl.
T: .st MH6ro em.lwan 0 sac. T: Bbi MOnOlleU.
s: If.TO sbi 060 Mne CJlbrWllJIM? s: npo~pa 0 B8C xOpowO rOBopiT.
(0 era cecTpe, 0 ero )"IHTemlX, 0 ee (on, Mbl, Bbi Bee, OIlH, TbI, JI)
6paTC, 06 YKpIUIHuax, aero )"tHTeJle, 06
aMepHxaaQaX, 0 ee npo4leccope, a ee
MjJKe, 0 er6 ::.:ene)

134 LESSON 7
I didn't think about that. OKJ1 0 m'lc He CJlWWa.n.II.
T: R 06 jTOM He nOAYMan. _ _ (0 Te6e) _
s: A 06 nOM He DOn,yMaJI, _ _ _ _ _ (He nHcAnH).
(On) _
(On.) - - - c - - - - - -
_ _ (0 HeH) _ _ _ (0 Blie) _
(8';') _ _ (ue 3a6btna).
_ _ (060 MHe) _ (M';') _
------c- (ue CJlWWanH). _ _ (0 RHX) _
_ _ (0 HaC) _ (On) _
(OnM) _ _ _ (06 jTOM) _
_ (ue Don,jMan).

Remarks on stress sbift in nouns

A change in the position of the stress occurs frequently in the Russian declension of nouns, but it
follows fairly regular patterns. The most typical of these pauems are given below.
1. Stress shirt from stem in the singular to endings in the plural.


ropaLl B ropone ropoAa B ropoAax
~eno o nine ~en' o L1eJ13,x
My>< o MYJKe M)'*bli o Mj')lCMix
yuheJll. 06 Y'lirrene Y'lHTeJlli 06 Y'lHTeJuix
npo<j>ec=p o npo4)Cccope npo<j>eccopa o npo4leccopAx
WKafjl OWx3.<Pe uu:afjlw o wICa41ax

2. Stress shift from endings in the singular to stem in the plural:

:lICeHli o :lICCHe :lICellbi o :CHax
=pO o cecrpe cecrp~ o cecrpax
3HM3 o 311Me 3HMbI o 31iM8X
OKHO H80KKe oKHa lIa oKHax
ncpO o nepe nepbJl o nepb)lX
nllCbMO o IlIICbMe nJ1CbMa o m.fcLMaX

3. Stress shirt from stem in the nominative singular to endings in all the singular and plural
forms where a vowel ending exists.
cron lIa CTOne CTonw Ha crona-x
Kapau.A<iw o Kapallnawe KapaHnaWH o KapaJlLI,awax
KJUO. o ICJ1101Ie V1lOlIH o V1JOlIax
110. o 1I0.e HO:ltai o ROXaX
orypeu. 06 orypu.e 06 orypuax
Jl3WK o Jl3b1Ke Jl3l>/K" o Jl3b1Xax

The third group of nouns actually have tbeir stress consistently on the endings, where there
actually are endings. Where the ending is zero (as in the nominative singular) the stress is of necessity
on the stem, usually on the last syllable.

LESSON 7 135

~ ~ ruwuv 'Ul:d- / H-O $ ~

y>= ~~,/<XUU<L,~~~.

~ -k~~~'<-<Z

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ur:?:.
j<2./UO ~ ~ ~ U- ~ ~

136 LESSON 7
- Oner. Tbi CJlbIWa.n? rOBOpRT. HHHa 601lb8a.
- HeT, OIHl 3Jlop6aa. CMOTpli, BOT OHa HJJ,eT.
- HUHa, Dbl HlteTC?
- A, 3.npaeCTByihe. Ji: H,ny B :ho 3JJ.aHHe. TaM ceH'IaC 6Yn.CT rOBOPHTb peKTOp.
- nOWJIH If Mbl, Oner. 3To HHTepeeHo.

CerOJlHSI Y HaC H3 ntnurn 6bIn omm aMcpHxaucu. OM Y'lKn PYCCKHH $l3bzK B yHHBePCH-
Ho xlix? MO:lkeT 6b1Tb 38.BTpa DB 6ylteT 8 CTonOsoH.

- XOTifTC nOHTii 113 KOHUepT. MHna?

- C y.noB6J1bCTBItCM. KCnrlTH, :ho 6ecnmiTIIO?
- }la. Hy, nod. >1 ceH'tac enemY H3 co6paHHc B JellYG.
- Ao CBH,l],3HH5I.

LESSON 7 137


CJ10Bapb (CJ1oBapli) (m) dictionary (dictionaries)

rAe Moil CJ10Bapb? Where's my dictionary?
y Te6li you'have; at your place.
Y Te6li Moil CJ10B!lPb? Do you have my dictionary?
BJla;:uf.\tHP, y n6li MOM CJlO8ipl. ? Vladimir, do you have my dictionary?
Y MeHli I have; at my place
Hk, He y Med. No, I don't.
OH y CeMellOBa Semyonov has it
p.i3Be really; are you sure!
Pbu Ott He y CeMeHOBa? Are you sure Semyonov doesn't have it?
y Hero [uQiv6J he has; at his place
y Hero ne-r he doesn't have it
HCT, y Hero He-r. No, he doesn't have it.
cnpaUHfBaTb (I) to ask, inquire
(prv cnpocliTb)
TOJIblCO 'ITO [tolk;>~t;>J just, just now
.st TOJIblCO 'ITO cnpaWHBM. t just asked.
HeT, y HCI"O m!:T. A TOJILKO 'fTO No, he docsn', have it. I just asked.
OK y K03J10Ba Kozlov has it
Toras, MO*eT 6brT.... Oil Then maybe Kozlov has it?
Y KoJJtou?
3auliTlUI (pi) studies, classes
Ha 3amiTHJlX at classes
K03J16Ba He 6blJlO. Kozlov was absent (or missing).
KoJJtoBa CerO,llHK He 6LrJlO Kozlov didn't attend his classes
Ha 3aUnurx. today.
MO:'eT 6Wn., ..... ocriBlJJT CB6ii Maybe you left your dictionary at
CJlOBSp.. B 6tt6mtoTiKe? the library?
st riM He 6WJ1. I haven', been there.

nowen,nowma,nowmo,nowmu went
(irreg past of nOHTl1:)
51 nowen .llOMOH. I went home.
nOCJIe 3aHliTHH after classes
nOCJle 3aHlhHH $I nowCJt .llOMOH. After classes J went home.
cp<iJy immediately, right away, at once
Cpa3y nOCJle 38HlITHH H"owerl Right after classes I went home.

KaKOU-TO cnooapb a dictionary, some sort of dictionary

B CTonoBou $I BU.llen KaKOU4To I saw a dictionary in the dining haH.
y Hac B cronooou in our dining hall
'y Hac U cTonOBoH si BUtleJI I saw a dictionary in our dining han.
KaKO"~TO CJIOaapb.
nOtlO>KJl:3.Tb (prv I) to wait (a limited amount of time)
noJJ.o*.lUi, y HaC B CTOJlOBOH Wait a second, I saw a dictionary in our dining
11 BH.neJI K8KOii-TO CJlOOapL. hall.

lfaocpHo probably, likely

3TO, HaacpHo, Moil CJIOBapb. It's probably my dictionary.
nocMoTpIO I'll take a look
3TO, HaBepllO, MOH. noiiJJ:Y DOCMOTpID. It's probably mine. I'll go take a look.

Mara3HII store
.lI6n~eH,.lIOn*H3.,.lIOJl*H6,.a0~HhI must, have to, got to (lit. obliged, obligated)
R .aOmKeH nOHTH a Mara3HH. I've got to go to the store.
Koe-'!To [k6jd t6] a thing or two, a couple of things
A Ii Dom B Mara3HH And I've got to go to the store to buy a couple
..6e--'1TO "ynHTL. of things .


I1CTOPI1S! history
Y MeHR rerrepb I1CTOpll.sf. I have history now.
nHTCpaTypa literature
Y MeHJ1. Tcnepb JlHTepaTypa. I have literature now.
rcorp<icflH.lI geography
Y MCHJ1. Teocpb reorpacfmSl. I have geography now.
MaTeMannia mathematics
Y MeHli Tenepb MaTCMann::a. 1 have mathematics now.
4)1bHKa physics
Y MCHJ1. Tenepb epH3HKa. I have physics now.

Y MCHli Tenepb xHMHS!.
I have chemistry now.

140 LESSON 8
r Jle Moii CJI0BapL?

H. - HHKomiit 8. - BJla,IlHM.Hp

H. BnaaiiMHp, vlac;tirpir 1
y refili MOM CJJOOapb? u\i~a m6j slav3f !

B. 2 HCT, Qe' j
He y MeHJi. QiUqUQil j
A p3.Joe OU He y CeMeHOBa 11 a nizyi 6n Qiu~iJllon~\p,}!
H. J HeT, Qet!
y Hero Rer. uQiv6 Qetl
.st TonbKO 'iTO cnpflWHBan. ja t61bst~ spdisiv~1 !
B. 4 Torna. MO)KeT 6bJTb, lagda m6iidbit
Oil y K03nooa? 6n ukazJov~ 1
H. 5 K03Jl003 cer6.nHSl: kazlbvd ~iv6dQd
He 6blJlO ua 3aHJlTlUlx. 2 ~H~biI3 n3zaQa\ijax!

B. 6 MO:>KeT 6bl:Tb, m61idbi\

TId OcT3BHJI CBOK cnoBapb Ii astayiJ sv6j slavar
B 6H6nHoTeKe? v~iblia\elti j

H. 7 A TclM He 6b1J1. ) ja tam Qebil j

Cpa3Y n6cne 3aHJiTHH Sfazu p6sli 7.aQa\ij
nowen .nOMO". pasol dam6j 1
B. 8 nOJIOJK.llH, podafQi j
y HaC B CTOJl680H unas rstalov;)j I
Ji BH.a.en K3KOii-TO ja yic;tiI kak6jta slavar!

H. 9 3TO, HaaepHo, MOij. eld oa yem;) moj !

nOH,lJ;Y nOCMOTpiO. pajdu JY.)smatrii 1
B. 10 A Ji )l611)KeH noAnf B Mara3HH a ja d61zin paN vm~ga~in f
K6e-<IT6 Kytut.Th. k6jo!l6 kURi\ j

NOTES Pli,3Be is a word used to express surprise or incredulity, such as: you don',

mean to say! it is,,'t possible! really! and so forth.

Note the use of the pluml uwrrH.II to mean class. This is the usual word for

classes or studies at the university. JleKltH.II may also be used to refer to university
classes, but it is more often used in its literal sense (lecture) to describe an event
outside class, such as a talk by a visiting lecturer. Compare also ypOK (literally
lesson), used botb to mean any kind of pTimte lesson and c/as.s at the preuniversity
CTYJJ.CIITbi TeOepb Ha 3auliTltJut The students are in classes now.
.st MY Ha nCKluno. I'm going to a lecture.
Y'leHHKH Ha ypOKax. The pupiJs are in class (lit. at their

LESSON 8 141
) Contrast A TaM He tiblJl I haven't been there with K03J10S8 cerolUul lie tiblJlO
Ita 3aHlITHRX Koz/ov wasn't at his clusses today. ln the second example, a neuter
verb and a genitive case subject are used to emphasize Kozlov's absence, i.e., to
point oul that he was missing.
4 lI.0Jnl('etI is a short-form adjective used together wilh the infinitive 10 mean
must, has (or have) to. lIS literal meaning is obliged or obligated.

,Eep6na Europe
KapTbI Eep6nbl maps of Europe
y eac ecn. you have
Y sac ecrb K8.pTW ESpOllbI? Do you have maps of Europe?
npo.naelUHu,a saleslady
olKnMTb (I) to expect
Her, HO MbI. OXHJl,aeM 33eTpa. No, but we're expecting them tomorrow.
He.u.e.rtH (He.a.CnH) week(s)
Ita cne.a.ylOlUeH He.ll.ene next week
Hh, HO MW O~eM Ha eJle.a.yJOweti He.QC.'1e. No, but we're expecting them next week.
Ha :hOH HeLlene this week
Her. HO Mht OlKH,ll;aeM ua iTOH No, but we're expecting them this week.
KHT3ii China
dpm KHTfuI a map of China
Y eAc ten, dpm JurraJI? Do you have a map of China?
Y Bac ue-r Kii.pTbl KHTb? Don't you have a map of China?
A K3pTh1 KUl'b Y BAc mh? And you don't have a map of China?
T6xe too, also; either
A dpTW K'wr8.A: Y alic To:e Her? And you don't have a map of China either?
/cTb there is, there are
Y HaC ecrb KapTa KHTali. We do have a map of China.
nO)l(3.IIyHCTa please, you're welcome
a6T nO)l(3.IIyHCTa here you are
BOT, nmriJlyHcrs. Here you are.
H also, too
MHe Hy)ltHa dpm I need a map
Ho MHe nyJKHa It dpTa EBpOnbi. But I need a map of Europe, too.
aceTaKH nevertheless, still, just the same
Ho MHe BCe-TllKII H)']DIa II ...'1ipn But just the same I need a map of
Eo....... Europe, too.
KnOCK stand, newsstand
cnPOCHTb (pfv II) (ipfv cnpauumaTb) to ask, inquire
A 8M cnpoclhe a IOIOcke. Ask at the newsstand.
yroJl (gen sg yrna) comer

142 lSSON 8
ua yrJ1Y on the corner
A BbicnpocNn B Ktt6cKe 113 yrJlY. Ask at the newsstand on the comer.
TaM TO:lKC lib [it's] not there either
A )?Ke TaM 6b1J1. Tht TOlKe Hb. I've already been there. They don't have it
there either.
aTnac atlas
KflK uaC<JeT 3.Tnaca? How about an atlas?
Klili: Tor,na Hac.." iTJlaC8? How about an atlas then?
AoporOH expensive, dear
ATJlac, "_puo, 6"Iettb LlOpor6i? An atlas is probably very expensive, isn't it?
Her, He O"leHb. No, Dot very.
npHHecTH (prv I) to bring
Ii npllHecY I'll bring
Hh, He 6oteRb. Cei..lic DpHHecY. No, not very. I'll bring one right away.


y Hee OCTb she has

Y Hee eCTb ilTnac? Does she have an atlas?
y HHx ecrb they have
Y Hlix ecn. lhnac? Do they have an atlas?
ICyeOk (gen sg KycKa) p'''''
XOTIITe ewe kyooK xnt6a? Want another piece of bread?
CT3k3.H glass
Xonhe eute CTadH MonoJCa? Want another glass of milk?
<JaWKa cup
XOTl1Te eute <JawKy K6le? Want another cup of coffee?

B Mara3Hue

B. - BnaJUtMHp
n. - np0,D,aalUl1l{a

B. Y 03C ecTb uvas je~t

KlipTW EBp6nw? karli jivropi !
n. 2 HOT, Vel)
HO Mbl O)KH,naCM no mi alid:ijim I
Ha CJ1eAYlomcH HCAMe. nasltdujultij vi~Cli )
B. ) A KlipTW KHTfur aUrti !sitaj;J !
Y Rae T6J1CC Her?l uvas toli 'Jet!

n. 4 Her, ecrb. 2 vet) j~\)

B6T. no>d:.JIyHCTa.) VOl) pilil,"')

LESSON 8 143
B. 5 XOpoUJo. x~raso 1
Ho Mite ace-Yak" H)1)KH3 no mQe r5l~\i nuzna I
" dpTa E8pOnbi. i Idirl~ jivropi 1
n. 6 A 8bl cnpocHTC a vi spraiti
B KuocKe Ha yrny. f\i6s~i nouglii )

B. 7 )?Ke TaM 6blJI. ja uze tam bill

TliM TO)Ke neT. tam tozi Qet 1
n. 8 KaK U3ClIeT aTnaca? kak tagda na~6t 3tbs:d
B. 9 ATJlac, uaaepHo, atlas nayerD~
6 .. eHb Jl.oporoii" ociQ d:uag6j 1
n. 10 HiT, He O'leHb. Qet! Qioci\l )
Ceii'lac lIPHHecy. icas ppfJ.isii 1

NOTES I Note that TOOKe means 100 or also in affirmative sentences, but neither or

not . .. either in negative ones:

Compare )KeHa T6)Ke pa66TaeT My wife works at the gorsovet,

B ropcoaeTe. too.
with KapThl Kunhl y. B3C You don't have a map of
T6:.e HCT? China either?
A To:tce ero Be 3H{UO. Neither do I know him or I
don't know him either.

In answering negative questions, Russians lIsually begin their answer with


HeT regardless of whether the answer is affirmative or negative:

A dPTbi KimiH Y oac TO:lKe HCT? And you don', have a map of China either?
- HOT, ecn.. Yes, we do.
T~ riM He 6b1R? Weren't you there?
- Her. 6bln. Yes, I was.
- Her, lie 6hlJ1. No, I wasn't.

l nOiKaJIYHCTa is a polile word used in various situations:

nO:lK3.nyHCTa, JaXOMTe. Come in, please.
B6T, nO;Jl(3.nyHCTa. Here you are.
nO:lKanyHCTa. You first (at a door or entrance).
CnacH60. - nmlC3.nyMCTa . Thank you. You're welcome.

A few CT6JInouns like WKa+ and yroJl have a second prepositional case
ending in stressed -Yo which occurs only when they are used with prepositions
Ha and B.
Compare KH6cIt ua yrJlY. The newsstand is on the corner.
with Ji rOBop.o 06 yrJle. I'm talking about the corner.
Compare Orypuhl B IllI:8<pY. The cucumbers ace in the cupboard.
with Ji rOBop.o 0 lllK3.q>e. I'm talking about the cupboard.

Basic sentence patterns
I. Y sac tX:Tb cnoBapb? Do you have a dictionary?
- ):la, tcTb. Yes, I do.
- ):la, y Melili ec-rb cnOBapb. Yes, I have a dictionary.
Y re6li tcTb cnosapb? Do you have a dictionary?
- )la, ecn.. Yes, I do.
- ):la, y Metui tX:Tb cnOSapb. Yes, I have a dictionary.
Y Her6 ecrb cnosapb? Does he have a dictionary?
- )la, ecn.. Yes, he does.
- J],a, y Her6 ten. cnOsapb. Yes he has a dictionary.

Y Hee ecn. cnOBAPb? Does she have a dictionary?

- )la, ecn.. Yes, she does.
- .L13., y llee tcTb CJI0Bapb. Yes, she bas a dictionary.
Y HaC ecTb CJI0Bapb? Do we have a dictionary?
- )la, ecn.. Yes, we do.
- J],a, y Hac ecn. CJI0aapb. Yes, we have a dictionary.
Y HHX ten. CJlOBapb? Do they have a dictionary?
- )la, ecn.. Yes t they do.
- J],a, y mix ecn. CJlOaapb. Yes, they have a dictionary.
2. Y BAc ecn. CJ10aAPb? Do you have a dictionary?
- HCT, Y MeHli HeT cnoaapli. No, J don't have a dictionary.
Y Te6li CcTb cnoBapb? Do you have a dictionary?
- HCT, Y MeHli HCT cnoBapli. No, I don't have a dictionary.
Y Her6 tcTb cnoaapb? Does he have a dictionary?
- HCT, Y Her6 Her cnoaapli. No, he doesn't have a dictionary.
Y Hee ecrb cnoaapb? Does she have a dictionary?
- HCT, Y Hee Hlh cnoaapli. No, she doesn't have a dictionary.
Y HaC tcTb CJI0Bapb? Do we have a dictionary?
- HCT, Y HaC HCT CJ1oBapli. No, we don't have a dictionary.
Y HHx ecrb cnOBapb? Do they have a dictionary?
- HtT, Y HHX neT cnoBapJi. No, they don't have a dictionary.

3. Y sac OCTb nopT(I~J1b? Do you have a briefcase?

- ,[la, y MeHl! eCTb nOpT~b. Yes, I have a briefcase.
- Her, y Me"" neT nOpT~nJl. No, I don't have a briefcase.

4. Y Me CcTb py'lKa? Do you have a pen?

- ,[la, y Meilli CcTb py<JKa. Yes, I have a pen.
- Htr, Y MeHR HeT py.urn. No, I don't have a pen.

5. Y sac ecTb M01l01(6? Do you have milk?

- ,[la, y HaC OCTb MOJlOICO. Yes, we have milk.
- Hlh. Y HaC HCT Monod. No, we don't have any milk.

6. 4T6 y sac Ttnepb? What do you have now?

- Y renepb IIHTepa-rypa. I have literature now.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ pyCCXHH J13blX. _ _ Russian _ _.
______ ",ocpa<l>". _ _ geography _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ HCTOPHJI. _ _ history _ _.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ MaTeM3.THka. _ _ mathematics __.
_______ 4lH3HK:a. _ _ physics _ _.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ xHMHJI. _ _ chemistry __

LESSON 8 145
7. KOJJIosa cerOJlHR Her. Kozlov is absent today.
BJlaJ:tlIMHpa - - - Vladimir ~ _
EBreHIDI _~ _ Evgeny ___
KHpJinJla _ Kirill _
~MeHa __ Semyon _
Jlbaa _ Lev _
Onera _ Oleg _
HHICOJl.h _ Nikolay _

8. KOJIH B'Iepa IU~ 61>1J10 Ha JaHjnuu. Kolya was absent from classes yesterday.
rI"m _ Galya _
HHHbI _ Nina _
Mila _
- - - - - -_- Maria _
MAwH _ Masha _
On. _ Olya _

9. Er6 TaM ue 6blJ1o? Wasn't he there?

- Her, He 61>1110. No, he wasn't.
- Her, Oil TaM 6W. Yes, he was there.
Ee TaM He 6bJno? Wasn't she there?
- H&T, He 6bJJlO. No, she wasn't.
- Hh, olla riM 6blJ1a. Yes, she was there.
Hx riM He 6blJ1o? Weren't tbey there?
- H&T. He 6hlJlO. No, they weren't.
- Her, omi TaM 6b1J1H. Yes, they were there.

10. tUM no noPTltru>? Whose briefcase is that?

- BJla.nHMllpa. Vladimir's.
- CeMeuoBa. Semyonov's.
- Onera. Oleg's.
- CeMeHa. Semyon's.
- npo4leccopa OPJlosa. Professor Orlov's.
- Epha. My brother's.
- XHT'p6Ba. Khitrov's.
- Uapan.ICHHa. Tsarapkin's.
- Yo:nhe.nR. The teacher's.
- HHKOJli.H. Nikolay's.
- EBreHIUI. Evgeny's.

II. 4bH 3TO KJ1IO'Ui? Whose keys are these?

- Y66plJ.tHllhl. The cleaning lady's.
- npOJlaBlUHLl,b1. The saleslady's.
- CecTpbi. My sister's.
- )f(eHbJ. My wife's.
- MapH". Maria's.
- Y'IHTeJThHHLl,b1. The teacher's (t).
- H"Hhi neT'p6BHbJ. Nina Petrovna'~.

.aeno HHllbl.
12. ~TO ThaI's Nina's business.
___ 6"". _ _ Olya's _
_ _ _ r<um. _ _ Galya's _ _
_ _ _ K6nll. _ _ Kolya's _
_ _ _ CAw". _ _ Sasha's _
____ npo,lUlOWHUbI. _ _ the saleslady's __.
_ _ _ y60PUll1Ubl. _ _ the cleaning lady's __.
_ _ _ _ OWlTtpa. _ _ tbe custodian's _ _
_ _ _ _ K03JI6oa. _ _ Kozlov's _ _
_ _ _ peKTOpa. _ _ tbe chancellor's __,
_ _ _ JIb". _ _ Lev's _

Pronunciation practice:
hard versus soft consonants

A. [v) vs. Iyl Usual Cyrillic spelling 8; sometimes ... or 81..

Note the pronunciation of hard Iv] in the following:

(ivan] Ivan
[vi] you

and compare it with soft [V):

[d;)svidaQ.j.,) ,0:0 COItJl.aHItSi good-bye

(yi~jlJ B~cn saw

Russian [v), like the corresponding English sound, is made by bringing the upper teeth close to
the lower lip. Before [0] (and especially (iJ) tbere is often the auditory effect of a w-like off-glide.
Soft [V), on the other hand, has the auditory effect of being followed by a y-like off-glide.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating bard [v] and
soft [y], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

USSON 8 147
B. l~ vs. lO Usual Cyrillic spelling til; also 8; sometimes BE. or ....

Note the pronunciation of hard (f] in the following:

[~itif6n] telephone
rAfri!<.j Africa
[rpal~eJ completely

and compare it with soft m:

WlipJ <t>HJumn Philip
[prafCs:lf 1 npocj>6ccop professor
[part[eIJ nopT~ briefcase

Russian (fl, like the corresponding English sound, is made by bringing the upper teeth close
10 the lower lip. Soft m
has the effect of a y-Iike glide following it.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [f] and soft
[0, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note that
before [0] (and especially [in, a w-like off-glide is often beard after hard [fl.

c. [IJ v>. III Usual Cyrillic spelling ]I; sometimes JIb.

Note the pronunciation of hard [I] in the following:

[yi4ilJ 8H.D:en saw

[Qebil] IIC6bU1 wasn't
[4 il'J AM' affairs
[rpalQeJ anOJIIle completely

and compare it with soft nJ:

nc~ JIea Le,

[balniJ 60JlbHhI sick
[p"t[e[) nopTtj>e.nb briefcase
[ucili[) }"lHTeJlb teacher

Russian hard Pl is made with the tip of the tongue against the back of the upper teeth and
wil.h the middle of the tongue lowered or hollowed out. English has a somewhat similar I in words
like ball. bull. and whole. In Russian the tongue muscles are tenser and the tongue hollower.
Russian soft OJ is formed with the front part of the blade of the tongue (not the tip) in contact
with the ridge of tbe gums behind the upper teeth. Soft nJ bas somewhat the effect of being followed
by a y-like glide as in English miffion.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard Pl and soft
[U. imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. ,

148 LESSON 8
Intonation practice: part II--questions without question words

Questions with a rising-falling contour. This contour is typical of questions where the major
stress is not on the last word. The pitch rises to a high peak at level 4 on the major stress and then
~rops to a point somewhere between levels 1 and 2.

Practice the following drills, imitating the tape or the instructor.

4 4
3 3
2 2
I 1
Bbl rOBopkrc no-pyccKH" Rbi CJIblIlIaJIH 06 3TOM?
3TO rbi, 6J1Si? QRa MOlKeT nOKnt?
Bqepa 6bIJlO c06paHHc? Bid .n.onfo pa66TaJIH?
68 .naBHO GoneR? RbI xontre KO<Pe?


Pronounce the following statements as questions.

4 4
I 1

o. He 6b1J1 H3 3K33.MCHC. o. He 6b1J1 Ha 3K3a.MCHC?

QHa .D:OCTana orypuhI. OHa .Ilocnin:a orypuhI ?
Y HaC 0cTb KOcf>e. YHac <cTb K6le ?
3TO Barna KuHra. 3TO Barna KIill:ra ?


Pronounce the following questions as statements.

4 4
-- 3

I 1

QHli 6WlH H3 KOHUepTe? Omi 6buTH Ha KOHl.,tepre.

Ha o6eJl OnJITb Kama? Ha o6eIl Oruln. Kawa.
Marna odriImJla KJllO'fH? Mawa ocraaHJIa KJlIO'fH.
ORa KynHna nOJlapoK? OHa K)'lliUta nOJlapoK.

LESSON 8 149

To have in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the present tense

Y Bac ecn. upaJ1.I1aw? Do you have a pencil?
- Aa, CCTh. Yes, I do.
- Aa, y Me",1 ecn. KapallJ{am. Yes, I have a pencil.
Y sac ecn. KHHra ? Do you have a book?
- All, ecn.. Yes, I do.
- A.a. y MeHi ecn. Iluira. Yes, I have a book.
y sac ecn. nepO" Do you have a pen [point]?
- Ali. ecn.. Yes, I do.
- .!la, y Memi ecn. nep6. Yes, I have a pen [pointJ.
Y sac ecn.
TeTp3..tuf" Do you have notebooks?
- All, <\cT. Yes, I do.
- )l;a, y MeHlI ecn. TeTpa.o:H. Yes, I have notebooks.
Y Te6i M6" Kapau.nam? Do you have my pencil?
-}ta, yMeHA. Yes, I do.
- Ai, 6H y MeRJi:. Yes, I have it.
Y Te6i Moi Iluira? Do you have my book?
- ){a, y MeHi. Yes. I do.
- .ai. OHa y MeUJi:. Yes, I have it.
Y Te6i M0C5 nepO? Do you have my pen [point)?
- )l;a, y Mem. Yes, I do.
- .!la, oU,6 y MeHR. Yes, J have it.
Y re6li MOK TeTpfuI,H? Do you have my notebooks?
- Aa, y Mel:Ul:. Yes, I do.
- Aa, OIlK y Melli. Yes, I have them.

Y sac cer6,llHJ1 3D<lMeH? Do you have an exam today?

- Ali, y HaC cer6,lUul 3oaMeH. Yes, we have an exam today.
Y sac cer6,llHJ1 1IeICUHR? Do you have a lecture today?
- )l;a, y HaC cer6.ItHR JleK1UUI. Yes, we have a lecture today.
Y MC cer6l{HH co6pallHe? Do you have a meeting today?
- )l;a, y HaC cer6.11HJI co6piIrne. Yes, we have a meeting today.
Y BaC cer6,lUU1 3K3aMeHbI? Do you have examinations today?
- Aa, y HaC cer6JU1R 3103.MeHbl. Yes, we have examinations today.


Repeat the models after your instructor or the tape until you are familiar with the patterns.


We do have cucumbers.
T: Y HaC ecn. oryPuhl.
s: Y HaC ecn. 0I'yplIW.
(60pl.l.t, Kama, 'laM, ([<$e. cene.ltl:a, MD-
1IOXO, pbi:6a. TeJI$H. I:JIIO<[H, CJ10saPb)


I. Do you IUlve a pencil? 2. Do you have fish?

Yes, I do. Yes, we have fish.
T: Y Te6li ecn. x:apaww? T: Y sac ten, phl6a?
S: ....... ecTlo.
s: )li. y Hlle ecn. pWtia.
T: Y Te6li ecn. KllH:ra? T: Y sac ten. oryp~?
s: ecn.. s: )li. y ecn. 0I')'plIhI.
(P)"llta. HO*, TeTpa.D.b, aTnac. nopnPem>, (CTonbi. aTnac, KapTa EBPOnbl, Kapau-
MonoIo, 6opm. ceneAICa) ,I1aWH, KHHnt, TeTp3JlH. Marepl-laJI Ha

3. Do you have a pencil? 4. Do we havefish?

Yes, I have a pencil. Yes. we do.
T: Y re6li ecn. KapanJlA.w? T: Y HaC teTb pbi6a 1
s: .all, y Men ecrb kapaH,Ilam. s: .lI.a, ecn..
T; Y re6li eCTb py'l.x:a? T: Y HaC ten. KJIJOIfH?
s: )la,y Memi ecrb PY'Ika. 5' ,lla, ecn..
(KUHTa, re:rpMb, lIonka, nopT~JU., (Kap1'a EBPOIIhl, BHJlKH, JlO)KKH, KapTa
Kop06Ka, TeTpMH. HO*) Kl-ll'all, kHHr1f, KapaHJ{aW.H, nepbg)


I. Do you have my keys? 2. Do you have my notebook?

Yes, I do. Yes, I have it.
T: MOR KJJI()'lH Y re6li? T: Y re6li MOJii ~1
s: .lI.a. y Metn1. s: )la, OIIa y Memi.
T: MOH XJDO'iH Y K03J1oea? T: Y Te6Ji Moa aTnac 1
s: .lI.a.. y Hero. s: .all, 6H y Me:tni.
(y uee. y HHX. Y Bac. y Hero, y re6S1, (MOg p)"lKa, MOR J:apTa KHTaJI, Moli HOX,
y Bn3.lUiMHpa, Y HHHbI) MOI-l nHcbMa. Moe nl-lCbMO, MOX Jlo:lllll:a.
Moe CO'(HHeHHe, MO" npaH,L{aw)

3. What do you have now, history? T: 41'6 y re6i reDepb, xMMHJI?

Yes, I have history now. s; )la, y Metlli Teoepb xHMHJI.
T: lho y re6li Tenepb, HCT6pH1I:? (JIOaMeH, co6paHHe, ypoK DeHHR. HCTO-
s: .lI.a. y Mewi Tellepb HCTOptlSl. pHJI, MaTeMaTHXa, JlHTepaTypa, lH3Hka,


The concept to have is most commonly expressed in Russian by means of the preposition y
plus the genitive case form of tbe noun or pronoun to indicate the possessor. The thing bad or
possessed is in the nominative case and is the grammatical subject of tbe Russian sentence.
Y sac tcTb KDJira ? Do you have a book? (Lit. By you is a book?)
- Y MeHli ecn. xllUra. 1 have a book.
Y HaC tcTb pw6a. We have fish or We do have fish.
Y BaC tcTb orypubl:? Do you have cucumbers?
- )la, eCTb. Yes, we do.
Y Bna.uHMHpa ec-rb nopTlf>enb. Vladimir has a briefcase.

en. is required in those constructions where the speaker wisbes to establish or affirm the
presence or existence of the subject under discussion. If it is used in the question it must be repeated
in the answer. It is omitted when some other part of the sentence is focused on.
'ho y Te6R renepb, pjCCK'HH R3b1K? What do you have now, Russian?
- H6T, Y MeHR reDepb MCTOpMll. No, I have history now.
Y aae MOH CJlosApb? Do yOIl have my dictionary?
Y sac Moii CJIOBapb? Do you have my dictionary?
Y sac CJI0Bap.. ? Is it a dictionary you have?

To have had in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the past tense


Y sac 6btn ::noaMell? Did you have an exam?

_ _ _ ypbK? _ _ _ _ _ a lesson?
_ _ _ _ yp6K nemf}!? _ _ _ _ _ a singing lesson?
_ _ _ _ aHrmHicKHH fl3b1K? _ _ _ _ _ English?
_ _ _ _ PYCCKlfH H3brK? _ _ _ _ _ Russian?

Y sac 6blJ1a JleKu,lf$l? Did y~)U have a lecture?

_ _ _ _ lfCTOplUf? _____ history?
~ MareM3TKKa? _____ mathematics?
_ _ _ _ reorpallUf? _____ geography?
_ _ _ _ JlHrepa:rypa? _____ literature?

y sac 6blJlO co6paHHe? Did you have a meeting?

_____ CO'tHHeHHe? _ _ _ _ _ a composition?
_ _ _ _ neHHC? _ _ _ _ _ singing?

y sac 6buJH 3k33MeHbl? Did you have exams?

____ WO KH ? _____ lessons?
_ _ _ _ co6p3JIJUI? _____ meetings?
_____ JlCkllHII? _____ Iectures?
_____ 3<lIlRTHSI? _____ classes?


Repeat the above models, nOling that for the past lense the appropriate form of 6wJJ, 6blJ1a. 6wJJo.
or 6WtH must be used to agree with the noun denoting the thing had or possessed .


I. Did you a/ready have an exam? 2. Did you have exams yesterday?
Yes, we did. Yes, we did have exams yesterday.
T: Y BaC r-e 6bm 3oiMeH? T: Y sac B'lepa 6buuf 30aMeHbI?
s: 11... 6WI. S: 11li, y HaC B"lep:i 6Y.rut 3JOaMeu:Y.
T: Y sac y:Jt.e 6bUlo co6paHlte? T: Y sac B'lepa 6w wOk?
s:)li, 6Wto. S: 11li, y de B'lep8 lWn yp6K'.
(neKU,HJl, ypok nelUUl, reorpalHJI, (c06pamte, ypoKH, neklUUl, HCTOpIDI.
3K33MeHbl, lH3Hll:a, MaTeMaTHIa. XHMIDl) mrreparypa, 31OaMeH, PYCCKHH 1I3blK.

152 LESSON 8

I. I have a box. 2. We're having a meeting loday.

I had a box. We had a meeting today.
T; Y MeHJI 6cn. Kop66Ka. T: Y "lic cer6.nlUl co6paHHe.
s: Y Memi 6h1J1i KOpOO...-a. s: Y Hic ttr6LUU1 fibulo co6pi.uHe.
T: Y MeRJi: ecTb nOpTlI>eJlb. T: Y HaC cerO~llJI neHlie.
s: Y Met(li 6blJl nopTcfCnb. s: Y Hic cer6)l1U1 6b1JJO oeHMe.
(KapaH~alll, n6JIKa, nepo, py'lKa, Tel"paJtH, (PYCCKI1H J13bIK, JK3aMell, JlOaMellbl,
110)1(, HO:lKll, KJUO'l, lUllO'lll) CO'lMllelllle, ypoK, phl6a, 6opm, Kawa)


I. We had an exam, did you? 2. Did you already have singing?

So did we. Yes, I did.
T: Y lIac 6wJI JlOaMeH, a Y B{IC? T: Y Te6li 'j>KC 6bmo nCHlle?
s: Y lIlic TO"lKe 6blJl. s: lI.a, 6w.o.
T: Y Ilac 6b1J]a JICKUJ.HI, a y sac? T: Y Te6Ji: )"KC 6b1J]a MaTeMaTHKa?
s: Y Hie To*e 6b1Jui. s: lla. 6b1JJa.
(JlOaMellbl, CO'lHHeUHe, Pycclnrn J13b1K, (neHHe, ypoKH, HCTOpMJI, <pH3ltKa, XHMH.II,
neUIle, IICTOpHJI. reorpa<pHJI, co6paHHe, CO~MHeHlJe)


(a meeling) Whal did you have yeslerday?

We had a meeling.
T: (co6palUle) 4TO y BaC B'Iepa 6wno?
'S: . Y HaC 6wJlO c06piuHe.
T: (3I03.Melll>i) 4TO y sac B'lepa 6bmo?
s: Y HaC 6bvrH ;nnbletlbl.
(PYCCICHii Jl3bDl:, J3.1IJ1T1U1 B na60paTopHH,
CO'lHfleHHe, neHIle, neKUHJI. 1'3601"3 B


To express the concept 10 haw! in the past tense in an affirmative sentence, Russian uses the
appropriate fonn af 6WI, 6wJla, 6Woo, or 6ba.'IlI to agree with the grammatical subject, i.e., the thing
Y HaC 6bUI 66pw. We had borsch.
_ _ 6Wla phl6a. _ _ fish.
_ _ co6pallHe. _ _ _ a meeting.
___ 6hlnH JK3aMeHbJ. _ _ _ exams.

The most typical affinnative response to questions using this construction is a short answer
containing tbe confirming roi plus the appropriate verb form.
Y Te6Ji: 6bt.n Jk33Meu? Did you have an exam?, 6bUI. Yes, I did.

t.f$()N 8 153
The genitive singular of nouns


3TO KJIw<Ul: npo4Jeceopa. These are the professor's keys.

_____ BaXTepa. ____ the custodian's __.
_ _ _ _ pCKTOpa. ____ the chancellor's __.
_ _ _ _ 6pfna. ____ Brother's __.
_____ BJIa.D:w.mpa. ____ Vladimir's __.
_ _ _ _ _ HllKOJlb. ___ Nikolay's __.
_____ ylIl:TCmr. ____ the teacher's __.

r,lJ,e KJIlO'IH ceCTpbT? Where are Sister's keys?

_ _ _ _ _ )"fHTeJlhIlHLU./? ____ the teacher's __ ?
_____ npO.a.aBUl:HLU>I? ____ the saleslady's __ ?
_ _ _ _ y66plUHl.J;b1? ____ the cleaning lady's __ ?
_____ aMCpl1K<lHKH? ____ the American woman's __ ?
_ _ _ _ Maplin? ____ Maria's __ ?

CnpOCK HaC'IeT nHcbM~L Ask about the letter.

_ _ _ _ _ _ oKua. _ _ _ _ the window.
_ _ _ _ _ _ MOJlOxa. ____ the milk.
_ _ _ _ _ _ neHH.If. ____ the singing.
_ _ _ _ _ _ CQ'H1HeHHR. ____ the composition.
______ o6wc)fdITlliI. ____ the dormitory.
_ _ _ _ _ co6paHHJ'I. ____ the meeting.


CTOJI- and oKHo-class nouns )Kemi-class nouos Luu:ipb-c1ass nouns

-R 0' -R -'" 0' -" -"

31l0HK8 }"Uh=o
HHKOJlatl :lKCuW
cry,aeHTa DJIaThH EBpOlILI Hcr6pHH TeTJ'luuo
,aena co6paIDfH H_ KliWH
nepa Kop66K11
nHCbM8 cry.n.eHTKH


I. CToJl-c1ass nouns ending in -L and -ii and oKHo-c1ass nouns ending in -c or -e in the nomina-
tive singular take -II in the genitive singular. All other CTOJl- and oKHo-c1ass nouns take -8 in the
genitive singular. OKHo-class nouns have the same ending as in the nominative plural, but the stress
may differ. Compare nHCLMa (nominative plural) with nHCbMa (genitive singular) and .!teJlli (nomina-
tive plural) with ,Il,ena (genitive singular).

154 LI!SSON 8
2. JKetlli~ and .ltBipb-class nouns have tlie same ending in the genitive singular as in the nomina-
tive plural. BUI note thai with *eaa-c1ass nouns, the stress may differ. Compare *eKLI (nominative
plural) with :litem:. (genitive singular) and ckJpw (nominative plural) with ct!CT'pW (genitive singular).


Repeat the above models after your instructor or the tape un IiI you are familiar with the pattern of
genitive singular endings.


(Kurochkin) Whose briefcase is that?

T: (Kjpo'lxHH) Yeit :iTo nop~b?
s: Kjpo'tKIUIa.
T: (Bna.a.H:MHp) qeit no nOJ'llPCnb?
s: 811anKMHpa.
(HuBa, K03JIoa, HHtconaH, y'lUTeJlb,
aMeplUCaHeu, Opnoa, aMepUXal1JCa, l1aall,


I. This is a book. This is a student. 2. This is a dictionary. This is the teacher.

This is a student's book. This is the teacher's dictionary.
T::no XHHra::no CTYllCHT. T: 3To CJl0eapb. 3To )"IHTeJ1b.
s: :no Kmira CT)'JJ,eHTa. s: :ho CJlOBapb )"IHTenlil.
T: 3TO xapaH)),aw. 3TO Opnoa. T: 3TO KapTa. 3TO KUTaii.
s: :ho Kapaww 0p110sa. s: :ho KBPTa Kn8ll.
3TO TeTp3Jn.. 3To Bna.luThfHp. 3TO KJUO<fH. 31'0 HHKonaH.
3To nopTle.rn>. 3TO npocl:lf:ccop. 3TO J>C3ynbTaTbl. 3TO co6paHHC.
:fro pa66Ta. :fro 'l'Y3MH. 3TO IC3pTa. 3To Eepcma.
3To CTYllCHTbl. ::no npo4leccop Opnos. 3T0 arnac. 3To EBreHKii.
:ho CO"HUeHHe. 3To K03JIOB. 3To yq:Hre.nb. :no wxona.
31'0 py'lxa. :no aMcplUCaHcu.
3TO KHHra. 31'0 npo.o.aBlltHua.
3TO CTaK3.H. :ho MonolCO.

3. Here's a briefcase. Here's a teacher. 4. This is a dictionary. This is a professor.

Here's a teacher's briefcase. This is the professor's dictionary.
T: B6T nopTlfl6lb. BOT )"IJITem,HHua. T: 31'0 CJI0Bapb. :ho npolCccop.
s: BOT DOpT+emo )"OiTCJlbBt.uw. s: :ho CJIOUpb npo+eccopa.
T: B6T y66plllHlta. BOT wr:ona. T: 3TO nopT~. 3-ro Komi.
s: BOT yOOpdlMlUl UU\Mw. s: :no DOPT+em- KOmi.
B6T dpTa. BOT EBpana. :ho CTOn. :ho MapJiR.
BOT llBCpb. B6T aY.lUtTOpIDI. 3TO paOOnt. :'no rAJUI.
BM y'llhCJIb. B6T rprnna. :ho olSen. 3To KonSl.
BOT OKHO. B6T aMepHlCaHJCa. 3TO Oma. 3TO 6ll6JIHOTCKa.
BM KHHra. BOT npOJJ,aBUJ.Hua. 3TO lllIaThC. :no npo.o.aBll.tHtla.
BOT nnaThe. BOT HHHa. 3TO CJI0eapb. 3-ro rAJUI.
B6T BHnKa. BOT MHna. :fro mpH. :fro rYM.
BOT 'IawKa. BOT 'Iaii.

LESSON 8 155
5. Here's the library. Here's the university. 6. The teacher is here. But where is her husband?
Here's the university library. Where's the teacher's husband?
T: BOT 6H6JlHOreK3. BOT yaHBepcHTth. T: Y'fHTeJlbHHll,a TYT. A r,lJ,e ee M'Y'K?
s: BOT 6n6J1HOTeKa YHHBepcHTiiTa. s: r.ll.e My'" )"UITeJ1h1lHULI?
T; BOT KHura. B6T y'llfTeJlh. T: npCxpeccop OpJloa TYr. A r,Oc ere
S: BOT IrnHr8 rufyeJUl. CTy.uCIITbl ?
BOT nopTleJlb. BOT np<xPeccop KyPo'iKHR. s: r.ll.e CTY.II.eHTb.l llpolj)eccopa OpIlOBa?
BOT Kapra. B6T 3,ua.lHe. BJIa,uHMlfp TYr. A ero ceCTpa?
BOT KmfrH. BM HHKOJlaH. K03J1oa TjT. A nre ero 6ph?
BOT CO'fHHeHlle. BOT EarellliH. YqlfTeJlb XHTpOB TjT. A era iKeHa?
BOT CTy,ueHTbJ. BOT npoleccop OpJIOa. HHKOJl:rn TYr. A r.ll.e ero 6paT?
BOT MaTepHi.rIhJ:. BOT co6paHHe. HHHa T)h. A ee MYx?
BOT 'farnKa. BOT KO<f.te. MapH}! TjT. A ee Y'fHTeJlb?


Unlike the prepositional case, the genitive is used both with and without a preposition. Used
without a preposition, it indicates 3 relationship of possession or descriptive limitation.
My)l( ceCTpbJ sister's husband
KRura Haana Ivan's bqok, a book of Ivan's
py.uca Mapu" Maria's pen, a pen of Maria's
KapTa EapOlIhJ a map of Europe
napOn KHTb the people of China
y'BfTeJ1b neHltH a singing teacher, a teacher of singing
)'pOX reorpamH a geography lesson
cTaxaH MOllOK;} a glass of milk

Note that, unlike the English possessive, the Russian genitive normally follows the noun in-
dicating what is possessed or described.

The genitive of KTO, 'ITO, and the personal pronouns


Y aae ec-rb CJI0napb? Do you have a dictionary?

Y Te6H ec-rb CJI0aapb? Do you have a dictionary?
Y Koro MO" ATnac? Who has my atlas?
- Y MOO. I do.
- Y Hero. He docs.
- Y nee. She does.
- Y HaC. We do.
- Y Rlix. They do.
HaC'feT "lero OHII cnpalllHaaJUi? What was it they were asking about?

Tbl 6H
OHa Mbl Sbl oUlI KTa 6

GEN MellM re6M ero (Hero) ee (Hee) HaC aac IIX (HUX) Kor6 "era

156 LE.'iSON 8
The alternate third person pronouns, uet'"o, H~ and mix. are used only when the personal pro-
nouns are preceded by a preposition: y Hero, Y H~ and y KIix. Note that r in en). Hero. KorO. and 'fef'"O
is pronounced [vJ: Uivo], [Q-ivo], [kavo], and [~ivol.


Repeat the above models after your instructor or tbe tape.


I. Where is he, at th~ university? 2. And where are you going, to a lecture?
Y~s, he has exams today. Yes, I hav~ history now.
T: r.Qe OU, B YHH.BepcHrere? T:: A BbI, H8 JlexLtHlO?
s: )la. y uero ceroJnlJl ::nOaMetibl. S: .ali., y MetUi ceii'l8.c HCTOpHliI.
T: rJJ.e omi, B YHHBepcHTthe? T: A OHK kyJJ.3, H8 lIeKltHIO'1
s: )la. y uee CerO)1lUiI 3K18MettLiI. s: )la, y nHX CetNac HCTOpHH.
(ORU, KHpKJl.ll, raJI5l, CTYJJ.eHTbl:) (J1pHlIa, Tbl, Baw CT)'J.l.eHT, Tl1051 cecTp8,
KOlUl, TBOH 6p8ThJl, HpltH8 H raJIst)

3. What does Galya have now?

She has history now.
T: LITO Y ranH Tenepb?
S: Y Hee TeoePb Hcrop....
T: 1ho Y Te6li Tenepb?
s: Y MemI TeoePb HcroPIUiI.
(y HUX, YKOJll.f, Y Hac, y K03Jlooa, YBac)


I. (We) Who has Russian now? 2. (They) Who has my dictioTJlUy?

We do. They have your dictioTJlUY.
T: (Mba) Y kO(6 Tenepb PYCCk.rn st3bu:? T:: (omi) Y xorb MOB c.noaapb?
Y .uic. S: Y iIIItx.
T: (oua) Y koro Tenepb PYCCKHlI Jl3huc? T: (on) Y Korb Moil c.nOBapb'1
Y mix. S: Y Hero.
" (Bbl, OHa, st, OU, OHH, TbI, MbI, OKH, OU) (OHa, Bbl, OH, 51, MbI, OHH)


1. Vladimir has the key. 2. My sister has an at/as.

He has the key. She has an at/as.
T: KruO'I Y BJla.z:tHMHpa. T: Y cecTpi>l ecn.
S:: Kmo'l y Hero. S:: Y Hee ecn. aT naco
T:: K1II0'l y ceCTpbl. T:: Y HKKOJlaa ecn. 3.TJl8C.
s: KJDi>q y aee. S: Y Hero ecn.
(y CT)'.QeHTa, y *eElhl, y KonH H r3.JIH, (y KOJlH H r3.JIH, y fl1060BH, YCTy.QeHTa,
y 6paTa, Y K1>3JIoBa H CeMeHOBa, y Y CeMeHa, y CeMeHOBa, y K031l0Ba H
Hm:oll8JI., y MapHH) CeMeHOBa, y BJlaD.HMHpa)

LESSON 8 157

I. Is Ga/ya at classes? 2. Do you have Russian now?

No, she has a meeting now. No, J hatle singing.
T: rami Ha 3aHRTH$!X? T: Y sAc Tenepb pyCCKHH $!JbIK?
s: Hh, y llee ceii'lic co6pbHe. s: Her, y MeHIi TeuCpb uCHMe.
T: Haall Ha 3aHRTIUIX? T: Y I1PHHbI renepb pyccKnH $!JbrK?
s: Her, y aero co6pliHMe. s: Hh, y Bee Teuepb uCHMe.
(HHHa, ee cecrpa, HJur:OJlaH, OHH, HpUHa" (y Men$!, y Hac, y BnaJUtMltpa, Y HHX)
Jlea, CeMeHoa, CTy.neHT, JlI060ab, KOmi,
Sopite, Maplt$!)

The genitive case in OeT constructions


Koro J.necb HeT? Who isn't here? or Who's missing?

- laecb UCT KOJJlosa. Kozlov isn't here.
_ _ _ _ _ HHIoJlaJi. NiJcolay _
_ _ _ _ KoJiH. Kolya _
_ _ _ _ H ....... Nma _
_ _ _ _ MapiiH. Maria _

68 JAe<:b? Is he here?
- Hth, era uth. No, he isn't.
Qna J.necb '! Is she here '!
- HeT, ee neT. No, she isn't.
Sopma 60JlbWe 8CT. There's no more borsch.
Xn<60 _ _ _ _ _ _ bread.
ya. _ _ tea.
MOJloxa _ _ _ _ _ _ milk.
PbJ6w _ _~_ _ fish.
Kawlt _ _ kasha.
Cene.nKIt _ _ herring.

Y sac luh KapaH,n:awa? You don't have a pencil, do you?

_ _ _ _ fnJlaca '! ______ an alias ?
_ _ _ _ cJloaapJi? ________ a dictionary_1
_ _ _ uepa? ______ a pen ?
_ _ _ _ MOJlod? _____ milk '?
_ _ _ _ KAPTbl EBpOnbl? ______ a map of Europe _ _1
____ TeTp:l.n.H? ______ a notebook ?
_ _ _ _ KHHrH? _____ a book ?


Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape), noting that the subject of sentences
using neT is always in the genitive case in Russian.


These drills should first be perfonned as simple repetition drills, then repeated as structure replace-
ment drills.
I. The map is on the table. 2. Professor Orlol' is here.
There isn't any map 011 the table! Professor Or/ol' isn't here.
T: KapTa Ha crone. T: npoleccop Opnos 3Jl.ecb.
S: Kapn.l aeT na crone! s: npo+ecroPa OpnOaa 3.nea,. aero
T: PW6a ua crone. T: 6H 3Aea..
s: PW6w aeT na crone! s: Ero ~b BeT.
(HO*, Kama, mtChMO, xop06s:a, '1aH, nepo, (y6opUJ;lll.Ul, oua, 6paT, MapHJI, au,
nopnt>enb, CO'IHHeHHe, SKJlxa, c.nosapb) Mawa, oua, YKpaHoeu., au, KomI, ou,

3. Do you have a mop of China?

You don't have a map of China, do you?
T: Y sac ecrb KAPTa Kl1n\.H?
S: Y sac ReT dpThl KHTaK?
T: Y sac ecn. HO;g?
S: Y RaC Her
(X.1110'l, aTnac, py'tKa, TeTpan.b, kapTa
AMepKKI1, uJlca4l, Kop06ka, nepo,


I. (Kozlov) Who's net here yet? 2. (phone) What's missing here?

Kozlov. There's no phone here.
T: (Ko3JIbs) Korb ewe Hn? T: (TeJ1ex>H) qer6 3J1ecb Her?
S: Her KO").'1oBa. s: ].aea, Hh Te.'u~4KMta.
T: (HHHa) Korb ewe Her? T: (Monox6) \.fer6 3J1Ccb Her?
s: Her HMHw. S: ].nec.. ae-r MOJIO"'.
(8nazuiMlIp, rUITeJJbHHua, HHKomlli, (nonxa, CT}'JI, 3Tnac, c.no8apb, 38000K,
np<.>leceop Opn6s, I1sau, MY. MapUH, IC.JlJO'I, HO*, x.ne6, cyon)

Y'lHTeJJb, y66pwuua, 6paT HHHhI)


1. Where's thefish? 2. Is Koziol' here?

There isn't any fish left. No, Koziol' isn't here.
T: pbi6a? T: K03JIOS 3J1eo.?
s: PW6w 66m.we IteT. s: Her, KOJJloBa 3lI.kb ner.
T: rAt 'tau? T: K YPO'IXHH :meeb?
S: qill oom.we aer. s: Her, Kj~ :J,ltea. aer.
(Kawa, 60pw., ceneAxa, Monoxo, xne6) (HuHa, KOD, pelITOp, saxTtp, npocl)6ccop
OpnOB, OlTer, MapHJI, HJuconaH,

l.fSSON 8 159
3. Do you have a map of Europe? 4. Is Kozlov here?
No, I don't have a map of Europe. Kozlov is absel1/ (or missing) today.
T; Y Hac eCTh KlipTa EBp6nbl? T: K03JI08 3.nCcb?
S; Hb, y Metui lIeT KlipThI EBp6IJh1. s: K03JJo8a cerOAH1I HeT.
T: Y HaC eCTb aTJlac? T: HUKOJIau 3.o,Ccb?
S: HeT, y Metui Hb linaca. s: HHKOJIRH cerO)llllil HCT.
(cnoaapb, KJlJO'l, nepo, nOpTepe.nb, TeJle- (KoJIJl, Bna,lI;llMHp, HeaD, Oml, XHrpoB,
<pOll, TCTpa.rtb, ceCTpa, 6paT) MapWl:, EOplfC, HHHa, Kypo'lKlfH)

5. Is there a library there?

No, there's no library there.
T: TaM 6cn, 6lf6J1lfOTeKa?
T; TaM eCTb nO'ITa?
S: Hb, riM HCT uO'ITbI.
(3a8o.n, yfumepcU'reT, o6w:e)f(IITHe, 3aJl,
UIKona, TeJTeq,OH, Mara3HH, aYAHTOpWl:,
KJIy6, KHOCK, Jla6opaToplfR)


HCT means both flO (as the opposite of Ali) and there is (or. are) no or there isn'/ (or aren't) any.
Historically it comes from a combination of He plus Ccrb.
When HeT i~ used in constructions with the genitive it focuses on the lack or absence of the
subject. It differs from constructions using the nominative plus He, where the focus is not on the
absence but on some other element of the sentcnce.

Compare Ero 3AeCb ner. He's not here (Le., he's missing or absent).
with Oil lie 3Aecb, a B He's not here; he's in town.

The genitive case in past tense He 6b1JJO constructions


Koro TaM He 6bLI1o? Who wasn't there (i.e., who was missing)?
- TaM He 6blJIO K03nOBa. Kozloy wasn't there.
_______ HHKomiR. Nikolay _
_ _ _ _ _ _ KOnn. Kolya _
_ _ _ _ _ _ MapffiJ. Maria _
_ _ _ _ _ _ HMnbl. Nina _
_ _ _ _ _ 6nH. Olya _

Era T3.M He 6blJlO? Wasn't he there?

- HeT, He 6b1Jto. No, he wasn't.
Ee TaM He 6b11l0? Wasn't she there?
- HeT, He 6b11l0. No, she wasn't.
\.ferD TaM He 6bl1l0? What was missing? or What wasn't there?
- T3.M lIe 6hrJlO 6opma. There wasn't any borsch.
_ _ _ _ _ _ lfaJ'l. _ _ _ _ _ _ tea.
_ _ _ _ _ _ xlle6a. _ _ _ _ _ _ bread.
_______ MoJtod. - - - - milk.
160 LESSON 8
- TaM He 6blJIO pbl6w. There wasn't any fish.
_ _ _ _ _ _ KaWH. _ _ _ _ _ _ kasha.
_______ ceJIe./l.Kll. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ herring.

Y Meuli lie 6blJIO Kapall.naWa. I didn't have a pencil.

_______ 3.TJIaca. _ _ _ _ _ an atlas.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ CJlooapli. _____ a dictionary.
_ _ _ _ _ _ nopT<peJlJl. _ _ _ _ _ a briefcase.
_ _ _ _ _ _ neptl. _ _ _ _ a pen.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ cO':IHHeHllil. _ _ _ _ _ a composition.
_ _ _ _ _ _ KapTbl EopOObI. _ _ _ _ _ a map of Europe.
_ _ _ _ _ Tell''''". _ _ _ _ _ a notebook.
_______ IClufnt. _ _ _ _ .book.


Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape), noting that for the past tense ae 6b1J1O
corresponds to tth of the present and that here too the subject is in tbe genitive case. He 6101..'10 is
pronounced with a single stress which falls on ae: [Q.ebil~].


1. There's nofish. 2. We don't ha~'e (any] work.

There was no fish. We didn't have [any) work.
T: Pbl6b1 Her. T: Y uac neT pa66Tb1.
s: PW6w ..e 6woo. s: Y wie ..e 6wno pa66Tb1.
T: AaT66yca neT. T: Y uac Her kJlYGa.
S: AJrr66yca He 6WJiO. S: Y HaC Hi 61.1110 ..-:Jlj6a.
(MaTepHana. O<fepeAH. nopT<PeJuI, C1IO (C06paHIDI, )"lHTemI, KapTbl CCCP. Te1Ie-
Rap xapTbi KJtTIUl. ICOp06kH, pa60Tbl. $olla. 6n6nllOTeICH. ayJnITopllH. 3X3a-
Gopilla, C06paHHJI) Mella, ypm::a. neKWfll)


1. Was the custodian there? 2. Did you have a meeting?

No. he wasn't. No. we didn't have a meeting.
T: BaXTep TaM 6bUl'? T: Y BaC 6blJlO co6pauHe?
s: Her, en) He 6wno. S: HeT, y Hlic He 6L1J1o C06paHHJI.
T: Erb iKe",l TAM 6b1J1a '? T: Y oac 6blJJ yp6K nemU! '?
s: Hh, ee He 6b1no. S: Hk, y HaC lie 6wno yp6Ka nCRH1I.
(KoJIlI II raJIJI, Baw Mj')I(, ee GpaT, oua. (paGon. neKU,WI, HCTOPHJI, 3K3aMeH.
ou, Ollll, npoll.aBUUtLl3, !lauJ CTYAeHT) kJllO'I, aTJlaC, CO'lHHeHHe)

3. Was there borsch?

No, there wasn't.
T: D6pl1.l 6w '?
s: Her,..e 6WJIo.
T: PbtGa 6b1J13.?
s: Hn, He 6wJIo.
(3k3aMeH. kawa, 6oplll, ce.n~. xexpe.
06eJl, ypok neHHJI, XJleG, O':lepeJlb, 380110':.

LESSON 8 161

Kozlov wasn't there.

Who wasn't there?
T: K03JI6Ba T3.M He 6b1JlO.
s: KonS liM He 6blJ1o?
T: A.TJlaca T3.M He 6bU10.
s: "fenS riM..e 6W11O?
(o<tepeJJ.H, KOllH, nOpTlemI, HHKoJlaJI,
KM<X%a, BnaJlHMKpa, lCapTbl 1CKraJI,


I. There was fish on the table. 2. We had a meeting yesterday.

There wasn't anyfish on the table. We didn't have a meeting yesterday.
T: Ha CTOne 6b1Jll't pbi6a. T: Y HaC B'Iepa 6bUlO c06pllHHe.
S: Ha CTone He 6bUlO pw6b1. s: Y lI1ic .'<tepa He 6bU1o Coop,"HH.
T: Ha crone 6buI ooe.ll. T: Y HaC Btfepa 6bl.n 30aMeH.
S: Ha CTOJIe He 6blJ1o 06ba. S: Y HaC B'lep8 He 6b1J1o ;)l(lAMeua.
(<taM., Kawa, MonolCo, nO.llapOli;:, COfI1 (XHMH.lI, MareManlICa, kOltLtepT, !H3Hka,
HeHHe, cene,nxa, xne6, CJlosapb, p)"lICa, YPOlC neiuul, nexuiUl, HCTOPH.ll)
aTnac, Man.e)

3. I had a dictionary.
I didn't have a dictionary.
T: Y MeHJI 6bl.n CJlOsapb.
S: Y Memi He 6wto cnoupti.
T: Y MeHJi 6b1.Jl3 kHHra.
s: Y Men Hi 6wto 1aIIinl.
(ypo1C, nemte, reorpa4)iUI, JleDJ;IDI, 303-
Men, HCTOpIDI, ypok !H3HJ;U, mnepa


1. I have a pencil.
T: Y MeKJi ecn. KapaHmlw.
S: Y Metd ecn. KapaJtJ.t8w.
T: (HtT) _
S: Y Me:tni Her ..... paJ:IJJ.awi.
_ _ (ten.) _ _
_ _ (He 6blJlO) _ _"
~.o- (ten.) - -
(Y T<6') _
_ _ (HtT) _
_ _ (ten.) _
_ _ (He 6blJlO) _
_ _ (ten.) _

162 LESSON 8
2. He has a briefcase. Y He~ ecTh KapTa.
T: Y Hero ecn. nopTlenb. _ _ (HeT) _
s: Y Hero ecn. DOPT+em- _ _ (ecn.) _ _
T: (",!T) _ _ _ (lie 6blJIo) _ _
s: Y Hero uer DOpT+en., _ _ (ecn.) _ _
_ _ (ue6"",o) _ . (TiMl _
_ _ (UOT) _ _ ()<uCPb).
_ _ (ecn.) _ _ __(HOT) .
_ _ (He 6"",o) _ . _ _ (ecn.) _ _.
_ _ (ecn.) _ _ _ _ (He 6"",0) _
(YHee) _ __(ecn.) _ _
_ _ _ _ ("pTa).


Hk of the present tense is replaced in the past tense by ue 61>1110 in constructions focusing on
the absence of a thing or person. The noun or pronoun indicating the missing thing or person is in
the genitive case.
However, the nominative may be used for the subject (together with He plus 6w, 6b1J1a, 6wo,
or 6WJH) if the focus is not on the absence itself, but on same other element of the sentence.
Compare HHHa .a.aslio He 6b1JI3 B KJJj6e. Nina hasn't been at the club in a long time.
with HUHhl Ite 6hlJlO S KJlY6e. Nina wasn't at the club.
Compare J.1BAH 6bUi He lIa JleKIlHJI)I:, a lIa Ivan wasn't at lectures; he was at the
co6p3.HHH. meeting.
with HBaHa He 6b1J10 Ha co6pimrn. Ivan wasn't at the meeting.

LESSON 8 163
- f!iUt. T P-.1J ~ IV 6iM.- ? Jl-- #Ltm<:e. . .!11M--
1U-~, ?ur- ~ ~ p- 9"a,~, 'HLr Jt, ~
fU- r:f<u-. - JL ~ 6iM.- c4w- r- .1Ca.- ~.

-~, IJ' 't4. ~ ~ (- ad~ . - ~ <r

-t<i.M.. ~? o-~ F ~. - ~ ?UT Jt" ~/

f- O'<M. ~ ~. -~ J!. ~ 'W'fIu k om,.
.,<.Wtf<O" ~. - ~ <eaA<> I Jt.. ()'W<I. ~

164 LESSON 8
- KTO Y TeJlCPOUa? - Wean J.1a3HOBH'I Opnoa. - A, 3,l1;pasCTsyUTe, MeaH WBaHOBWI.
Kax npowen 3K33MeH? - O'lCHb xopawa. CTy.n.CHTbZ OTJlHlfHO H3llHcaJlH. - Pa,o. :no
cm..maTh. jf BH)I(Y, 'ITO HanIH CTyncHTbI MOJlOJJ.UbI.

- 0 IWM 81>1 r08opwre, 0 rpaHTe? - HCT. 0 K03JJooc. 08 ODJITb OTJlH'IHO HanDcaR.

- R CJIb(wan. 'iTO DB MOJlOnCQ. - )la. 3H3eTC 0 '!eM au HauHcan'l - He-r, He 3HaJO.
o IfeM'1 - 0 rpy3HHax Ii HX HCTOpHH. - BOT K3K! 3TO HHTepecHO. Mary JIM JI nOCMOT-
peTb? - KOHC'IHO. BOT era pa60T3.

- Jleepb OTXphlTa? - HeT. - A f):le TBOH KJn09? - B nopT<fx:JIe. - A nopT<l>e.nb

r.a:e? - B y"I-mcpcHTeTc. - Hy xopawa, B03bMH MO KJIIO't. - CnacH6o.

- Y MClUI 33BTpa 3K3aMCH. r.e MOil: CJ100apb? - Ha CTonc. - Era Tyr ReT. -,
MO)KCT 6bJTb, au H3 noJIXc. - He BIDKy. A, BOT OU, H3 CTyne.

LESSON 8 165


3a MeHli for me, -in my behalf

CfI0Be'lKO (varof CfI0BO) word
JaMOJ1BKTb CfI0sC'IKO to put in a good word
3aMOJIBHTe 3a MeHJi CJlOBC'IKO! Put in a good word for me!
c or CO (plus gen) from, olT, since
cpa66Th1 from work
Db.! C pa66Th1 HJl.eTe? Are you coming from work?
3.apUcnl:yiiTe, Hw! C pa60Tw MeTe? Hello, Nina! Are you coming from work?
Her, Ii B ropcoBiTe 6blJ1a. No, I've been to the gorsovet.
KOMMan room
HiT, Ii ropcoBhe 6b1J1B., HaC*H:IT KOMHaTbi. No, I've been to the gorsovet about a room.

Ka"oi=i what, which

KaKoii KOMHllTbl? What room?
What's the matter?
J<HlBneHHe application
JaRBneHHe Ha KOMHaTy application for a room
no,uhb (pfv irreg) to give, serve, submit
no,uhb JaJlBneHlfe to submit an application
Ii nOJI.ami JaSlBJIeHHe Ha KOMHaT)'. I submitted an application for. a room.
:lUlATh (ipfv I) to wait
HMO irs necessary, one bas to
Haa.o d.JC .u.onro JKJt3Tb. You have to wait so long.
It OOllLllB. ~e ua II:OMHaTy, ItO H8JJ.O I submitted an application for a room, but
Tl..K A6Jrro :ll(I:Uin.. you have to wait so long.
BOT 'ITo! so that's it!
Ax, I16T 'ITo! Oh, so that's it!
,upyr (nom pi APYJbli) friend
XOp6WHH APYr good friend

TaM pa66Taer Moii XOpOWH" .npYr My good friend Alexccv works there.
BMb [yi~1 (unstressed) after all, the thing is, as a matter of fact,
lHaeTe. SeAl. TiM paooTIleT MOM xop6uuti You know, as a matter of fact, my good
.apjr AAei'ceea. friend Alexeev works there.
'ITo aN roSOpHTc! You don't say!
MBaH I1BflHOBH<f, 3aMOllBHTe 3a Memi Ivan Ivanovich, put in a good word for me!
MHnblii kind, dear, nice
MBaH ltBauOBH't, MMJTbIK. 3llMMaHTe 33 MettH: My dear Ivan Ivanovich, put in a good word
CJlOBe"lKO! for me!
npe.D..1l0)((Kn, (pfv II) to suggest, propose
Ba., to you, for you
.st XOTen BAM no npe.D..1l0xHTb. I wanted to suggest that to you.
KaJC pb just, the very thing
11 ..~ pA3 XOTen .liM iTO DpeLVIoDn.. That's the very thing I wanted to suggest to
601lbw6e cnacH60 thanks very much, thanks a lot
1io.'1bmOe BaM coaClii60! Thank yo'! very much!
'11'6 TaM! what for!
Hy "ITO TaM! Whatever for!
CTapblii old
CTaPble .npy.n,li old friends
Mba BeLlI> cTlipble APY3bli. We're old friends after all.


CJlOBO (pi CJloBli) word

~TO pyCCKoe cnOBO? Is that a Russian word?
peCTOpaH restaurant
BbI H.lte-re B peCToptm? Are you going to a restaurant?
TeaTp thealer
1i01lbw6ii l'eliTp the Bolshoi Theater
BbI u,nere B lioJlbllJoii Te3TP? Are you going to the Bolshoi Theater?
KBapTltp3 apartment
Y BaC ecrb KBapTHp3? Do you have an apartment?
.nOM house, building
::no sallJ .n6M? Is that your house? or Is tbat the building
where you live?
napK park 8b1 HlICTe? - B napK. Where are you going? To the park.

168 LESSON 9
33MOJlBHTe la Memi CJIOBe'IKO!

11.11. - I1Ball I1BaHoBHlf

H. - Hil.Ha

l1. 11. 1 3.a.paBCTByHTC. HHHa t zddlstujti Q-in~ 1

C pa60nl H.a.eTC? sraboti i\loti !
H. 2 HOT, Qet!
.Ii B ropCOBt':TC 6bIJIa. ja vgorsaye\i bil:ll
HaC'feT KOMHaTbJ. nasMt komn~ti !
11. 11. J KaKoi1: KOMHaTbJ? kakoj komn~ti !
B 'feM .a.CJIo? !Com ~eI, I
H. 4 jf no.a.a.mi 3aSlBJICHHC ja p~dala ~jivlcQj~
Ha KOMHaTy, nakomn~tu 1
lIO H3.,nO niK .a.OJIro n6 nad~ tag dol~
)t(,!(ciTb !I ,datI
11. 11. 5 Ax, BOT 'ITo! aX" vot st6 !
3HaCTC, znajiti !
BC.a.b TaM pa60TaCT yit tam rab6t~jit
MO" XOPOWHH .a.pYr AnCKCCCB. moj xarosij dnik alik~jif !
H. 6 Y:TO rOBOpHTc!
Dbl sto vi ~variti 1
HBaR I1BaHoBH'I, ivan ivanich !
MUJlbrn, ljIilij I
3aMOJIBHTC 3a MCHH CJIOBC'fKO! zamOlyi\i z~qliQa slayccb!
11. 11. 7 jf KaK pa3 XOTCJ:J ja kak ras xa\cl
B3M :ho npCLl,JIO:lKHTb. yam <t, pridlafit I
H. 8 60JIbW6c BaM cnacH-Go! balsoj~ vam spa~ib~ !

11. 11. 9 Hy 'fTO TaM! nu.5to tam!

M hi SC.a.b cTapblc .a.PY3bH! mt yit stariji d ru~ja 1

NOTES IIn order to obtain a room in a government-owned house, it is necessary

to apply to the regional soviet or, in this instance, to the city council ropcose-r.
Waiting lists are very long since housing is one of the major problems in the large
cities of the U.S.S.R.


ceKpeTapb (m) secretary

6H Ham ceKpeTapb. He's our secretary.
OHa Ham ceKpenipb. She's our secretary.
y ce6Ji in one's room, in one's office

LESSON 9 169
TOOapHll( comrade, friend, colleague
ToBApuUl AneKcCeB y ce6Ji:? Is comrade Alexeev in?
CaeaUTe, TOBliptUlt AJleK'ceeB y ce6ll? Tell [me], is comrade Alexeev in?

Mocna Moscow
Hh, 08 iNac B Mocm. No, be's in Moscow at the moment.

A B6.rn.,"OB 31lecb? Well, is Volkov bere?

npoXO,QHTb (II) (prv npoihH) to pass, go by

.Qli., Dpoxororre ooiluinyiicra! Yes, go on in, please!

X, npa&eT! .QaBHO Te6tI lie BH.nen! Hi! I baven't seen you in a long time!

K8.K :lKHOeWb [kag zi'{6~] how are you? how's it going?

3lq1UCTByii, dK *oeuu. ? Hello, how are you?

H ....ero. All right.

npOcb6a [pro~oo] request, favor

ManeHbKlUI small, little
Y MeHJi M8JJeHbKU np6a..6a. I have a small favor [to ask].
DOJlY'lHTb (pfv II) to obtain, receive, get
neBytUKa young lady, girl (in late teens)
OnHa neoywKa a certain young lady
Ty-r oll,Hi .neoywKa "oMHaTbl nOJl)"lHTb He There's a certain young lady who can't get a
M6iKeY. room.
Hmate in no way, by no means, not in any way
Ttr o.roui lleayWKa HHKaK KOMIUITW Tbere's a certain young lady who simply
DOJI)'on. He MOa:eT. can't get a room.

.Qi? KyO OHa? r~ paOOT8eT? Is that so? Who is she? Where does she work?

cryneHTKa-Ja6.. HHI.ta correspondencc:scbool student

3.6pHJ:a factory
OHJi crylleana-:JaO':IIIIIQa, pa60T8eT Ha She's a correspondence-school student and
4tli6pHKe. works at a factory.

Ani. Ha 4tli6pHKe. :no XOpoIllO. Ahhh, at a factory. That's good.

c.nenaTb (prv I) to do, get done
'l.T6-HII6Yllh something, anything
Mbi 'n'~IUf6Yllb cJlblBeM. We'll do something [about it].

BOT cnaaf60! Well, thanks.


"'MTb (ipfv I) to live

rne BbI: "'H&eTe? Where do you live?
- >1: "'HBy npOT"B napxa. I live across from the park.
oncYna from where Obi ".neTe? - C pa66Tbl. Where are you coming from? From work.
R3 or 1t30 (plus gen) from, out of
OTKYlla ObI H.lJ.eTe? - 1-13 r6potta. Where are you coming from? From town.
aT or OTO (plus gen) from

170 LESSON 9
R "ony'uUt IUICbMO OT 6paTa. I received a letter from my brother.
.a.o (plus gen) up to, until, before
6" 3BOHJln .a.o pa66Tb1. He called (or telephoned) before work.
oKono (plus gen) near, by, about
R :lCHBy 6Kono nlipKa. I live Dear the park.
6e3 or 6e30 (plus gen) without
R 6e3 6para He noiUty_ I won't go without my brother.
,lLIlH (plus gen) for
Bbl :ho cnenaeTe J],JI'H Mellll? Will you do that for me'?

H.H. - 11B3H l18AHoBH'I

C. - CerpeTApb (HpHHa nerp6BHa)
B. - B6m:OB (TIfTp HHKKT1t'1)

11.H. 3JlpbCTByihe, zdrastujti I

WpHHa neTpOBHa! ipn;} gitrovn;}!
CKa)l(HTe, skafili !
TOBapHm AneKceeB y ce6Ji?l tavitplt alikiejif Uii~ii 1
C. 2 He.., Vel!
6H ceH'IaC B Mocue. on ~i~as vmasky !
11.11. 3 A BonKoB 3Jlecb? a volkov zQ~ 1
c. 4 ,llit, dii !
npoxoAHTe, nO:llCanYHCTa! pr;}xa4iti pazal;}Sb!
11.11. S A. ii!
npHBeT, BOJlKOB! pp yet volkof!
,lI,asHO Te6Ji He B8;:(en. davno Ii~it viyil!il!
B. 6 3"pitBCTllyH. zdriisluj!
d.K :lICHBCWb? kitg fiyo! !
11.11. 7 HH'Iero. Qitivo!
Y MeHli ManeHbKaJI npocb6a. urpiQit rnitlivkojo pro~bo !
Ty-r o.QHa .o:eByrnKa luI adna 4evu!ko I
KOMHaTbi no.ll)"flITb He MO:JKeT. komn;}ti p;}Ju~it qimotit !
B. 8 ,llil? dii 1
KTO OHa? kt6 ana 1
r.o:e pa66TaeT? g4e rabOt;}jit 1

USSON 9 171
11.11. 9 QHa CTYl1eHTKa-3a6'1HHua, ana stuQentk., zaocQic~ !
pa60raeT Ha a6pmce. rab6tajit nafiibplP j
B. 10 A'll, ahlij
H3 a6pHKe. nafiibplP j
3TO xopowo. et., xQrlcl6 !
MbI: 'IT6-HH6Yl1b Cl1e.naeM. 2 mi It6~ibu~ zQeJajim j
11.11. II BOT cnacu60. vot sp:qiba j

NOTES I Here ToaapHlll means comrade in the political sense, i.e., a party member. It
is very common in official situations. however, for Soviet citizens to use tbe word
(especially in the plural) without any necessary implication that persons so addressed
are party members. A foreigner should never use TOBapHUI in addressing a Soviet
TosapKlU is also used in the nonpolitical sense, meaning comrade or friend,
but it implies a more casual relationship than ~PYr friend. One may have many
TOsaplO1lH, but few Jqty3b1i.
Both IJ.PYr and TOsapHUIl like npo4tkcop and CCKpe"ripb, are grammatically
masculine, but may refer to both men and women:
Oil M6HXOpOllJUH ~pYr. He's my good friend.
OHa M6H XOpOllJHM ,D,pyr. She's my good friend.
TOB3pHut neTp6B 6bui J,D,ecb. Comrade Petrov was here.
TosapHw neTp6Ba 6blna 3.o;ecb. Comrade Petrov (f) was here.
2 Students who work at factories and take correspondence courses have a
priority in obtaining lodgings. The Soviet cry.a.ewr-13.6'IIUIK or cryAeIlT'K8-u6<nnma
differs somewhat from the American correspondence-school student in that the
latter does his entire work through correspondence. The Soviet correspondence-
school student must meet at least once or twice a year for laboratory sessions,
summary lectures, consultations on future work, and examinations.

Basic sentence patterns

I. BbI H,QeTe c paG6Thl? Are you coming from work?
- H6T, c KOHu.epn. No. from a concert.
- Her, c o6elJ.a. No, from a dinner.
- HeT, c 3lOaMeHa. No. from an exam.
- H6T, c ypOKa neHH.lI. No, from a singing lesson.
- Her, c co6paHJUI. No, from a meeting.
- Her, c no'fT1>l. No, from the post office.
- Her. c neICl(.HH. No, from a lecture.
2. BbI: HJJ,ere KJ J(J]yt)a? Are you coming from the club?
- Her, HJ peCTopAHa. No, from the restaurant.
- Her, H3 reaTpa. No, from the theater.
- H6T. "3 napK:a. No, from the park.
- HCT, HJ }'HHscpcHTeTa. No, from the university.

172 USSQN9
- HeT, IU rYMa. No, from GUM.
- HeT, H3 ropcost:"Ta. No, from thc gorsovet.
- Ht:"T, H3 o6IJ.lCJKHTHH. No, from the donnitory.
- Ht:"T, H3 6lt6nHOTeklt. No, from the library.
- Her, H3 na6opaTopHIJ. No, from the laboratory.
3. R er6 SH.neJI no yp6u. I saw him before the lesson.
_ _ _ _ _ _ kOHllepn. _______ the concert.
_ _ _ _ _ 06e.o.a. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ dinner (or noon).1
_ _ _ _ _ _ 'taR. _ _ _ _ _ _ tea.'
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3k3bteHa. _______ the exam.
_ _ _ _ _ co6paHHJI. _______ the meeting.
_ _ _ _ _ _ neJrllHH. _______ the lecture.
_ _ _ _ _ pa66"". _ _ _ _ _ _ work.
_ _ _ _ _ cny,.6",. _ _ _ _ _ _ work.

4. n6CJ1e ypoKa a"

nowen nOMOH. After the lesson he went home.
_ _ KOlillepTa _ __ the concert ~_

_ _ co6paHH' _ __ the meeting _

__ the tea _
_ _ 3K3<lMeHa _ __ the exam _

5. CpaJy n6cne o6ena Mbl nOWlUt nOMoH. Right after the dinner we went home.
_ _ _ _ co6paHHJI _ ____ the meeting _
_ _ _ _ _ nekI(JtH _ _ the lecture _
_ _ _ _ pa66.,... _ _ __ wo,k _
_____ IIlkom" ~ _ _ _ "'hool _

6. 3TO NUl sac. This is for you.

_ _ _ re6>i. _ _ _ you.
____ Rac. _ _ _ us.
_ _ _ Hero. _ _ _ him.
_ _ _ Ree. _ _ _ he<.
_ _ _ HUx. _ _ _ _ them.

7. Mbl 3TO C.lle.naeM .lV1R Msana. We'll do it for Ivan.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ HHHbl. ______ Nina.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ np0<p6ccopa apnoea. ______ Professor Orlov.
_________ y'ulTeml. _____ the teacher.
_________ YlfHTeJIbHHltbJ. ______ the teacher.

8. OHM 6e3 sac He noiUtYr. They won't go without you.

_ _ _ H'C _ _ us.
_ _ _ re6>i _ _ you.
_ _ _ MeaJi _ _ me.
_ _ _ Hero _ _ _ _ _ _ _ him.

9. Mb"I 6eJ Hee He nOH,n,eM. We won't go without her.

_ _ I1.....a _ _ ________ Ivan.
_ _ l1pmw_~ _ Irina.
_ _ K6m< _ _______ Kolya.

, 06U is frequently used in tbe sense _ . Thus !W o6lJI,a may mean both 1Nfor~ diNtu and 1Nfor~ noon. Similarly,
IIlX.<1eo6i.M means both after dinn" aDd ofternoon. as well as in 1M afternoon.
I 'fii is orten used to refer 10 breakfast or morning tea.

LESSON 9 173
10. rJI.e Ubi 6WIH? Where have you been?
- Y llpoq,eecopa Opnoua. To see Professor Orlov.
- Y JI.pyra. To see a friend.
- Y I1B3.Ha. To see Ivan.
- Y To see Pyotr.

II. rJI.e sbi ooeJI.aJ1lf? Where did you eat dinner?

- Y HHkomiJi. At Nikolay's.
- Y 6pflTa. At my brother's.
- Y CCCTpbl. At my sister's.
- Y HMHbJ. At Nina's.
- Y niJIH. At Galya's.
- Y MapMH l1uaHOIHlbl. At Maria Ivanovna's.

12. OncYJI.a Bbr? Where are you from?

- H3 From Leningrad.
- 113 KHT!.JI. From China.
- 113 Mocuu.:z. From Moscow.
- 113 EspOtlhI. From Europe.
- H3 AMepHltH. From America.
-113 CCCP. From the U.S.S.R.

13. Bbi HJI.CTe? Where are you coming from?

-113 rYMa. From GUM.
- 113 r6poJI.a. From town.
- ..13 Mar33MHa a3 yrJly. From the store on the comer.
- 113 6H6mto-rekH. From the library.
- C pa66Th1. From work.
- C nO'lThl. From the post office.
- C l)a6pHK:H. From the factory.
- C 3aBOlla. From tbe plant.

14. Orxjlla Ubi :ho nOnY'fHnH? Where did you get that?
- ..13 XJJY6a. From the club.
- ..13 6H6JIHO-rekH. From the library.
- 113 na60paTOpuU. From the laboratory.
- C cfla6pukH. From the factory.
- C 3an6JI.a. From the plant.

15. OT Kor6 Sbi :ho nonY'lJinu? From whom did you get that?
- OT npolecropa Opn6sa. From Professor Orlov.
- Or aMepHll:3.HIl,3. From an American.
- Or BnCl,lUiMHpa. From Vladimir.
-OT From Pyotr.
- Or EsrCIIUJI. From Evgeny.

16. OT Koro 8b!: 3TO CJlbUUa.JIH? From whom did you hear that"
- Or cekpeTapJ:i. From the secretary.
- OT Y'uhe.JUI. From the teacher.
- Or cecrpbL From my sister.
- OT I1pMllbl. From Irina.
- OT MapliH HBAH08Hbl. From Maria Ivanovna.

74 LffiSON 9
17. Cue Balli J1,6M? Where's your hOUse?
- 6Kono m\pka. Near the park.
- 6Kono yHHaepcHTe-ra. Near the university.
- 6K01l0 Te3.Tpa. Near the theater.
- 6K01l0 pecTOpalla. Near the restaurant.
- 6K01l0 06we:HTHH. Near the dormitory.
- 6IC01l0 no'fTbl. Near the post office.
- 6kono <PA6pHICH. Near the factory.
- - 6"0110 WKOJJhL Near the school.
- 6"oJJO 6H611HOTekH. Near the library.

18. rJ1,e 6ItM,HoTC"a? - npOTHB Te3.Tpa. Where's the library? Across from the theater.
rJ1,e 06ute:lfrlle? - npOnfB napn. Wherc's the dorm? Across from the park.
Cae xH6cx? - npOTHB peCTOp3..Ha. Wherc's the newsstand? Across from the res
Wbere's the theater? Across from the uni-
rJ1,e pecTopaH1- npOTHS rYMa. Wherc's the restaurant? Across from GUM.
rJ1,e KnY6? - npOTHS 6H611HOTex.H. Wherc's the club? Across from the Library.
rJ1,e saw J1,6M? - npOTHB WICOJIhl. ~ere's your house? Across from the school.
rJ1,e Mara;)HH? - np6THB nO<t:ThI. Where's the store? Across from the post office.
rne 601lhw6" 3an? - np6THS JJa60pa- Wherc's the large haU? Across from tbe labo-
T6pHlt. r.. .t tory.
rne wx611a? - np6THs ~6PKJCH. Where's the school? Across from the factory.
rne 1Ia60paTOplUl?- npOTHB ay,lJ;ltTOp"H. Where's the laboratory? Across from the audi-

19. Dbl cnpiwKBaJIH HaC'Ie-r ooe.Qa? Did you ask about dinner?
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6op",.? ______ borsch?
________ '13.H? _______ tea?
_________ MOJJod? _______ milk?
________ pbl6hl? ______ fish?
________ dum? ______ kasha?
__________ ce1le)].KH? _______ herring?
________ B6)].KH? _______ vodka?

20. A ka.k HaC'leT C06pa.IHUI? And how about the meeting?

_ _ _ _ _ CO'lHlleHml ? _ _ _ _ _ _ the composition?
_ _ _ _ _ dpThl? ______ a map?
_____ JJHTepaTyphl? _ _ _ _ _ _ Iiterature?
_____ reorpa.q,"H? _ _ _ _ _ _ geography?
_____ 3.T1Iaca? _ _ _ _ _ _ an atlas?
_____ nopTq,e.nH? _ _ _ _ _ _ a briefcase?

21. Db! Hac<t:e-r ypOKa 1 Are you here about the lesson?
_ _ _ _ 3X3AMeHa? ________ the exam?
_ _ _ _ c06pa.uHJI ? _______ the meeting?
_ _ _ _ xoMHaThl ? ________ the room?
_ _ _ _ ICBapTltpW? ________ the apanmeDt?
_ _ _ pa66Th'? _______ the work?

LESSON 9 175
Pronunciation practice: hard consonants [k), [g], and [x)
and their soft counterparts [~), [g), and ['I].
Hard consonants [k), [g), and [xl are regularly replaced by their sort counterparts \:l. [gl.
and loll
before vowels [e] and Ii].

A. Hard [k] and sort counterpart ~]

Usual Cyrillic spelling K; sometimes r.

Note the pronunciation of hard [k:] in the following:

[mash'a) Moscow
[kuda] where (to)
[ur6kJ lesson
[skafl] tell me

and compare il with soft [If]:

[yll~iJ BHnxH forks

[fkar6p~i] - B Kop66Ke in the box
[ur6~i] ypOKH lessons
[Ql~I.J HHxuTa Nikila
[can\p~in] UapfulJOfH Tsarapkin

Russian hard [kJ is made in much the same way as English k except that there is nOI the slight
h-like puff of breath typical of the English k.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating hard [k] and soft ~],
imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice that
bard fkl occurs before [0], (aJ, lu], and [~J, whereas soft [k] occurs before [e]
and (i). At the end of a word, only hard [k] occurs-never soft [~J.

B. Hard [g) and soft counterpart [gJ

Usual Cyrillic spelling r; sometimes K.

Note the pronunciation of hard [g] in the following:

[~varat] rosopliT they say

(vgurpi] s rYMe at GUM

and compare it with soft [g]:

[jivgeQij] EsreHHii Evgeny

[gil] rHJt guide

Russian hard [g) and soft [g] are made with the vocal organs in the same position as for hard
[k] and soft [%.], but they are voiced.

176 LESSON 9
Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating hard [g] and soft i],
imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice that hard
[g] occurs before [0], [a], [u], and [~], whereas soft (g] occurs before [e] and [i).

C. Hard [xl and soft counterpart [~J

Usual Cyrillic spelling X; rarely r.

Note the pronunciation of bard [x] in the foUowing:

[x:)ra~] xopowo good

[,.",,~jlil 3aJtO)llfTe come in

and compare it with soO: ['1):

XHTp6. Khitrov
cXCMa scheme

The sound [xl does not occur in English (though it does appear in Gennan ach, Bach, and
Such, or in Spanish mujer and hijo). It is formed in the same part of the mouth as [k] and [gl; but,
instead of completely closing ofT the air stream, tbe back of the tongue merely approaches the back
part of the roof of the mouth SO that the air stream vibrates in the constricted passage thus produced.
The soft counterpart [~] is produced slightly further forward in the mouth.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating bard [x] and soft ['I],
imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice thai
hard [xl occurs before [0], [a], [u], and [~], whereas soft ['I] occurs before [e]
and [i]. At the end of a word, only hard [x] occurs-never soft ['I].

Intonation practice: emphatic statements with rising-faUing

intonation curve
Emphatic statements with rising-falling contours are those in which the major stress is not in the
final position, but is shifted forward to a medial position in the sentences. The intonation contour
is similar to that of questions without question words which have their major stress in the medial
position, except that the entire contour is on a lower level and the drop after tbe major stress is

2 _- ,,
6" ..e 6b1J1
lIa cnYx6e! 6" He 6bl11 113 cny.6e.,
Oun 6YJlH 113 3asOAe. Omt 6buJ.H ua JaBOAe"
QHa JlOCTana MaTeplla..n. Qua MaTepHa..n"
Y HaC tcT... '1ail. Y HaC ten. 'IaN?

LFSSON 9 177
A. Listen to the tape and practice the intona- B. Now practice these same sentences as
tion in the following emphatic statements. questions. Remember that the rising.falling
contour is neutral for questions and does nOl
imply any special emphasis.

4 4
3 3
2 2

DHa KynHna MaTepuM! Qua lCynillJa MaTtpHin 1

H8aH omiT.. TjT! HBfrn omiTb *1
B'iepa 6w.o c06paHlle! B'fepa 6btno co6paHHe?
MapHJI lie 6LvTli e rYMe! MapiUI He 6bU1a B rYMe?
Qner lUlBHO ooneH! Qner ..QUUD 66neu?

C. Using tbe same basic sentences, practice D. Practice the following set of longer state
them as neutral statements DOW. Note that here ments with neutral intonation. Again the con-
the intonation curve has a falling contour and tour is falling and the primary stress is on the
that the primary stress is on the last stressed last stressed syllable of the utterance.
4 4
3 3
2 2

Qlla KynillJa M8TepHM. bOPllC M6:lKeT :ho npHHeCTi'i.

H8aH OmiTb TjT. HHKOnaH 6WJ B'fCpa B 6H6nlfoTeKc.
8'iepa 6bvlo C06paHHe. Qua CM6:lKeT OncPbITb J].II6pH.
MapiUI lie 6bU1a B rYMe. Qner XOTen npHHCCTH cnOBap...
Qner .naBu6 66neu. K03J16e 6bvl 8'1epA Ha 3aHJiTH.llX.
QHa noii.n.e-r 33BTpa B JCnj6.

E. Practice the same sentences, cbanging F. Now practice the same sentences, chang
them to emphatic statements with a rising-fall- ing them to questions. Again the contour is
ing contour and with the primary stress shifted rising-falling and the primary stress is on the
to the second element. second clement. Note the sharper peak and
drop that is typical of the question, as con
trasted with the emphatic statements.
4 4
3 3
2 2

SOpHC MO*eT 3TO npHHeCTH! bOP"C M6lKeT 3TO opHHecTIi: 1

HillWJ1lHi 6L1.11 B'fepa B 6H6nuoTeKe! HHKOJIlIH 6bill B'lCpa B 6H6n1tOTel(c?
QlUl. CMO*eT OTkPbrrb ~pu! QHa cMDlKeT oncpbrrb ,Q.Bepu?
Qner xoTin npHHecr:H C1IosaPb! Qner xOTen npuHecrH C1IoBapb?
K03J16e 6W.'1 B"Iepa H8 JaHJiTHJlx! K03J16B 6btn 8'iepa Ha 33.HJITHJlX?
QHa noi,nh 33BTpa B KJIy6 ! Qua noii.n.e-r 33.BTpa B UJY6?

178 LESSON 9

The preposition y: further uses with the genitive case


QHa CTolina y.nsePH. She was standing at (or by) the door.
_ _~_yoKHa. ______ at (or by) the window.
_ _ _ _ y CTOJla. ______ at (or by) the table.
_ _ _ _ y llU'q,a. ______ at (or by) the cupboard.
_ _ _ _ Y TeJlClj)6Ha. ______ at (or by) the phone.

.s1 6brn y 6paTa. I was at my brother's place.

_ _ yOnera. _ _ at Olcg's place.
_ _ yne-rp'. _ _ at PyotT'S _ _ .
_ _ y npo>eccopa Opnooa. __ al Professor Orlav's _ _.
_ _ y JI.pyra. __ al a friend's _ _.
_ _ yflboa. __ at Le... s _ _.
___ y HHKona.i1. __ at Nikolay's _ _.
__ y ceCTpbJ. _._ _ at my sister's _ _.
___ y MapKIt HB:lHOBHhl. __ at Maria Ivanovna's _ _
__ yr!UIH. __ at Galya's _ _.
__ yKonH. __ at Kolya's _ _

6u :lTO D.0CT3n YK03JJOB3. He got it from Kollay.

_ _ _ _ _ Y )"IHTe.1ul. ____ from the teacher.
_ _ _ _ _ Y cel:peTIlpA. ___ from tbe secretary.
_ _ _ _ _ yHp...... ___ from Irina.
_ _ _ _ _ Y MapK". _ _ _ from Maria.
_____ yranK. _ _ _ from Galya.
______ '1 KOJlIl. _ _ _ from Kolya.

Y Koro BbI :ho y3HanH? From whom did you find that out?
- Y npo4leccopa Opnooa. From Professor Orlov.
- Y 6pa:ra. From my brother.
- Y M0Ka. From my husband.
- Y neTJ)a. From Pyotr.
- Y EoreHIDI. From Evgeny.
- Y ceKpeTapsi. From the secretary.
- Y AneKceeBa. From comrade Alexeev.
- Y CCCTpw. From my sister.
-yO"". From Olya.
- Y y66pmHllbl. From the cleaning woman.
- Y :lKeHhi. From my wife.
Y Kor6 Bbi cnpamHBaIlH? Whom did you ask? Or Of whom did you
- Y ICHpliJLna. Kirill.
- Y B.rrWMHpa. Vladimir.
- Y UapankHHa. Tsarapkin.
- Y B6m:OBa. Volkov.
- Y CeMeHa <IlwuinnoBHlfa. Semyon Filippovich.

- Y y'UfTeJHI. The teacher.
- Y HmWnaSl. Nikolay.
- Y MWbl. Mila.
- Y Mfrnm. Masha.
- Y MapHH neTpOBHhI. Mana Pelrovna.
- Y npo,ltaBlUm{hI. The saleslady.
KaK y !lAc npornen 3K3aMeH? How did your exam go?
_ y Onera 1 ___ Oleg's .,
__ Y Hero ? ___ his .,
__ yHHuhl ., ____ Nina's .,
__ yaee ? ___ her ?
__ YHlh ? ___ their ?
__ y HHKOJ1fu1 ? ___ Nikolay's _1


Repeat the above models after your instructor or the tape until you are familiar with the various y
constructions illustrated.


1. (window) There was a girl standing at the 2. (brother) Yesterday he visited his brother.
window. T: (6paT) Bqepa OH 6bm y 6pha.
T: (OKHO) Y OKHa CTOlfna .nCBYWxa. s: B"lepa on 6LIJI y 6p8Ta.
s: Y OKHa CToll./Ja ,lleBylllKa. " (=Tpa) (B"pa) _
T: (Asepb) (Y) _ s: B"lepa on 6wJI y CecTphi.
s: Y ~PH CTOtiJla ,lleBytUKa. (Apyr, HHl<OJlaH, KOJUI, I1pllHa, MlUla,
(nOJIKa, CTon, IUKa4!, KapTa, TCJTeQJOH, MapHJl l1aaHOaHa, )"IHTeJ1h, Toaapm.n:
OKHO, JtBepb) BOJlKoa)

3. (Pyotr) Have you already asked (or in- 4. (you) He left the briefcase at your place.
quired of) Pyotr? T: (obi) 6R 3a6bUl Y sac nopT<P6m..
T: (fleTp) 8bi)'}ICe cnpaWHBaJIH y neTpa" s: Do 3s6WJI y sac IIOpT~.
s: BN y~ cnpaulilBarlH y Derpa? T: (mill) (68) _
T: (6nhra) (Bw) ? s: Do 3s6WJI y nax nopT4lCJlL.
s: BN y~ CnpimHB8JlH YDJlbOl? (oHa, II, ThI, HsaH, HHHa, ee M)'JK,
(aHa, BJ1a,ltHMHP, OHH, HUHa, KOJUI, DOpHC, I1pHHa)
OH, KYPO'UCHH, llaaH HaaHoaH'I)


1. They're at Professor Orlov's. 2. Kozlov was visiting Pyotr.

Professor Orlov is at their place. Pyotr was visiting Kozlov.
T: Omi y npexpeecopa Opnoaa. T: K03J16a 6bm Y neTpa.
s: npo4lcop OpJloa y mix. s: niITp 6WJI y K03Jlosa.
T: .sf y 6pfrra. T: K03JI6a 6bm y JIbBa HHKHTH'Ia.
s: IipST y Memi. s: J[eB HHK1hH'I 6w y K03JlOBa.
Mbl Y JIhRa HHKWrH'I8. K6J1l1 6bm yranH.
6H y rciJUI. DpAT 6bm Y cecTpbl.
OIlH Y cecTpbi. Y':IlfTeJlb 6w Y)"IHTenhHHlI,bI.
ORa Y )" MapHll 6bU1a Y npoq,eccopa . y ceCTpbi.

180 LESSON 9

I. Did Irina get that? 2. Did Pyotr find that out ?

Yes, and I [got itlfrom Irina. Yes, and I [found DUll from Pyotr.
T: 3TO HpliHa T: ~TO ncTp y:Juan?
S: lit. a j y HpHuw. s: lU. a j y napa.
T: 3TO rWTeJJL nOCTa.n? T: 3TO HHKonAH )'3Han?
s: At. a j y }'"IIiTe.u. s: Ai, a Ii y HIlxonu.
(6paT, KronOB, Y'!HTeJlLUKQ.a, peKTOp, (MapKJI, B.n3,ltHMBp, ee 0CCTpa, CeMCHOB,
J1BaH, ee M)'I, nponasl1.lHUa. cel[peTapt>, era ",eHa, KoJUl, npo<peccop neTpOB, JIeB
JICB HmorrH'f) HHKHTH'f)


(teacher) Whom did you ask? Kolya's coming.

The teacher. Wonder how his exam went.
T: (Y'fHTem.) Y Kor6 ObI CnpaWltBaJlH? T: K6n.ll HJl,eT.
s: Y y'tHTeJul. s: I1HTepCcllo, d.te: y nero DpornCn 3KJ1Well?
T: (Y'!HTeJILUHUa) Y lCor6 BM CnpaWHBa.IIJI? T: MapH$! "neT.
s: Y ruITeJlLIUUtLI. s: HtrrepC<:llo. K8K y aee npornen 3K:s.8MetI?
(aMepll..Il:aueu., ee M)'?K, y6oPlliHua. KoJUl, (HHKonaH, Hpmla II OJUl, r3JUl, MBaH
nJ>OlPeccop neTpOB, J1pHHa, r3JUl, JIeB "BanoBlI':!, Mama)


1. (Kolya) Where's the briefcase? 2. (window) Where was Nina standing?

On Kolya's desk. Al Ihe window.
T: (K6JU1) rne nopnp6nL? T: (OIm6) rne CToin:a HHHa?
s: Y KOnH ua CTOJIe. s: Y OKH8.
T: (omi) rne nOpT<PCnL? T: (re.n.eqKm) rne CTolina HliRa?
s: Y au tta CTOJIe. s: Y TeJle4t6na.
(II, TLI, OHa, MLl:, Bbl, OU, rallll, HmconaH. (,a.Bepb, wlCal, lCapTa, nonka, CYan, OKHO)
}"iHTeJlLHnua, }"iHTeJJb)


The preposition y is always followed by the genitive case. Besides its use in to have constructions
(e.g., y MetUI ecTL), it has several other functions.
I. In a purely spatial sense with inanimate nouns, it indicates close proximity.

6" CTOin: Y01018. He was standing at (or by) the window.

nOAo*lUi y llBkpM. Wait at (or by) the door.
2. With nouns and pronouns referring to people, it designates a place in tenns of the person
located there. Thus it functions like the French chez and may be translated 01 Ihe house (or office
or place) of. Forms of the verb 6Wn. plus y often correspond to tbe English concept to visit.

.st OCT3.BHJJ Y de nopT<PCnL. I left the briefcase at your place.

QHa 6Ll:n3 y 6paTa. She was at her brother's or She was visiting her

LESSON 9 181
3. Used with nouns and pronouns referring to people, and in conjunction with such verbs as
ylHin, cnpawH8an., and 1l0C'J'lin., y indicates the source of a thing.
Y Kor6 8b1 3TO 1l0CT3nH? From whom did you get that?
- Y Hpli:tt:.IoI. From Irina.
Y KOrO Tbi 3TO y:JHan? From whom did you find that out?
- Y KO))H. From Ko/ya.
Y Koro Bbl cnpawHBMI1? Whom did you ask? or 0/ whom did you in-
- Y CeKpeTBpsi:. The secretary.
4. The use of y plus the genitive form of a noun or pronoun sometimes substitutes for a posses-
sive modifier, especially if there is no real possession involved.
Kax npowen y Te6ti ypOlI:? How did your lesson go?
KTO y sac j"IKrenb? Wbo's your teacher?

Prepositions meaning/rom: 83, c, and OT


60 H,/lCT H3 napKa. He's coming from the park.

_ _ _ JotJ TeaTpa. _____ from the tbeater.
_ _ _ HJ peCTOpaHa. _____ from the restaurant.
_ _ _ _ H3 yliHeepcm-en. _____ from the university.
_ _ _ H3 06WC}lCHTHjl. _____ from the dormitory.
_ _ _ H3 6H6nHOTekH. ____ from the library.
_ _ _ H3 na60paTopKM. ____ from the laboratory.
_ _ _ H3 WII:OJlbl. ____ from the school.

OHa H,/leT c kOH1{epTa. She's coming from the concert.

_ _ _ cyp6Ka. _ _ _ _ _ from a lesson.
_ _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ _ from the plant.
____ c o6ella. _ _ _ _ _ from dinner.
____ c C06p3.HHJI. _ _ _ _ _ from the meeting.
_ _ _ C <J>A6pHll:H. _ _ _ _ _ from the factory.
_ _ _ Cpa66Th1. _ _ _ _ _ from work..
_ _ _ co cnYx6bt. _ _ _ _ _ from work.
_ _ _ _ c JlelCl..lHH. _ _ _ _ _ from the -lecture.
____ c n6'1Th1. _ _ _ _ _ from the post office.

6H nOJlj"lHn nHCbMO OT 6p3.Ta. He received a letter from his brother.

________ aT llPyra. ________ from a friend.
________ aT HHkoJI3.JI. from Nikotay.
_______ aT cecTpbi. ________ from his sister.
________ aT :lKeHbl. ________ from his wife.
_______ OT 6Jm. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from Olya.
________ aT MapHu. ________ from Maria.

182 LESSON 9
Ou llOJlY'i11JI 0'1' HCe llllCbM6 In MOCKBbl. He got a letter from her from Moscow.
_ _ _ _ _ 0'1' uer6 _ _____ from him _
_ _ _ _ _ 0'1' UHX _ _ from them _
_ _ _ _ _ 0'1' Mellli _ _ from me _
_ _ _ _ 0'1' lIac _ _ from us _
_ _ _ _ OT .ac _ _ from you _
_ _ _ _ 0'1' Te611 _ _ from you _


Repeat the above models, noting that the preposition tl3 from is the directional opposite of the
preposition 8 to, and that the preposition c.from is the directional opposite of the preposition H8 to.


I. He's going to the park. 2. They're going to the concert.

He's coming from the park. They're coming from the concert.
'1': Ou MAe... 8 napK. '1': OHM H).{jT ua KOuuepT.
S: Ott tlAe-.. tl3 u8pKa. s: OtUi Ill\Yr c "OHlIipn.
'1': Ou MeT 8 pecTOpAlI. '1':OiiH H.AjT ua cnj:a:6y.
S: OK ~ H3 peCTOpiHa. s: Otui ttJJtr co enj:IC6Y.
(8 6H6J1HOTel:y, 8 06wOCHTHe, 8 TeaTP, (aa ypoK, 113 no'fTy, ua co6paHHe, Ha
8 ropcoBeT, 8 uy6, 8 OIXony. 8 06e.n, ua la6pHXy, Ha 3JOaMeH, lIa
YJlHBepcHTeT. 8 ay.nIfTOplOO, 8 MannHH) pa60ry, lIa nenvuo)


Vladimir was in Moscow recently.

Did you get a letter from Vladimir?
'1': BJla.rtHMHP ne.nasuo 6w B MOCKU.
s: By uoJl')"Ui.n.. OT Bna..o.iMHpa DHCbMO?
'1': HpliHa ue,ll,3Buo 6blJ1a 8 MOCKBe.
(KUPIUUl, au, oua, OHM, 51, MbI, Carna,
HHua, ana)


l. She setll a letter to Moscow. 2. They were at the concert.

She received a letter from Moscow. They're coming from the concert.
T: Olla nacmlila nHCbM6 8 MOCKBy. T: Oil" 6WJlH lIa KOlIuCpTe.
s: Oua UOJIrufn8 UHCbMO H3 MOCKBY. S: OHa HJIYr C KOImcpn.
T: Omi nOCJlana nUCbM6 8 JIeHHHrpAn. '1': OHH 6butH 0 napKe.
s: OHa DOJI}"U4.sIa UHCbMO H3 JIetllllD"pW. s: OuJi H.LIYr tl3 naPKa:
OHa nocm'l.JIa llHCbM6 B AMepuKy. (0 6H6J1H<YreKe, lIa 4la6pHKe, Ha nO'lTe,
O"a nOCJlana mlCbMO B KHTait. D Mara.:mlle, Ha neKUllH, lIa
Olla nQCJlan3 nHCbM6 B EBpOny. 3K33MeHe, B peCTopalle, B TeaTpe, lIa
OHa llQCJlana nHCbMO B CCCP. C06paHHH, B 06WejKHTHJI)

LESSON 9 183

I. I was at my brother's place. 2. The spoons are in the drawer.

I heard it from my brother. Take the spoons from tht: drawer.
T: J1 6brn Y 6paTa. T: l10IDt B Jiw;uJ:e.
s: :iTo em.imaJI OT 6pa:n.. s: Bo3bMli Jl6.-KH IIJ littuu..-a.
T: J1 6w.: Y cecTpbi. T: JlOJKKH Ha CTOne.
S: R no e.m:nuan OT cecTpbI. s: Bo3bMH JlO*KH co crom).
(y,a,pyra, y HHHbI, Y npotJx:ccopa Qpnoaa, (B wKa$y, Ha wKa$y, a Kopo6Ke, Ha
y Cawu, y pcKTOpa, Y Hero, y uee. y uux) c:ryne, Ifa nOJlKe, B nop'npene, B SllllllKe)


(Moscow) Whert: did ht: phone/rom?

From Moscow.
T: (Mocua) OncY.l.ta OH 3BOHKn?
S: "3 MOCKabI.
T: (JleuUHrp3.J:O QTXYJJ.a OU 3aOltHn?
S: Ib JIetUIIII"p8.ll8.
(Mara3HH yrny, ryM, ropcoBeT,
}'HJfBepcHTeT, 06meJlQITMe, ropoA, UlKQ-
na, 6H6nHOTeka)


He WlIS at the plant. My friend is in Moscow.

He phoned/rom the plant, I received a leiter from Moscow,
T: 0" 6w.: Ha JaaoAe. T: M6H JJ.pyr B MocKBe.
s: Oil 3BOIlitn C JaBO.ll8. s: H 1l0JlY'llf:JI IlHCJ:.MO H3 MocKBbI.
T: On6bin Ha CJIjx6e. T: Moil: .l.tpyr B JleHHHrpa,ne.
s: Oil 380HIirI 00 CJtYc6w.. s: H noJl)"lliJI mtC1>MO 113 JI~.
(Ra nolfTC, Ha pa60re, aa $a6pHke, (a KHTae, B MocKBe, B EBpOne,
Ha c.nyz6e) B AMepHKe, B CCCP)


All three prepositions, H3, C, and OT, mean from, but each is limited in its sphere of usage:
nOUDS or pronouns referring to people require OT, but for places and things "3 and C are generally
used. "3
is used with inanimate nouns which take the preposition B, whereas C is used with DOunS
which take H:l.

QHa HlIe-r ropoJt, She's going to town.

QHa u,ae-r "3 rOpon. She's coming from town.

QHa u,acr 118 JleKUHIO. She's going to the lecture.

QHa HlIeT C nCKUHH. She's coming from the lecture.

I. The preposition c bas a variant fonn co, used before certain consonant clusters:

QHa HlIcr 00 CJt)0K6w. She's coming from work.

Bo3bMH KapaHJ1am 00 CTOna! Take the pencil from the table!

184 U'SSON9
2. The prepositions "3 and 01' also have variants "30 and OTO, but these occur far lesS' frcquenlly,
for example:
"30 ,D.llli s .nellb day in, day out
,nellb 01'0 ,D.mi from day to day
3. All prepositions are pronounced as a unit with the word that follows. Prepositions OT and "3,
like most short prepositions, are normally pronounced withoul a stress: OT Hero [a~ivoJ. H:J ropo,tta
[izg6r.x1.~J. When preposition c precedes a word beginning with another C, it is pronounced without
a break as a long [s): c co6paHHII [ssabcl.Q.j~].

Other prepositions requiring the genitive case

A er6 BH.aeJI n6cne yp6Ka. I saw him after the lesson.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ KOHIICpTa. _ _ _ _ _ the concert.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3n3Mel:la. _ _ _ _ _ the exam.
_ _ _ _ _ _ ooe.aa. _____ dinner.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ C06p3.HIDI. _____ the meeting.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ JleI:I:lHH. _____ the lecture.
_ _ _ _ _ _ paOOThL _____ work.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ WX01lbl. _____ school.

A XO'iY jTO C.lle.naTb .ao yp6Ka. I wanl to get il done before the lesson.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .no KOUlIepTa. ________ before the concert.
________ .ao ::no3.Mena. ________ before the exam.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ no c06pcimul. ________ before the meeting.
________ no JleKU,lill. ________ before the lecture.

)l,ml Koro no? Who is this for?

- )l,ml MeHli. For mc.
- )]..nH ,'e6li. For you.
- )l,ml Hcr6. For him.
- )l,nH lice. For her.
- )l,nJl H"X. For them.
- )l,nJl sac. For you.
- )l,nJ:l HaC. For us.
-)l.Jul npoQ>Cccopa. For the professor.
- Jl,nJl Y'llfTeJlbHIHl,hI. For the teacher.
rne Oil )KHBCT? Where does he live?
- 6H )K"Bh np6THB napiSa. He lives opposite the park.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ TeATpa. _ _ _ _ _ _ the theater.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ pecTOpaua. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the restaurant.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o6me:lInfTHJI. _ _ _ _ _ _ the dormitory.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ nO'iThl. _ _ _ _ _ _ the post office.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ WKOJlhl. _ _ _ _ _ _ the school.
---- <l>36p",,". _ _ _ _ _ _ the factory.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6H6JlHoreKH. _ _ _ _ _ _ the library.

LESSON 9 185
rJlC OH" :ltCHBy,.? Where do they Jive?
- 0H" :lIO-lBYT 6K0110 napKa. They live near the park.
_ _ _ _ _ _ whpa. _ _ _ _ _ the theater.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ pccrop"<a. _ _ _ _ _ the restaurant.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ JaB6Jla. _ _ _ _ _ the plant.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 06Ul"""""". _ _ _ _ _ the dormitory.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 06'111>1. _ _ _ _ _ the post office.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lllK6mL _ _ _ _ _ the school.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4la6pH.lCl1. _ _ _ _ _ the factory.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 61i611lioreICIi. _ _ _ _ _ the library.

KiK HaC'IeT XJ100a? How about bread?

_ _ _ _ 60pma ? ____ borsch?
_____ '1.i:ll:? ____ tea?
_ _ _ _ _ MOJIOxa ? ____ milk?
_ _ _ _ pw6b1? ____ fish?
_____ K3.lUli? ____ kasha?
_____ ceneIlIC" ? _____ herring?


Repeat the given models, noting that aU six preposillons (n6cJJe, Jl,O, Mil, DpOTIIB, 010:000, and
HaC'lfi) require the genitive form of the noun or pronoun following.


I. When did you see her, after the concert? 2. Where did she wait for him, at the club?
No, before the concert. No, opposite the club.
T: Kor,lU\ Bb! ee BMenH, o6cJIe ICoHuepTa? T: rIle OHa er6 :lK,UaJla, B iClIy6e?
s: HiT,,lJ.o ICOlmepn. s: HiT, DpOTIIB KJlj6a.
T: BN ee BH,aeJtH, n6c.n:e neKUIiH? T: rIle OHa er6 :lKAana, B 6H6nHo-rel:e?
s: HiT, Jl,O Jle.a.u.. s: HiT, npOTHB 6M6.rulonOOl.
(nacne pa60Thl, nacne co6paHJUI, DOCIle (Ha .a6pHKe, B 06ute:lDfTHH, Ha 3aBOAe,
lllJ:OJlhl, nacne ypon, nacne 06e,a,a, Ha nO<rre, B pecropaHe, B ayJtHTOpKH,
nOCJle CJlj':*:6b1) Bna60paTopHH, B Uly6e)

3. Where did you wait, in the restaurant? 4. Do you Jive near the park?
No, on the corner near the restaurant. Just opposite the park.
T: rAe, B T: BbI :lk"&eTe 6ICono napKa?
s: HiT, ua ymy OKMO pecropaua. s: Kale pal opOnm "apKa.
T: rJl,e Bbl~, B 6u6.nHonl:e? T: BhI:lkH.BeTe 6Kono 1ll1:6Jlb1?
s: Hth, ua yrJrj 61.."000 6H6Ju1oTetcM. s: Ku pal np6nm UlKMw.
(na DO<rTe, BnaplCe, Ha .a6pHIe, Bropco-. (OI:ono, oll:ono' Uly6a, 01:0.110
BeTe, oa 3aBoJl,e, B UlXone) ropcoBeTa, Ol[ono 6H6JIHOTeDl, oKono
pecTopaHa, oKono 06uteJlOITHJl, OKono

5. When did he Ctl/l, before the meeting? T: Kor.nA 6H 3BoIilln,,uo

No, after the meeting. s: HiT, n6cIIe ooeJ],8.
T: Kor.aa 6H 3BOHKn,.nO co6p3HJUI? (Ao neKlUUf, .no pa6011>l, AO ICoHuepTa,
s: HiT, OOcne co6paHIUI. AO ypDl:a, .no l(JIy6a, .ao CJlY:lK6b1, .ao

186 LESSON 9

I. Where is he? 2. He isn't here yet.

We won't go without him. I won't go withoul him.
T: fae JlCe ou? T: Ero ewe Ul:T.
s: Mw 6eJ Hero He uoii./leM. s: st fieJ Hero He ootmY.
T: fae *e MpH-ita? T: fanK eute Her.
s: Mw 6eJ I1pMHw He uoii~M. s: st 6eJ rinK He ooiiAj.
(OHH, KHpHJlJ1, OHa, Cawa, Oner) (SOpHca, HHllbI, ee, HX, ceKper3p", ero)

3. Where is he? 4. You can buy FISh here.

We bought this for him. How about fish?
T: rae OH? T: 3ACcb MO:iKHO KynHTb pbr6y.
s: MY no K)'nKnK ll..JJ1I Henl. s: KaK HaC,," pW6w?
T: fAe HHHa? T: 3ACcb M6:no XynHTb xneG.
s: MY no Kymin. ll..JJ1I HJOo.I. s: Kite YacYT xJle6a?
(aHa, KHpHJlJ1, ESreHMM, Anex<::ees, OHM, (cene.IJ.XY, MOJJOkO, 'laM, cnoBapb, aTnac,
Mapwr I1sauoBua) xapry, pY'!Xy,CTon)


I. The theater's over there, opposite the post 2. He did it for us.
office. We did it for him.
71te post office is over there, opposite the T: OH no cnenan M" uac.
theater. S: MY no cMJl8JlH l11IlI Hero.
T: Tearp BOil raM, npantB nO'IThl. r: Oua :)rO CJtenana MJI BaC.
S: no'lT1l ItOH "riM, npOTU Teli:Tpa. s: Bw iTo C.rtenL'lH lVIlI Hee.
T: JIa60paTopHJI BOU TaM, nponfB aYJUITO- .sf lTO caenan MJI Te6li.
pHH. OUM :)ro c/J.enanH MJI Hero.
S: AY.lUlTOpMlI BON TiM. UpOTHB na60paTopHH. MbI 3TO caenanH A/UI Hee.
SH6nHoTeka BOlt raM, OpoTHB pecropilHa. Komi 3TO c.a.enan All" fanK.
06ute*HTHe BOH TaM, npoTHB llIKOJlhl. Cecrpa 3TO cnenana ltJUI 6para.
lllKona BOH nlM, nponm 33.soaa. SOpltC 3TO cae.nan MJI. J.1BaUa.
napK BOH TaM, npoTHB 4Ja6pHKH.
Mara3HII Bon raM, npoTHB reaTpa.

3. He won't go without me. MbI GeJ re6li lie nou.a.cM.

I won't go without him. OHa 6eJ HHX lie nOi1,neT.
T: OH 6eJ Mell,) He nOu.a.eT. Obi 6eJ lIac lie Iloiiucre.
S: st 6eJ lIero He ooii):{y. .sf 6e3 nero He 1l0H.uY.
T: OU" 6eJ Hee lie noliJJ.yr.
S: OHa 6eJ mix He uoiiAh.


Unlike most of the shorter prepositions, which are ordinarily pronounced with no stress, the
prepositions o.-eno, npOTU, n6cne, and Hac..e-r are pronounced with stress. Although weaker than the
stress of the word following, they serve to maintain the [0] vowel quality, which in the unstressed
prepositions .10 and OT is reduced to [a] or [~].
Note, however, that if the speaker wishes to point up a contrast, even the shorter prepositions
may be pronounced with a stress:

BbI: "riM 6b1nH n6cne kou.Qepra? Were you there after the concert?
- Her, ,flO xOHuepra. No, before the concert.

LfS')ON 9 187
Verbs with infinitives ending in --'lb: MO'lb and CMO'lb



R MOry OTKPbITh OKHO. I can open the window.

Tbl MO"'CWh _ You can _
6n MOlKeT _ He can _
Mhl MO:lKCM _ We can ;
Bbl M6Jkcre _ You can _
Onu M6ryr _ They can _


6n fie Mor OTKpbrrb ,ll,BepH, He couldn't open the door.

OHa HC Moma _ She couldn't _
OHHHcMornu _ They couldn'1 _


.s'i He eMory nOHTH ua C06paHilC. I won't be able to go to the meeting.

Tw HC CMO)t(CWb _ You }Von't be able _
6" He CMCI)ICCT _ He won't be able _
Mbl He CM6)KCM _ We won't be able _
8bI He CM6"'CTe _ You won't be able _
ORH He cMoryT _ They won't be able _


6" He CMor DOHTlt B IUIj6. He was unable to go to the club.

Omi He CMorm't _ She was unable _
Qmt He CMOrn" __ They were unable _


Repeat the above models, observing particularly the replacement of the stem consonant r by l in the
second and third persons singular and in the first and second persons plural. Note also the pattern
of stress shift in both past and non-past forms .


I. I can't write without a pencil. 2. 1 won't be able to get into the.building without
T: Ji. He MOrY nHeaTb 6e3 KapallJlawa. a key.
s: 9 He Mory IIHcaTL fiel KspSII,ttama. T: beJ KJIIO<[a R ue CMOry sOHni. B 3.naHHe.
(Olla, Mbl, Bbl, Tbl, OHH, 011) s: DeJ KJUO...a Ii He CMOf)' Bonii B J.Il.8JUle.
(Tbl, MbI, BbI, OH, $I, Olla, OIlU)

3. My husband couldn't get any coffee. 4. She couldn't attend classes.

T: MY)K He cM6r JlOCTarb K6e. T: OHa He MOrJla 6bITb Ha 3amiTIIHX.
S: Myl lie CMor .Il.OCTan. Ko4e. s: QHa He MorJl8 6brn. Ha JauilTHQX.
(jxeaywKH, 011, Cawa, OHa, )Kella, neTp (aBU, Mbl, BbI, Hlllla, HpHlla. KOJJlOB,
HDaHOB].f<[, CTy.neHTKH, BbI) Komi, BJIa;J:HMHp. cTYJl.ellThI)

188 LESSON 9

Were you at the concert, Nina? Oml, Tbi 6blJla Ha KOHuepn:?

No, I couldn't go. nerp HaaHORWI 6bvi Ha KOHUepn:?
T: H"Ha, Bbi 6WlH Ha KOIlu,epre? HpKHa neTp6BHa 6blJla Ha ICOHueJYre?
s: Her, Ii He CMorJla DOwn OUK 6WlH Ha xmmepre?
T: CAwa, ThI 6bvi ua x:ollu,epre?
s: Ha, Ii He CMOr 110m.


I. rm not busy now. 2. I'm busy now.

I'll be able to go to the club. I can't go to the club.
T: J1. n:nepb He JanllT. T: J1. renepb 3AaRT.
s: A CMOrj nom B IUIY6. S: 9 He Morj nom 8 KJly6.
T: Tbt -renepb He JaWlT. T: Tw renepb 3aHllT.
s: Tbi CMO:etJJL nom B KJly6. s: Tw He MO'lKetJJL Dom B lUIy6.
(OIlH, Bbl, 01111, Mbl, Cawa, JJ.eB}'ll1ICH) (OHH, Bbl, Om, MhI, Cawa, JJ.eDywKH)

3. I don't have a pencil. 4. My sister was sick.

I can't write. She couldn't work.
T: Y MeHJi Her KapaH.Uawa. T: Moli cecTp3. 6bU1a 6onbHa.
s: A lie MOrj IIHc8.Tb. S: OHa' He Monui pa60T8Tb.
T: Y Rac HeT x:apaH.Uawa. T: Moli MYJK 6bvi 66neR.
s: Rbi lie MO::eTe 1DIClin.. s: OH ue MOr paOOTaTb.
(y Hee, y HHX, Y Te6S1, Y Hero, y MeIDl, (:llCeHa H c:ecTpa, Mali 6paT, MOlt oCcTpbl,
y HHX) sax-rep, y60pLUKLJ.a)

5. She doesn't have a room.

She simply can't get a room.
T: Y Hee Her XOMHaTbi.
s: QHa HIlKaK He MO..eT IlOJIY"IHn. KOMHaT)'.
T: Y MeHJi H6 KOMHaTbl.
s: 9 HIlKax He MOrj llOJJ}"flfn. KOMHaT)'.
(y Hac, y BHX, Y re6S1, y Rac, y Hmw:,
Y MeIDl)


Only a small nwnher of Russian verbs have infinitives ending in -"110. All belong to the first
conjugation, and all have basic stems ending in r or K. SO far we have encountered only MOIfh (im-
perfective) and CMO"llo (perfective) can, to be able.
In the present-future of MQoo,. and CMO"IIo, the basic r of the stem is replaced by .. in the second
and third pe~ons singular and in the first and second persons plural.
Compare Ji Mary Ii CMOrY

with TN MOJKeWI. ThI cMo*ewb

00 MO*eT (UI cMo::eT
Mba MO:.ll:eM MbI: CM6:.1l:eM
DbI: MOIeTe DbI: CMO:.ll:ere.
Note tbat the stress is on the ending only in the first person singular: Morj, CMOfj; otherwise it
falls on the 0 of the stem: e.g., MO::euIb, CMOllCeon., and so forth.

LESSON 9 189
In the past tense, the suffix JI does not appear in the masculine form, but does appear elsewhere.
Ii (Tl:d, 611) M6r li (Tl~,OH) cM6r
li (Tbi, OHa) MOrna li (Tbi, aHa) CMorna
OH6 Morn6 OHO CMorno
Mbl: (BbI, oHJi) MornH Mbi (BbI, OHM) cMormf
Note that in the past tense the stress is on the ending. where there is an ending vowel.

Further past tense drills


Dbi }'}Ke 311aJUi 06 JTOM? Did you already know about it?
- He-r, He 3U31I. No, I didn't know.
- He-r, He 3Hana. No, _
Ow )':ike nOCJJ31IH OHCloMO? Have you already sent the letter?
- ):{a, y*e oOCJJan. Yes, I already sent it.
- Aa, y*e nocnana. yes, _ BbI pa60Ta..ll.H? Where did you work?
- jJ: pa60TaJI Ha <fm6pHICe. I worked in a factory.
- jJ: pa60TaJla Ha lIla6pHKe. 1 -
8b1 y.e noo6eJ],31IH? Have you already had dinner?
- Her, ~ emc lie o6e.uan. No, I haven't yet.
- Her, ~ ew.c He o6e.naJla. No, _
Dbl y:e nOCMOTpeJlH ec KOMllaTy? Have you already looked at her room?
- He-r, ~ cw.e lie CMOTpeJl. No, I haven't yet.
- HeT, ~ cwe He CMOTpCJla. No, _
DbI CJlyrn31lH nCIUlHH B yaHaepcHTeTe? Did you attend lectures at the university?
- Aa, cnyrn31l. Yes, I did.
- ,Ua, cnyrnana. Yes, __.
Dw )')Ke cnpocunH ero? Have you already asked him?
- Her, ~ ewe He cnpaWHBaJI. No, I haven't yet.
- HeT, JI eme He cnpaUJHBaJla. No, _
DbI )')ICe lIanllcaJtH nHCbMO? Have you already written the letter?
- HeT, ~ elue He HanHcaJI. No, I haven't yet written it.
- HeT, ~ ewe lie HanHcana. No, _


Repeat the above models, noting that often (but not always) a past imperfective verb is used in a
negative answer to a question using a perfective verb.


I. Grant studied Russian at the university_ 2. He was asking where this building was.
T: rp3.HT ruin PYCCKHH ~3b1K B }'HHoep- T: 6H cnpArnHBan, me 3TO mauHe.
CHTeTe. S: OR cnpituHaan, no 3roimre.
s: rpJiHT Y'f1U PYCCKHH RJblK B YJDIBep- (aHa, MY, 8.JJa.nHMHp, OpnoB, Marna,
(Bbl, MM, Carna, OHa, CTy.nCHTIl:H, cry-
neHTM, KHplUlJl, .neBywKH, HHlla)

190 LESSON 9
3. Orlov left your dictionary at my place. 4. I wrote a letter home yesterday.
T: Opn60 ocn\alln aaw CJI0aapb Y MeHl1. T: A 8'1epa llanHclJl f11ICbMOllOM6ii.
s: Opnoa OC"riOHJI aam CJJOBliPb y Melui. s: A o'lepa IlallHCU IIHCLMO llOMOi.
(01111, Y'I"TeJ]b, .neoyrnKIl, OJUl, Carnal (Mhl, EoreHIlH, Mawa, .n.eaywKH, )leB,
SOPHC, 01111)
5. I waitedfor you for a long time. 6. I already 8ubmitted an application for a room.
T: A .n6nro BAc *.na.n. T:.s1 'fA{e 33JlBneUHe lIa K6MHaTy.1
s: A ,llOnro sac ")lan. s: R )'*f: rtOJlaJI 3aRBJlem.e tUl KOMHary.
(Mbl, 011, Olla, OUII, Cawa, BJIaJUlMHp, o;OPIIC, HuHa, OHII, OH, Bbl, MOM .upyr,
.n.eayrnltll) M",)

1. She took the atlas from the library. 8. I wanted to suggest t/wt to you.
T: alia 83JUla. ATnac H3 6H6JlHoreKII. T: A' xoro 113M 3TO npeAl1oll:Hrt..
s: OKli a3w llTJlac "3 6M6JlHOrit..,.. s: A XOTen aa.\f :iTo npe,l1JlODn..
(MbI, Oil, HHHa, KllpHJIJ1, 01111) (OpnoB, Y'lHTeJlbHlfua, npo)eccopa, MhI,
HBaH HBaHOBlf'l, MOM llpyr, MOil .n.PPbJl)


1.- She wanted to write a composition. 2. He forgot to open the window.

She wrote a composition. He opened the window.
T: Olla xoroa lIanHcaTh co'UUlel:lHe. T: OH 336w on:PbtTb 0~1I0.
S: ONa NaDHcana CO"OlHeuHe. S: OK OTKpWn ~H6.
T: Oua xorena Kynrn nnaThe. T: On 336bui HanHcaTb CO'lMHeHlle.
S: OHli Kymlna ollline. S: OH HaJDIcan CO~HHe.
(pllaTb pe3ynbTaThI, on:pbJn. OIrno. (cnpocHTb y Onera, OCTaBHTb y He(:
.nOCTaTb MaTepllaJI, nocMoTpeTh em no.uapoK, nOCJlaTb IlHCLMO, B3J1Tb CJlQ-
pa60Ty, nllTh '1au) BapL, ~ynHTb xnOO, .uOCTaTb Marepll3J1)
3. They can buy the present.
They bought the present.
T: Oil" M6ryr KynHTb nO)lapOl'-
s: OHR Kymtmf no,napoK.
T: OIUJ: M6ryr cnpocHTb y BJI3.D.HMltpa.
s: Ollii cnpocHJIH y BJla,QHMHpa.
(3aMonaHTb CJI00e'lKO, nony'l"Tb KHJ.lTIl
1t3 MOCKllbl, 3TO c,nenaTl" nQCJl3Th


I. DOII't you want to see the room, Nina? cawa, n:1 lie XO"lCWb noo6e.uaTh B
I already did. CTonoBoH?
T: HUHa, ru He X6'1eWb nOCMOTpCn. OnLra, rn He XO'lemb noo6C.naTb B
te6MHaTY? CTonoaOH?
s: A y*e IJOCMOTpina. CeMeH, Tht lie XO'lCWb KynHTb ICApTy
T: K6JU1, ru He X6'1eWb nocMoTTb KHTb?
K6MHary? OJUl, ru He XO'leWb KynHn. dpry
S: R y:e DOCM<rJ1tin. K>mI>o?

I The masculine and plural romu have two possibk st.resses: 116.:uu (or JIO~) and 116~ (or _.ld.u). "The feminine has
suess on the last syllable only: 8OJlIJIi.

LESSON 9 191
2. Nina, have you already had dinner? "pUHa, ThJ }')ICC CnpOCltlla 06 :hOM?
No, I haven't yet had dinner. CeMeR, Tbt }')ICe cnpocl-in 06 3TOM?
T: HltHa, ,,;, YJKe noo6e.o.aIla? 6ml, ThI: }')ICe en) paoory?
s: HiT, eme He o6eAaJla. 60pHC, Tbi }')ICt nOCMOrptn ern paoory?
T: Komi, ThI: yx.:c noo6tnan? MKJ1a, n.i }')Kt nOJtYMana 06 :hOM?
s: HeT, ewe He 06eaa1l. Blla.ztHMHP, n.i yx.:e nOJtYMaIl 06 iTOM?

4TEHl1E 11 nl1ChM6

~ c c C:r. ~,~, ~.J&
ta, ~ ~ ~, 40WuY ~~." ()::d
~.- ~ ~," - ~ ~w;ur- ~

/f} ~ ~ ~ ~.1k=
~ 1'- ~ ~.:f{q .e--wu" ~ C C C!P
1N~.;/Uv-nqMU ~ ~;;;~ ~.~
~, ott- f. <JU,f{k ~, '1W" "" fU- ~ 4W ~

- ~ +fA- ~ .'!iiM- ~ ~,

uU: (}f/- i' - ~ ~ ~? - Y fU'I.(r fUiit- ~.
- 81~, ~ 31'h<r ~. -~ ~ ~.
192 LESSON 9
~ 1UV r--'1' -~ -...:. ,IJl JV ~ ~~-
1<L~.-:4~F u#v".-Jl ~f-~
~ >liU..

-~ MHe Jt)'JICH3 "HCTOPIDI eccp." HeT, O)KHJt3eM H3 c!]e.ll,ytOmcH

Y Bae CCTb'" -
uencne. - A KaK H3C'iCT "J.1CTOpKH KwraSl"? "J..fCTOPWI KHTa.JI" Y Hac ecTb. BoT OH3.
- A CKaJlCHTe. Kapra Espollbl y sac TOJKC eCTh? - )la, ceHlf3C npHHecy.

- rAe nell' MsanOSH.. ? Tbi HC 3HaClllb? - Ka;KeTC5I. cpaJY DOCile 06e.n;3 ou nowen
AOMOH. - PaJBe OH Ja6b1n, 'fTO y Hac ceH'I3C 3K3aMcn? - HaBcpHO 336b1J].

- Mawa, oOOn rOTOS? - Eme HCT. - A .sI )'Xc rOJlo.o.CH. - nO.ll,O)l(AH, nO:lK3JlyHcra,
MKHYTJCY. Kama eute He rOTOS3. - A 'ITO eme f13 o6c.ll? - Bopm It pbl6a.

- OnSl, Sf BH)KY, TbI 6bJn3 B rYMe? ~ Aa, Tom.KO 'ITO 6b1J13. - Tbl He 3a6blJ13 KymiTh
py'lKy? - BOT, .o.0C3,a3! 3a6w1I3. ~ A 'ITO :no B Kopo6KC? - nO.o.apoK WISt Tc6S1. BHAHWb,
06 3TOM 11 HC 3a6bJJ13.

- BOT ceneAKa. Itt Xllc6 eeTb, It orypUbl. - Ho r.ue y reG$! 110)1(11 It BHJIKH? - Ka)KCTCJl,
B SlLUHKe. - B lHlJ,HKC nCT. B IllKaepy TO)l(C He BH)Ky. - nOCMOTp" Ha nOJIKe. - J1a,
BOT OHH. J.1 xJle6 TO)Ke 3.a.eCb.

~N9 193


cy666Ta [sub6t~] Saturday

B cy600ry [fsub6tu] on Saturday
6yAYT (fut of 6wTb) will be
niHllbI (sg nHeu) dance, dancing, dances
8 cy666ry 6yAYT niHUbi. There'll be a dance on Saturday.
.nOMa at home
cu,nen. (II) to be sitting, to sit
li CH:y, ouH Cil.wrr I sit, they sit
BpeMJI (n) time
Becb (m), Bcli (I), B<::e (0) all
Tw Bee ep(:MJI Cu,n"Wh .nOMa. You sit at home all the time.
31itta, Bee BpeMII CKJUtwb AOMa. Zina, you sit at home aU the time.
no!tneM (imperative) let's go!
noi'tn.eM B KJIy6! Let's go to the club!
noii;J,eM B Cy660Ty B KJJj6! Let's go to the club on Saturday!
TaM BcerA3. TaK CK)I'IIIO! It's always so boring there!
Hh, cnacH60. TaM BCer.lla TaK CKj"llIO! No, thanks. It's always so boring there!
ph occasion, time
Ha :lTOT p:b this time, on this occasion
.a.a, HO Ha nOT pb 6yAYT TiHuw, Yes, but this time there'll be dancing.
TanUbl? 3To .Ilpyr6e .neno! Dancing? That's a different story!
Ta~eBaTb (I) to dance
Ii TalluYlO. all" TaH~lOT I dance, they dance
m06rn (II) to love, like
Ji JIlO6mo, OHiI mo6n 1 love, I like; they love, they like
.sf m06mo TaHlleBaTh. I love to dance.
Tuuw?:)ro.lQlyrOe Aeoo! TaHQeB8.Th Ii Dancing? That's different! I love to dance.

BMecre together
Bct BMecre all together
noii.D,eM oce BMecre! Let's all go together!
noii.AeM" Bee 8M"ene: a. TW, BJlII,/lHMKp K Let's all go together: you and I, Vladimir and
Oller. Oleg!

Tw OMra 3Haeun.? Do you know Oleg1

HeMH6ro, Slightly (/it. a little).

>1 ero HeMHoro 3HIDo. J know him slightly.

KyPc class (year), course
Ha OJJ,HOM KYpc:e in the same class
Mbi: Ha O,ll,HOM KyPce. We're in the same class.
3HaKoM acquainted, familiar
Miulo little, too little, very little, few
Mbi: Mana 3HaKOMhl. We're barely acquainted.
Mw Ha 0J:ul0M" Kypce, HO M8JJO 3HaKOMbI. We're in the same class, but we're barely

napeHb (m) (pI napH") lad, boy, fellow

8oJ10,!l,lll roBOpH'r, 'fT0 OH XOpOUlHH mipetlL, Volodya says he's a nice boy.

TOBapHlU no KOMHaTe roommate

Omi TOBaplllUH no Ko."IHaTe, They're roommates.

yeMen. (pfv II) to see. catch sight of

Ji yBIDIey, OH" YBWT I'll see, they'll see
YBK.nHM. We'll see.
3H3.'IHT it means; so, then
TalC 3Ha'UlT so then, well then
TalC 311a'lIIT, B Cy666TY? So, on Saturday, then 1
YBIi..aMM, TaK 3Ha'lM'T, B cy666-ry? We'll see. So, on Saturday, then 1

(plus gen)
CKOJ1LKO how much, how many
DO at what time
So CKOllbKO? At what time?
At nine.

BC'tep (pi Be'{epa) evening(s)

Bc'{epoM in the evening
cerOJJ.Hj/ BC'IepoM this evening
'-ITo TbI llllnaeUib cerolUtll Be..epoM? What are you doing this evening?

!PHnhM film, picture, mQvie

BO"Ha w"'
M"P peace; world
A H.!ti" Ha c1tMJlbM" 8oiH' H MHP). I'm going to the movie War and Peace.

rOBOpfl, xopOlUHii. They say it's good.

196 LESSON 10

C HHM with him

8b1 C1IJ1M 31l3KOMbl? Are you acquainted with him?
c IItH~ with her
8b1 C Heil 3I1aKOMLoI? Are you acquainted with her?
C HHMll with them
8b1 C HRM" 3H3K6Mbl? Are you acquainted with them?
n03HaK6MHTb (pfv II) to introduce, acquaint
JI n03HaKOMJIIO, OllR n03HaKOMJlT I'll introduce, they'll introduce
.sf BaC n03HaK6MJ11O c neH. I'U introduce you to her. here, over [here}, this way, in this direction
6H ItJle-r He's coming over (here].
Ha3aaTb (pfv I) to name
Ha30By, Ha30BYT I'll name, they'll name
Ha30BRTe MH He.ntnH! Name the days of the week! Monday
BTOpHHK Tuesday
ope"a Wednesday
'leTBepr Thursday
miTliHLl<l Friday
cy666Ta (sub6t~J Saturday
BOCKpecCHbC Sunday

B cy600ry OYJIYT T81U\L1

Kau 3HHa, ~in~ !

TbI oee OptM$I CHJJ.:HllIb JJ.6Ma. Ii fj6 vreljl' ji<liS d6m, j
nOH.nCM 0 cy666Ty 0 KJ1Y6. paj<l6m fsub6tu lldup j
3HHa 2 Her, cnacH60. Vel j spajibo j
TaM TflK CKy"lHO! lam fjigda lak sku!n, j
KaTH 3 Aa, dii j
H6 Ha :hOT pa3 n6 naet;)t cas (
6YJJ.yr TaHUbI. I budut Hinci 1
3HHa 4 TaHubI? tanci i
3TO JJ.pyr6e ,a,eno! el, drug6j, <lei, j
TaHueoaTb Ji JlJo6mO. I,neival ja lublu j

paj<l6m f vljlej\i j
Bna.u.HMHp vlaQirpir I
H Oner. 2 i ajek j

TLi Onera 3Haewb? ti alcg,l znaji~ i
Note llult Russians consider Monday tbe Iirst day of the week and Sunday tbe last. Thi$ i$ rdIcctod in (be names:
n6ptUU< (from nop6i ~rond), ~ (from ' and ~ (from .Jrrwifi!'").

LESSON 10 197
3UHa 6 HeMuOro. Qimnog::l !
Mw Ha OAHOM KyPce, mi nOJadnom ktir~i !
HO ManO 3HUOMbl.) no rnal:J znakonll !

KaTX 7 BonoJVI r080pHT, va1~::1 g::lvarit I

'iTO OH XOPOWHH napeHb. j st::l 00 xarosij papQ !
OH" TOBapHIUH no kOMHaTe. aQi tavarisci pak6mn::lti L
3uHa 8 YBH.o.HM. uyi 4im I
Tax 3Ha't.HT, B Cy600Ty? tagzoa~it fsubOtu !
Bo CKOJlbKO? vask61k. I
KaTX 9 B AeB~Tb. v4eyi\1
A 'ITO Tb! ACJ1aeWb a Ito ti 4eJ.jil I
cerOAJUI Be'iepoM? ~ivodQ::I yetir::lm!

3HHa 10 J1HAy aa HnbM ((SoAHa H MHP. ja id1i nafJ.lm vajna i rpir !

rOBopkr, XOpOWHH. ~varat xarosij !

NOTES 1 Tam.... is ordinarily used in the plural unless a specific type of dance is referred

Compare noiUl.eM Ha TIlHUbI. Let's go to the dance.

with Her. iTo ne pyCCKHH T8Heu.. No, that's not a Russian dance.

In Russian it is correct and not at all impolite to start with oneself in referring
to a group:
nOiiJJ,CM Bee BMecre: Ii, N, BnamfMKp H OJIl~;'-.

Russians do not put a comma aner the next to the last item in a series if the
conjunction H precedes the last item. If the H is omitted, then the comma must be
used: Ii, ThI, BmV1I6f1IP. Oner.
In the expression Ha onum. KYpce. the noun Kjpc is used to mean class year

(comparable to such terms as freshman or S()phomore). Kjpc can also mean course,
as in KyPC HcrOPHH history course.
Bo.rrOLUI is a nickname for BJlaMMHp. Similarly, KaT'll is short for EK8repma.
and 3ICHa for 3MH8.MAa.
, The word mipeub boy, lad, or fellow was formerly restricted to a country or
working-class boy. Since World War 11 its usage has been extepded to refer to any
young man.


KHHO (n indeclinable) ~in6] movies, cinema

B KHIIO [f\:in6) to the movies, at the movies
Oller AYMaeT !lonTii B lCHIlO. Oleg is thinking of going to the movies.

198 LESSON 10
'Hl1'inb (I) to read
Ii '1111'8.10, OIlH '1"1'3101' I read, they read
41'0 1'bl 'I1lTllcwb? Whal are you reading?
lfTO ThI "IMTaem.... HCTOplllO? What are you reading, history?

EereHIIM Oilerllll) Eugene Onegin

)1: 'lttTSIO _EerCttHIl OHtntH8 t. I'm reading Eugene Onegin.

CTllxH verses, poetry

BOT d ... CTlIxH! You don't say! Poetry!

.st Boilu)' II MHp.

'1111'3010 I'm reading War and Peace.
A Ii cei"lac 'OI'riJo <dJoiiHy II ronip. Well, I'm reading War and Peace now.

poMan novel
31'01' poMaU that novel, this novel
A mo6.'nO 31'01' POM,". I love that novel.

ero (ace or Oil, OHO) it, him

MII6rQ plb many times
)1: MH6ro paJ erO. I've read it many times.

lI.neT iPlinbM a film is playing (or showing)

B KIIHO H.neT aMepllXaucKHH There's an American film showing at the
iPlinbM. movies.
KcT3.TII, e KHIlO lflJ.eT 3MepHK3.IlCKIIM Incidentally, there's an American film showing
iPlinbM. at the movies.
KCTaTH, JHaeWb, e lomo lflJ.eT Incidentally, you know, tbere's an American
3MepHK3HCKH"iPKnbM" film showing at the movies.
KcTiiTIl, Jltaam., B ..1100 ltlI,eT Incidentally, you know the American film
8r.tepHKauCKHii Cllim.M .Bowa II MMp t War and Peace is showing at the movies.

.st O'iCUb )to'ly ero nocMoTpe-rb. I want very much to see it.
)Iii, JUSIO. A O"letn. xo'Jf er6 Yes, I know. I want very much to see it.

Kor.n3. when
Tw KOfJl;& Jl;YM8emb nOKTM? Whcn is it you'rc thinking or going?

nOCJleJallTpa [poslizart 1'; J the day aftcr tomorrow

liml or
39.B"rpa MJTH nocJJeJ8BTpa. Tomorrow or the day arter.
nO'leMy why
A no'leroty n:. cnpswHBaewb? Why do you ask?
Jalnpa Be'lCpOM tomorrow evening, tomorrow night
3"H3 HlleT 3aBTp<l Be'lepoM. Zina's going tomorrow evening.
1i: CJJWwllJl, "fTO 3MHa N,lteT I heard Zina was going tomorrow evening.
39.BTpa Bi<tepoM.

A To",e noM.nY 3aBTpa. ['11 go tomorrow. too.

lla? Tor.nii ti TO*e now 3iBTpa. Really? Tben I'll go tomorrow, too.

LESSON 10 199

C~HTaTh (I) ~itat] to count, consider

C~'IT3.IO, C~'ITaIOT ~itaju, Ritlijut) I count. they count
OT O,LUIoro .nO .necliTH from one to ten
C'IllTaihe OT o!l.J1oro .nO Aecnll! Count from one to tcn!
OWl" one
ADa two
Tpli three
~eTbipe fOUT
min five
saceMb eight
.neSlITb mne
.necRTb ten

"'c hour, o'clock, one o'clock

Bo CK6111>KO Sbi noe.neTe? At what time will you go?
- B 'lac. At one [o'clock].
- B JlB3.. At two.
- B TpM. At three.
- B ~eTl~pe. At four.
- B mlTb. At five.
- B weerb. At six.
- B CeMI>. At seven.
- B D6ceMb. At eight.
- B .nessrn". At nine.
- B .necATb. At ten.

QJler )ljMaeT ooiini B "RHO

B. - 811allH;\Hlp O. - Ollcr

B. 3n,p3BCT8yit:, OJler! zdriistuj alek 1

4TO Tbr ~HTaeWb" sto li citiijis !
J.1CTOPHfO ., istopju 1
O. 2 Her, Qed
EBreHHJI OuenlHa. I jivgeQijo aQegino 1
B. 3 BOT K3.K, vot kilk I
CTMxM! Sli~i 1
A li ceii'fac 'H1TafO a ja ~itAju I
Bairn)' H MHp. vajou i rpir!
o. mo6mo :hOT pOMaH. jil lublii etot ramilo 1
Muoro pa3 '{HTan ero. omoga ras ~itAI jiv6!

200 LESSON 10
B. 5 KcraTH, 3HaellJb, kShl\i zDajis!
B KHHO HAeT f\inc ilia' I
aMepHK3.HCKHi:t $HJlbM arpirikans~ij film
Boi:tHa H MHp. .vajna i Jllir
O. 6 ,llA, diU
3l1alo. zDaju!
>1 O'leHb xO'ly ero nocMoTpeTb. ja otiQ xacu jivo JY.lsmatre\!
B. 7 Tbl KorAa nyMaellJb nOHTH? ti kagda dumajis pajp !
O. 8 3aBTpa zaftra!
RrIH nOClle33BTpa. iii posliziiftra !
A nO'leMj TbI cnpallJHBaellJb? a p;)(;imu ti sprasivajis !
B. CJlbIllJan, I
ja sUs:,)1
'ITO 3H:Ha H,neT st. pn. ili6' I
3aBTpa Be'lepOM. uftra yeciram !
O. 10,llA? dii T
Torna si TO}l(e noi:t,ny 3aBTpa. tagda ja toii pajdu uftra!

NOTES 1 (<.EBnlmlii OllerHHH is Alexander Push kin's (1799-1837) famous novel in verse,
written during the 1820's. Note that titles of books, movies, plays, and so forth
are declined in Russian unless preceded by the nouns book, movie, play, and so forth.
Compare Ji '1J.l"r3.10 (,BoilHy J.I MHP}), I'm reading War and Peace.
with Ji 'HiTalO poMaH Boilml H MHp. I'm reading the novel War and

Basic sentence patterns

I. Tbl 3HaeWb OJlera? Do you know Oleg?
_ _ _ _ EBremuI? _____ Evgeny?
_ _ _ _ KHpHJlJla? _____ Kirill?
_ _ _ _ L1.apanKlIHa? ______ Tsarapkin?
_____ A.n.eKceeBa? ______ Alexeev?
_ _ _ _ llbBa? _____ Lev?
_____ ceKpeTapli? _____ the secretary?
_ _ _ _ CArny? ----c-
, Sasha?
_ _ _ _ Kamo? _____ Kotya?
_____ BOJlO)lIO? _____ Volodya?
_ _ _ _ rinlO? _____ Galya?
_ _ _ _ HHHy? _____ Nina?
_ _ _ _ MapHlO? _____ Maria?
_ _ _ _ HpHHy neTpolmy? _____ Irina Petrovna?
2. Bbl era JH<lcre? Do you know bim?
_ee.. 'I. _____ her?
_HX ? _____ lhem?
_MeH'I. _ _ ?. _____ me?
_HaC ? _____ us?

3. nonpocHTe I1BaHa H,IfKOJlaCBH'fa K Ask Ivan Nikolaevich to come to the phone.
_ _ _ _ 60puca MKXMiJJoBH'fa _ Boris Mikhailovich _
_ _ _ _ BJla.nHMHpa - - - - - - _ Vladimir _ _~ _
_ _ _ _ upo4J<coopa Opn6sa _ _ Professor Orlov _
_ _ _ _ EBreulUl _ _ Evgeny _
- - - - ""'p.""p' - - - - - - _ the secretary ~

_ _ _ _ )"Uhe1Ul CMupHoea _~_ _ Teacher Smirnov ~

_ _ _ K6mo _ _ Kolya _
_ _ _ _ Bo.n6mo _ _ Volodya _
_ _ _ Camy _ _ Sasha _
_ _ _ _ Mapmo _ _ Maria _
_ _ _ Hm.y _ _ Nina _
_ _ _ ramo _ _ Galya _
_ _ _ _ I1p>iHy nOTJ)6'Hy _ _ Irina Petrovna _

4. YT6 Dbl 'fUT3.eTe? What are you reading?

- POM8..H. A novel.
- CTHxH. Poetry.
- tEBreHIUI OHt~nlHa t. Eugene Onegin.
- c60puca fOJJ.YH6Ba . Boris Godunov.
- cA6KTOpa ) . Doctor Zhivago.
- eBoHHj Ii Mlip . War and Peace.
- .AHOy KapeHHHy t. Anna Karenina.
- HCTOplUO. History.
- reorp.anno. Geography.

5. Jt mo6mO 'Iau. I'm very fond of tea.

_ _ _ oopw. _ _ _ _ _ bo=h.
_ _ _ xne6. _ _ _ _~ bread.
_ _ _ _ MOJlOK6. _ _ _ _ _ nUlk.
____ orypu w. _ _ _ _ _ _ cucumbers.
_ _ _ mHo _ _ _ _ _ ",hi.
_ _ _ Kamy. _ _ _ _ _ kasha.
_ _ _ pbl6y. _ _ _ _ _ fish.
____ ceJlC,llKy. _ _ _ _ _ _ berring.

6. Ha CJleA)'IOllleH He, R 6yAY B MOCKBe. Next week I'll be in Moscow.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Thl: 6YAewb _ . _ _ _ you'll be _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6H 6y~OT __ _ _ _ ho'll be _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Mbi 6YAeM _ _. _ _ _ wo'll be _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bbi 6yAere _ _. _ _ _ you'lI be _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ OHM 6yAYT _ _ _ _ _ thoy'll be _ _

7. Jt 6yAY 'IlfT3.Th cEBreHIUI OHernua . I'll be reading Eugene Onegin.

Tbi 6YAewb _ You'll be _
61:1 6YAeT _ Ho'll be _
Mw 6YACM _ Wo'li be _
Bw 6y~=_~ _ Vou'll be _
OUM 6YAyr _ Thoy'li be _

202 LESSON 10
8. .s1 111061110 TaHUeaaTb. I love to dance.
Tbi JII06HWb _ _~ You love _ _.
QHa m06HT _ She loves _ _ .
MhI 1II06HM _ Welove _ _ .
Bbi: 1II06H"re _ You love _ _.
Omi JlJ06lIT _ They love __ .

9. .s1 see apeMjI CmKY.noMa. I sit (or stay) home all the time.
Tbi CH.ltHlllh_. You sit (or stay) _
6H CuMT __. He sits (or stays) _
MbI CHllUM __. We sit (or stay) _
BbI CH,lOfTe _ . You sit (or stay) _
Qmi CIt,lVlT _ _. They sit (or stay) _

10. .s1 ero )'Buy cerOJJ;HJI Be..epoM. I'll see him this evening.
Tbi: _ )'BH.n.HWb __ You'll see _
QHa _ YBH.wtT _ She'll see _
Mbi: _ yBH.wtM _ We'll see _
Bbi: _ YBH.n.HTe _ You'll see _
OHJi _YBWT _ They'll see _

II. .1tBcer,n3. ee BU:lKY B -rea-rpe. I aJways see her at the theater.

TbI: BH.n.mub _ _. Vou _ """ _
6H BH..rtm- _ He __ """s _
Mhl Bm.HM _ We_""" _
Bbl BHJurre _ Vou _ """ _
Onu ali.wrr _ They _ see _

12. .st 3aBTpa KyruuO M0110"O. I'll buy milk tomorrow.

Ty _ _ KYnKUlb _ You'll buy _
0lI. _ KYmrr _ She'll buy _
My __ iCYnHM _ _ We'll buy _
By _ _ Kj"nHTe _ You'll buy _
Qm; _ Kj"n.llT _ They'll buy _

13. .s1 OCTaBnlO nOpnpeJ1b B KJ1Y6e. I'll leave the briefcase at the club.
TbI: OCTaBHwb _ You'll leave _
6R ocraB"T _ He'll leave _
Mbl ocraO"M _ We'll leave _
BbiOCTMHTe _ You'll leave _
Omi OCTaBlIT _ They'll leave _

14. .st cnpowy 06 .:hOM y nbBa. I'll ask Lev about it.
TbI: cnp6cHwb _ You'll ask _
OR cnp6cm- _ He'll ask _
Mbi: cnp6cHM _ We'll ask _
Bbi cnp6c1tTe _ You'U askL-_ _
Qmi cnp6c1lT _ They'll ask _

15. KaKoii cerOAJUI .a,eHb? What day is today?

- Cero).{H1I: BOC"peceHbC. Today is Sunday.
_ _ _ _ _ nOHc).{el1bIUlK. _ _ _ Monday.
_____ STOPH"". _ _ _ Tuesday.
_ _ _ _ cpe).{a. _ _ _ Wednesday.

LESSON 10 203
- CerOAHSI "leToepr. Today is Thursday_
_ _ _ _ mrnUUla. _ _ _ Friday.
_ _ _ _ cy666Ta. _ _ _ Saturday.

16. nOH.aCM B BOClCpeceHbC B IC./IY6. Let's go to thc club on Sunday.

_ _ _ B nOHC.llenbHllX _ _" _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on Monday.
_ _ _ 00 BTOPHHK _ _ on Tuesday.
_ _ _ " CpeAY - -_ _" _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on Wednesday.
_ _ _ B "lcnepr _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on Thursday.
_ _ _ 0 miTHHl.\y _ _ on Friday.
_ _ _ B Cy666Ty _ _ on Saturday.

17. QHa Oecb llellb cHltena .nOMa. She stayed home all day.
__ Becb oe"lep _ _______ all evening.
_ Bee YrPo _ _ all morning.
__ see ne-ro _ _ all summer.
_ _ BCK> 3RMy _ _ all winter.
__ octO HClltJlIO " _ all week.
__ Bee OpeMSI _ _ _ _ _ _ _ all the time.

Pronunciation practice: unpaired consonants [~], [z], [C],

[C], [~C], and [j]

Some consonants occur without soft or hard counterparts. Three consonants are aJways pro-
nounced hard: ~], [il, and [c]. Three are always pronounced soft: [~], ~], and (j].

A. Hard consonant (SJ

Usual Cyrillic spelling tu; also jk, tub, or )Ie".

Note the pronunciation of hard [~] in the following:

(vi sRi~iti] Obi cnewliTe you're hurrying

Ua ,IBoII Ji CJIwwan I heard
[maW] xopow6 good

The Russian consonant (S] is always hard. It differs from the corresponding English sound
(usually spelled sh in words like shop, crwh, and bush) in that the tip of the tongue is curled slightly
up and back, and the sound is made farther back in the mouth.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating (S], imitating your
instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when
Cyrillic e, M, and .. are written after ru, they ace still pronounced hard.

204 LESSON 10
B. Hard consonant [fl
Usual Cyrillic spelling *; sometimes *lo.
Note the pronunciation of hard [ll in the following:

[final lKeua wife

[naslut~;] Ha CJTYc6e at work

Russian [ll is a hard consonant formed with the tongue in the same position as for ~], but it is
pronounced voiced. It is similar to the English .r in leisure and pleasure, except that the Russian
sound is made with the tip of the tongue curled up and baek and is produced farther back in the
mouth. (Russian [ll is articulated in approximately the same position in the mouth as American
Engljsh r.)

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating [i], imitating your
instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when
Cyrillic e, e, and" are written after )1\, they arc still pronounced hard.

C. Hard consonant Ie]

Usual Cyrillic spelling It.

Note the pronunciation of hard [c] in the following:

[kancert] KOIlLtePT concert

[agurci] arypubl cucumbers
['Ioc] aTilt father

The Russian sound [c] is like the Is in English cats. and in the foreign-derived words tsetse and
lsar. The tip of the tongue touches the gum ridge behind the upper teeth. It is always pronounced
Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating eel, imitating your
instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when
Cyrillic e and H are written after It, they are still pronounced hard.

D. Soft consonant [~l

Usual Cyrillic spelling .. ; sometimes 'lb.

Note the pronunciation of soft [~l in the following:

[~j) ...iii tea

[napOttu] ua nO"Ty to the post office
(Ie;..] o..epa yesterday
[6CiQ] O'feHl, very

Russian [l:] is formed much like English ch in cheap or chin, but without the puff of breath
which occur.; with English ch in the above words.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating [l:], as well as Ihe
paired sets contrasting (l:) and soft (tJ, imitating your instructor (or the tape)
as accurately as you can. Remember that even when Cyrillic a, 0, and yare
written after It. they are still pronounced soft.

LESSON 10 205
E. Sort consonant [5C]
Usual Cyrillic spelling Ill; sometimes Il.lL or C'I (rarely iK)],L).

Note the pronunciation of soft [~] in the following:

[W] LUll. schi

[bMt] oopw borsch
[nascot] lIaC'leT with regard to
Uascik] Jiu.r.J.l'K drawer, box
(Ri!Co] nJiUla food, fare

The Russian sound represented by [scI is pronounced either as a long soft lS] or as a soft {~]
followed by a [el, also soft. It ~ounds something like the sch in English mischief, pronounced rapidly
with sh instead of s. The sound [sc] is considered soft in the Russian sound system and has no hard

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating long soft [~cJ, imitating
your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even
when Cyrillic a and yare written after Ill, they are still pronounced soft.

F. Soft consonant U]1

Note the pronunciation of soft U] in the following:


[d';lsyida(lj';l] .0:0 CBHJl:aHH.II good-bye
[angin';ljJ al-lI'lIHoi1 with a sore throat

Russian UJ is pronounced much like the English y in you and boy, except that the Russian
sound is made with the tongue much tenser and more elevated, particularly after a vowel. Russian
U] is considered a soft consonant and has no hard counterpart.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating OJ, imitating your
instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

Intonation practice: review of falling intonation contonrs

Reread the discussion on intonation contours in Lesson 6.
A.- Review of statements with falling contours.
6H 3,o:ecb. He's here.
ArtCKceeB y ce6}j. Alexeev's in.
Qlla lIa coGpaHHIf. She's at a meeting. y TeJIe$oHa. Vladimir's on the phone.
, In the Cyrillic writing system, the consonant sound m
is ordinarily expressed by the separate letter ii after a vowel only
when there is no vowel immediately following. i.e., at the end of a word or just before another consonant: r.toii fm6jJ. "Tp6iiKa
[tr6jk:l]. It is most often tJl:pn:ssed through usc of the soft-series vowel letters, particularly at the beginning of a word or
between vowels: Ii [j<i). 111010 [maju].

206 LI.'SSON I 0
B,imm B WKa~lY. The forks are in the cupboard.
Olll) 8 Mara3HlIC. She's al Ihe slore.
A.TJlaC Jloporoli. T'hc atlas is expensive.
all B MOCK&e. He's in Moscow.
nOH.n.Y nOCMoTpIO. I'll go take a look.
B6T pecTOpaH. Here's the restaurant.

B'lcpa 6bui: KOm.-CpT. Yesterday therc was a concert.

Y HaC ecn, 6Opw. We have borscb.
Tencpb oua 6oJJbHa. She's sick now.
BaXTep CTOM y.nBCpH. Tbe custodian stood at the door.
Mbi }')ICC o6e.aarlH. We've already had dinner.
all ceH"ac 0 MocKoc. He's in Moscow now.
Y MeH,j Ma.neHbKlUI npOcb6a. I have a small favor to ask.
Oua pa60TaeT lIa <pa6PIIKe. She works at a factory.
R IIAY c pa60TbI. Pm coming from work.
3aM6JJBltTe 3a MeH,j CJTOOC'iKO. Put in a good word for me.
60JJbWOe BaM cnacH60. Thanks very much.
MbJ BellI> CTapbJe llPY:U,,j. We're old friends, after all.
R naBH6 BaC He BH:JteJJ. I haven't seen you in a long time.
OHa olllin. KynMa MaTbe. She has bought a dress again.
allBnOJlne TenCpb 3nopOB. He's completely well now.
Mbi Hell3.BHO OMII 'l3.H. We drank tea awhile ago.
HHHa nOJlro CToJina B O'iepellii. Nina stood in line a long time.
Haao T3.I .uoJlro ;t()l,aTb. One has to wail so long.
Benb -raM pa60TaeT AneKcCeB. Alexeev works there, after all.

B. Review of questions with falling contours (question-word questions).

KTO TAM? Who's there?

KTO cnpaWIlSaeT? Who's calling? B3XTep? Where's the custodian?
rIJ.C KHOcK? Where's a newsstand?
\.ITO :lTo? What's that?
KYlla H,lJ,eWb? Where arc you going?
3a'lCM cneWHTh? What's the hurry?
KaK HHHa? How's Nina?

r.uC owi 6bJJJa? Where was she?

KTO TaM CTO,jJl? Who was standing there"
4TO 3TO B WKa<py? What's that in the cupboard"
Y Koro Rbi 6b1J1H? Whom did you go to see?
4TO Bbi What were you doing?
KTO 3TO rORopJiT? Who's that talking?
Ky.aa omi CneWaT? Where are they hurrying to?
Orkj.aa abl: H,llere? Where are you coming from?
]a "eM Te6C cnewHn. ? What's your burry?
o KOM OH cnp<lluHBa.Jl? Who was he asking about?
4TO cerO.a1lJl: ua 06e.a? What's for dioner today?
o 'IeM HaDHcan K03Jloa? What did Kozlov write about?

Ky.aa Rbi: TalC cnewJiTe? Where are you going in such a hurry?
4TO Rbi TCncpb lle.naere? What are you doing now?

LESSON 10 2fY7
l{TO :ho TaM B yr11Y? What's that in the corner there?
rile Th. :ho JJ.OCTana? Where did you get that?
Kax Tenepb naC'leT ooeJJ.a? How about dinner now?
OTiCYil3 Rbi :ho n011)"1K1I11? Wbere did you get that?
Y oro Bbi :ho y:manH? From whom did you learn that?
Ja'leM Te6e 3TH TeTJlA,D.H? What do you need these notebooks for?
rJJ.e CTOUT flaw peKTOp? Where's OUf chancellor slanding?
Ka.: npowe.n TBO" yp6K? How did your lesson go?
Kh TorAa f13C'1CT ftTnaca? How about an atlas then?


The accusative of KTO, 'ITO, and the personal pronouns


tho Bbl TaM BHJJ.elut? What did you see there?

Koro Bbl TaM BH.o.CJUl? Whom did you see there?
Bee npo$eccopa Mellli 3HaIOT. All the professors know me.
_ _ _ _ _ ",60 _ _ _ you.
_ _ _ _ _ .r6 _ _ _ him.
_ _ _ _ ee _ ________ her.
_____ Ha.-- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ us.
_____ 8a. _ _ _ you.
_ _ _ _ _ HX _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ them.

CnpocJhe em, ttftlt npoHTH R filM. Ask him bow to get to GUM.
__ ~ee _ _h.r _
lix _ _ them _

He CMOTpH H3 nero! Don't look at him (or it)!

_ _ _ _ lIa llee! _~ ber (or it)!
_ _ _ _ lIa mix! _ _ _ _ _ tbem!

3aMOJlBitTC 3a MCHJI CJ10BelfXo! Put in a good word for me!

____ 33 Hcro ! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for him!
____ 33 lice _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for her!
____ 33 1Il1C _ _ for us!
____ 33 IlHX _ _ for them!


Repeat the above models, noting that the accusative is like the genitive for all personal pronouns
and KYO, but that 'ITO has an accusative like the nominative. Note also that afier prepositions the
third person pronouns are Hen>, Hee, and mix; otherwise they are erG, ee, and Hx.


Ask Ivan NikoJoellich [to cornel to the phone. T: nonpociITe rwJO IC TenecP6Hy.
Ask him [to come] to ,he phone. s: noopoaiTe ee II: Tene+6tY.
T: nonpocJhe MBalia HH.K011aCBH'la k (saXTcpa, BonoJUO, HHHy, Mapmo nCT-
TeJlel6uy. PORHy, EBreHWI, Kano, 3HHy, neTpa,
s: nOnpocMTe en> " TeJle4l6trY. HHko11ajl)

208 LESSON 10

Where's YOllr dictionary? {Bawe nepo, Baw 110)4(, Barna kHHT'3, BaWH
I left it at home. TeTpa.nKH, BaUJH CJJOBapH, Bama pa60Ta,
T: rile B3W clIooapl> '! Barn aTnac, Baw nopTlj)e.nb, Bame co-
s: A en~ :Ja6blJT AOMa. '(HHe"He, BautH KlIK>'II1)
T: r.ue Barna K3.pTa 1
s: H: ee 3a6blJ1 ,nOMa,


1. Ah, there you are! 2. Here's the dress material.

We've been expecting you for a long time. Where did )'ou get it?
T: A, BOT BY! T: BOT MaTepHan Ha nnaThe.
s: MY DC AaBHO otllJ.Uie.'K. S: BhI ero LtOCT8nH?
T: A, BOT ThI! T: BOT K3.pTa KHT3.R.
s: MW n6li lUl8HO O*Kl1aeM, s: RW ee JlocriJOt ?
(OHa, OHM, KoJUl, y60pll(HU3., }"IHTeJIh (aTnac AMepHKIl, KapTbi EBponhl, tcapaH-
CeMeHoB, HHHa, 01lbra nellJOBua, neB .naw, orypl..(bl, Pbl6a, KlUtfM, nOPTlj)e.nb,
HHXHTH'I) TeTpa.AH, C1IoBapb)

3. Kozlov was there. 4. Zina isn't ready yet.

I saw him. Wait for her.
T: K03J!68 T3.M 6blJ1. T: 3Hua ewe He rOTOBa.
s: g en~ BH.aeJI, S: no,ll,O:JU4 ee,
T: OEla T3.M 6bU1a. T: R Cute He rOTOB.
s: g ee BKAeJI. s: no,/l,O:llC)Ut Memi.
(TbI, 011, BbI, OHH, HmonaH, TBO" cCcTpbl, (MbI, Oner H 3HHa, 6paT, OHa, cecTpa,
KaTR, npoc:J>eccop OpnOB, TeO" 6paThR) OHI1, TBOR *ella, on, TBOR M)')K)

5. He's here. 6. He's nOl here yet.

Do you know him? We're expecting him.
T: Oil TYr. T: Ero elll,c lib.
s: TbI: ero :JlI1iernL? s: Mw ero o~eM.
T: OHa TYr. T: Y'{llTeJlbHHLU>J ewe IICT.
s: TbI: ee :J1I8etUb ? s: Mbi ee o*HAAeM.
(l1plllla, KOJ1Jl, K03110B, MOll 6paT, MOll (IIX, Komi,, nponaSWHll,hl, ero,
cecTpa, MOil 6paTLR, MOll ceCTpb.l) npoq,eccopa, CeMcHoa3 Hero )Kenbl)
7. There's Zilla over there. 8. We saw the factory.
Ask her. Whal did yOIl see?
T: 86H TaM 311.113. T: Mw 8H.D.eJIli 3aB6J.1,.
S: CnpocMTe eC. s: qTO BbI: BJiAeJlH?
T: BOH TaM BOllO,l]}l. T: Mbl OH.D.CJlH 3ulIy.
S: CnpocM-re erO. s: KorO BbI: OHJJ.CJlH?
(l1plllla ne1ll0BIJa, y60PlltHD;bI, MOit (aTlIac, KapTbI, BOllO,lJ;K>, ifJlUlhM, Barny
6paT, MOR cecrpa, Y"HTeJUI, Y'UtTeJlb- cecTpy, ee 6pa:ra, 6H6nHOTeKY, Y'llITeJISI,
HHUB., 01ler, CTYJleHTbI) pe3YllbTaThI 3k3aMena, Mapmo, KOM-


The accusative of personal pronouns and ICTO has tbe same fonn as tbe genitive. Tbe accusative
of 'ITO, however, is like the nominative.

LfSSON 10 209
Tbl OH, OliO OHa M';' Dbl ami H6 'iTO

ACC MelUi -..6. era ee lIac . .0 OX Kor6 .w

(Hero) (Hee) (nux)

The alternate fonns. Hero, Hee, and HHX, are used only with prepositions: nOCMOT'pIi Ha Hero!
Look at him! Ja.\fOllBNTe 3a Nee ClJO&e'IKO! Put in a good word for her!

The accusative singular of nouns

Koro Bb! TaM BH.nellll? Whom did you see there?
- DOpUca. Boris.
- Bna.n.HMHpa. Vladimir.
- npocPcccopa Opn6aa. Professor Orlov.
- EBreHIUI. Evgcoy.
- HHKOnalt. Nikolay.
- K6mo. Kolya.
- BonO.lUo. Volodya.
- Cluny. Sasba.
- HpUHy. Irina.
- Maputo. Maria.
- lhoOOBb. Lyubov.

'-iTo Bba KynHnH? What did you buy?

- Xne6. Bread.
- 4aH. Tea.
- MOJlOlc6. Milk..
- KaPTY KHTb. A map of China.
- Pbl:6y. Fish.
- Cene.llKY Herring.
- TeTpaltb. A notebook.
KY.lla 611 nowen? Where did he go?
- Ha yp6K. To class.
- Ha KOHU,CpT. To a concert.
- B Kny6. To the club.
- B napl(. To the park.
- Ha co6paHue. To a meeting.
- B 06lUe)lOtTllc. To the dormitory.
- Ha cPA6pHKy. To the factory.
- B wKony. To school.
- B 6H6JlHOrelCy. To the library.
- B na60paT6pHIO. To the laboratory.
- Ha neICllHJO. To the lecture (or class). Bbi 6Y.ueTe .u6Ma. When will you be home?

- B BOCKpeceHbC. On Sunday.
- B nOHe.uenbHHK. On Monday.

210 LESSON 10
- Bo BTOpHHK. On Tuesday.
- B cpCA)'. On Wednesday.
- B 'leTBepr. On Thursday.
- B ruhHHUY. On Friday.
- B cy666Ty. On Saturday.

.si 6y.o:y y uHX oeCb ll,eHb. I'll be at their place all day.
______ BeCb se'lep. ________ all evening.
_____ Bee YTPo. _______ all morning.
______ Bee JIeTO. ________ all summer.
______ BCJO 3HMY. ________ all winter.
______ BCJO seeny. _______ all spring.
______ BCJO Ocelli... ________ all autumn.
______ BCJO He.t\ _______ all week.


Repeat the given models, noting that the accusative singular is like the nominative singular except for:
I. Animate cyon-nouns, which use the genitive singular endings.
2. )Kwa-nouns. which have the endings -y and -10 in ~he accusative singular.


(Oleg) Do you know Oleg? (HUKOJlall. Y'lHTeJIb, CeMeHos, ero ce-

T: (Oner) Bb"13HaeTe OJlera? CTpa, aMcpmcaHeu rpaHT, CallIa, CTY-
s: By 3UaeTC OJlera? ,lI.CHT K03J10B, EBrcllHH, ero TOBapHlU,
T: (np.ccop OpJlOB) (Bbi) ? ccKperapb)
S: Bb"I 3l1ac..-e npocflCc-
oopa Opm~oa?


1. We have no bread. 2. There's Professor OrJov over there.

I bought bread today. I know Professor Or/ov.
T: Y ",ic BeT XJIe6a. T: BOH TaM upcxpeccop OpnOB.
s: acero.ll:JUI KymiJI XJlOO. s: a lH1bo npocflCccopa OpmlB8.
T: Y Hac HeT 'laR. T: BOH TaM JII060Bb neTpOBlla.
S: acerONul KymiJI "laM. s: a llflbo Jbo668b neTp08ny.
(neT pbl6bI, neT MOJIOK3, HeT K<><Pe, HeT (BoJlO)])l, KypO'lIOtH, DOPUC
ceJ1e)J)(H, nCT aTJlaca, HeT CJlOBapR, HeT MHxaiirIoBH'l, I1pmla J1BaHosna, Komi,
KapTh! EBpOIIhI) ero ccKpeTapb)


I. Where's the key? 2. Was the exam on Monday?

I left the key on the table. No, on Tuesday.
T: rne KJlJO'l? T: 3JOaMeH 6bu1 8 lIOHeJl:e.nbHHK?
s: Kiuo'l Ii OCT8BHJI lI8 CYOJle. S: HliT, 80 BTOpUHK.
T: r,lI.e KHHra? T: 3K3aMeH 6bIJI ao BT6plillK?
s: K'H1try Ii ocraOMJI ua CYOJIe. s: HeT, B cpeJJ.Y.
(MOJlOKO, TeTPanb, p)"lKa. CJl0Bapb, (s cpeJt.y, II 'leTBepr, a nRTHHUY)
llHCbMO. Kopo6Ka, MaTepHan)

LESSON 10 211

I. Where's the park? 2. Maybe Kalya heard about that.

I want to go to the park. Ask Katya.
T: rjJ,e mipx? T: M6lKeT 6hm. Kan ClIbnuana 06 nOM.
5: A xo'fj IIOiiTH mlpK. s: CopoctiTe KaTlO.
T: rjJ,e 06me"'HTHe? T: Mo",eT 6b.lTb ]JeD ClIbiwan 06 nOM.
s: A XO'fY nom B06ll.le:t(H-rKC. s: CnpocH-rc JIbB8..
(rYM, 111Kona, <pa6pHKa, Kny6, 60IlhWOH (1110608b nCTpoBHa, EBrellllH, npo<Peccop
3an, 6H6J1HOTeKa) KYPO'lKIIH, ITeTP Hoanoolf'l, ero
TOOaplDlt no "OMHaTe, OJUl, }"urreJlb
3. Nina and Katya were there. 4. Over there is the unil'ersity.
I saw only Katya. rye already seen the university.
T: TaM 6WlH HUlIa If KaTR. T: BOil T3.M ymmepcmtt.
s: A BN.a.eJJ TOnbKO KaTlO. a
S: y:e BliJJ.eJJ )'HHBcpclITer.
T: TaM 6bIJlH Opnoo H KYPO'lKIUI. T: BOil TllM 06tUooITlte.
5: A BHJJ.eJJ TOJlbKO KYpo'IKHlIa. a
s: y*e BH.ueJJ 06ute*H-rKe.
(Bonon)! " OJler, 6paT " cecTpa, Onjl II (nO'lTa, na60paTopltjl, ,ll,Bepb, 3jJ,3HHe
HIIKOJlaii, CTy,D,CH1' If CTy,D,ellTxa, 6116J1l1ore,,". ee "OMlla1"4, KX aymfTOpIDI,
y60ptUIILta If Daxrep, M}'JIC If ",eRa) Mara3HH)


Only ito:eHa-nouns and animate CTM-nouns have accusatives which differ from the nominative.
Animate CToJl-nouns have accusatives exactly like their genitives. )Kella-nouns have accusatives
ending in -y (for nominatives ending in -a) and -10 (for nominatives ending in -H).


cron-nouns Oh.,.o..nouns *eHa-DOUns ,!lBCpbnouDS

Inanimate Animate (same as (same as

(same as (same as nominative) -y and -10 nominative)
nominative) genitive)

CTOJI K03J100ft OKIIO )KellY ,!:tBepb

nopTcj>Cnb Mf,oKa ,D,eJlo ceCTpY O'lCpe,!:tb
KapaHnaw YKpaUHUft Mo 3URY J1JOOOOb
rYM jlxYra nepO y66putllltY OceUb
TaneU n~pa co6pilHile K6.ntO ,.",aab
<pKtlbM cryneHTft CO'lHHeHHe rantO
KHTaH 6"'", ru"hbC nejJ,e.ntO
yroJi JIboa neHRe Kano
hnac Kilplinna Bon6,/l,1O
Enremul I1CTOPiltO

A few It(eua-nouns with the stress on the ending in tbe nominative singular shift the stress back
to the stem in the accusative singular. Compare 3tl\ta with 3N.\f)' winter, cpeLtli with cpeJJ.Y Wednesday.
and llOCKa with lJ.OcKy board.

212 LESSON 10
Summary remarks. The accusative functions primarily to indicate thc goal of a verbal action,
i.e., the direct object of a transitive verb. Used in conjunction with such prepositions as a and tla,
it indicates the goal to which the action is directed. .
The accusative is also frequently used in expressions of timc, where it may occur either with or
without a preposition, for example, B Cy660Ty, Ila hOT pa3, acw 3H:My. When used without a pre-
position, it indicates the complete span of time encompassed by the activity.

Second conjugation verbs with a stem consonant change

in the first person singular present-future

Obi ~aBH6 3~CCb cUlniTe? Have you been sitting here long?
- )la, Bee yTpO CH)f(y 3.ltCCh. Yes, I've been silting here all morning.
Obi 3aBll'a YBH,ullTe HMHy? Will you see Nina tomorrow?
- .nil, yBIDKy. Yes, I will.
nonpocHTe er6 K Tene$OHy. Ask him lO the phone.
- Xopow6, cei.flac IIonpowy. O.K., I'll do it right away.
CnpocHTe KYPO'lKHHa 06 3TOM. Ask Kurochkin about that.
- st 3aBTpa era cnpowy. I'll ask him tomorrow.
t.1T6 Ohl KYnHTe 0 rYMe? What are you going to buy at GUM?
- >1 KynJllo no.uapoK HHl.Ie. I'll buy a present for Nina.
Obi JlI0611TC 'Iail? Do you Ii ke tea?
- .na, O'lCHb JlI06Jno. Yes, I'm very fond of it.
r.uc DblocTaBHTe KmO'l? Where will you leave the key?
- st oC"nlBJlIO ero B MLUHKe. I'll leave it in the drawcr.
Obi MeHM llmHaKoMHTe? Will you introduce me?
- .nil, 1l03HaKOMJIIO. Yes, I will.


Repeat the above models, noting that there arc two types of change which may take place in the
first person singular of second conjugation verbs:
1. Replacement of the final stem consonant by an automatic alternatc (compare Thl BH.nHIUh,
Oil BH~RT with Ii B"IKY).
2. The addition of a soft if (compare ThJ Jll00llmb, Oil JJ1001lT with Ii JII06nw).


l. You sir home all the time. 2. Zina loves to dance.

T: Thl BCe Bp(:MH CH.uJ.lWh nOMa. T: 3lfHa JII0611T TaHlI,eB3.Th.
s: Tw ace apeMSI CH.uH1Uh .uOMa. s: lAlla mooHT T3I11tellliTl>.
(oHa, MW, BW, OIIH, KaTH, R, MOR )l(eHa, (MhI ace, Ham" CTYAeHTKlI, H, BbI, 1bI, 3Ta
oalilll 6paThR) JJ,csylllKa, nell' II MlUIa, g)

3. f'lIleal'e rhe key with Pyotr. 4. I sometimes see Zina at the movies.
T: >1
ocniBmo KlllO'I y nell'a. T: 51 "HOrlla BIf)Ky 31flly B 10f"0.
s: 5i ocniBJIIO KJIW'f y ne-I'pa. s: A Hllorlla BH*Y 3M:uY B KHIIO.
(oHa, ThI, MhI, BW, H, OHI1) (Oller, TbI, Olin, ShE, g, MOR .n:PY3bSl, MhI,
Moil TOBapHll\ no KOMllaTC)

LESSON 10 213
5. When shall! see you again? 6. I'll ask him for the key.
T: Kor.m\ 1i onlin BaC yufuKy? nonpowy y lIero KJ110'l.
s: Kor.n,R Ii YSD.-y? s: it ooopomj' y Hero K.'UO"I.
(OH, MbI, BonoJVI, 51, 3TII aMepHKalIQbl, (TbI, OHU, MbI, BbI, 1'1, HBaIl, OHa, Hawll
OHIl) CTy.neHThI)
7. rll ask them about that. 8. We'll buy bread tomorrolV.
T: R cnpowy HX 06 :hOM. T: Mbr 3liBTPa KyUHM xne6.
s: j]: enpotuj HX 06 :hOM. s: Mw :J8BTpa KrUMM XJlOO.
(MbI, BbI, KaTM, .neo)'lUKIl, TbI, Oil, JI, (1'1, ThI, BbI, Olla, :liI, OIlH, on, 1I, MbI, BbI,
CTY.neIlTICH ) TbI, :liI)

9. FII introduce him to her.

T: R ero n031laxOMJlK> C HeH.
s: A en) nOJllaKOMJlIO elicit.
(Olllt, MbI, KaTJI, JI, TbI, 8M, Oncr,
ACO)'lUKH, Bono.nJl)


I. Whom did you ask about this? 2. [left the dictionary on his desk.
Whom will you ask about this ? I'll/eave the dictiOffOry on his desk.
T: Koro Tha 06 :hOM? T: .st OCTaBItJI cnOoaPb y lIero lIa CTone.
s: KorO tW cnp6cJuu.. 06 :JTOM? s: it OCT8B./UO CJlOsaPb y Hero H8 crone.
T: Koro Bbi cnpocJ.inH 06 :}TOM? T: DHa OCT<lBuna CJlOBapb y Hero lIa CTOJIe.
s: Koro sw cnpOcJrre 06 nOM? s: OHa ocniBHT CJlodp.. y Hero fill CTOJIi.
(Mbf, OHIl, Sf, Olla, OH) (MbI, ORlI, KaT5I, BbI, EBreHHH, ThI, SI,
CTy.neHT, aMepHXaHeu)

3. She bought suit material. 4. ZinG used to ~;it home all (he lime.
She'll buy suit material. Zina sits at home all the time.
T: OHa Kymina MaTeplUln: Ha KOCnOM. T: 31illa Bee BpCMJI cltQena ll,OMa.
s: Od KylDlT MaTepttU H8 KocnbM. s: lNHa Bee BpeMlf CHJ(Ify aOMa.
T: .st xynHn MarepH8.n lIa "ocnOM. T: Bbi see BpeMSI CltQenH .nOMa.
s: A K)'wno MaTepHU H8 IrottIOM. s: BbI ace Bpe~UI eH.whe .nOMa.
(BonoJVI, OHlI, Bbf, ceCTpa, Sf, K03JIOB) (SI, OHa, 3TII CTy.nellTh.l, l'bl, OHM, Mbl, 011)

5. She loved you. 6. They often used to see Oleg.

She 101'es you. They often see Oleg.
T: DHa Bae JU06Hna. T: Oil" '1aCTo 8H.neJIll Onera.
s: OHa de mOOHT. s: Omi 'uino 1IN.1.urT Onera.
T: 6H oac m06Hn. T: Jt '13.cro BH..neJT Onemo .
s: Oil de mOOHT. s: it 'facro luhky OJlera.
(MOH 6paT, Sf, Olm, MbI, 3TOT aMepHcalleu) (011, CTy,ll,eIlTlCa, 3HlIa, MbI, HallIH
,lI,eByrnKH, 8bl, Tbl, }I)


Second conjugation verbs undergo a stem change in the first person singular present-future if
their stem ends in .n, T, e, 1, 6, n, B, 4t, or M.
J. Denlals.n, T, e, and J are automatically replaced by tbeir palatal alternates lie, "I, W, and '"
respectively, and the first person singular ending is spelled -yo
2. Labials 6, n, B, l), and M add a sort n before the first person singular ending -10.

214 LE'iSON 10

INFINITIVE BHae...., CllpocHTb JII06Wrb KynWrb OCT8BHTb 1I03t1RKOMHTh

fO see to ask 10 love 10 buy to leave (0 introduce
(;pry) (pry) (ipfv) (pry) (pry) (pry)

so I Slt....y cnpowy JIIo6mo "ywuo ocraMIO 1I0311a"OMJIIO

2 SliD.IIWh cnp6cltlUb m061tlUb KynltlUb OCT:umWb II03I1aKOM"Wb
3 BH.nHT cnp6cuT m0611T Ky""T OCd.BlIT n03HaKoMHT

PC I B"A1IM cnp6cHM m06HM KymlM OCT<umM n03l1axO/lotHM

2 BH.u.Hre cnp6cwre JII06"Te Ky""Te OCTaaHTe 003HaxOMJITe
3 BIUtMT cnpocJIT JIIo6JIT IylUlT ocnIBn n03HaKOMJIT

Note thaf fhe change in Sfem OCClirs only in fhe firsf person singular.

If the stress is on the last syllable of the infinitive, it will fall on the ending of the first person
singular, but win often shift back ODe syllable in all other forms of the present-future. Compare
c:npoam., cnpowj with copOaunb, copOarr. mpOca.\t. cupOarre, cop6cwT. If the stress of the infinitive
falls on a syllable other than the last, it will remain on Jhat same syllable in all forms, for example,
OC"T1iBHTb, OCTlhtJllO, OCTUIIIllb, ocniSMT, ocnisH.\t, ocriBMTe, OCTisaT.
In the past tense, the stress is consistently on the same syllable as in the infinitive, for el(ample,
men., SHD.e.rr, BK.rte.rra,,; mo6Hn., mo6H.rr, nlO6Ma, m06K.rto, nI06MM.

The future of 6bITb

and the formation of the imperfective future


.sl GYAY TaM B cy660Ty. I'll be there on Saturday.

TbJ 6Y.l.tCWb _ You'll be _
611 6Y.l.teT _ He'll be _
Mbl GY.uCM _ We'll be _
Bbl 6YJleTe _ You'll be _
Oil" 6yayr _ They'll be _

YTO Dbl 6Y.l.tere Aena..-h? What will you be doing?

- Mw 6YAeM pa6oT3Tb. We'll be working,
Iho Thl 6YAewb Jl,enaTh? What will you be doing?
- .sl 6yay 'f.HTaTh. I'll be reading or I'll read.
YTO Oncr 6YACT n;cnaTh? What will Oleg be doing?
- 611 6yn;cT n"can. ""CbMa. He'll be writing letters.
YTO Oil" GY.l.tyr AenaTb? Wbat will they be doing?
- 01111 6yn;yr TaHlteeaTb. They'lI be dancing.

YTO MhI 6Y.l.teM .l.tenaTh? What shall we do?

- 6Y,lleM miTb 'iaR. We'll drink tea.

LESSON to 215

Repeal the given models, noting that the future of 6Wb may be used alone (in Ihe sense of will
or shal/ be) or in combination with imperfective infinitives to form the imperfective future. Remember
that the future forms of 6Lrn. can never be combined with perfective infinitives.


1. Will you be home this evening? 2. Will you be working tomorrow?

No, I won't. Yes, I will.
T: Bbi 6Yll,eu: JIOMa cerOll,lIJi BeLjepoM? T: Tw 6Y.aeWb pa66TaTb JaoTpa?
s: Hh, lie 6yll,y. s: .D.a. 6YJJ.Y
T: Oller 6Yll,eT ll,OMa cerOll,lISl BC'lCpOM? T: CeKpenlpb 6Y/teT paooT3Tb JaUTpa?
S: Hh, He 6Y,uer. s: )la, 6Y,uer.
(Olll1, Tbl, TBOH 6paT, B3llJa cecrpa) (Jl"3 CTyJJ.ellTKa, Bbl, Mbl, BaWII
TOOapHl1tll, aaXTep)

3. What are you going to do, drink tea?

Yes, we're going to drink tea.
T: 4TO Bw 6YHere HenaTb, min. 'faii?
s: .D.a, MW 6y,ueM min. 'tliii.
T: 4T1J aM 6Y.aeTe .aenaTb, TaHUea3TL?
s: .D.a, MW 6y,ueM Tauuesan..
(nHean. CO'fHHeHHe, 'tHTaTb CTUX",
roaopHTL C HUMH, )KJtaTb CCKpeT3pJl,
CJIywaTh nCKlVut, 06e.aaTb B peCTopallc)


1. I didn't ask aboutthat. 2. I didn't think about that.

I wOIf't ask about that. I won't think about that.
T: Jt
06 :lTOM He cnpaWHOaJI. T: Jt 06 jTOM ue .nYMaJI.
S: Jl 06 nOM He 6y,uy cnpallltman.. s: It 06 :hOM He 6YJJ.Y JJ.YMan.
T: Qua 06 iTOM lie cnpawHaana. T: Bw 06 nOM lie JIyManH.
s: OHli 06 ::rOM He 6Y.aer cnpaWHUn.. s; BbI 06:hOM He 6YlleTe AYMaTb.
(TbI, Mbl, Oll, Bbl, OHH, y'tHTeJlhlUlLta, (OHH, Mbl, Tbl, Jl, )f(ella, MOll TOaapllutH)
npo<fleccopa, yKpaHlleu, CTy.aCHTbl)

3. We drank tea.
We'l/ drink tea.
T: Mw mimi 'taii.
s: Mw 6Y.aeM min 'faM.
T: Tw min '1aii.
s: Tw 6Y,ueun. min. 'Iii.
(OHM, abl, alia, OIl, JI, M)')K H ",ella. MOil
cecTp3, Moii TOOapHllt, CTyHclITbI, 3TOT

216 ~N 10

I. Who'll be there? Volodya? 2. What will you be doing?

Yes, Volodya will be there. rll be reading.
T: KTO TaM 6rAeT? Bono.lUl? T: 4TO Bb! GYJIeTe JIclIan.?
S: )la, TaM 6YACT BomJ,!JJI. s: st 6YAY oomin..
T: KTO TaM 6YAef? CTy.o.CHTbI? T: 4T6 all 6YAeT JJ,enaTb?
S: .lla, T8M 6yAYT CTYACHTbI. s: On 6yJJ,eT "lHTlin..
(MapHJI, saw 6p3T, )"iHTeJUI, TROll (OHH. Mhi. TW, olla. TBOH TOBapHlU.
TosapUUVI, npo.n3BlUHI.(hI, 3H1Ja) CTy.nCIITbI. TOOR cecTp3)

3. Will you drink tea? 4. Will you be dancing?

No, / won't. Yes. / will.
T: Tbi 6Y.lleWb miTh 'faH? T: Bbl 6Y.nCTC TaHUCOaTh?
S: Hh, tie 6YJ1.Y. s: .lla, 6j.ny,
T: QHa 6Y.neT miTb 'fa"" T: Olla GY.neT TaH1l,eaaTb?
s: HCT, He 6Y.lleT, s: ,l(a.
(10.11.1, OHH, on, 81.1, TROH T08apHllt, 3TH (Tltl, MhI, CTyACIITbI, TOOM TOBapHlU.
napUH,)"UJTeJU:,HHllbI) YXpaHHlUtI, TBO~ cecTp3, rpYlHHhl, 3TOT


I. rm reading War and Peace. 2. Whol were you doing?

rll be reading War and Peace. Whol will you be doing?
T: R IJIfT3.IO .BOHuY H /l.Utpt. T: 4T6 BbI .nenanH?
s: st 6yAY "lmn. ccBoiiuy R Mifp,., S: lfT6 .bI 6j.nen Ae.nan.?
T: Ou ' .BOHHj II MHpt. T: 4TO SbI IlHcA.nH?
s: Ou 6yJJ,eT "lKT8.n. ccBoiiuj U M"pn, s: 'ho Rbi 6jAeTe utlc8n.,
(ol-m, Mbl, Tbl, Olla, CTy.ll.CIITbl, Bbl, MOH ('lHTan". rIOKynanH. mum. cnpaWHSaJIH)

3. We're silting by Ihe window. 4. 2ina's al Ihe dance.

We'll be sitting by Ihe window. 2ina will be at Ihe dance.
T: MW CHJJ.HM Y OKua. T: 3uHa lIa T3H@X.
s: Mw 6YlleM CII,lI,en. y Otma, s: 3Htta 6j.neT Ha l'iHQax.
T: A CHJKy Y OKHa. T: Olll' lIa T3Hl\ax.
s: st 6y AY cttJ],en. Y OKlta. s: 011" 6Yl.yr Iia TIlHltQX.
(01111, K03110B, KaTH, Tbl, Bbl, c-rYJICH* (Hawil napmt, ~, MhJ., BOITO./VI Hero
TKII, OH) Toaapmu)
5. He was at the library.
He'll be at the library.
T: On 6bui B 6H6JlHOTtKC.
s: 6n 6y,a,eT 6H6nHOTCKe.
T: Bbl Gbl1H1 a GHGlIHOTeKC.
s: Bw 6j.nen B 6H6JIHOTCKe.
(aee np<$eccopa, 3Ta CTy.nCHTlCa, ~, 3TOT
CTy.nCIIT, 10.11.1. OHn)

LPSSON 10 217

As in the past tense, the imperfective and perfective aspects are sharply contrasted in the future.
The imperfective future is used to describe future activity not specifieally marked off in time, or
activity expected to occur more than once in the future. Thus the focus is on the activity as a process
or recurring phenomenon. type of future is formed by means of the future of 6brrb plus the
imperfective infinitive.
The perfective future, on the other hand, describes future activity of a more concrete, realizable
nature. It focuses on the completion or accomplishment of the activity, and it concerns itself more
with the result than the process. It is a simple form, structurally like the present tense and employing
the sa":le personal endings as the present tense.


tPFY l-1JT R 6y~y .o:jMaTh 06 :hOM. I'll be thinking about it.

PFV FUT R nO.IIYMatO 06 :hOM. I'll think about it or I'll think it over.

IPFY FlIT Mbl 'lTO-HH6ym, 6Y.o:eM .o:enaTh. We'll [be] doling] something.
PFV l--UT Mbl '1TO-HH6y.o:b cllenaeM. We'll do something or We'll get

IPFY FUT QRK 6Yll)'T Mooro cnpaUlltaaTb. They'll ask a lot of questions.
PFV FUT QIlIf cnpocslT 06 :hOM. They'll ask about that.
In short, the imperfective aspect emphasizes the "doing," whereas the perfective emphasizes
"gctting the thing done."

KYlla and rile: directional versus locational concepts

Ky)];3. Dbl cnernine? Where are you hurrying to?

- ,lI,oMoii. Home.
r.o:e Dbl 6bUlH etcb lleHb? Where have you been all day?
- ,lI,OMS. At home.
Ky.o:3. Olla H,1J;eT? Where's she going?
- Qm\ H,l],eT liS no1fT)'. She's on her way to the post office.
r)];C OHa? Where is she?
- Qua Ha nO<tTc. She's at the post office now.
nofuJ,eM B KJlY6. Let's go to the club.
B KJly6e 6YJI)'T TaHll,bl. There'll be dancing at the cJub.
R He XO'lY li,lJ,TK TY.o:3.. I don't want to go there.
KTO riM 6YJICT? Who'll be there?
'HlUt CfOAA. Come here.
6" 3Jl,Ccb. He's here.


Repeat the given models, noting that the distinction between "directional" and "Ioeational" concepts
in Russian is observed both in the adverbs and in the ease system.


Where's she going?

To the park.
T: (miplC) Ky.nA OHa HJJ,er?
8 uapK.
T: (miplC) Cae OHa 6b1J1a?
s: 8 napKe.
(MaraJI1Il) Kyna 8b1 Hltcre?
(M3ra3l1u) rJJ.e BLI DocTanH KQCT.oM?
(Jla60paTopWl) KYJJ.a BM cncwiITe?
(na60paTOplUI) rDe OHa pa66TaCT?
(Ja80.a) KYDa OH nowful?
(,..60) r.ut saw MY.?
(no'ITa) Ky.nA nowen J.1eaH?
(no'lTa) rDe OH renepb?
(6H6JlHOTiICa) KYDa OHa cnewHna?
(6H6JlHOTeKa) Cae QHa Tcnepb?


He was at the club. A nou.rtY B Manl.3lt.tI.

Where? Mhi cneWHnH lIa pa66Ty.
T: 0H 6blJl B KJlj6e. A ocni.SJ.IJI ceO" nopT<pt:nb nOMa.
S: r.~? nOHAeM B 6H6nMoRICY.
T: On cneWHn ua o6en. Obi cnpocHTe B Mara3HHe tla yrny.
S: Ky,a,a? 0K Ja6hln KJlto'lH tla JaBOne.
R .nYM3K> nOHTi'f B
KHIIO. .s1 cncwliJI lIa no'ny.
OIl" 6Y.nyr T3nUeBan, B KnY6e. MLI lVJ,eM Ila TaKUbI.
R 3a6hui CJJoaapb 8 CTonOaou. CTy,nCHTbl cculfac tla 3K3aMeUaX.


I. He's here. 2. I'm at tlork.

He"s coming this way (or here). l'm on my way to work.
T: 0H 3ll;ecb. T: A tla pa66re.
s: On ~e-r CIOAA. s: A HJJ.Y Ha pa61hy.
T: OU ua pa66-re. T: .s1: Ha ypOKe.
S: OH M,.lJ.CT Ha pa6OTy. s: A HJJY"8 yp6K.
(ou B 6H6nHOTeKC, ua KOHuep-re, 311ecb, (Ha JaBODe, lIa nOlfTe, ua nCXLtHH, tla
TaM,110Ma) co6paHHH, Ha cnyx6e, Ha JIOaMCtlC, tla

3. He's going to town.

He's been in town.
T: 0" H.O.CT B rOpoA.
s: 0" 6biJi B ,'6poJl,e.
T: Oli H.O.eT B Mara3"H.
s: 0" 6hui B Mara3Hue.
(8 rYM, B wKony, 8 6H6J1HOTeICY, 8
ytmBcpclfTeT, B KHIIO, B Kny6, B 06we-

L.ESSON 10 219

I. He's already been downtown. 2. / forgot my briefcase at the library.

Fm going downtown flOW. I'm going to the library.
T: 6n YJKC 6bJJl B ropo,Lte. T: R 3a6bJJI nop-repeJlh B 6H6JlHOTCKe.
s: TeuepL Ii H~ B ropo,D;. s: H HAY 8 6H6J1HOTeKY.
T: 611 YJKc 6hW Ha pa66Te. T: R 3a6hlJl nOpnfK:Jlb B ymmepcHTbe.
s: TeuepL Ii HJti' ua pa60T)'. S: H HAY 8 ymmepcHTeT.
(a 6H6mfOTeKe, Ha 3aBO,lJ,C, H3 ypOKe, B (B UlKOJIe, B rYMe, BMara3HHe, B o6me-
llIXOJle, n3 3K33MCHC, B 06me:lKHTHI1, B :lKHTHI1, Jl,OMa, 8 ropcOBeTe)
rYMe, n3 co6paHHH)
3. Its time to go to school. T: nopa H.ilTIl H3 pa66Ty.
Well, here we are at school already. S: Hy BOT, MbI y'lKe U3 pa66-re.
T: nopa HJtTlI B lllXOJlY. (B 6H6J1HOTeKY, B )'lIHBepcHTeT, B Ma
s: Hy sOT, MY p>e B UlKOJte. raJHII, Ha CllYJK6y, Ha no'lTY)


Was he at home? 611 cncuntJl B KHH61

Yes, but where were you? 6R 3T<) CnhllllaJI BmKOJlC?
T: 6R 6bJJl ,D;6M3 ? 611 nowen B lllIC6JlY?
s: )],8, a r JJ,e Rbi 6W1IH? 6R no 'JHT*," B 6H6JlHOTCKe?
T: 6R cnewH.f1 Ha o6e.ll? 611 CDelllH.rl B 6H6J1HOTeKY'?
s: )],8, a KYAli w.i coemliJIH? 6n 6bJ1J B napKe '?
611 6w.n B KHRD? 6n nOUIell 8 mlplC?


The distinction between where to and where at is observed both in the adverbs (KyJJ,a versus
r.ue; .uoMoii versus .uoMa) and in the case system. For example, prepositions Band Ha musl be
followed by the accusative if destination is involved and by the prepositional if only location is

I. Ky.u8 question with destinational (where to) adverb or accusative case in the answer:

KYAIi BW Hltere? Where are you going [toJ1

- nOMOH. Home[wardJ.
-B ""l'6. To the club.
- Ha nO<ITY. To the post office.
- B lllKOJlY. To school.
- Ha c.rr)'JK6y. To work.
2. ritC question with locationaJ (where at) adverb or prepositional case in the answer:
rAe BW 6WM? Where were you?
- nOMa. At home.
- B K,rry6e. At the club.
~ Ha no'JTC. At the post office.
- B lllKOJle. At school.
- Ha CJI)IJK6e. At work.

220 LESSON 10

KYJl8 destinational deslinational accusative

e.g. It.lrnf, nouTH, nOMoD, TY.Q3, CJOAA Ita no'tTy, 8 UlIony

rue locatwnal locational prepositional

e.g. 6brTh, rirb, JJ.oMa, T3M, JJJ.6cJ,. Ha nO'fTe, 8 WKone
CHllCn., paOOTaTh

4TEHI1E H nl1ChM0

- tT~ .fiu.I- fa ~ HA-- ~ (' -~ ~ ~ ..flu ~

~ ~?- ~ ~. a:Il ~ 'f fVM- rJirm- .mr-
.w.I{. (' -.1t-- ~ ~.

LESSON 10 221
~ .9fhOift- ~ ~
f<k r.vur ~? -~, t-
~-51~ J<- ~ -e r4

-~ ~ ~ t ~ ?aftun- ~- Cfuw-
.-no-CM- ~ ~ .e 1Ci<d. - ;ih 1.fL '1diur m.a-.u.-~?
- ~ ~ ,,~ <-<- ~:' - .j)om. 4CQA(. ! Xa--
~2_~. y~ +nM<M-t. ~1"F~.

- 3wut-, ~ ~ l ::ffiur ..<W<i: ~ ct..u..-~

~. A ffA-- ~..u..~. -~ ~! ~ +<J.~_
-0<>-, ~ -.. t.urr=
~ -t.<UUiu.. t -1CM.I<D:

- Bbl He 3HaCTe. CTonoe3S1 Y)i(C OTKpbIT3? - Aa, H SI Y)l(C noo6en3Jl. - A 'HO 6b1JlO
ccrO,lUUI Ha o6e.a:? Haocpuo, K3K Bcer.o,a, lUH? - ,ll,a, UHl 11, KQUC'IHO, Kawa. bblJIa pbl6a,
HO 60JlbWe neT. - BOT nOC3}.l;a! J,:{a:lKc ",O,TH lie XO'ICTCJl.

- 3HHa, nO"lCMy 1'bl Bee BpCMSI CHllHWb .llOMa? - A Ky.o.a 3,lleCb MOjKlIO nOAHt? - B
Kny6, B Inmo. - B KJly6e CKy'lHO. - HeT, He Bcer.aa, B nSlTHHu,y GYAyT T31J1lbi. - A 31'0
npyr6e TaHUC83Tb SI moGmo.

- KHpHJIJl, no 31'01 - 31'0 <l>wumn, CTYllCUT 113 AMCpHKH. - Tbl JllalWM C HI1M?
- .ll.a, Mbi '13CTO o6eAacM BMccre B CTOnOOO". - 011 XOpoWH" napeUb? - Lla. O'fCHb.
XO<tCWb, SI Te6x n03U3KOMlllO C HHM? - KOHC'fHO. SYll.Y O'lCHb pan.

- Ha30BHTe JlHH McneIlH. - )lHH HCJJ.eJ1H: nOHC,ltCnbHHK, BTOP"MK, cpeJla, '1eTBepr,

TUITHItll.a, cy660Ta, BOCKpeceHbe. ~ KaKoH cerOJl"" AeHb? - CerOJlH$I cpena. - KaxoH
nellb 6blJ1 B'l'epa? - B'Iepa 6blJ1 BTOP"HK. - A KaKoH neHb 6yneT 3aBTpa? - JaBTpa
6yneT 'l'eTBepr. - A nOCJleJ3BTpa? - nOCJIe3aBTpa 6YAeT n$lTHHll.a.

222 LESSON 10
R XO'fy noiint a KIlHO. R cnpOCll1l3, 'ITO 1111eT a KI1110 11 y3llan3, 'fTO H,O,eT (,BOHH3 H
MHp)). 51 Y)f(e IHllIeJIa 3TOT <pHnbM. MO)f(eT 6hITb nOH'nt 0 Kny6? TaM, HaoepHo, 6ynYT

B'Iepa 113 neKlllt11 npoepeccop Opnoa O'feHb mlTepecliO rooopl1n 0 Ilaponax CCCP:
o }IKyTaX H rpyJI1Hax. Ha cnenYlOweH Henene OH 6yneT rOaOpl1Tb 06 YKpaI1H1l3X. Oner
YJKe CJlbIWa.n ero MHoro paJ, a ~ TonbKO OAHH paJ.

Y K03J1ooa u ero Toaapuwa B '1eTSepr 3K3aMeHbl. OHI1 aee YTPO CI1Ael1l1 B 6u6Jl110TeKe.
Ceii'lac OHI1 I1AYT B pecTOpaH. nOCJle o6eAa OHH omlTb noii.a.yr a 6H6JlI10TeKy.

R cnpocHJI TOBaplfwa. rAe MO)f(HO .QOCTaTb aMepuKanCKIfH CJl0Bapb Be6cTepa. Oil He

31fan. Mbi cnpoClflll1 8 611611HOTeKe, HO TaM TaKoro CJl08ap~ He 6b1110. Tor.Qa Mbi cnpocH11H
8 M31-a3HHe Ha yrny, HO TaM TO>Ke He 6blno. Ii npoAaBUlHu.a He JllaJla, rJ:l,e ero MO:;KHO

HHKonaii H raJI}l secb AeHb CHJJ,enH 8 6H6J1HOTeKe. OHH 6blJ1H O'lellb rOnOAlfbL OIiH
XOTeJlH noo6eAaTb B CT011080ii, HO TaM 6WI1 T011bKO 60PUl " Kawa. TorAa HIiKonaij H
raJlJ1 nownH B pecTopaH.

I..ESSON I0 223


.aOOPblH kind, good

1100PblH se'fep. Good evening.
,llOOpwH ee..ep, 3M"a. . Good evening, Zina.

Dbi 'fTO * ll,enaeTe?

One,.! Bw 'fT6 TjT lIenaen:?
Wbat are you doing here?
Oleg! Wbat are you doing here?

KapnfHa (gen pi npnfH) picture

na Kapnrna tbjs (or that or the) picture
A XO'fy nOCMo-rpeTb :hy KapTiluy, I want to see this picture.
A TO)l(e XO'fy nOCMOTpC:Th :hy KapnlllY I, too, want to see the picture.
.ua SOT [d~vot] well, why
,lla BOT To*e XO'iy nOCMOrpen. :7ry KapTHIIY Why, I want to see the picture, too.

Is that so!
xo.ultTb (11) to go, attcnd
XO)Ky, XOlVlT I go, they go
Dw miKor.aa He xo.uHTe 8 KI1HO. You ncver go to the movies.
A II .ayMaJI3, 'fTO 8b1 II11Kor.ll.3 lie x01UlTe BUI I thought you never went to the movies.

As you see, I do.

BCTpCnlTb (prv II) to meet, encounter

UCype'fy, BCTptrHT I'll meet, thcy'll meet
A BaC SCTpeTHJI. I met you.'f3 luck, good luck
BOT'fa what luck, what a lucky break
J.1 sOT yaha - eac BC'I"piTIIJl. And what a lucky break-I've met you.

KfuKJJ.b1H each, every

Dbi Mewi BH.!lHTe KfuKD.blH .aeHb. You see me every day.
nO'IeMy ywi'la? Obi Me.lli aliLJ,KTe KlhtcJ:u,Ui Why is it a lucky brC'dk? You see me every
)leMb. day.

11a, 110 H3 )allJITUJlX. Yes, but in class.

1l0rOBOpIITb (pfv II) to talk (a bit), have a talk
1l0roBopfb, noroBopkr I'll have a talk, they'll have a talk
He 1l0rOBOpHWb one can't talk, you can't talk (lit, you
won', talk)
TaM fie noroBopHWb. You can't talk there,, HO ua 3auliTMflX, Ti.... He noroeopMun.. Yes, but [only] in class, You can't [reallyJ talk

A 0 '!el\ol *e Rbi xontTe noroBOpiiTb? And what is it you want to talk about?

Muoroe many things, lots of things

o MHOroM. About a lot of things. oneself (ren pron)
o ce6e about oneself
o sac, ce6e
0 about you, about myself
HallpllMep for example
HanpHMep 0 Rae, 0 ce6e. For example, about you, about myself.

ycnhb (prv I) to succeed, manage, make it

ycnc.o, ycneloT I'll manage, they'll manage
He ycneeM. We won't succeed or We won't be able to.
BpeMCHH HeT there's no time
He ycneeM, BpeMeHH HiT. We won't be able to [because] there isn't time.
OTKPblB3Tb (I) to open
oTKpblBafO, OTKpblRalOT I'm opening, they're opening
YJKe D.Rep" oupbloalOT. They're opening the doors already.
He ycneeM, OpeMCHM .reT. Y*e ll8kptr We won't be able to [because] there isn't time.
on:pW8HJOT. They're opening the doors already.


onbnblBaTJ. (I) to come late, to be late

onhllblBaIO, OnaJllbIBaIOT I come late, they come late
Bh.i BcerD.a on8.JllblBaCTe. You always come late.
OnOJAaTb (pfv I) to be late
on03AalO, OnOJAalOT I'll be late, they'll be late
Ii on03Aa.n(a) f'm late, I was late
HJBIUlIITe, 'fTO R On03D.:l.u(a). Excuse me for being late.
1l0'fb (0 night
1I0<tb1O at night
cnOKOHfUol" quiet, calm, serene
CnOKOHHOH HO'!H! I Good night!
IlrpaTb B (plus ace) to play (a game)
Bh.i Hrpae-re B dpTbl? Do you play cards?
Bh.illrpaeTe B TenIlHC?[ftelJis] Do you play tennis?
Bbi IIrpaere B lYTooJl? (fTudbolJ Do you play soccer?
Bbl IIrpaeTe B 6dic60JI? [vbejzb61] Do you play baseball?
Bbl IIrpaeTC B XOKKeii? [fxa~ejl Do you play hockey?
BeCHa spring
Bh.i 6YACTe TaM BCtO DecHy? Will you be there all spring?
BC(;HO" in spring
, C_Oiaoi - - . like --0 xopOmcro, is in the ptive case. This is usual wilh fareo.vells and wishes for bapplncss..

BeCIIOH Mbl 'laCTO I1rpaeM B TCHHHC, In spring we often play tennis.
nCTO summer
Bbl 6Y.aeTC nlM BCe mho? Will you be there all summer?
JICTOM in summer
)1CTOM Mbl 'Iac-ro HrpaeM B 6eHc66ll. In summer we often play baseball.
JIlM6H in winter
31lMOii Mbl '1aCTO .lrpaeM B XOKKCH. In winter we often play hockey.
6ceHblO in autumn
6ceHblO MW '1aCTO IlrpaeM B 4JyroOll. In autumn we often play soccer.
ClCOpo soon
B M3raJHlle clC6po 6ynYT K<i.pTl>l. They'll soon have maps in the store.


Oner )l;06PbtH se'l.ep. 3m.3!

3MH3 2 Oncr! Bbi 'ITO * .ll.e.naeTe?

Oner 3)l;a BOT TO)ICe xO'ly nOCMOTpeTb :hy KapTMHy.

3HH3 4 BOT K3x! A R .ll.yMana, 'ITO BLI HHKOr.ll.3 He XOAHTe B XHH6. 1 1

Oner 5 KftK BMAJlTe, XOlKY. H BOT y,ltaqa - sac BCTpeTHJI.

3MHa 6 nO'ieMy Y.ll.3<ta? BbI MeHR BH,nHTe K3)IC,ltbtH ACUb.

Oller 7 ,Ua, no H3 JaHRTHu. TaM He norOBopUWb.

3uHa 8 A 0 lfCM :lKe BbI: xoTkre norOBOpHTb ?

Oner 9 0 MHO rOM. Hanpl1MCp 0 sac, 0 eeoc. J

NOTES I Note that in a subordinate clause, Russians usc the present tense if the pre-
sent tense is really meant. Compare the English, / thought you neyer weill to the
mOYies, where a past tense verb went is required because it is preceded by a past
tense verb rhought in the main clause. The Russian past tense is only used to describe
events in the past that no longer occur in the present. sI .aYM8J18, 'ITO Rbi HHKorJUi
lie XO,AHJIH B KHUll would mean / thought you Neyer used to go (or had gone) to the
Activities begun in the past and continuing in the present require the present
tense in Russian. For example:
Bw ,ttaBHo J,ttCCb )KHBeTe? Have you been living here long?
A. J.neCb pa66T3.JO C 6ceHH. I've been working here since fall.
~ XO.ruh'b differs from IIl(lli in that it describes the activity of going in general
terms, to go or to at/end, whereas H,LtTIi is more specific and means to be going or
to be on one"s way

Compare ~ XO)Ky ua c06pil.nHg, I go to the meetings (I attend meetings).

with .H It,nJ Ha c06paHHe. I'm going to a meeting (I'm on my way to
a meeting).

With such adverbs as "aCTO, peAKO, HHKorna, and NHOrJIJi, the verb XO,rofn. is
normally used: BY ..aCTO xO./DfTe B napK? Do you often go to the park?
) Note that the reflexive personal pronoun ce6e (rather than ~) must be
used here since the subject of the sentence and the object of the preposition 0 are
the same:
..sf He XO'ly roaopkTl, 0 ce6e. I don't want to talk about myself.

The single form ce6e can refer to any of the personal pronouns:
Om1 AYMaeT ce6e.
TonhKO 0 She thinks only of herself.
OHM ,DjMaJOT TOm.KO 0 ceW. They think onJy of themselves.
Bbi .QjMaere TOIlbKO 0 ce6e. You think only of yourseJf{or yourselves).
Ce6i has no nominative form. It is usually cited. in the accusative-genitive form
4 U one is late to a motion-picture performance, be win not be allowed to enter

while the picture is being shown; nor is it customary to leave before the picture is
over. If this were done at a play, it would be considered uncultured HeKyJlbTYPHO.


Hy dK? well, how about it?

noupaaHThCSI (pfv 11)1 to like (iii. to appeal to)
Hi K8K? nOHpUK.IIOCb? Well, how about it? Did you like it?
Ta~OH such, so, like that
>1 TaKMX kapTHH Cute He BHnena. I haven't seen any pictures like that before.
OtteHb. A nlllaD. t.-apnlH eme He BH.neJ1a. Very much. I haven't seen any pictures like
that before.
Neither have I or Same here.
TOJlCTO" (gen sg TOJlCToro) Tolstoy
nOHHMlUtHe understanding
.sf ue o:ll7Knan nur::oro nOHHM:iHH. ToncrOro. I didn't expect such understanding of Tolstoy.
)t He O~ OT aMepMriHues TaK6ro I didn't expect such understanding of Tolstoy
00flJt\t&an TOJICTOro. from the Americans.
HrpATb (I) to play
KTO Hrpan HaT3.wy? Who played. Natasha?
HM$l (gen and prep sg HMeHH, nom and name, first name
ace pI HMella, gen pi HMeH)
..sf 336buta HMJI. I forgot the name or I've forgotten the name.
A ..., ,6 KJ1nin Harimy? A 386W.'1a liM. But who played. Natasha? I forgot the name.
, The verb ~ is a rdkxive verb which is typically U5ICd in constructions requirin, lbc dative case. The form
..pUa.'JOQ, is neu!cr put. lense, and it may be literally traMlatq;:l as if ap~/td Of if moth Q !a'ltN'obk impression.

nbMIIHTb (II) to remember
n6MIUO, nOMH}lT I remember, they remember
B TOjKe HMetuI He UOMIIIO. I don't remember her name either.

BbiTOBOpHTb (prv II) to pronounce, say

BbiToBOPJO, BbiTOBOP}lT I'll pronounce, they'll pronounce
lie BblTOBOPHWb one can't pronounce, you can't pronounce
(lit. you won't pronounce)
y tuIx H.\teH3 - He SblroBopHllth. They have Dames you can't pronounce.
AMepKK8.lUD>I He MOryr sbiToBOPHTb pyCCKHX Americans can't pronounce Russian names.
A llMepllriHuw, Ha:sepao, pycc,,"1IX "-\tea He Americans probably can't pronounce Russian
lUOryr shiroaopMTb. names either.
HaSepHO. Probably.
BbI '1aCTO xo,zU:lTe B KHHO KnK 8 Kny6 '1 Do you often go to the movies or to tbe club?
C"a"'IiTe, SLI lIaCTO X6~HTe 8 KHlfO HnH B Knj6? Tell me, do you often go to the movies or to
the club?
8 KHlIO - .. aCTO, a B KJly6 - HeT. To the movies, often; but to the club, no.
Ha T3.HUbl to dances, to a dance
p,'1JBe 'fTO [razyi~t:;)J unless maybe
PliJBe 'fTO Ha riHQw. Unless maybe to a dance.
Then you like to dance?
Xol"liTe uorn S cy666ry? , Do you want to go Saturday'!
I'd be glad to or I'd love to.
JlOTOaopHn.cR (pfv II) to agree, come to an understanding
JJ.OTOBOpHnHCb we've agreed. it's agreed, it's a date
lHli'fMT, ~orosoptimtc ... Then irs a date.


laMHnKSI last name, family name

KfIK BaWa $aMHnHSI ? What's your last name?
- MoA laMHlIHSI neTpon. My last name is Petrov.
Kb Bawe HMSI? What's your first name?
- Moe HM1l neTp. My first name is Pyotr.
HMlI H 6T'fecTBO first name and patronymic
Kb Barne H:WI H OT'IecTBO 71 What are your first name and patronymic?
-Moe HM}I H OT'lecTBO nihp l1BaHOBH'I. My first name and patronymic are
Pyotr Ivanovich.
JUno (I) to call
30By. JOBYr I call, they call
Kh BaC 30BYr? What's your name? (Lil. What do they call
- MeHM 30BYr IiopHC neTp6BH'f OpnOB. My name is Boris Petrovich Orlov.

I Russians u$U3..l1y omit tbe conjunction _ in speech.

LESSON 11 229
nOCJIe 1<""0

OJlt~r I Hi dK? OOHpaeKJIOCb 1 1

3uHa 2 OlfeHb. .st TaKHX KapTlf:u eme He BHne.n3.

Oner 3 Jt TO:llCe. He O:llCHJJ.a.n OT aMepHK3HlteS TaKOra nOHHMaHHx TOJlCTOro. 2
3HH3 4 Ali. A no HrpAn HaTftwy? .st 3a6W3 "MX. 3,.
Oner 5 >t TOlKe "MeHH He n6MIDO_ Y BHx HMeHa - He BwrOBopHWb. 5

3HHa 6 A aMepUK3HUbi. Hasepuo, pyCCKHX HMeR He MOryT Bb.J.fOBOPHTb.'

Ollef 7 HaaepHo. CKaJKHTe, BhI ..a.CTO XOAHTe 8 KKHO UJIH B K.JIj6?

3HIla 8 B KUUO - 'faCTO, a B KJly6 - RCT. Pa30e 'fTO H3 T3.HUbl.

Oller 9 Tax DbI JUo61ne TaHueBlln.? XOTihe noiiT" B cy666Ty?


Qner 11 3H3.'1HT, .llOrOBopHJUtCb.

NOTES I The verb HpaSJITbCJI (perfective nOHpaBMTt.C1iI) is the usual word for to like
and expresses a milder apprecialion Ihan mo6MT... which means both to like and
to fOlie. In connection with something experienced for the first lime, upaBKT1>CJI,
noupaBHTbeJI must be used: Hr, OOapSBHJlOCl.? Well, did you /ike it? JIJo6Hn. de-
scribes a stronger, more deep-seated emotion or attitude: A mo6.'UO nuuesan.
rm lJery fond of dancing. In the sense of 10 love, only JD06Iin, can be used.
1JIeB TOJJC'I"6H (1828-1910) is one of the major figures in Russian literature.
His long novel 8oiiHa H MHP~) Wor and Peace was wriuen in the early 1860's.
Notice that TOJ]CTOM is adjectival in its declension, e.g., TOJlcrOl"O (gen sg).

JThe noun HMJI, like BpeMiI and a handful of other Russian nouns with the
nominative cnding in --Mil, is neuter. H~IH usually applies to the first name,
but is sometimes used in reference to both first and last names, especially when
speaking of prominent personalities. In asking a person's name, the adverb KaK
is used:

KaK BaWe HMJI? What's your first name?

KaK Ballle HMJI H OT'fecTBO? What are your first name and patronymic?
KaK BaWa $aMHJnuI? What's your last name?
KaK er6 30BYT? What's his name?

Note that Russians use the perfective past of certain verbs when, in corre-

sponding situations, tbe present tense is more common in English:

.st 33.6blJl eC 1iMJI. I forget her name or I've forgouen....

.st On03,1:ta.'l, 113B}lHHre. I'm late (fit. I came late). Excuse me.
Jl yeTM. I'm tired or I've become tired.

'The second person singular perfective future without the pronoun TbI IS
often used in negative constroctions in Russian to make a general or impersonal
statement. In English this is normally expressed by you can', or one can't:

230 LESSON 11
Ha nCICu,HRX He norOBopHWh. You can't talk at lectures.
Y HHx HMeHa - He BblroBopHWh. They have names you can't pronounce.
, PyCCKKM is the only name for a nationality that can serve as both adjective
and noun in Russian:

6" PYCCICHH, a He aMeplu:aHeu.. He's a Russian, not an American.

6H xopow6 3HaeT PYCCllHH 1I3blI. He knows the Russian language well.
Compare L\ an American with L\lepKk-aaCKHii American in the follow-
ing sentences:
6H aMepHKAHeu. He's an American.
611 aMepHK3.DCKHH CTYACKT. He's an American student.
Remember that none of the words referring to nationalities is capitalized in
Russian: PYCCI\HM, aMepHKiuCKHi, aMcpHKaHeu, aurmfliCI\HH. Only the names of
countries are capitalized: COBeTCI\HH Colin Soviet Union, AMepHKa, AurnHJll,

Basic sentence patterns

I. TiM MH6ro UJ>04x::ccop6s. There are a lot of professors Ihere.
_____ CTonos. _ _ _ _ _ _ tables _
_ _ _ _ aBT66yCOB.
_ _ _ _ _ buses _
_ _ _ _ _ u6cJ.:OB. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ newsstands __
_____ Mara:UtHoB. _ _ _ _ _ _ stores _
_ _ _ KJIYOOB. _ _ _ _ _ c1ubs _
_____ 3aBOAOB. _ _ _ _ _ plants _
_ _ _ _ _ aTnacoB. _ _ _ _ _ _ atlases _

2. Y HaC ue-r KapaHJJ,aWeH. We don't have any pencils.

_ _ _ _ HOJKCH. _______ knives.
_ _ _ _ iUUO'lCH. _______ keys.
_ _ _ melt ______ schi.
_ _ _ _ cnoBapeH. ________ dictionaries.
_ _ _ _ TeTpfuJ.Ci'i. _______ notebooks.

J. 3ACch He-r Kapnrn. There are no pictures here.

_ _ _ KlUtr. _ _ _ _ booh _ _
_ _ _ ..apT. ____ maps _ _
_ _ _ _ ll1KOn. _____ Schools ~
_ _ _ _ 6U6.rntoTeK. _____ libraries __
_ _ _ _ yqHrem.BUu.. _____ teachers __
_ _ _ <j>36pHI. _____ faetories_.

4. TAM He 6hUIO lCOp660x:. There weren't any boxes there.

_ _ _ _ _ 001101'. _ _ _ _ _ _ shelves _
_ _ _ _ _ A0c6I:. _ _ _ _ _ _ blackboards _ _
_ _ _ _ _ BKnOK. _ _ _ _ _ _ forks _
_ _ _ _ _ nO:lKeiC. _ _ _ _ _ _ spoons _
_ _ _ _ _ 'laweK. _ _ _ _ _ _ cups _

TaM He 6blno pY<reK. There weren't any pens there.
_ _ _ _ _ OKOII. _ _ _ _ _ _ windows _
_ _ _ _ _ miceM. _ _ _ _ _ _ leiters _

5. Y "Ult lie 6blno neKI.l.ItH. They didn't have any lectures.

______ ay-aHTopltii. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ auditoriums.
________ na60paTOpKfi. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ laboratories.
_ _ _ _ _ 33HliTHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ classes.
_______ co6paHIlH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ meetings.
______ o6l.UC)l(HTHii. _________ dormitories.
______ CO<rHHeHHii. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ compositions.
______ 3ajl8JleHItH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ applications.

6. 8b1 a:ymi.nlt KocnOM'1 Did you buy a suit?

-- Her, li He a:yrni.n Jt::ocnOMa. No, I dido't buy a suit.
8b1 Kymi.nlt no-aapox'1 Did you buy a present?
- Htr, li He a:ymi.n nOJlapn. No, I didn't buy a present.
8b1 a:yrni.nH 'faH'1 Did you buy tea ?
- Htr, li He lCynHJI 'fb. No, I didn't buy tea.
8b1 XynKnH cene.a.a:y'1 Did yo.u buy herring?
- Htr, Ii He KynHn,llm. No, I didn't buy herring.
8b1 a:ynKnH dpry'1 Did you buy a map?
- Her, Ii He 1CynH.n xaPThl. No, I didn't buy a map.
8bi Kynlinlt Te"r'p3.J.u. '1 Did you buy a notebook '1
-- Htr, Ii lie 1CynH.n TeTp:\.AH. No, I didn't buy a notebook.
8b1 KynHnH MonoKo'1 Did you buy milk?
- Htr, Ii He Kynlin Monad. No, I didn't buy milk.

7. 8b1 -aoeTinH wKa41bi? Did you get the cupboards?

- HeT, Ii lie Jlocn\..n wKa$>B. No, I didn't get the cupboards.
8w JlOCn\JlH hnacbl? Did you get the atlases?
- Her, Ji lie .aocT3..n aTnaCOB. No, I didn't get the atlases.
8w JlOCTMH KHHrH'1 Did you get the books '1
- HeT, li lie .aOCTM KHHr. No. I didn't get the books.
Bbl .aOCT{um KapniubI? Did you get the pictures?
- HeT, Ii He JlOCTan Kapnf:H. No, I didn't get the pictures.
Bbl .aOCTanJI Kop06KH? Did you get the boxes?
- Htr, R He JlOCTM Iwp66oK. No, I didn't get thc boxes.
Dbl LlOCTanli nopT4Jemt'1 Did you get the briefcases '1
- Htr, li lie .nOCTM nopTtPCneH. No, I didn't get the brief~ases.
Dbl -aOCTMH cnOBapU? Did you gct the dictionaries?
- Htr, Ii He .nocn\..n cnoBapeH. No, r didn't gct the dictionaries.
8bi .nOCTfUlH TeTp3..aH'1 Did you get the notebooks?
- Htr, li He .aocn\..n TC"T'p3.neH. No, I didn't get the notebooks.

8. R He BH:lkY UO:lka. I don't see any knife.

_ _ _ noP"1l>6>K. _____ briefcase.
_ _ _ _ cnosapli:. ________ dictionary.
_ _ _ _ iTnaca. _____ atlas.
______ nJfCbMa. _____ Iener.

232 U!SSON 11
9. .sf He noKynin xne6a. I didn't buy any bread.
_ _~ Monod. _____ milk.
_ _ _ _ _ pW6bl. _____ fish.
_ _ _ _ _ 6YMant. _____ paper.
______ MaTepHana.
---_ .... ______
_ _ _ _ _ 100.

10. Jt *n:i npo<p6ccopa Opn6sa. I'm waiting for Professor OrlOY.

Tw J,lIeWb _ You're waiting focr _
O. "",er _ He's waiting for _
Mw XlteM _ We're waiting for _
Ow )l[J],eR _ You're waiting for _
0 .... lKJlYr - _ They're waiting for _

II. .st er6 noJJ,oJlC..llj. I'll wait for him.

To:. __ nOJ],O)KJl.eWb. You'll wait __.
Olla __ nOJJ,O)f()leT. She'll wait _ _.
Mbl __ nOJ],O)KJl.eM. We'll wait _ _.
Do:. __ nOJ],olK,ll,ere. You'll wait __.
OIlH __ noJJ,oJK,AYr. They'll waiL...-.

12. Jt npHuecY 06'11)'. J'II bring [in] the mail. I

Tw npHHecewb _ You'll bring [in] __.
Ou npHHeeeT . He'll bring (in] _ _ .
Mhi npHHeeeM _ We'll bring [in] _ _.
Ow npHHecCTe _ You'll bring [in] __.
OIiH npHHecYr _ They'll bring (in] __

13. Jt He ycnbo Ham{(:aTb nHCbMa. I won'l ha ye time to write letters.

Tw He ycneeWb _ You won't have lime _
OH He ycn6eT _ He won't have time _
Mw He yCDeeM _ We won'l bave lime _
Ow He ycm~.ere _ You won't have time _
Omt He ycnelOT _ They won't have time _

14. Jt OncPblBaJo 6lCHa K<l)kJlblH .neHb. I open the windows every day.
TbJ: OncPblOaeWh _ Youo~n __
OHa OTKpbleaeT _ She o~ns _
MbJ OncpblOaeM _ We open _
Dbl oTKpbloaere _ You o~n _
OUH OnpblB3.lOT _ They open _

15. KaK oAme m.u..? What's your firsl name?

- Moe 8:MJI Hm.:oJJaH. My first name is Nikolay.
_ _ _ _ ram\Ha. _ _ _ _ _ Galioa.
_ _ _ _ MaplUr. _ _ _ _ _ Maria.

16. Kax sAma laMH.nlUl? What's your last name?

- Moli tfmMKnHJI neTp6s. My lasl name is Petrov.
_ _ _ _ _ _ neT'p6sa. _ _ _ _ _ _ Petrova.
_ _ _ _ _ _ Opn6B. _ _ _ _ _ _ Orlov.

I Notice that IJ600rnl means mail as wdl as posl offiCI'.

- <paMHJIlHI OpnOBa. My last name is Orlova.
_ _~ KYpo'fKHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ Kurochkin.
_ _ _ _ _ _ KYPO'lKHua. _ _ _ _ _ _ Kurochk.ina.

17. KaK BaWe HMJI. H OT'feCTBo? What are your first name and patronymic?
- Moe HMH H OT'feCTBO nell> Hmnhwl. My first name and patronymic are Pyotr
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ BnaJJliMHp H.BaHOBIf'f. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Vladimir Ivanovich.
_ _ _ _ _ _~_ 3HHaH..a.a neTpOBHa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Zinaida Pctravna.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I1pHna MHXaHnOBHa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ irina Mikhailovna.

18. LI;o6poe trPo, 3liHa! Good morning, Zina!

Jl,06PhIH Jl,eHh. 3HHa! Good afternoon, Zioa 1
Jl,06PhlH Be'fep, 3HHa! Good evening, Zina!
CnOKOHHOH nO'!H, 3Hlla! Good night, Zina!
19. 3WMOH MbJ 'faCTO HrpaeM B K3.pThI. In winter we often play cards.
BecHOH _ Inspring~ _
6ceHbfO MbI pe.r:tKo IfrpaeM B K<iPTbJ. In autumn we rarely play cards.
JIeToM _ In summer _

Pronunciation practice: double consonants

Tn English double consonants are heard only~at a boundary between two words. Written double
consonant letters within tbe word (as in Bill. hammer) are pronounced as single consonants.

Compare Will Lee go? with Will 'e go?

Ann names. Ann Ames.
Kiss Sal. Kiss AI.
In Russian, however. double consonants are heard not only across word boundaries, but also
within words.

Compare [a-tt<i1JjJ aT TanH with [atAlJ.i] OT AnH

from Tanya from Anya

[ann:}] Anna [ivan:}]I1Bana

Anna of Ivan

Double consonants occur in Russian mainly at tbe point where a prefix or preposition joins
the rest of the word. but they may also occur at other places within a word (e.g., [anna]).
Note, bowever. that not every written sequence of two identical letters necessarily indicates a
double consonant in pronunciation. Russians tend to pronounce many double letter sequences with
a single consonant, especially in foreign-derived words. Thus, Ilpo4JecCOP and cy660l"a contain only
single consonants in pronunciation. Usage varies in this respect. Many Russians pronounce rp,Yrma
with a single [p], tbough orthographic handbooks prescribe [pp]. In rapid speech double consonants
often tend to be replaced by single consonants.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating the contrast between
double and single consonants, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accu-
rately as you can. Be sure to pronounce the double consonants as long conso-
nants, without a break in the middle.

Intonation practice:
review of rising and rising-faUing contours

Reread the discussion on rising and rising-falling intonation contours in Lessons 7, 8. and 9.

A. Review of questions with rising conlours (questions without a question word).

Oil :mecb" Is he here?

B6m:OB y ce6li., Is Valkov in?
QHa 8 Is she in town"
BJl:a.a.HMHp D8 pa66n:? Is Vladimir at work.,
flo"'KH B RlJ.(J1Ke? Are the spoons in the drawer?
A.TJl8C .aopor6H? Is the atlas expensive?
OHl1 H8 co6paHHH? Are they at a meeting?
0mi CTy)];eIITK8? Is she a student?
ObI ):l;p,Y3bli? Are you friends?

ABT66yc y;Ke ".neT? Is the bus coming already?

Ta.M 6blllO HHTepeeHO" Was it interesting there?
Tbl H,ll,eWb .nOMO"? Are you going home?
OH nowen B Mara3HH? Did he go to the store '!
Rbi 6buIH 60JIbtW? Were you sick?
Rbi paoomere B ropcooe-re? Do you work at the gorsovet?
Y Te6Ji TenepI. HCTOPIUI '"1 Do you have history now'!
1?6pUl, )"ICe rOTo8? Is the borsch ready yet?
nOXICH }?KC H8 CTOne" Are the spoons already on the table?
Db!: Y?KC noOOe}.la.nH" Have you already eaten dinner?
Tw era 3HacUIb? Do you know him?
DbI cnenurre II8 aBro6yc? Are you hurrying to tbe bus '!
TOBapHlJ.( A.n.cKceee y ce6li? Is comrade Alexeev in?
011 ceH'IaC B MocKBe? Is he in Moscow now'!
OHif era 30aK>T? Do they know him?
8bi 0 Heli CnI:dWMH" Have you heard about her?
Omi ceH'IaC pa66-rae-r? Is she working now?

B. Review of questions with rising-falling contours (questions without question words).

OHa Kynll:na MaTeplUi.n., Did she buy the material?

HpHHa omiTb 60nhHa? Is Irina sick again?
Y Hlix ecn, KOMHaTa ? Do they have a room?
OHti 6butH "a 3aHlITJUlX? Did tbey attend classes?
OHa .nocnina CnOBapb? Did she get hold of the dictionary?
CTy.neHTbl y:manll 06 .:hOM? Did the students find out about it ']
Oner ,IIaBHO roneH? Has Oleg been ill long?
Y sac cerollHR 3",J3MCHb.I? Are your exams today?
Cawa 6bln B wKone? Was Sasha in school?

Omi )'lKe CJI0oaPb? Has she already bought the dictionary?
6nbnl neTpaOHa Omf1-b 6onbHa? Is Olga Petrovna sick again?
MapHR HBaHOOHa 6b1na B rYMe? Was Maria Ivano\'na at GUM?
Y J.1BaHa H'o.:UIOOWla ecTh KaMHan? Does Ivan Ivanovich have a room?
Bbi o'lepa CJIYwaIIH KOHllePT 1 Did you lislen to the concert yesterday?
Reo y.Ke nonY'lHn filICbM61 Has Lev already received the letter?
Oner y*e .naOHa ooneH? Has Oleg been ill a long time now?
CT)'.neHThI }')Ke y:manH 06 nOM? Did tbe students already find out about it?
OHa y>i<e no.nana Jannelme? Has she already submitted an application?

C. Review of emphatic statements with rising-falling contours.

Oner .n&BHO 3.!l0p60! Oleg has long since recovered!

MiU:ta omin. 3Jlecb! MBa is here again!
Y He<: ecn. KaMHan! She does have a room!
)KeHa OCerJl.8 .!lOMa! My wife's always home!
ORH He xo"riT 06c.!laTh! They don't want to eat dinner!
OHa )'JKC .!lOCT8J1a MaTepHan! She already got the material!
HHHa YJKC nO,lUlJla JaJIBneHHe! Nina already has submitted her application!
Oner )')Ke DOJl)"flin nHCbMO! Oleg's already receilled the letter!
Bbi a HeH omin. Ja6buJH! You forgot about her again!
Y lIJix yxc ecn. KOMHara! They already halle a room.
ToaapHllt AneKoCeB omm. He 06C.aaII!' Comrade Alexeev didn't have his dinner again!
IiH6JlHoreka .naBOO JaIlepri! The library has long since been closed!
Mbi 'jI.e cnpallllllUIJIH y Hero! We already asked him!
A. YJKc IWDICa.!1 nHCbM6! I already wrote the letter!


Change the following emphatic statements (with rising-falling contours) to questions (with rising-
falling contours on a higher pitch level).
MflJTa ollliTb 3.!leCb! M iUIa omiTb Jtlecb?
OHit 6btmt 0 MOCKoe! OIUJ 6b"11l11 D MOCKBC?
Y lice eCTb KaMHaTa! Y nee CcTI> K6MHaTa?
Kanl MaTcpllaJl! Karl'! Kymina
311Ha acerJJ.a .nOMa! 3ltlla Bcema .uoMa?
HHHa}')kC nOD,a.rta Ja$lB.tleUlle! HHHa Y'l'e nOtlana JaJlBneHlle?
SpaT Y'l'e nOCJ1M nHCbMO! Iipar )')tie nOCJ1an ~"CbMO?
TODapKl.U. B6.tlKOB omiTb OOJJeH! TOBapllw B6nKOD omiTb GOneH?
6KHa y HHX ocer.aa JanepThl! 6Kua y H(IX 3anepTbl?
Cecrpa pee nOJJY'lHna nHCbMO! CecTpa )')tie nOJIY'lHna nHcbM6?
Tbi BOJbMemb 3TH KHJl:rH! Tbi B03bMemb 3nl: KHHrH?


The present-future of first conjugation verbs patterned like pa60T8Tb

and HJlTli


Mltl'li (ipfv) pa6clTaTb (ipfv)

to be going to work

SINGULAR 1 -y or-K) Kill' pa66Ta1O

2 --em.. (-ewb) HJJ,ernb pa66TaCUIb
3 -eT (-"'J """, paOOTaCT
PLURAL I -eM (-eM) HJ{eM pa66racM
2 -en: (-CTe) UJlCTe pa66TaeTe
3 -YT or -lOT u.ajT pa60TaJOT

Note that the second person singular ending is conventionally spelled with a final-I. even though
w is always pronounced hard.


I. First conjugation verbs which pal/ern like paooTaTb in the present-fulure:

LJTO Bha llenaeTf:? What are you doing?
- J1 HH'icro He JJ.MlUO. I'm not doing anything.
Bbi er6 31UieTe? Do you know him?
-)la, ]Hi><>. Yes, I do.
o 'JeM Bbr aiMaeTc? What are you thinking about?
- .s1 J(jMalO 06 3lOaMcuax. I'm thinking about the exams.
Bbi lIOHHMaeTe, 0 'feM ou rOBopth? Do you understand what he's talking about?
- Hch, He nOllHMlbo. No, I don't. Bbl 3TQ c!U~J1aeTe? When will you do this?
- >t :ho cniJJatO 3aaTpa. I'll get it done tomorrow.
YTO Bbi ROKynlleTt? What are you buying?
- OOiCyoiJo MaTepUan ua lCocnOM. I'm buying ma.terial for a suit.
Kor,l{3. 8bl ylWieTe 06 :hOM? When will you find out about it?
- .st y3HalO nOCJIe33.Bl"pa. I'll find out the day after tomorrow.
4TO Db!: "DI'T1ie..-e? What are you reading?
- .st 'fJIT'liJO CTKXH. I'm reading poetry.
rAe 8M cer6.a1Uf 06emurre? Where are you eating dinner today?
- .sf ooe.aalO 8 CTOn080H:. I'm eating dinner in the dining hall.
Obi He ycnieTe lIa allT66yc. You won't make the bus on time.
- Her, ycm?:IO. Yes, I will.
Kor6 BM mkWeTe? Whom are you expecting?
- .st O;QJl.8Jo APyra H3 MOCKBbl. I'm expecting a friend from Moscow.

Bbl KI'paere B -reHHHC? Do you play tennis?
- .Ll.a, Krp3.IO. Yes, I do.
Bbl He ouol.n;3.ere Ha KOHUepT? Won't you be late for the concert?
- Hb, He OUOl.n;alO. No, I won't be late.
Bbi 'faCTO OU3.lJU>lB3ere Ha paooTy? Are you often late to work?
- Her, HIHlKor.n;a He OmbJn,lBlUO. No, I'm never late.

2. First conjugation verbs which pattern like HlJ;'rii in the present..j'uture:

Bbi nOM.1leTe 3aBTpa B rea-rp? Will you be going to the theater tomorrow?
- Her, H uoiiJ.tY nOCJleJaBTpa. No, I'll go the day after.
Rbi :laM.1leTe B 6H6111ioTeKy? Will you drop in at the library?
- )la, H 3a~ Ty.n;a nOCJle 3aBHndi. Yes, I'll drop by there after classes.
Kor6 Bbi ,...n;ere? Whom are you waiting for?
- .sf. ,..Aj OlIcra. I'm waiting for Dleg.
Bw BOH.n.C're B .n;OM? Are you going to go into the house?
- HeT, He BOii,nj. No, I'm not.
Bbi MellH 3~ecb no.n;OiK.n;eTe? Will you wait for me here?
- )la, no.n;oJKJJ:Y. Yes, I will.
Rbi upHlleceTe CBO" CJlOBapb? Will you bring your dictionary?
- )la, UPHllecy. Yes, I will.
Bbl BOJbMC're 3HI KUHnl? Will you take these books?
- ):la, BOlbMy. Yes, I will.
rAe Bbl iKHBC're? Where do you live?
- .R "'HBy npOTHB mipKa. I live across from the park .


Repeat the given models, noting the two types of verb patterns.


I. I don', know. 2. She's rarely late to work.

Ji He 3HalO. Omi pe,llKO Ona3/lblsaeT Ha pa66Ty.
Bbi He 3HaCTC. Bhi pe.aKo Ona3;:u.J.OaCre na pa66ry.
(Mbl, Tbl, MHlIa, CTYACHTbl, BbI, $I, aaxTCp) (Tbl, Mbl, OUH, H. MItJla, BbI, TbI)

3. Won't you be late to the concert? 4. You won't make it to the bus on time.
Tbi He on03.n:aellIb Ha KOHUepT? Bhi ue ycneere lIa aBT66yc.
8LI ue on03Af!.ere Ha Koun:epT? 00 He ycn6eT ua aBT66yc.
Mbl, aHa, OUH, Tbl, l'I, Barn 6paT, BallIli (H, 01lH, TbI, oua, Mbl, rami, ahl, De'll)
5. In the afternoon we play cards.
n6cJJe MW HrpaeM B KaPTbI.
IToCJle o6eAa oilli HrpalOl' B dpTbl.
(H, BbI, ee .n;PY3bH, Thl, CTy.ll:CHTbI, MOH
CCCTpa, MbI)

I Henceforth the drills will appear without the labels T (for teacher) and S (for student). In SubslilUtion Drills, the word

10 be replaced will be indicated by boldface type in the models; in all other drills, the student"s response appears in boldface.

238 LESSON 11

1. What's Oleg doing? 2. When will you go home?

He's reading a letter. I'm already on my way.
l.Iro Oller JJ.e.naCT? ThI: nOKn.CWb JJ.oMoii?
0" 'DmieT IDICLMO. JI )'>Ke ..,yo
l.ITO ThI: ne.naellIb? Korn! 00 nOH.aeT nOM6ii?
$I 'Dmito IIHCbMO. 6" )')ICe ll,11,h.
(CTy.neHTlJ, )"IIITe.RbHUua, )"IHTemi, (OHH. Bbl. aHa, CTyneuTbi. npoJlaBWHua,
nponaBWJlua, Tbl, 01111, Bbl, ccKpeTapb, :rrn .neByuIDI. y60PUUfUa)
3. Where is your application?
rll bring it right away.
rt~e TBce 3aJIBJleHHe?
$I ceii-tac uptrnecy.
r.ue ee 3<U1BIleHue?
Omi ceiNac Dpnuech.
(Barne, ox. era. ee, HX, TBoe)


I. I waited a little. 2. What were you buying?

rll wait a little. What are you buying?
R ueMHoro"' liTO ThI nOKymin?
$I HeMJiOro DOJJ.~. 'fro n:.DOKyIIliewL?
Om} ueMuoro nOJloC,nan3. 'fTO oua DO"YIIana?
OHa aeMBOro OOJlO*JliT. lITo oua DOKy08eT?
(Ml.l. au. 11>1. OHU, BbI, npoclJeccop, (Bbl. OU. OHII, MbI. Y'fHTeJlb. npo4)eccopa.
CTy.neHTbl. cecrpa. )"IIITeJUi) Y'fHTe.RbHHua)
3. I'm on my way to a lecture.
rll go to a lecture.
. R H.LtY Ha neJ(Q.HlO.
$I noiiAj ua llel\l.lHlO.
011 lJ,JJ.eT Ha nenuuo.
00 DOHner Ha neKIIHfO.
(Mhl. aHa, Thl, OHJI, Bbl, H it Moli TOBapHllt,


L I'll bring coffee right away. 2. I'll wail/or him on the corner.
Jl ceM..3C nplfHecY le6cpc:. Jl noJJ.o~ ero ua yrJrj.
)KeH8 npHHe<:eT Ie M.:i nOJJ.OJKACM era Ha yrnY.
(6paT. OHU. MbI. HHHa H Kan-) (MOM 6paT, pe6'1T3. TLI, 51,
aHa, BJla,llHMHP, BbI, MbI)

I. I have to buy a couple 0/ things. QHa ,lIOmma KOe-'no lCyml:Th.

I'll drop in this store. QHa :Jai.lteT B nOT ManuliH.
R nOJDKeH KOe-'fTO KynHTb. (Mbi nOJDCUhI, OHH JlOJDCHbI, 011 .nOJDKeH,
Jl :Jaw B :nOT Mara3Ku. 51 nOJDI:Ha)

2. J live near Ihe park. 3. We'/I11link about it.
Da you /i}'e near Ihe park loo? Will you think about it loo?
.sf lKHBy 6K01JO o<lpKa. MbJ no.a.jMaeM 06 3TOM.
Tw T6a'e.K6&J.a. OKOJlO oapKa? Bw TOOKe ooJJ;YMaen 06 )YOM?
jf noxynaJO MaTepuan. MbI DO,QO)l(J],eM Ha yrnY.
Tw To-.:e DOK)'D8enu. ManptlliJl? Bw Thee DOoollr:JliITe Ha ymy?
jf .a.e.naJO yp6KU. MbI npuuecCM nO.a8pKu.
.sf .QjMaJO 0 :samITWf)C MbI noli.a.eM It KHH6.
jf )I(,[Ij .lJ.pYra. Mhl B03bMeM TeTpaD.H.
.sf 'urrfuo .BOHllY H MHp . MhJ: BOli.a.CM B K6MHaTy.
.sf lfrp{l.J() B ,.eIlHHC. Mhl 3ali.a.cM B 6~16JJJIOTeKY.
.sf pa66TalO lIa $a6plfKe.


According to the pattern of their presentfuture endings, most first conjugation verbs drilled
and discussed SO far fall into two groups:
I. Those like 1t..Itlli, with the written presentfuture stem ending in a consonant, to which the
stressed endings -y, -eon., -n-, -eM, -he, -tr are added: JICll-y, )lC.lJ.-euu., I.A-er, Q-eM, JIC.D.-e-re,
JKll-:fr. The stem consonant is hard before the endings of the first person singular and the third
person plural, but is soft before the other endings. Compare [fdij I, [Mutl with [f~6SJ, [tc16tl, [fQom],
[fQ6ti]. Other verbs which pattern similarly are nOHTH, BOHTH, no.noHTH, nOAOJlCllaTb, npHuecTH,
B3ATb, )lCHTb.
Note that in contrast with thc prcsent-future, the infinitive-past tense stem of the verbs in this
group may be considerably differcnt. Compare )KHTb, )KHJJ with )KIlBy, JKlfBeUlb; and B3An., B3AJI
with B03bMY, B03bMeWb.
2. Those likc pa6OTaTh, with the written present-future stcm ending in a vowel, to which the
unstressed endings -JO, -eun., -eT, -eM, -eTe, -JOT are added: 'IHrl-tO, 'UtT3.-eun., 'Iuti-CT, '!uti-eM,
'!uT3.-eTe, '!un-toT'! Other verbs which pattern similarly are .aYMan., no.ajMan., 3HaTb, y.JHaTb,
.ne.nan., c.nenaTb, nOlcynaTb, 06e.aan., noo!5enan., nOIIHMaTb, CJIjrnaTb, CDpalllHBan., mr:u..a:aTb.

The genitive plural of nouns

The cndings of the gcnitivc plural present more complications than those of any other case.
For this reason only the most basic ones will be trcated in this lesson.


TaM 6h'mo MHoro cry.a.eIlTOB. There were lots of students there.

_ _ _ _ _ _ npocj>e<:copOB. _ _ _ _ _ _ professors _ .
_ _ _ _ _ _ CTon6B. _ _ _ _ _ tables _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ XUQcKOB. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ newsstands_.
_______ 3.TnaCOB. _ _ _ _ _ _ atlases _ _
___--==:------ nO.a8pKoB. _ _ _ _ _ _ presents _ _.

'In struCluralterms. the prescnt-future stern ofsueh verbs aClually ends in the consonant sowuJ lil, which, as we know,
is not written wilh an independenl symbol when it occurs between vowels. The soft-series vowel letters of the endings thus
oonlain not only the ending, but also the final consonanl of the present-future stem, e.g., (~itflj-. ~it:l.j_u, ~iu'lj-utl. The
imperative of verbs of this type is the one form in which the [jJ of the stem is represented by a separate IClIer in Cyrillic
(-I), e.g., 'IHTiI! 'IHT{UiTe! cn~wHaaii! cnpAtuHBdTc!

Y HaC HeT HOJKeH. We don't have any knives.
____ KapalutaWeH. _______ pencils.
____ 1U1IO'feH. ______ keys.
____ TOBapHlUeH. _______ friends.
___ nopnPen eH . ______ briefcases.
____ enOBapeH. _______ dictionaries.

Tbt Mano asepeH. There are few doors there.

_ _ _ _ O'fepe:.aeH. _ _ _ _ lines _ _
_ _ _ _ Te'Tp8.a,eH. _ _ _ _ _ notebooks __.

Tax MHoro .aen! So many things to do!

_ _ _ _ enos! ____ words!
_ _ _ _ KUHr! ___ books!
_ _ _ _ KapnfH! ____ pictures!
_ _ _ _ KOMHaT! ____ rooms!

TaM MHoro OkOH. There are lots of windows there.

_ _ _ _ nHceM. letters _

Y Meml HeT SMOK. I don't have any forks.

____ nOJIOK. ______ shelves.
____ no*eK. ______ spoons.
____ py'lelC. ______ pens.
_ _ _ oecrep. ______ sisters.

Y HaC Be 6bV1o JIelCLl,HH. We didn't have any lectures.

_ _ _ _ _ _ JIa60paTopHH. _______ laboratories.
_ _ _ _ _ _ aYJJ.HropHii. ________ auditoriums.
_ _ _ _ _ co6pAHJril. _______ meetings.
_ _ _ _ _ 06mCJKHTHH. ________ donnitories.
______ 3aHkrHH. _______ classes.


(Endings are based on the plural stem)

crOJInouns OIQtO-nouns *ett8-nouns .aaepbnouns


-M -.(zero)
or -b -eii

cry.aeHTOB cn6. K"lfT
aTJIaCOB OiC08 JJ.cByweK
ypOlCOB miceM cecrep
npo<j>eccopOo Kop660K

lUUO'Iei co6p3.mii neKtJ.Hi ttl'pAAoi

TosapHIDeii CO'fHHeHHi HCTOpKi o'fepeJJ.ei
HOJKei 06meIlITHi na6opaTopHi .asepei
npan.namei 3aJI8JleHHi ay.auTopKi HO'lei
uopnp6lei 3aHJfrHi
enoBapeii 3llaHHi

I. Most crOn-nouns ending in a hard consonant take the ending -OB in the genitive plural.
Those ending in :.10:. lU, Of a sort consonant other than ii. take the ending -cii.
2. All J:tBkpb-nouns take the ending -eM in the genitive plural.
3. Most 0 ....0- and loKetlli-nouns have a zero ending in the genitive plural. In structural tcnns
this usually makes their genitive plural fonn idcntical with their plural stem: loKCH, 1aUiJ', h.-apniH,
.lle.'f, 1I.',1CH. The stem may be slightly modified, however, in two ways:
a. A vowel may be inserted between the last two consonants of the stem as in OKOH (stem Oh:B-),
CT)'.llem-OK (stem CT)'.llttrrK-), .lleBywet>: (stem ne8YWX-), and ~P (stern cecTp-).
b. If the stem ends in the sound lJ], orthographic conventions require that it be written i:
cOOpAuHii (stem [sabraqij-J), .rteKluDi (stern nekcij-J). If the stem ends in a soft consonant
other than OJ, '4, or UI, the symbol L must be written to indicate the basic softness of the
stem final consonant: HC.lI.em. (stem [Qic;lel-l).


1. (atlases) And how about the atlases? 2. (pencils) The students have 110 pencils.
(hnacbl) A K3.K UaC'ICT 3.TJI3COB? (KapaHnawH) Y CTYJleHT08 HeT KapaunawM.
(CfonbI) AKaI' lIaC"le-r CTon6B? (HO)l(H) y CTY.1I.CHTOB NeT IID:lKCii.
(poMaHhI, 3K33MeUbI, CTl-IXW, lUll.llKH, (KJIlOlfH, CJI08apH, DOpnPenW, TCTpa,ttH,
ypoKH, lj>IDIbMbl, lUKalj>bl, KOCTJOMbI) Kapau,llawil, 1I0:lKH)


(teachers) From whom did she hear it? (HX:lKCHLl, ero ceCTpLl, y60PUtilUbI, 336'1-
From the teachers. HIIULI,npolj>eccopa, CTyncuTLI, Y'lHTeJlb-
(Y'lHTeJUi) Or KOro OHa no HHUbI, Y'lHTeJIJi, CTYJleHTlClI, aMepHKaHJ;H)
Or Y'fIITenei.
(npoJlaslQ.liIn.l) Or KOro OHa no c.sudwaJIa?
Or OPOJlll8untn.


I. Where are the keys? 2. Were there any maps there?

There are no keys here. No, there weren't any maps there.
rAe KJlIO'lH? TaM 6blJUI KapTbl?
lJticL "h IUlIO'Ieii. HCT, TaM ..aPT He 6L1J1o.
rAe HO)l(~? TaM 6b1JUt TeTp3.J:J;u?
3.nea, oCT HO_eN. MeT. T8M Tlrrpa.a.eN HC 6L1J10.
(KapalIJllUUH, CO'lHUCIIIUI, KHIITH, CJI0napH, (noJllm, KOp06KH, Jle8yuJnt. KHHrH,
TeTpaJlH, IIHCbMa, 8ID1KII, no:acm) KapTHHLI, 8HI1KH, nQ)l(kH, OKHa, IlIlCLMa)

3. Do you have any pencils?

Ne, we don't have any pencils.
KapaIlJlall.llf y sac ten.?
Hh. K8paHJlame:ii Y HaC un.
ATnaChi y sac ten.?
"h. anaCOB y dc nf:r.
(Terpa.LlU, non.kH, poMaHbI, CTHXH, enD-
BapH, nopTIIx:.rm, lliKalj>b1, KOCTIOMhI)

242 LFS'iON II

Tile teachers were at our house. We don't ha.'C a dnrmitory.

We were at the teachers'. We dnn't have any dnrmitories.
Y':IlfTeJlJi 6burn Y mlc. Y HaC lIer 06UlexHnu!.
My 6WIM Y Y':IHTeJICii. Y Hac IteT 06w;eDnDi.
CTy.aeHTbl 6btnlf Y Hac. Y HaC Her co6p8.HIDI.
M";' 6LvtH YCTYACtrroB. Y Hac tth co6piuHii.
(npo4leccopa, ero cicTpbl, y60pll.lHUbl, HX (nekUHM, ypoxa, 3.8T06yca, JattJlTHH, CTO
*eHbI, npoJJ.3BlUHULl, cryJJ.eHTl:H,}"UITC1Ib- 113., Y'uheJIJI, xapTbl, CO'l.HHeHJUI, J:OMHaTbl,
IIHl.lbI, aMepKI8.lUCII, ceXpeTapH) IUUO'la, UIKa~, PY'lxu)


These are dresses. These are sisters. Here are the bookcases.
These are the sisters' dresses. There are a lot of bookcases here.
3TO nminH. :no Cecrpbl. B6T 06nxl1.
:).'0 IUUiTbll cecrep. lAceb MlIOro DonoK.
3TO nopTeJ> 3TO opO<Pcccopa. B6T MaraJHHhI.
:)TO noPT~" nP04leccopOa. 3ACeb Mlloro Mara3HHoB.
3TO TCTJXi,o.H. 3TO CTy,neUTbI. (1I0)fC11, 3aBOJ1hl, xapau.nawlf, 3nalllUl,
3TO KHHrlf. 3TO Y':!HTeJJJi. OKHa, pecTopaUhJ, Tene$Ollbl, llBepH,
3TO K6MHaTl>l. 3TO npOJ1aawHUbI. 06ut~HTJUI, XOMHaTbl)
3TO IUlIO'l". 3TO y66pUlHUbI.
3TO KapaHA3uui:. 3TO Y':!H.Te.n:bHHUbI.

The accusative plural of nouns


Mbl J10Jnl(Hbi Kynm ATnaCbl. We have to buy atlases.

_______ nopnpe.rm. _ _ _ _ _ _ briefcases.
______ Tel"pAnH. _ _ _ _ _ _ notebooks.
________ KapaHJJ.auut. _ _ _ _ _ _ pencils.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n6)fCKH. _ _ _ _ _ _ spoons.
_________ 8HnJm. _ _ _ _ _ _ forks.
~ nepbR. _ _ _ _ _ _ pen points.
________ crynbR. _ _ _ _ _ _ chairs.
________ onanR:. _ _ _ _ _ _ dresses.

BbI BHn.enll ltX CTYJI.eHToB? Did you see lheir students?

_ _ _ _ _ nfXXl>eccopOB? _______ professors?
_~ TOaapHllteH? _ _ _ _ _ _ friends?
______ Y':!HTencii? _______ teacbers?
______ CTYJ1ellTox? _ _ _ _ _ _ girl students?
_ _ _ _ _ ceCTep? _ _ _ _ _ _ sisters?


Repeat the given models, noting that where the direct object is inanimate, the accusative form is
like the nominative, but where the direct object is animate, the accusative form is like the genjtive.


1. Where are your keys? 2. Where are the students?

We forgot the keys. We saw the students at the club.
r.a.e B3.wu KJJIO'ui? rne CTynellThl1
MY Ja6butH 1UIIO'Oi. MY cry~ Knj6e.
r.a.e 83mH KHJ:irH? r.a.e cry.neHTIH1
MY u6WJIH Jauf",. M" BjJl.eJDI cryJJ.etryoK tt.rrj''6e.
(Upat:IJ1aIllH, TeTpaJlH. cnoBapH, npThl, (Y'fKTeJIA. npo4leccopa, ee cecrpbl,
aTnacw, nopTenH) .a.eByuIDt, ern TOB8pHIUH, aMepHXaUXH.
ceKpeTapH. SIIfTbI)


J. Here are cucumbers for you. 2. Look, there go the students!

Where did you get such cucumbers? I see students every day.
8M, nmKMyHCTa, orypubl:. nOCMOrpH, TaM HJtjT CT)',[lCHTb.l,
r,ll;e Bbi .nocranH TaKile orYPllbi? a BH*Y cryJl.etrTOB K8*JU>1H Jl.CHb.
8M, nmd..JIyHCTa, nepbSl. nOCMOrpH, TaM HJ.tYT np01J,aBlltHUbl. Bbi .nocniJJH T8KJfe nepba? a BM:*Y npoJta8ll.u1Q ..a*Jl.bIH ,lleHb.
(PY'fKH, K8p8HJl:aIUH, CTynbSl, IfaIllKH, (Y'l.HTeJISI, ee cecrpbl, HX )I(CUbI,
nO:JKKH, BMK", HO)l(") Y'fH"TeJJbllHD;b.l, ,neByrnKH, ceKpeT8pH,

3. Here are his compositions. 4. The shelves are ready.

I've already reLld his compositions. Want to take a look at the sheh'es?
B6T er6 CO<HHeHHSl. n6JlKH rOTOB.bI.
a y*e 'lNTan en) CO'OlHemul. XOT'IiTe ~ nOJlKw?
B6T ero cnroi. 6ma rOT6BbI.
a y-.i 'Of11i.II er6 CTIIXH. XoniTe ~ OKHJl?
(pa60Tbl. rnKrlf, POMaHbI, JaJlBneHHSl, (.cuIepH, CTOJIhI., CTyJlbSI. j[1J.J;HDt,
IlHCbMa) o6lltCIHTMJl. ,[lOMa, KOMHaThl, K.8apnrpbl)


I. Ask the teacher. 2. Where did you see the factory?

Ask the teachers. Where did you see the factories?
Cnpockre YlfHTeJ1S1. Bbl BH.u;eJlH rpa6puKy1
CnpocHTe YlfHTeJleii. r.a.e BbI BHJJ.eJIH iPa6pHKH?
CnpocHTe ero ceCTpy. Bbl BH.u;eJlH CTYACHrcl.1
CnpocH-re en) cecTep. rAe Bbi BHJJ.eJIH cry.a:euTOB?
(npon,aslltHuy, npo4)eccopa, CTy.ueHTKy, (asTo6yc, olfepeJIb, Kapnmy, CTyAeHTXY,
}"lHTeJIbHHl.{}', oaxTfpa. aMepuxaHKy) .a.eB}'IllKy, n~pa, ero cecTpy, ero
TOBapHIU8, Jla60paTopHlO. P}"fKy,

3. I just met my sister.

I just met my sisters.
11: T6J1bKO 'ITO ~ cecrpy.
a TomKO "ITO BC'l'pbwn cec'J'ip_
11: TomKO 'ITO BC'J"nt.n TOaapHW.a.
a T6Ju."O "ITO IlCTp(h'JlJI ToUpllll.lei.
(Y'fItTeJlbHHllY, Y"KTeJISI, npo4leccopa,
CTYAeHTXy, ceKpeTapSI)

244 l..ESSON II

I, Singular
a. Inanimate C1'OJl-[Iouns and all OICHo- and ,1I;BCpb-nOuns have accusative singular fonns exactly
likc the nominative singular: CTon, 'tail, OKItO, nmlTbe, nSepb, Jho66ob, MaTb mother.
b. Animate croll-nouns borrow the genitive singular endings (-8, -II) for the accusative singular:
TOSapHIl..{8, Bna,uHMI:fp8, CTYneHTa, Hmon3.ll, )"lHTeJUI, napllJl,
c. Only )lieHa-nouns have endings in the accusative singular distinct from tbose of the nominative
or genitive singular (-y, -to); these are used for both animate and inanimate nouns: )Kelty,
ICllliry, ceCTpj, ramo, HC1'6pl:fJO, Komo, neKUI:fJO.
2. Plural
a. All inanimate noun~ have accusative plural fonns exactly like tbe nominative plural: CTOnhI:,
cnooapH, KltJim, neKuKH. 6Klta. CO'fHHeHIDl, .nsepl:f.
b. All animate nouns have accusative plural fonns exactly like the genitive plural: cryneHTOo,
Y'fHTeJleH, *elt, npo<peocopOo, cecrep, TOB3.pllli.{eH, MaTepeH mothers.

The genitive case with He 6YAeT constructions


He 6yneT yp6Ka, There won't be a lesson tomorrow.
______ ypOKOO. _ _ _ _ _ _ any lessons _
______ neKUHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ a lecture _
______ nCKUHii. _ _ _ _ _ _ any lectures _
______ C06paHJUI. _ _ _ _ _ _ a meeting _
______ C06p3HHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ any meetings _


Repeat the given models, noting that the genitive is requjrcd in future He 6Y,ll;eT constructions.


We had no classes yesterday. B'tepa Y HaC He 6b1no neKu,HH.

We won't have any classes tomorrow. 3aB'rp8 y !lac He 6y;:urr JleKWUI.
B'fCpa y mic He 6lolll0 yp6KOB. (co6paH.JHI, 3aHJ1THI1, ypoKa, 3K3aMCHa,
3aBTpa y lIac lie 6j,l1;eT ypOKOB. 3K3aMeH08, co6panIDi)


1. Will there be bread in the store? 2. But will Zina be there?

No, there won't be any bread. No, Zina won't be there.
a MarC13li"c 6Y.aCT XJIe6? A 3i1Ha riM 6Y.aeT?
HCT, xJle6a He 6Y,ll;eT. HeT, 3HHw riM He 6Y,ll;eT.
a Mara:U1ue 6YAeT MonOKO? A Oner T3.M 6Y.aCT?
HCT, Monod He 6jneT. HeT, OJler. riM He 6jneT.
(cene.aKa, 'fait, pbl6a, HO*H, Te"I"pa.ll;H) (HX x:eHbl, ee 6paT, npo4)eccopa, K03JIOO,
AnCKceeO, )"HTeJUI, BaXTep, .aCOywt;:H,
ce~TaPb, ero TooapHUlH, CTYneHTnl)

LESSON 11 245

Just as neT and ue 6I.J1IO are accompanied by the genitive in the present and past, so, too,
He 6Y,ll,eT is accompanied by the genitive in tbe future to indicate a missing thing or person.
Compare tbe affirmative and negative sentences below, noting that the nominative subject in
the affirmative examples is replaced by the genitive in the corresponding negative examples and that
the negative He 6yneT (like He 6w.oo of the past tense) is a fixed form.


Y HaC 338Tpa 6yneT JleKUIDI_ Y HaC l3.BTpa He 6YJl.CY neKUHH.

We'll have 0 leclure lomorrow. We won't ha~'e a lecture tQmorrow.
Y Hm: JaeTpa 6YJl.yr ypOKH. Y HHX JaBTpa He 6Y.ueT yp6KOB.
They'll have classes tomorrow. They won', have classes tomorrow.

The genitive case for the direct object of negated verbs


.s1 He xO'l:y MOnOKa. I don't want any milk.

--_ .....
_ _ _ 60pma .
____ ~_tea.

_ _ _ _ _ bo.-sch.
_ _ _ phl6b1. _ _ _ _ _ fish.
_-,-_ _ ce.n:eJ],IM. _ _ _ _ _ _ herring.

Mbi: TaKlfX xapniH eute lie BKaeJIH. We haven't seen pictures like thai before.
_ _ _ _ 4>H1Il>MOB _ _ _ _ _ _ fiIms _
_ _ _ _ nop-rleneH _ _ briefcases _
_ _ _ _ Jl.OMOS _ _ houses _
_ _ _ =lTJ'O" _ _ theaters _
____ KsapTlip _ _ apartments _
____ aYJl.HTOpHH _ _ _ _ _~__ auditoriums _
____ 6H6nHoTeK _ _ libraries _
____ 06Ul,C)KHTHH _ _ dormitories _
____ JJl.aHHH _ _ buildings _

Mbl: eme He JHaeM BceX CTYJl.eIlTOs. We don't know all the students yet.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Jl.e8yweK. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ girls _ _
_ _- - - - - - - BaXTepo8. _ _ _ _ _ _ _~ custodians _
_ _ _ _ _ _~ _ Y'l:HTeJleii. _ _ _ _~ ~ ~ _ teachers _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CTYJl.eIITOK. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ coeds _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cel:peTapeH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ secretaries _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ enos. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ wo,ds _ _


Repeat the given models, noting that after negated verbs the direct object is in the genitive case.


I. I like novels. 2. Why is she opening the door?

I do,,', like novels. Why doesn't she open the door?
.sf JIIo6mO poMailW. nOl(eMY oua OncpblBaeT .lUJCpb?
A He 1I106mb poMiHo8. nO'feMy OHII He OTI\PbJ:B8eT ).lBipH?
.sf JIIo6mb XHMHIQ. nOl(eMY OHa OTXpblOaeT OKH6?
g He 1II061uo XHMKM. no'leMj oua He 0'TKpbJ8aeT oKHJi?
(CTHXJt, oceHb, oeCHY, 3HMY, reorpa41lllO, (611:Ha, jlU-lHK, KOp06KH, xlIHry, aTJJaC,
cPH31tKy, lIHTepaTypy) .ltBepH, TeTpa.tlb. TeTpa.o.H)


I. Did he get the books ? 2. Did you buy the suit?

No, he didn't get the books. No, I didn't buy the suit.
61t .oocri.n JrHJirH? Tw K:yrnina lI:ocnOM?
HiT, OH He /.lOC1"iJJ KHiir. HiT, jHe ICynHn.S l'ocnOMS.
6H .oocri.n VIIQ'IIf:? Tbi xynHna MaTepHan?
HiT, ON He ./I;OC"fiJJ KJDO-reii. HlIT, j He ICymina MSTep.uina.
(TeTpaJ.:tb, CJlOOapH, XOCTJOM, TeTp3J(lt, (aTnac, nopTlenb, lUIan.e. P)"lXY. l(ali,
OH.n1rn, HOXH, nO:llCXH, XOpo6XH, Kapau.naUJ, KaPT}')

3. Did you see his dictionary? Bbi BH.neJUt er6 TeTp3.n.h?

No, I didn't see his dictionary. HiT, j en) Terpi.nH He aMJJ.eJI.
Bw BKnenH era CJJOsaPb? (nlHnt, ICoMlIaT)'. poMaa. novrle.nb.
Hh, , en) cJJOupii He BMJJ.eJI. KBapTHpy, xapTHHy, XapTHHbl)


She probably forgot his name.

No, she didn't forge' his name.
OHa, HaBeplJO, 3a6bUla er6 "M~.
HCT, Olla He 3aOWJJa ero HMetIJI,
OHa, t1aOCpHO, 336bUla JCJJIQni.
HCT, Ollli lie 3aGbtJJa KJJIO'feii.
(nepo, py'IKy, no.oapoK, KJlJOl(, ero .oeHb
pO:lKJI,CIlIIII, ero lj)aMHJJHIQ, ero OTl(ecTaO)


Although, according to strict grammatical rules, the direct object of negated verbs should be
in the genitive case, there are some exceptions. The most common of these are:
I. In informal spoken Russian tbe accusative singular of "'ella-nouns is often used instead of
the expected genitive:
g Ne "HTliJt i11' ICHHr)' (or A :hoii KIIHne) I haven't read this book.

2. If (he negated verb is followed by an infinitive, the accusative is often used instead of the
expected genitive:
A Ne Morj 0TKpbm. OKHO (or A He Morj OTKpLtn. OKHa) I can't open the window.

Demonstrative :hOT in the nominative, accusative, genitive,
and prepositional cases

Masculilie Neuter Feminine

NOM :lTOT ;TO ;,.. 3TU

inanimtlte :IToT inanimate 3TH

animate noro [e~Y;)l animate 3THX

GIlN :horo 1
[et~Y;) :hoii 3THX

PREP (06) 3TOM :hOH ;TUX


3TOT CJIOaapb fie MOH. This dictionary isn't mine.

3TO rlHChMO He Moe. This letter _
3m lOlura He Moli. This book _
3-1'3 rerpA,ttb He MOH. This notebook _
3TH TeTp3,QH He MoH. These notebooks aren'l mine.
Ow eJi.D;HTe :horo CTy.nCHTa'1 Do you see that student?
_ _ _~:iTy CTYJleHTICY? ____ that coed '1
_ _ _ _ nux CTyJl.eRTOB? _____ lhose students '1
_ _ _ _ _ 3THlt CTYJleIiTOK? ____ those coeds?

B03bMH :hOT poM3.H! Take this novel!

_~_ :hy ICHHry! __ this book !
_ _ _ :ho nHCbMo! __ this Jeller!
___ ny TeTpA,m.! __ this notebook!
_ _ _ nH CTHxH! __ these verses!

.sf He BH.n:eJI :horo pOMaHa. I haven't seen this noveL

_____ :hail ImHrH. _____ this book.
_____ noro mtCbM8. _____ this letter.
_ _ _ :ITo. TeTp<i.Q>I. _____ this notebook.
_ _ _ _ 3TKx CTHx6e. _____ these verses.

.st ue c:.rrhnnan 06 nOM poMaue. I haven't heard about this novel.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3TOH IGlifre. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ this book.
_ _ _ _ _ _ 3TOM .nene. _________ this affair.
_ _ _ _ _ _ 3TOH np6cb6e. _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ this request.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3THX CTHXax. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ these verses.


Repeat the given models, noting particularly that genitive endings are used for the animate masculine
accusative in the singular and for all animate accusatives in the plural.


I. Whose key is this? 2. Here's our room.

This one here? No, Ihis room isn't OUTS.
lIeH iTO luno'i? BOT H:ima KOMHan.
BOT nOT? Her, iTa k-6MHaTa He Hawa.
lIbif no CYHxH? 86T Harna .n.oePb.
BOT m? Hk, iTa _pi>
He Haw.
(OICHO, CJI00apb, .D.Bepb, KHltrH, KOMHaTa, (K.IUO'i, OKRO, aaT06yc, KapaH.l.tawH, HOllUl,
pa6o-ra, poMaH, nopT4>eJtI>, CO'UlHeHlle, CJlOBapb)
3. FIt see you on Friday. >1 sac )'BIDtcY B 'leTBcpr.
This Friday? B nOT 'Ie'TBipr?
}l BaC )'BIDtcy B minrnny. (0 Cy660Ty, B nOlle,ll,em.HHX, 0 cpeJJ.Y, 0
o iTy oKntH1O'? BOCKpe<:eHbC, 00 OTOpllHK)


J. This is my table. 2. This is my table.

This lable is mine. My table is Ihis one here.
3T0 MO" cyon. 3TO rotO" crOn.
:nOT mil M6H. MOR crOJI BOT nOT.
3T0 Mali KOM.laTa. 3TO Mali KOMuaTa.
3Ta h.-oMHaTa M(Hi. Moli KOMHaTa BOT na.
(MOR IIOpT<PeJU.., MaR KUHnt, MOJI KapTa, (MOH nopTepe.nb, MOH KHlfrlf, MOJI KapTa,
Moe nepo, MOH KJUO'iH, Moe CO'iHUeUHC, MOlt KJIIO'ilf, Moe OKHO, MOIl ,UBCpb)


I. These dictionaries are [available) ;n the 2. What did you find out from Ihese students?
library. What did }"Ou find out from this student ?
This diclionary is [available] in the library. 4T6 ThI: y:man OT 3THX CTY,ll,eHToB?
3Tu CJI0BapH ten. B 6lt6J1uOTcKe. lho n:. YlHan OT noro cry.aeHT8?
3TOT CJlOB8pb kn. B 6H6!1HOTeKe. LITO TbI y:man OT nux nIXXPeccOpOB?
3TH poMaUbl ecn. B 6lt6J1HOreKC. L(TO n.i pliU OT noro npo+kcopa?
3TOT poMall ecn. B 6H6JIHOTe..-e. (y'lHTene", y6oPLUHQ, napueH,
(KHHrH, KapTbl, aTJlaCbl, nllCI>Ma, CJlOBapU, Y'iIlTeJlhHHll, ncayweK, CTY,ll,eIlTOK)
CO'ilutCUHR, poMaHbI)

3. Have you already seen these pictllres? Bbi }'JKe OHneJIll 3THX arotepltKllHlI,ea?
Have you already seen this piclure? Ow y*e BH.aeml iTOro aMepHlo.-&uua?
BbI Y"A<C BHneJIU 3TH Kapnrnbl? (:nlf rnxa$bl, 3TH CO'UtHeHHJI, 3THX
Bt:I )"I'e ali,lleJlH 3Ty l'aPriHy? ,ll,esyweK, 3TH pa60Tbl, 3THX CTY,ll,eHTOO,


We were lalking about Ihe lecture. MbI rOBOpHmt 063Tnace.

We were talking about this (or Ihal) lecture. MY rOBOpKnM 06 :JTOM aT!lace.
Mbi rOBop,iJlll 0 JleKQHlf. (06 ypoKax, 0 KapTC, 0 KlIY6c, 0 c06paHlfH,
Mw rOBopliJJH 06 :hOH JleKU"H. o KOlIl..\epTe, 0 kypcax, 0 lPHJlbMaX, 0 Kap-


It is important to note the difference between the unchanging introductory iTo (see Lesson 5)
and the declinable demonstrative iTOT, iTa, iTO, :h.... Note the following, which are complete
sentences; the voice drops at the end of each:
~TO KOMUaTa. This is a room.
~TO nepO. This is a pen.
Compare them with the following, which are not sentences; in speech the voice level is sustained:
in KOMHaTa this room
:lTO nepO this pen
Whereas unchanging iTo is independent of the other elements in the sentence, the demonstrative
trOT must agree in number, gender, and case with its noun referent. Note tbe following:
::ITo 6buT He M61i cnoBapb. It wasn't my dictionary.
3TOT CJlOBapb own tie Mon. That dictionary wasn't mine.
In the first case:iTO is independent; 6bv1 and M6H are masculine to agree with CJlOBapb. In the
second case :iTOT, 6':".11, and M6ii are all masculine to agree with c.'10Bapb.

4TEHl1E 11 nl1CbM6


~ rz.o.c.d. ~ ~ ~ ~
rami Bee BpeM.R CH.llHT .nOMa. B lUly6e TOJlbKO T3RUbi. 3 TaHu.eaaTb oua
He JII06HT. B KHHO OHa TO)l(e lie XOJJ,HT. Om\ .naaHO all.nCJl3 aee 3TH 4lKJlbMbl. roaoplh,
.,TO CKOPO 6Y.neT Jt)lTH aMcpHKaHCKKH lPHJlbM. 3-r0 .npyr6c Torna raJlH He 6yneT
CHJJ,erb .nOMa. OHa noit.rleT nOCMOTpeTb :iTOT lPKJ1bM.

OJ1er 'IHTaeT (EareHH}! OHerHHa)), a BJ13lUI~mp (BOHHy H MKp~~. OJler TO)l(e <{HTan
((BoHHy H MllP~). H .a.a)l(c MHoro pi3. 6" rOBopH-r .,TO O<{CHb JlJ06HT 3TOT poMaH.
80J10,0)1 H OJ1er - TooapmUH no KOMH3Te. Kan H 3UHa TOiKe )l(HDYr aMecre. 3H:n3
H OJ1er H3 O,lI,nOM KypCC, HO MaJ10 3H3KOMbl: TOJIbKO (3npaaCTByHTe}~ u .ao CBHnaHH}!.
Ho a cy660Ty omi nYMalOT Bee BMeCTe nouni H8 TaHUbl.

- Dbl cnelllHTc, raJ1}!?

- B 6H6nHoTeKy. }1 Bcerna XO:lKY nOCJle JlCKU,HU.
- nO'lcMy :lKC Ii BaC TaM He BH.a.CJI?
- He 3HaJO. .,HTaJO 0 3TOH 6H6mtOTCKC d)l(nblH .a.CHb.
- J.1 Ii TO)l(C. r.a.c Obi JII06HTC cH,QeTb ?
- ..stCIVKY Bcer.a.a y OKHa.
- Tcnepb 6yny 3HaTh.

- KyJJ,a Obi HneTe T3.K n03llllo?

- cncmY B 06Il.tCJKHTHC. TaM 6ynYT Bee HaWH pe6lha.
- A 'ITO BbI 6YJlcre TaM nenaTb ?
- J.1rpaTb B KilpTbi.
- HO'lblO?
- !la, TaM MO)l(HO HrpaTb TOJlbKO HO'lbJO.



nonjnHk (papu~ikJ traveling companion, fellow traveler

Mbl nonjPtHICH. We're traveling companions.
npoBoJUuhc, -3.; -Ii, -OBI conductor, guide
Barn 61U1er.
Your ticket.
rpaJKD.aHMH. -a; rp3)k.naue, citizen
rp8.*JlaH I
8itu 611MT, rpa*.aaHWH. Your ticket, sir.
MeerO t -3; MecTa, Mecr place, seat, berth; position, job, space,
Meno 8O<:eMb 3.necb. Berth eight is here.
Bt1.r6H railroad car
MRncHH sort
MArXH" Baron soft car, first-class car
MarKH" aaron, Meao BOceMb 3JtecL. First-class car, berth eight is here.
v, . tfI. .
SlnKY '.II
Thank you. Oh. who's that I see?
exaTb (unidirectionalt), e.ny, C.nyT to be going (by vehicle)
11 Dbl c.ll.eTe? Are you going, too?
riJlA! " 8b1 ben? Galya! Are you going, too?
,n;a. )JlpaBCTByii're. Yes. Hello.
HcdTh (I), HmY, ~ to look fo'r, seek
BOT HU(j caM! MtcTO. npoBOwoIK! I'm just looking for my seat. Conductor!
BepXH"H.-~R.-ee upper
Dime MOCTO eepxuee. Your berth is the upper.
HHJKIIHH. -~~, -ee lower
npocHTb (Il), npowy, np6c.IIT to request, ask for

, Nouns wilh shifting stress or other unpredictable features in lbe dedension an: JiYell in foUl" fonns: nomimauYe singular
puYe $ingular, nominauYe piunJ, and gcuitiYe pinnal.

.st npoc(lJta Hii)Kllee. I asked for a lower.
Iiacca tickct window, box office, cash register
A tl B "acce IlpocM.'1a luiamee. But I asked for a lower at the ticket window.

cmiTL (u), crtJuo, cnsiT to sleep

HcynooHo [it's] uncomfortable, [it's] inconvenient
HaBepxy upstairs, on top, in the upper
HaBepxy cniTL uey.nooHo. It's uncomfortable sleeping in an upper.
ouni6Ka mistake, error
~o. HaBcpHo, owH6lia. It's probably a mistake.
"yne (indeclinable n) [kupe] compartment, sleeping compartment
Y Me",i Tt)Jke Mec-rO 8 :iTOM kyne. I also have a berth in this compartment.
nOllO_.nNTe!:fl-O. Ha8eplIO. OllUf6Ka. Wait a minute! It's probably a mistake.
Y Metttl TOle MCcTO 8 nOM t..-yne. I have a berth in this compartment, too.

Y):{HBmtTbCJI (I) to be surprised

He YJlKBJItlMTecb! Don't be surprised!
C3JlHTb (multidirectional Il), eJIKY, e3II)IT to go (by vehicle), ride, travel
B OllHOM Kyne in one compartment
OHii lhAltT B OllnoM kyne. They travel in the same compartment.
",cHuUfHa woman
MYJK<tHHa ImuWn~] man
)I(eliulIlHbl " MYJK<tlillbl C)AltT B OIUlOM Women and men travel in the same sleeping
Kyne. compartment.
y HaC in our country, in our society (/il. by us)
Y Hlic ;e;:eullUUIbI H M}'*'lltHW t:UlIlT B OllHOM In our country women and men travel in the
"roe same sleeping compartment.
You don't say!
noexan. (pfv I), nDe.ny, noe.nyr to go (by vehicle), ride, travel
Mb.l 8 onHOM "yue nOelleM. We'll travel in the same compartment.
C 8cUlII with you
MbJ: c Ba.\.1U you and I
Mbl c BaM" B OIlHOM "yne noeneM? Will you and I travel in the same
Tali: 3Ha<tKT. MhI c 8aMH B O)I,IIOM Kyne Then you mean you and I will travel in the
1I0c.neM? same compartment?
,lI,li, A Bbi Kywi e.nne? Yes. And wherc is it you're going?

B MOCK8r,.a 8b1? To Moscow. And you?

So am I.
Well, so we're traveling companions.


CTOHTb (II), CT()IIT, CTOwr to cost, be (in price)

CKOJlbkO CTOUT 6HJ1CT B MockBy? How much is a ticket to Moscow?
)KeenUM aaron hard car, second-class car
B )KecTKOM aarone in (or on) the second-class car

254 LESSON 12
Y MCHli MCcTO B *eCTKOM BarOuc. I have a seat in tbe second-class car.
R MsirKOM BarQUe in (or on) tbe first-class car
Y MCllsi Meen, B MsirKOM Barouc. I have a seal in tbe first-class car.
n6e3J],. -a; noe3J],a. -OB train
113 n0e3J],e on the train, by train
Dbi e.rteTe lIa n0e3J],e? Are you going on the train?
BHH3y downstairs, below
rJ],e saUJa KOMMan. nasepxy HJIII B1l1l3Y? Where's your room, upstairs or downstairs?
llJIaniTh (U), llJIa<ty, llJIanIT to pay
nJlantTe B Kacce! Pay at the ticket window!
3annaTirn. (pfv n) to pay
Dbi )')Ke 3annaniml? Did you already pay?
lUIaTHTb (or 3anJlaTHTb) 33 (plus ace) to pay for
C,,{)JlbKO Bb.! 3afUlaTium 3a 6IlJlCTf.ol? How much did you pay for the tickets?
CTaHI.l.HJI station
Ila CTalll.l.Hll at the station
fla CTanl.lIllO to the station
nOe3J], CTOUT lIa CTaHl.lIlIt. The train is in the station.


rp. - 4>Hminn rpaHT, aMepHKaaeu

r. - roo
n. _ npoSO.ltHHK: l

n. Balli 6HJ1th, rpa:llCllaHHu. 2 MJirxHU BarOH,) MtcTO BOceMb 3,llecb.

rp. 2 Cnacli60. 6, Kor6 Ji BH:lKy?! rw! M Bhz elleTe?

r. 3 Jl:a. 3llpaBCTByHTe. BOT HmY CBoe MecTO. np080llHHK!

n. 4 Ballle MeCTo Bepmee.
r. 5 A Ji B IGlcce npoclina UH:lKHee. HaBepx:y cn3Tb Hey.o.o6Ho.
fp. 6 nOJ],Q)K.o.I1:Te! 3TO, HaBcpHo. OlllH6Ka! Y Mens T6:lKe MCCTO B .:hOM Kyne.
r. 7 He YllHBJlSHTeCb. Y HaC :lKeHl.UHHbJ H M}')K'IHHbl C3J1)1T B O,ItH6M KynC.
rp. 8 4T6 8hz rOBOpHTe! TaK 3Ha'lHT, MI:d C BaM" 8 OJUl0tv! Kyoe noelleM?
r. 9 .[la. A KYll3. 8hz eAeTe?
rp. 10 B MOCKBy. a B.bJ:?
r. II Jt T6:l1Ce. B6T MbI H nonjT'IHKH.

NOTES I The pQeol(HliK on Russian trains is the man in charge of an individual car.

He differs from an American conductor in that the latler is responsible for several
cars or the whole train. Thus job is something between that of a conductor and a
porter. npoBO,ntlKIi' also means guide.

LESSON 12 255
2 Like all nouns ending in -auKK, ....pncllanH:H loses -HH in the plural, and has
the special nominative plural ending -c: . . pS*D,aHc. The stcm thus ends in sort [Q.]
in the nominative plural, but in hard [nJ elsewhere in the plural: MHo....o rpa*Jf.aH, 0
rp3.*Jt auax .
Although the American student or tourist in the Soviet Union may hear the
word rpa*JI.aHHH used by train and streetcar conductors, bus drivers, and policemen,
he should not it himself in addressing Soviet citizens. Under no circumstances
should he use roCDO.rom or rocnO)K3.. The best way to get the attention of a stranger
is by saying K3SHHlITe, upocniTe, or cKa)Klfic, nO)K8J1yikra. Altbough the student
probably will not use the terms himself, he may hear himself addressed as MOJloll,oii
qeJIOIU~K or, in the case of a girl, lI,eSytDK3.
J The so-called soft car MJD-KHii aarOn consists of fIrst-dass compartments with

soft seats; each compartment accommodating four persons. Compartments in the

hard car ...ecnnrii aaron have hard scats; each compartment seats six persons and
sleeps four. In selling tickets, no attempt is made to separate men from women in
sleeping cars, and the American tourist may be surprised to find he is sharing a
sleeping car on a Russian train with one or more persons of the opposite sex.
The verbs e3l1,HTh and exan. describe going by vehicle or some means other
than on foot. t3lnITb is used for the generaJ (multidirectional) activity and exan.
for the specific (unidirectional) activity. In this respect tbey parallel XO.lUTI. and
H,!01I exactly.

Compare MhJ 'ul.cro B KHeB.

e3;:J;HM We often go to Kiev.
MbI 'IaCTO X6AHM B napK. We often go to the park.
with MbI e,neM B KueB. We're on our way to Kiev.
MhI ImeM B m\.pK. We're on our way to the park.


molj>ep driver (of car)

a)J:MHHHCTj>hop clerk, administrator
HOCHJIhU,J:HK porter
HOCHJ1hWHK! Porter!
Gan'nK luggage, baggage
nOJIy'lHTh (pfv n), nOJI)"I)\, nOJ1fqaT to receive, get,
flOJIy'lHTC M6H 6anbK, noxMyitc'ra. Get my luggage, please.
KBHTllnuu.ll receipt, claim check
86T KBHT{UU{H.ll. Here's the claim check.
HOCHJIblUHK! noJl}"Dhe Moii 6ani..., Porter! Get my luggage, please. Here's the
lIo...aJlyiCTa. BOT KBMT3J1IlHII. claim check.
Ceiillic. A r,l],c sW 6YACTe *J\3.Th? Right away. Where will you wait?
OXH.!laHJle waiting, wait, expectation
Jiul OIKJlltallH.ll waiting room
B 3ane O'kH,I],aHHJI. In the waiting room.
BeWh (I) (gen pi BeWeR) thing
BOT milllH BemH. Here are your things.
KoneRKa (gen pi KoneeK) kopeck
Tj>H.lI.n:an. [trit~\l thirty
TpH.JutaTh KoneeK, nOlKiulyHCTa. Thirty kopecks, please.

256 LESSON 12
BOT BarnH RCIllH. TpHJJ,uaTb KOueeK. Here arc your things. Thirty kopecks, please.
TaKe" (indccl n) taxi
TaKC"! Taxi!
6arbCHHK baggage compartment, luggage carrier,
nOnO)f(HTb (PfV.II), nono)f(Y, nonO)f(aT to put
.sf nonoJICY BaWII BeU{ll B 6araJKHHl(. I'll put your things in the baggage
p;UpeWHTb (pfv II), p;upewy, pa.3pewlh to permit, allow
H lIono:j dID. &eu..l. II 6ani~ I'll put your things in the baggage
pll3pew.....e? compartment, O.K. ?
BAM J(y.a.a? where do you want to go?
Ba.o,( Ky,lla? Where to?
rocnhtH1l3 hotel
B f"OCTJftrllllY Y KpalIna To the Hotel Ukraine.
nplleXaTb (pfv I), npHe,lly, nplfcJlYT to arrive (by vehicle)
npHexa..nH [we've] arrived, here we are
csac from you; you owe
pj6Jlb, py6mi; --ii. --eM: (m) ruble
n~XaJlH. C BaC pjlirJb. Here we are. That'll be one ruble.
Mmi 4t..'W.Iin.R rpm. My name is Grant.
HOMep, -a; HOMepa, - 00 hotel room, number, issue
lIe6onbw6it small
3aKa3aTb (prv I), 3aKa:lKY, 3aKIDKYT to order, make a reservation
.sf )3Ka33..n He60Jlbw6it 116Mep. I ordered a small room.
molCc deluxe class
.sf 3aKa3An ne60Jlbw6n H6Mep mOKC. I ordered a small room, deluxe class.
NUl oD,Horo a single, for one
st :laKaJar. He60nbUJoii HOMep mbKC NUl I ordered a small single room, deluxe class.
:naJIC, -a; -"Ii, --en story, floor
Ita nATOM 31'3.)f(C on the fifth lloor
Baw UOMep lIa m'TOM 3Ta*e. Your room is on the fifth floor.
y.a.66cToo convenience, comfort
Bee YJl66CToa. [It has] all the conveniences.
oaHHaS! bathroom
y66pllaS! toilet, lavatory
oOJJ,a water
rOpJl'laSl hot water
Bee yaOOcrBa: oaHlIa.. y6DPHaA, I"opjlfa. All the conveniences: bath, lavatory, hot
BOJui. water.
Hanpaoo on the right, to the right
JlH<pT elevator
Jl.+T HanpiBo. The elevator is to the right.
npeKpaCllo excellent, tine
npeKpaCHO. Fine.

LESSON 12 257

neWKOM on foot
.sf nOHAY neun,6M. I'll go on foot.
HaneBO on the left, to the left
rAe micjlT? Where's the elevator?
- HaneBO. To the left.
npJiMo straight, straight ahead, directly
11.whe "piMO. Go straight ahead.
BOo3.n [vagzal] I station, terminal
na BOI03.n to the station
Ha Bonine in (or at) the station
Mbllt6mo CHltCnH Ha We sat in the station a long time.
noe3:lKaH! nOe3:lKaHTe! drive! go (by vehicle)!
noe3,dHTe B rocniHHuy Drive to the Hotel Ukraine!
.sf CAY B KHeB. I'm going to Kiev .
.sf CAY B TaWKeIlT. I'm going to Tashkent.
.sf elJ,Y B XaphKOB. I'm going to Kharkov.
.sf eAY BO BnalJ,HBOCTOK. I'm going to Vladivostok .
.sf eAY B JtJITY. I'm going to Yalta.
.sf CAY B OAeccy. "I'm going to Odessa.
YA66HhlH (adv YA66llo) convenient, comfortable
Y nux y.n66Hall: KBapnipa. They have a comfortable apartment.


rp. - rpaUT
Hoc. - HocHJIhuVUC
ill""'. - illoq,ep
MM. - MMHIUIC'rpaTop

rp. HOCWtbWMK! nOJIY'uiTe MOM 6ara:lK, no"'l'u1yikra. BOT KBMT.hll.lH~.

Hoc. 2 CeH'I3.C. A rAe Dbi 6Y.lleTe JK,lJ,3Tb ?

ri>. 3 B 3fUTe o"'H.a.aHH~.

Hoc. 4 BOT D3wn seWH. TpH.nU3Tb KoneeK. nOJIC3JIyHCTa. TaKcn! I

lDo4>. 5 Jt nono:llCY eawH oeWH B 6ara)I(HHK. pa3pewHTe" BaM Ky.u.3"

rp. 6 B rocnt:HHI.1Y YKpaHH<\.

llJo4l. 7 TIpHCXaJIH. C MC py6nb.

, Compare 1t01Oi., with m--. 8oK:Wl is a railway terminal or station buikfing. whereas ""-_ can refer to any
station. Notioe that both require the prelX'Sition u;
011 BCTpCTIUl .eHy Ha a1lT(6)'CHoH crAHUHIl. He mel his wife at the bus sllcion.
OH llCTpeTlUl .eHy HI Booille. He met his wife at the railway station.

258 LESSON 12
B rocnumu,e

rp. 8 Mo~ epaMUJ1HSI rpaUT. }l 3aKa3an He6oJ1bW6ii H6Mep mOKc JJ,J1S1 o~Hor6.2

MM. 9 .la, BaW HOMep ua mlTOM :na)Ke. Bce y~o6cTBa: 83.HHaSl, y66pHllJl, ropJi'laJI
BO.Afl. lluepT Hanpaao.

rp. IO npeKpacHo.

NOTES I Russians seldom check tbeir luggage or use the help of porters. Tipping is
officially forbidden in tbe Soviet Union, but most foreigners are expected to tip
hotel servants, waiters, and check-room attendants.
2 Only mbKC guarantees hot water. At most hotels one gets only cold water,
has no private bath, and has to share toilel facilities with otber guests on tbe same
noor. This is typical not only in the Soviel Union, but common in European
countries as weD.

Basic sentence patterns

1. Kynil Bbl e.a.CTe? Where are you going?

- B MocKBy. To Moscow.
- .sf e.a.y B MOCKBy I'm going to Moscow.
- B JIeHlmrpaa. To Leningrad.
- Mbl c.a.eM B JIelflmrpan.. We're going to Leningrad.
- 3Ha'fItT Mbl nony,.'fIlKIt. Then we're traveling companions.
- .stTo:::e CJl.y B JIeHtturpan,. I'm on my way to Leningrad, too.
- Mw noe.a.eM B O.nHOM KYOe. We'll ride in the same compartment.
2. Bame MecTO sepxllee Hnlt mi'llmce? Do you have an upper or a lower?
- BepxHee. An upper.
- HH)Kllee. A lower.
- H H;.I(Hee nY'twe. '{eM sepxlIee. The lower is better than the upper.
- Hey.no6Ho cnarb nasepxy. It's uncomfortable sleeping in an upper.
- .sf s Kacce npocHn mbKHee. I asked for a lower at Ihe licket window.

3. Bbi 6Y.a.eTe *.aaTb? Where will you be waiting?

- B Jane O)KHJJ;aHHSI. In the waiting room.
- Ha yrnY. On the corner.
- 6Kono m6cKa. Ncar the newsstand.
- B rOCTHBHue. At the hotel.
- Ha CT3.HUlIH. AI Ihe slation.
- Ha SOK3ane. At the station (or railway terminal).

4. .sf nono)Kj BaW" seu.llt "a CTOn:. I'll put your things on the table.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ua :hOT Cljn. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on this chair.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ua nonKY. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on the bookcase.
_______ B KOMHUy. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the room.

LESSON 12 259
nOJIOiKY l:\awJ.1 BelllJ.1 B Kop66Ky. I'll put your things in the box.
________ B WKa$. _______ in the dresser.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B nopT<PeJlb. _______ in the briefcase.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B limilK. _______ in the drawer.

5. HOCHJJbmllK nonOiKIIT MWU Bell.lll B 6ara?KHHK. The porter will put your things in the luggage
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B TaKC!'!. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the taxi.
_____________ BaBT<l6yc. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the bus.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B Yr0J(. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the comer.

6. BOT Bflwa KBItTIlHLUUI. Here's your receipt (or claim check).

_ MW 6u.nb". _ _ your ticket.
__ BaWa B3.HHaJI. _ _ your bathroom.
_BAw 6am. _ _ your luggage.
__ eawe MecrO. _ _ your seat (or ben h).
__ Bflwe Kyoe. _ _ your compartment.
_ MWH BCll.lIl. Here are your things.
7. ~TO HaW n6e:m. This is our train.
__ HaWa rOCT'HultU3. _ _ our botel.
__ HaWa cT3.IILtJ.1Ji1. ___ our station.
__ HaW HOMep. _ _ our [hotel] room.
__ llama KOMlfaT3. ___ our room.

8. >1 Hilty ceoe MOcTO. I'm looking for my seat (or ben h).
___ ceOM nOMep. ______ my [hotel) room.
_ _ ceoC Kyne. ______ my compartment.
_ _ T3XCH. ______ a taxi.

9. Mbi "WeM KJ.1OCK. We're looking for

a newsstand.
_ _ _ _ npoeo.nHJ.1K8.. _______ the conductor.
_ _ _ wO<jJepa. _______ a taxi driver.
_ _ _ _ _______ the clerk in charge.
_ _- - IIOCllJlbiltHlCa. _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 porter.
_ _ _ _ B3xTepa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the custodian.

10. mlqn 1 Where's tbe elevator?

- Hanpano. To the right.
- H.tvhe Hanpano. Go to the right.
- Ha.nceo. To the left.
- H,wlTe nanceo. Go to the left.
~ H;:l,IlTe npAMo. Go straight ahead.
II. eb! e.oere1 Where are you going'1
- B JIeltHBrpa.o. To Leningrad.
- B MOCICBy. To Moscow.
- B Kitee. To Kiev.
- B OACccy. To Odessa.
- B AMcpHKY. To America.
- BCCCP. To the U.S.S.R.
12. BaM KY.aa? Where t01
- B roenl fUlLly Y "palma:_ ~ To the Hotel Ukraine.
- Ha CT311Ll,1tIO. To the station.

260 LESSON 12
- Ha BOIOan. To the railway tenninal.
- B ylllfDepcUTCT. To the university.
- Ha nO'ITY. To the poSI office.
- B bonbwoii Tea:rp. To the Bolshoi Theater.
-8 rYM. To GUM.
13. C.,onhKo CTOll",,: 611ne-r 8 MOCK8y1 How much is a ticket to Moscow?
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 JleHHHrpAtt1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Leningrad?
_________ 8 KiteD? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to Kiev1
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 80.l1eccy? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to Odessa?

14. Jt el1Y TonbKo 110 MOCK8bJ. I'm only going as far as Moscow.
_ _ _ _ _ AO JleHHHrp3.u.a. ______ as far as Leningrad.
_ _ _ _ _ .110 KHeBa. _____ as far as Kiev.
_ _ _ _ _ AO XapbXOBa. _____ as far as Kbarkov.
______ 110 TaWKeffTa. ______ as far as Tashkent.
______ .110 Bml.l1HBOCToU. ______ as far as Vladivostok.
_ _ _ _ _ JJ.O RnTbl. _____ as far as Yalta.
_ _ _ _ _ AO OJIeccw. _____ as far as Odessa.
15. Rbi 'iaCTO C3JI,HTe
B Mocxay1 Do you orten go to Moscow1
_ _ _ _ _ _ 8 JleHHHrpAtt1 _ _ _ _ _ _ to Leningrad 1
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ B Kueo 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Kiev1
_____ B ilJlT}'? _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Yalta 1
______ B OAb.x;y? _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Odessa?
_______ BO Bn3,ltHBOCToK? _______ to Vladivostok?
16. CKonbKo :ho CTOltT? How much does this cost 1
- OJJ.Hll py6nb. One ruble.
- J),oa py6mi. Two rubles.
- TPH py6ml. Three rubles.
- 4eThIpe py6J1J:L Four rubles.
- nRTb py6nci1. Five rubles.
- 1IIecn. py6nMi. Six rubles.
- <:eMh py6ncH. Seven rubles.
- BOceMb py6JJHi. Eight rubles.
- .nCD,:jTh py6ncH. Nine rubles.
- .nkBTb py6J1Cii. Ten rubles.
17. 0,6J1bKO c Memj? How much do lowe?
- Ollila Konefu:a. One kopeck.
- .nBC KonCHKlf. Two kopecks.
- Tplt Koneibm. Three kopecks.
- '-IeTl:dpe KonCHKH. Four kopecks.
- nRTh KoneeK. Five kopecks.
18. C sac ween. KonecK. You owe six kopecks.
_ _ <:eMb xoneeK. ____ seven kopecks.
_ _ OOceMb xoneeK. _ _ _ eight kopecks.
_ _ .I1eORTb KonCeK. _ _ _ nine kopecks.
_ _ AbT!> "onCex. _ _ _ ten kopecks.

LESSON 12 261
Pronunciation practice: special consonant clusters

A. Hard [c~] (spelled 'IIII,,lUll. or nu).

[Iuc~ij] JIY'iurnif [prasecsij] npOWC.LtUJHH
better gone
[mlac~ij] MJI<l,ll.lI.HlH [zablucsij] 3a611Y,!J;umH
younger gone astray
[xuc~ijJ xYlUlItfil [za yatsij] 3aBJimuHiI
worse wilted
(pac~jj] mi..LtUJIi~ [cyecsij] UBCTundi
fallen bloomed

B. Long soft [et] (spel1ed 1"'1 or ,l:('t).

[papuccik] nOfly-r'lI1K [gaCtik 1 ra3C'f'utK

traveling companion newsboy
[~6ccik J C'lh'lHK [ral}eccik] paKeTtl:HK
meter rocket technician
[zdaccik] c.allTlfHX [baleRik I 6aner'lHX
lessor ballet dancer
[~iccikl C",f'UIK [razyeccik] pa.3Be.ll'lHK
kind of cotton scout
[ace6t] OT'Ih [zav6CCik] 3aB6.n;'1HK
account, report factory owner
[6Ccij] OT'iI.fii {kabaccik] Ka6aT'lHK
father's innkeeper
[bu[ecCik I 6yepeT'lHK [yiccina] BCT'IHHa
lunch counter attendant ham

C. Hard Cd!]. This combination occurs when a prefix ending in 1I or T combines with a root which
begins with tbe voiced consonant *. It also occurs in foreign-derived words.

widiaIC] nlW.lKaK [padzarij] nOlllK3phill

jacket thin, haggard
[d:his] JllKa3 [adiili~l OT:lKJUIKw:
jazz from the dwellings
[dzut] lllKYr [Odzil] OTIKHJl
jute his time has passed
[dzemJ WKeM [adiecJ oTIKe'lh
jam anneal; glass, metal
[padzecl nOlllKe'lh [Odiik] OTIKHr
to set fire to annealing
~zigalilJ nOWKltTaTeJlb Ia;prbajdianJ A3ep6aHJlidH
inciter Azerbaidzhan (S.S.R.)
D. Hard [tel This combination occurs very frequently, especially in the infinitive and third person
singular and plural of verbs with the reflexive particle -CR. It is spelled TC, TIlC, Jlc, Tl.l, or .1m.

[dvatC;)tl [kanatci] KaH3,QUbI

twenty Canadians
[tritC;)lJ [liJ;letciJ TH6eT"'bl
thirty Tibetans

262 LESSON 12
[mitC:JJ MblThCJI finar6tciJ J.1Hop6.nUhJ
to wash foreigners
[m6jit~] M6eTClt [liQingr3otciJ neHHHrpa.nUbI
he washes people of Leningrad
[m6jutC:J] MOK>TCl! (bratci] 6p:iTubl
they wash brothers
[.,ca) oTUA
of father


Two-stem first conjugation verbs

Many verbs of the first conjugation show a marked difference between the stem used to form
the infinitive and past tense and that used to form the present-future. Verbs such as thcse we caB
"two~stem" verbs.

STEM B:llt- STEM B03bM-

FIJTUIU! B03I.MY, 603bMeWb, e03btoteT
PAST B:lJin, B311113o, B3W

In order to manipulate the various forms of the Russian verb, it is essential to recognize certain
broad rules of compatibility vis-a.-vis stcms and endings.
I. Infinjtive and past tense endings begin with consonants (T and 11) and, in almost all verbs,
are added to a form of the stem ending in a vowel: :lI'iJ-Th, ""-11.
2. Present-future endings begin with vowels and are added to a form of the stem cnding in a
consonant: *,",,-y, *ltB-eun., :HB-jT.1


Other two~s{em verbs already encountered by the student in some of their forms.
nOCJlan. (pfv) to send 1I0lllJJ.o, DOUlJlCIUb. nOlllJJ.oT
sl: )')ICe nocna..n ""CbM6. .sf JMTpa uawmO nHcbM6.
I already sent the letter. I'll send the letter tomorrow.
cKuan. (prv) to say, tell cKa*y. cKa*eun.. CK8.>YT
q T6 Db. CrU13iuHl? Oil IIH':Ier6 lie CK8.)I(CT.
What did you say? He won', say anything.
:1JlI'83an. (prv) to order :laKa*y! 3aKa",eulh, 3aKa*YT
OHa 6HJ1en". Olla 3axa:JKeT 6HJ1eTbI.
She ordered the tickets. She'll order the lickets.
HeriTh (ipfv) 10 look for MIQj. 1iuJeuu., IitqyT
Bw MeHJi: HcdJlH? Dw "lUere paOOTy 7
Were you looking for me? Are you looking for work?
Hapban. (prv) slice '0 Ha~Y.Ha~.Ha~YT
Oner y*e Hap6an XJle6. Oner HapelKcT xne6.
Oleg already sliced Ihe bread. Oleg will slice the bread.

I In lil-stem verbs, the prescnt-future stem ends in tbe consonant S(}Ulld [jJ.

LESSON 12 263
IlHca:n. (ipfv) to write IIHmy, lIIimemb. mimYT
Mbl mlcl.Jm micbMa. Mbl mtWeM nHCbMa.
We were writing letters. We're writing letters.
lIallHcaTh (pfv) to write HauMmy, lIalllUlIernb. 11:ln..H:utYT
Bbluanllca;H1 110MOn 7 Her, Ii 33,DllJa lIamllilY.
Have you written home? No, I'll write tomorrow,
....liTh (ipfv) (0 Ii"e ....HBy. ~8elllb. Jt:H8Yr
Bbi l1onro TAM. )l(KJUf? Bbl ,aaBHo lAtcb )l(IlDere?
Did you live there long? Hal'e you lived here long?
Jlocran. (pry) to get , AOC'riHetllb. ,aocrlillYT
Bbl11OCT3.Jrn 61lJleTbJ 7 Oil l1OCT311eT 6I1JleTbl.
Did you get the tickets? He'll get the tickets.
o,",pWn. (pfy) to apen on....pc)Jo. Qn:pOewb, OTKpOlOT
BaXTep on::Pbm .lIlJCPh. Ba.nep OTKp6eT Deepb.
The custodian opened the door. The custodian will open the door.
JaKpbm. (Pfy) to close Jaf\pOlO. JUpOewt.., Jaf\pOIOT
Bw }'JKe JaKpbmH OKRa? Her. Ii ceH't3C 33KpOlO.
Did you already close the wintkJws? No, I'll do it now.
6brn. to be 6yAY, 6Y.a.etllb, 6yAYT
r11e Dbi 6brnll '! r,ae Dbi 6Y.a.ere nocne o6ella?
Where Mwe yau? Where will you be this afternoon?
Ja6brn (pry) to forget Ja6yAY, u6yLlel.llb, u6Y.ayr
OHa 3a6buIa 0 co6paHHlt. Dbi: He 336Y..llere HaC?
She forgot aboUlthe meeting. You won't forget us, will you?
miTh (ipfv) to drink IlbtO. n~1J.II>., UbtOT
BM }?K~ mum <tfiji? Obi n..ere K6tI>e?
Ha~'e you had tea already? Do you drink coffee?
Taillteaan. (iprv) 10 dance TalllcYlO, TaHQjeun., TaHLlYIOT
Bbi' Mlloro Tau.u.eoaJm? Bw TauuYere?
Did you dance much? Do you dance?
eXaTh (iprv) to be going elQ'. bern.., e.ayr
Mw eXMH B TawKenT. Mw e11eM B TaWKeHT.
We were on our way to Tashkent. We're on Ollr way 10 Tashkent.
IIPMCxan. (pfv) to arrive npHClQ', npMC~CU]b, npHeArT
OIlH y>Ke npHCXaJm. OUH npw!,ay-r B '1eTBepr.
They've already arrived, They'll arrive Oil Thursday.


J. I'm writing a letter 2. I'll wrile the leller.

s1 nllwy nllCbMo. s1 "anuwy nJICbMO.
OIlH nHwyr nllchMo. OHli HanHweT nHchMo.
(Mbl, BbI, TbI, Oil, olla. R. 01111) (Mbl. OI:lH, Tbl. EerellllH. S1, Bbl. 01111)
3. The custodian will open the doors. 4. I'm looking for a hOlel.
BaXTep OTKp6eT ,I1Bepll. s1muj roCTliUIIUY.
s1 OncpOlO ,D.BCpll. OHli HweT rOCTHIlIlUY.
(npoeolUIIIK, Mbl, 01111. TbI, ebl. (Mbl, Tbl, 311Ha. DUll, BbI, <1>1IJ1Hnn)

264 LESSON 12
5. I don', drink coffee. 6. They'll order rhe tickets.
A lie OhiO x6<pe. Olll' 3aXa>KYT GIlJlCTbl.
Mbl He rlhCM K6tI~. st 3aKa>Ky 611J1CTbL
(01111, Bbl, Haruwa, TW, M)'JK, ::KCHa) (J1pIlHa, Thl, Bbl, K03IlOB, Ollll, JI)


1. Do you dance much? 2. He forgot the keys.

Did you dance much? He'll forget the keys. MH6ro TaHujCTe? Oil 336blJl KJlIQ'lH.
Dbi Mlioro TalmeaanH? 011 336YJJ.eT KJIIO'lIl.
Oil MHoro TaHLtYeT? Tbt 336bl1l JUlIQ'lH.
OM 1\tIlcko T1Ulueau? Tbi 3a6Y.iJ.ClUb KIUO'l",
(oHa, 01111, 011, ranK) (II, MbI, BbI, alia)

3. We lil'ed in Kiev. 4. He was looking for you.

We lil'e in Kiev. He's been looking for you.
Mhl :lICHnU B KHcee. Oil sac HCX3.n.
MW ...KBiM KMeae 011 Bic ......eT.
.sf JKHn: B KHCse. .sf MC Hcxan.
a. :lICHBj B KMeee. a. Bic HlQj.
(BbI, 01111, 3HHa, $I, MloI) (01111, MbI, alia, AnCKCCCB, H)
5. Oleg ",if( get the tickets. .sf ,Il,ocr.l.Hy 6H.11hbl.
Oleg got the tickets. st JJ.ocnl.n 6KJ1eTW.
OIler llOCTflllCT 6HJleTbJ. (MloI, Oint, Bbl, HaTawa, 'fbi, BomCOB)
O.fJer .nocri.'l 6u.'leTbi.


I. Have you already sent the letter? 2. Have they already arrived?
No, 1'1/ send it tomorrow. No, they'll arrive today.
Rbi )'JKC oOCllfuIH OHCbMO? OH" )')Ke npHexanH?
Hb, II 38BTpa 1I000JIIO. HeT, OUR npHe.ayr cerO)lHSI.
OmI )'JKC nJtCbM6? Baw Jlpyr)'JKc llpHexan?
HCT, Olla lJiBTpa nOlWltIT. HeT, 611 npHCJleT CCI"Omui.
(Oner, Tbl, OUH, MM, 3Hlla, Bbl) (BaWJ.l Jlpy3MI, TIIOH cccTpa, yKpaIIHUM)


Past tense to prcscntfuturc and vice versa.

'1. He didn't say a thing. 2. I' /I slice the bread.
He wo,,'t say a thing. I've sliced the bread.
OJ{ Hll'icr6 lie cxa33.n. .sfHape:llCy xnc6.
OK UH'Iero lie CK8...CT. a. lIapthaJJ XJJC6.
Bbl HII'lCr6 lie cd.:lICCTe. Tw lIape3a.JJ xne6.
8bi IIH'IerO lie cKalJi.'1H. Tw Hape*eun. XJlC6.
OHa HH'lera IIC Mbl Hape:lKCM xne6.
MblIIH'lCr6 lie CKtt"'CM. Oncr Hape3aJ1 xnoo.
Omi IIH'lcr6 UC Ck3.33n:H. OHH lIape*YT xnC5.
.sf IIH'ICrO HC CXWKy. 8blllap6an1l xne6.
Tw JlH'lcr6 IIC cJC3.3a..n. OJlbfa napbceT xne6.

.sf HapClan xnro.

LESSON 12 265
3. They closed the windows. 11 3aKpMJI OKlla.
They'lf close the windows. Kh.ll' 3alCpblJIa OKHa.
Qmi 3aKPblJIH 6Klla. np060ltHJfKH 3aKpLlJUt OKHa.
OHM JaKpOJOT olma. Bhl 3aKp6eTe OKHa.
My 3aKpOeM OKHa.
MW 38KphmH OKII8.

Genitive plural noun endings: special problems

I. CTOil-Douns with stems ending in the always-hard consonant 1.\ take the ending -06 only if
the stress falls on the ending: orypltOB. If the stress falls on the stem, the ending is spelled -eB:
llMepHKallu:eB, yKpaHuu:e6, TaHQeB. Remember that this is merely a spelling convention and thal II
is always pronowlced hard: [arpipkancif. ukrajincif, agurc6f].

2. Particular problems arise in forming the genitive plural of certain CTOn-- and oK1lo-nouns
with stems ending in the consonant sound (j].
a. CTOJI-nouns ending in ii in the nominative singular take the genitive plural ending --es
(stressed: -CB).
rep6" hero repolt repOCB
"Ia" tea "Iau "IaeB

b. Most CTOn- and oKRa-nouns which teoninate in unslressed -bH in the nominative plural
take the ending -CB (retaining the preceding -b). Most are nouns with only their plural
stems ending in U].

6parMI brothers 6parhea
CryJIh.ll chairs crYJIhea
neph.ll' pen points nephea
nJIaTh.ll dresses TIJ1aThea
c. Those CTOJl~nOUns whose nominative plural terminates in stressed -bli: have a zero-ending
genitive plural with e inserted before the final -ii. Here -ii is not an ending. strictly
speaking. but the Cyrillic way of representing the stem consonant (j] after the inserted
M)'JKMi: [muzja] husbands M)'JKell [mufej]
AP)'3Mi: [dru~a] friends ,py3eii [drujJ
CblHOBh~ [sina'da] sons ChlHOBe" [sinayej)

3. A few cron-nouns have zero-ending genitive plural foons which are identical with their
nominative singular foons.

OltllIl pa3 one time Muoro p<b many times
OltIDI COJl,rUtT one soldier Muoro COJllt3.T many soldiers
OltUH rpYJu" one Georgian Mllora rpy3HH many Georgians

266 LESSON 12
4. A few other nouns, such as pe6th3 and rocno,Qa (plural of l'ocnO,lUttl), have a zero ending in
the genitive plural.
pc6liTa guys, fellows, kids pc6liT
rocno,Q3 gentlemen, ladies and gentlemen rocn6,Q
5. (;ToJl-nouns ending in -tlHHH or -AHHII in the nominative singular lose the suffix ~KH in the
plural and have a zero ending in the genitive plural.
rpaJK,WlHUH citizen rpaJK,ll,alle rp3"""'"
aHrJTH'13HHH Englishman aHrJlH'l3He aHrJlH'l3H
enmniuHJI Egyptian enmTRlle erHnTRH


I don't see any chaiTS. (Georgians) Whom did you ask?
Where are the chairs? The Georgians.
J1 He Blb"y CTjJlbCB. (rpYJUHhI) Y Kor6 Bbr cnpaWHBaJIH? crYJlloA ? y rpptUt,
J1 He Blbtcy aMepudlll.teB. (M}')KhJi) Y Kor6 Bbr cnpaWH.8anH? llMeptlKlimu.J? Y My.eii.
(yxpaHHUeB, rpy:HlH, pe6srr, nnaTheB, (,QPYlbJt, 6panSl, pe6S1Ta, .ae8ywKH,
ncpbCB, ee 6paTbeB, HX M}')Keii, ero yxpanHUb.I, aMcpHK3HUbl, naplfH, Y'llITCJUi)
,aPYJeii, OrypUOB)

I. Don't you have any dresses? 2. Where are the dresses?
We do. The dresses are over there. I don't see any dresses.
Hb 1m y BaC lUIaThCB? nmiThJt?
en, UJianK BOH TlIM. A He 8111)1(y lIJIanea.
H\h JlH Y BaC eTYJlbCB? r.ue aMepHdHubI?
{:e1'l" CrjJlbA BOil TaM, A He 8111)1(y aMepHKlIIlu:eB.
(orypUOB, nepbCB, IIO)l(eii, CJloBapeii, Ka- (CTyJTbJt, nepbSl, HX M}')I(bSl, ero .uPYJbR,
paH.uaweii, Cl'yJThCB, aT1IaCOB, CTOJlOB) rpY:IHHbI, pe6J1T3, orypUbI, ee 6paThR,

.3. Can one get chairs there? 4. Do they have dictionaries?

No, there are no chairs there. No, they don't have any dictionaries.
n.M M6)1(lIo ,D,OCTan crYJlhJl? Y HID: CcTh CllOBapu?
HtIT, T8.1\4 HtIT crym.eB. HtITl y uHX uer CJloaapeii.
TaM M6)1(HO ,QOCTaTh nePl.Jl? Y nux OCTh ncpMI?
HtIT, y mix "tIT nepbC8. UtIT, y HNx Db I.ePbe8.
(nJlaTbJt, orypUbI, CTyJlbJt, nCpbJl) (crynbSl, nnaTb~, 6paTbR, nopTenH,
80)1(11, Kapau.aaWH, APYJMI, orypllbl)

LESSON 121ft?

Their brothers were at our place.

We were at their brothers' place.
Hx 6p3.TbJl 6wIH y HaC.
M":': 6LmH y H:x 6pan.eB.
fix M}')lCbli 6b1nH Y HaC.
M":': 6bLrni Y Kx My*eii.
(HX HP}'3bJl, rpy:mHbI, pe6J1Ta, aMCpllKaH-
tU>I, YKpalOll.{bI, "X ",ellbl, IIX cicTpbl)


I. There are no pens here. 2. There are no chairs in the dormitory. 3. There are no Americans
in the dormitory. 4. There are no Ukrainians in the dormitory. 5. There are no Georgians in the
dormitory. 6. There are no dresses at GUM. 7. He has no brothers. 8. He has no friends. 9. The
fellows have lots of time. 10. The husbands have no time. 11. I've read War alld Peace many times.
12. We were at [our] friends'. 13. We were at our brothers' (places).

The use of the genitive after numbers


C sac HOll py6mi. You owe two rubles.

_ _ '1'H _ _. ___ 'h= __
_ _ 'leThlJ'e-. _ _ _ four _ _

)].BC KoncHIa-I.
3TO CTOHT This costs two kopecks.
_ _ _ TpH . _ _ _ lhrce _ _
_ _ _ _ 'lCTblpe __. _ _ _ four _ _

lillJle-r CTOHT miTb py6J1CH. A ticket costs five rubles.

_ _ _ _ _ WCCTb _ _. _ _ _ _ s;x _ _.
_ _ _ _ ceMo _ _ _ seven __.
_ _ _ _ _ u6ceMb _ _. _ _ _ _ _ cight __.
_ _ _ _ _ HCORTb _ _. ______ nine _ _.
_ _ _ _ _ JICCSlTh _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ten _ _.

>1: 3amJanrn nliTb KoneCK. I paid five kopecks.

_ _ _ _ lliCcTh _ _. _ _ SV<

_ _ _ _ etMb _ _ __seven _ _.
_ ~ B6ceMb _ _. _ _ eigbt _
_ _ _ _ HeBRTb _ __mne _
_ _ _ _ necRTb __ _ _ len _


Repeat the given models, noting that tbe genitive singular is required aficr .llB8, .;me, ..-pH, and
'1eTh1pe; and the genitive plural for min, on up. Note also that ABe replaces HJUi with all feminine
nouns. Compare .;me cecTpL71, ABC TeTpallH with Hoi py6mi, Hoi CJi008.

268 LESSON 12

Response with consecutive numbers (one to ten).

I. How much does this cost? 2. How much do lowe?
One ruble. One kopeck.
OltKu py6J1L. O./Ula KOlleiiKa.
CKonbKo :ho n08T? CKOJlbKO C Memi?
)(Ba py6J1H. )(Be KoneiD.'"H.

3. How many notebooks do you have? 4. How much did you pay for it?
I have one notebook. One ruble, two kopecks. I
CKOJThKO y BaC TeTpaneii? CKOJJbKO 8bI 3alUiaTiUTH 3a :ho?
Y MellH O./Uill. TeTp8,D.L. OllKn py6Jlb ):tHe KoneKKH.
C"onbKo y BaC KHHr? CKOJ1bKO ahl 3annaT"J18 3a 3TO?
Y MettH JlBe KJlHnt. ,lI,Ba py6J1H TPH KOuCHKH.
(6paThea, CJloaapeit, py'leK, KOMllaT, Ka-
paunaUleij, nepbea, aIUlOK, nO:lKeK)
5. How many days wj// you be in Moscow? 6. How many weeks wj//you be in the U.S.S.R.?
Only two days. Two weeks.
CKOJIbKO .nile" Bb"r a MocKBe? CKOJ1bIW HeaeJlL 8M a CCCP?
TOJILKO JtB9. ./Um. )(Be HCaeJlH.
CKonbKo .uneu ahl a MocKBe? CKOJ1bIW Hc.neJlb ahl 6Y.nCTC a CCCP '!
TOJlbKO TpH JUtH. TPH lIe,ll;MH.


The number one differs from the other numbers in that it is treated as a modifier with separate
forms for each gender: O)];HII py6JTb, oAIIl'i Koue.iKa, O./UIO CJroao.
The other numbers when used in nominative and accusative constructions are accompanied by
thc genitive case: genitive singular for 2, 3, 4; and genitive plural for 5 and up. There is a special
fer.ninine form for two: ABe; masculine and neuter nouns It is important to remember
that compounds such as 21, 22, 31, 32, 101, and 102 require the noun form to agree with the last
element of the compound only: TpH.llUaTh OnHIl py6.'lb 3/ rubles, TpH.llUaTh ~ KOUeHKII 32 kopecks,
TpKJ:J;u:aTb TpH CTyltelITa 33 students.

Unidirectional versus multidirectional verbs of motion



51 H.nY a wlpK. I'm going to the park. (all foot)

R elty n MOCKBy. l'm going to Moscow. (by vehicle)
R wen a napK. I was on my way to the park . (on foot)
.sf eXaJJ a MocKBy. I was on my way to Moscow. (by vehicle)
, Continue up to nine rubles. ten kopeck~.

LESSON 12 269

A 'iacTO xO)l(Y IJ napK. I often go to the park. (on Joot)

A 'lac1'O e3)1(y a Moclmy. I often go to Moscow. (by ~e"icle)
R 'iaCTO XOD.Hll B napK. I often went to the park. (on JOOI)
R 'iac1'O lb,nllll a MocKaY. I often went to Moscow. (by I'ehicle)


INFlNInVE II}.(Tli 10 be going (on foot) eX8Tb to be going (by vehicle)

PRESENT ltlIy, ltlIernb. ItlIh, ltlIeM, e.ny, e.newb. e.neT, e.neM,

1tlIt=Te, HJ1YT e.nere, eD,YT
PAST we.n, rnmi. rnllO, UIJDf: exan, -a, -0, -ll


JNFlNInVE xoJUi"n, to go (on foot) eJJlHTlo to go (by vehicle)

PRESENT xo.y, XO.nHlllb, XOJ]}IT, CJ:lKy, O.nHllJb, On.HT,

PAST xo.min, -a, -0, ~H C::3.n1UJ, -a, -0, -H


Repeat the given models, noting that H,D,TIi and exaTb describe motion in process or intended motion.
Contrast them with XOtufft, and e:uum., which describe repeated motion, Le., motion in more than
one direction. In addition, remember that HlITIi and XO)lHn. ordinarily indicate going on foot,
while exan. and e3JU[l'1> indjcate going by means of some vehicle.


I. She oJten goes to cOl/certs. 2. She's on her ~ay to a concert.

Qua 'itiCTO X6.lUIT Ha KOHUCpThI. OHll HJ1e1' Ifa KOiluepT.
C'Ty.LtCHThI 'iaCTO X6.nRT Ha KOHUepThI. Tbr II.ltCWb Ha KOHuepT.
(Mbl, sr, TbJ, Bbl, 01U1, HaTaIUa, CTy.neIlTlm) (MY, .II, Ollll, KllplIJJn, abl)

3. I oJten go 10 Kiev. 4. Zina and Philip (Ire on their way 10 Moscow.

s1: 'i8.CTO C3:lKy B Kl-iea. 3HHa H l1tHJlHlm e,ll,yr B MOCKBy.
OHN '{aCTO tJ,WIT a KHea. Db! e.ne1'e MocKoy.
(aJI.MIUlIlCTpa1'op, MbI, 1'bI, Bbl, 31'a (sr, M'hl, TW, oua, Haw II CTY.l1CIlTKII,
)KCHlJUtlla, sr, Olfll) BomCOB, Bbl, 01111)


I. rm on my way to school. 2. I'm on my way to Leningrad.

I go to school. I oJten go to Leningrad.
A ~ a wxony. .s1 en.y B lleIlIlHrpA..n.
s1: xO:Y WKOJJY. s1: b*y a JleulUD'"pti.n.
Mw ltlIeM 8 wKony. OIlH CJIYT a lleHHHrpa.n.
Mw x6AKM WKOJI)'. OHli. ..aCTO bJUIT a JIetfH~.
(Ha1'awa, 01111, TbI, Jr, Bbl, MOll 6paT, MbI (MLl, Thl, TOaapHlll. BoJIKoa, npoBOlUlHK,
B<%) aLl, Jr, OHK)

270 LESSON 12
3. Were you on your way to the park? 4. Were you on your way 10 Kiell?
Did you go to the park? Did you go to Kiell?
BbI' W1II1 B napK? ObI exam1 B K{lce?
Obi XOARJlM B mipK? Ow e3J];HJlH B KHes?
Tw WM B napK? QHa eXaJla B KHcB?
Tbi XOARJI B wi~? OHa bANna 8 Kllcs?
(oHa WJTa, OIiH WJm, Thf WJTa, OJTer men) (lbi cxan, OHH CXaJlH, DommB exan,
crynCuTlm exanH, Tbl exana)

I. We saw you on the bus. 2. I saw you yesterday near the park.
Were you on your way downtown? Were you on your way to the park!
Mbi re61i BH..ue.n1l B a8T06yce. B'Iepa Ii BaC BH.a.CJ1 OKOJTO napKa.
Tw exan B ropo,a? Bw UIJIii 8 oipK?
Mw sac BH..ue.rnt B aBTo6yce. B'IepA Ii ero BK.aeJJ okono napKa.
Ow eXaJDI ropo,a! Oil wen 8 wipK!
(ee, ero, mlil, BaC, HX) (IIX, ee, Te61i1, Bac, ero)

I. Where were you on Saturday morning? 2. Where were you last week?
I went to the library. I went to KharkOIl.
fll,e rn 6bm 8 cy666ry YrPoM? fne ru 6bm Ha np6wnoH "enene?
A xoJl.lin 6M6JUKrreK)'. st b,1UlJJ 8 XapbK08.
r,ae OHa 6bU1a 8 cy666ry YrPoM? file rn6blna Ha np6wJToii Hell,enc?
OHa xoroilla 6M6mIOTeKy. A lh,lUlJla 8 XapblCOB.
rne Bbl, Kan, 6blJUt B cy666T)' YrPoM? fne BbI, Oner, 6.bLnH Ha np6WJTOH uenene?
rne Bbl, Oner, 6bl/lH B cy666Ty YrPoM? fne BbI, 3HHa, 6wnH ua np6WJTOH HCll,ene?
rne lbl, HpHHa, 6wJTa B cy666Ty YrPoM? fne OHH 6wIH Ha np6WJTOH ue.nene?
file OU" 6bIJUt B cy666Ty YrPoM? Ou 6bLn ua np6wnoH UCll,ene?
fll,e 6H 6bln B cy666Ty :iTpoM? fAe OHa 6bU1a Ha np6mnoH HeAene?
fll,e BbI' 6bulH B cy666Ty YTPOM?
3. Do you walk to work? 4. Are you going to the theater by cab?
No, I go by bus. No, we're going on/oat.
Ow xOJufTe Ita paooTy neWKOM? Bw elleTC 8 TcaTp 113 TaKCH?
HeT, Ii h*y 118 8ST66ycc. HeT, MY lI.l1.eM netuKOM.
Omi x6nR"r lIa pa66Ty newKOM? Thl e,neUJb 8 Tea'rp ua TaKcli?
Her, 0118 e:t./I.KT "8 8BT66yce. Her, , HJJ;Y netuKOM.
(Olla, TItI, 8aw 6paT, 8awa ceCTpa, OHH, (aHa, 011.11, EBremdf, MbI, Tbl, KaTjI)
.... )


Mostnonprefixed, motion verbs have an added feature not found in other verbs: a double set
of imperfectives used to distinguish between unidirectional motion and multidirectional motion.
The unidirectional imperfectives describe a single, one-way trip to a specific destination. It may
refer to an action that is (or was) in process or to one intended in the near future.
51 ceH'IaC HJtY B napK. I'm on my way to the park now.
3flBTpa Ii HJti B KHHO. I'm going to the movies tomorrow.
51 eD.Y B MOCKBy. I'm on my way to Moscow.
3asrpa. Ii eJJ.Y 8 MOCKBy. rm going to Moscow lomorrow.

LESSON 12 271
The multidirectional imperfectives describe movement in marc than onc direction or unspecified
as to destination. This may include one or more round trips, or movement in several directions.
>1 He JIIo6mo xO,l],liTb. I don't likc to walk.