You are on page 1of 65

# K. L. N.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
POTTAPALAYAM 630 612.

DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOBILE
ENGINEERING

## CE6451 - FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

(AU Chennai - R2013)

Question Bank

Prepared by
Dr.J. RAJESH BABU, M.E,Ph.D/ASP
Mr.S.Suresh,M.E,(PhD)/AP(SG)
Department of Automobile Engineering
CE 6451 - FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

## UNIT 1 - BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES

Part A questions:

## 1. Define density or mass density.

Density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of a fluid to its volume.

## 2. Define specific weight or weight density.

Specific weight or weight density of a fluid is defined as the ratio between the weight
of a fluid to its volume.

## Specific volume of a fluid is defined as the volume of fluid occupied by an unit wt or

unit mass of a fluid.
Specific volume vs = volume/ wt = 1/ = 1/g ----- for liquids

## 4. Define dynamic viscosity.

Viscosity is defined as the property of fluid which offers resistance to the movement
of one layer of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid.

## 5. Define Kinematic viscosity.

It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density of fluid.

Page 1 of 22
= / (m2/s)

## 6. What are the different types of fluids?

a. Ideal fluid,
b. Real fluid,
c. Newtonian fluid,
d. Non-Newtonian fluid,
e. Ideal Plastic fluid.
7. Define Compressibility.
It is defined as the ratio of volumetric strain to compressive stress.

## 8. Define Surface Tension.

Surface tension is defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of the liquid in
contact with a gas or on the surface between two immiscible liquids such that the
contact surface behaves like a membrane under tension.
Surface Tension, = Force/Length (N/m)

## 9. Surface tension on liquid droplet, = pd/4 \

Surface tension on a hollow bubble, =
pd/8 Surface tension on a liquid jet, = pd/2

Surface tension
(N/m) d Diameter (m)

## Capillarity is defined as a phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a small tube

relative to the adjacent general level of liquid when the tube is held vertically in the
liquid. The rise of liquid surface is known as capillary rise while the fall of liquid
surface is known as capillary depression.

Page 2 of 22
= 0 for glass tube and water
= 130 for glass tube and mercury

## 11. Define Vapour Pressure.

When vaporization takes place, the molecules start accumulating over the free liquid
surface exerting pressure on the liquid surface. This pressure is known as Vapour
pressure of the liquid.

## A control volume may be defined as an identified volume fixed in space. The

boundaries around the control volume are referred to as control surfaces. An open
system is also referred to as a control volume.
13. Write the continuity equation.

equation.

## u/x + v/y + w/z = 0 ----- three dimensional flow

u/x + v/y = 0 ----- two dimensional flow

## 14. List the types of fluid flow.

a. Steady and unsteady flow
b. Uniform and non-uniform flow
c. Laminar and Turbulent flow
d. Compressible and incompressible flow
e. Rotational and ir-rotational flow
f. One, Two and Three dimensional flow

## 15. Define Steady and Unsteady flow.

Steady flow

Fluid flow is said to be steady if at any point in the flowing fluid various characteristics
such as velocity, density, pressure, etc do not change with time.
V/t = 0 p/t = 0 /t = 0
Unsteady flow

Page 3 of 22
Fluid flow is said to be unsteady if at any point flowing fluid any one or all
characteristics which describe the behavior of the fluid in motion change with time.
V/t 0 p/t 0 /t 0

## 16. Define Uniform and Non-uniform flow.

Uniform flow

When the velocity of flow of fluid does not change both in direction and magnitude
from point to point in the flowing fluid for any given instant of time, the flow is said to
be uniform.
V/s = 0 p/s = 0 /s = 0
Non-uniform flow

If the velocity of flow of fluid changes from point to point in the flowing fluid at any
instant, the flow is said to be non-uniform flow.
V/s 0 p/s 0 /s 0

## 17. State Newtons law of viscosity.

It states that For a steady uniform flow, the shear stress on a fluid element is layer is
directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of proportionality is
called the coefficient of viscosity.

## 18. Define Compressible and incompressible flow

Compressible flow

The compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes
from point to point i.e. the density is not constant for the fluid. It is expressed in
kg/sec.
constant
Incompressible flow

The incompressible flow is that type of flow in which the density is constant for the
fluid flow. Liquids are generally incompressible. It is expressed in m3/s.

= constant

## 19. Define Rotational and Ir-rotational flow.

Rotational flow

Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along
stream lines and also rotate about their own axis.
Ir-rotational flow
If the fluid particles are flowing along stream lines and do not rotate about their own
axis that type of flow is called as ir-rotational flow

## v2/2g = kinetic head

Z = datum head
21. State the assumptions used in deriving Bernoullis equation
a. Flow is steady;

b. Flow is laminar;
c. Flow is ir-rotational;
d. Flow is incompressible;
e. Fluid is ideal.
22. List the instruments works on the basis of Bernoullis equation.
a. Venturi meter;
b. Orifice meter;
c. Pitot tube.
23. Define Impulse Momentum Equation (or) Momentum Equation.

The total force acting on fluid is equal to rate of change of momentum. According to
Newtons second law of motion, F = ma
F dt = d(mv)

## 24. State Bernoullis equation.

In a steady flow of frictionless and incompressible fluid flow system, the total energy
per unit weight of flowing fluid remains constant.
25. What is known as Eulers equation of motion?

If the flow is assumed to be ideal viscous force and it is zero then the equation of
motion is known as Eulers equation of motion.

Page 5 of 22
UNIT 2 - CLOSED THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUCTS

Part A questions:

1. Mention the range of Reynoldss number for laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe.

If the Reynolds number is less than 2000, the flow is laminar. But if the Reynoldss
number is greater than 4000, the flow is turbulent flow.
2. What does Haigen - Poiseuilles equation refers to?

The equation refers to the value of loss of head in a pipe of length L due to viscosity
in a laminar flow.

## 3. What is Hagen Poiseuilles formula?

(P1-P2) / g = hf = 32 L / gD2

## formula. Where P1-P2 / g = Loss of pressure head,

= Average velocity,

= Coefficient of viscosity,
D = Diameter of pipe,
L = Length of pipe
4. Write the expression for shear stress?

## Shear stress = - (p/x)

(r/2) max = - (p/x) (R/2)

## 5. Give the formula for velocity distribution: - The

formula for velocity distribution is given as u =

- ( ) (p/x) (R2-r2)

## Where R = Radius of the pipe,

r = Radius of the fluid element

## 6. Give the equation for average velocity : -

The equation for average velocity is given as

= - (1/8) (p/x) R2

Umax / = 2

## 8. Give the expression for the coefficient of friction in viscous flow?

Coefficient of friction between pipe and fluid in viscous flow f =16/ Re
Where, f = Re = Reynolds number

9. What are the factors to be determined when viscous fluid flows through the circular
pipe?
The factors to be determined are:
a. Velocity distribution across the section.
b. Ratio of maximum velocity to the average velocity.

## c. Shear stress distribution.

d. Drop of pressure for a given length.
10. Define kinetic energy correction factor?

Kinetic energy factor is defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow per sec
based on actual velocity across a section to the kinetic energy of the flow per sec
based on average velocity across the same section. It is denoted by ().
K. E factor () = K.E per sec based on actual velocity / K.E per sec based on
Average velocity
11. Define Boundary layer.

When a real fluid flow passed a solid boundary, fluid layer is adhered to the solid
boundary. Due to adhesion fluid undergoes retardation thereby developing a small
region in the immediate vicinity of the boundary. This region is known as boundary
layer.
12. What is mean by boundary layer growth?

At subsequent points downstream of the leading edge, the boundary layer region
increases because the retarded fluid is further retarded. This is referred as growth of
boundary layer.

## 13. Classification of boundary layer.

a. Laminar boundary layer,
b. Transition zone,
c. Turbulent boundary layer.
14. Define Laminar sub Layer
In the turbulent boundary layer zone, adjacent to the solid surface of the plate the
velocity variation is influenced by viscous effects. Due to very small thickness, the
velocity distribution is almost linear. This region is known as laminar sub layer.
15. Define Boundary layer Thickness.

It is defined as the distance from the solid boundary measured in y-direction to the
point, where the velocity of fluid is approximately equal to 0.99 times the free stream
velocity (U) of the fluid. It is denoted by .

## 16. List the various types of boundary layer thickness.

a. Displacement thickness(*),

b. Momentum thickness(),
c. Energy thickness(**)
17. Define displacement thickness.

## The displacement thickness () is defined as the distance by which the boundary

should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in flow rate on account of
boundary layer formation.
* = [ 1 (u/U) ] dy

## The momentum thickness () is defined as the distance by which the boundary

should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid
on account of boundary layer formation.

= [ (u/U) (u/U)2 ] dy

## 19. Define energy thickness

The energy thickness (**) is defined as the distance by which the boundary should
be displaced to compensate for the reduction in kinetic energy of the flowing fluid on
account of boundary layer formation.

** = [ (u/U) (u/U)3 ] dy

## 20. What is meant by energy loss in a pipe?

When the fluid flows through a pipe, it loses some energy or head due to frictional
resistance and other reasons. It is called energy loss. The losses are classified as;
Major losses and Minor losses

## 21. Explain the major losses in a pipe.

The major energy losses in a pipe is mainly due to the frictional resistance caused by
the sheer force between the fluid particles and boundary walls of the pipe and also
due to viscosity of the fluid.
22. Explain minor losses in a pipe.

The loss of energy or head due to change of velocity of the flowing fluid in magnitude
or direction is called minor losses. It includes: sudden expansion of the pipe, sudden
contraction of the pipe, bend in a pipe, pipe fittings and obstruction in the pipe, etc.

23. State Darcy-Weibach equation OR What is the expression for head loss due to
friction?

## (m), L = Length of the pipe (m),

d = Diameter of the pipe (m),

## V = Velocity of flow (m/sec) f

= Coefficient of friction

24. What are the factors influencing the frictional loss in pipe flow?
Frictional resistance for the turbulent flow is,

## b. Proportional to the density of fluid.

c. Proportional to the area of surface in contact.
d. Independent of pressure.
e. Depend on the nature of the surface in contact.

25. Define the terms a) Hydraulic gradient line [HGL] b) Total Energy line [TEL]
Hydraulic gradient line: It is defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure
head and datum head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect the reference line.
HGL = Sum of Pressure Head and Datum head

Total energy line: Total energy line is defined as the line which gives the sum of
pressure head, datum head and kinetic head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect
to some reference line.
TEL = Sum of Pressure Head, Datum head and Velocity head

Page 9 of 22
UNIT 3 - DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

Part A questions:

## Dimensional analysis is a mathematical technique which makes use of the study of

dimensions as an aid to solution of several engineering problems. It plays an
important role in research work.

motion.

parameters.

## c. It helps in planning model tests and presenting experimental results in a

systematic manner.
3. List the primary and derived quantities.
Primary or Fundamental quantities: The various physical quantities used to
describe a given phenomenon can be described by a set of quantities which are
independent of each other. These quantities are known as fundamental quantities or
primary quantities. Mass (M), Length (L), Time (T) and Temperature () are the
fundamental quantities.

## Secondary or Derived quantities: All other quantities such as area, volume,

velocity, acceleration, energy, power, etc are termed as derived quantities or
secondary quantities because they can be expressed by primary quantities.

## Dynamic viscosity () ML-1T-2, Force (F) - MLT-

2
, Mass density () ML-3, Power (P) -ML2T-3

## An equation is said to be dimensionally homogeneous if the dimensions of the terms

on its LHS are same as the dimensions of the terms on its RHS.
6. Mention the methods available for dimensional analysis.
a. Rayleigh method,
b. Buckingham method

## 7. State Buckinghams theorem.

It states that if there are n variables (both independent & dependent variables) in a
physical phenomenon and if these variables contain m functional dimensions and
are related by a dimensionally homogeneous equation, then the variables are
arranged into n-m dimensionless terms. Each term is called term.
8. List the repeating variables used in Buckingham theorem.
Geometrical Properties l, d, H, h, etc,

## 9. Define model and prototype.

The small scale replica of an actual structure or the machine is known as its Model,
while the actual structure or machine is called as its Prototype. Mostly models are
much smaller than the corresponding prototype.

## 10. Write the advantages of model analysis.

a. Model test are quite economical and convenient.
b. Alterations can be continued until most suitable design is obtained.
c. Modification of prototype based on the model results.

advance.

## 11. List the types of similarities or similitude used in model analysis.

a. Geometric similarities,
b. Kinematic similarities,
c. Dynamic similarities
12. Define geometric similarities

It exists between the model and prototype if the ratio of corresponding lengths,
dimensions in the model and the prototype are equal. Such a ratio is known as
Scale Ratio.
13. Define kinematic similarities

It exists between the model and prototype if the paths of the homogeneous moving
particles are geometrically similar and if the ratio of the flow properties is equal.
14. Define dynamic similarities

It exists between model and the prototype which are geometrically and kinematic ally
similar and if the ratio of all forces acting on the model and prototype are equal.
15. Mention the various forces considered in fluid flow.
a. Inertia force,

b. Viscous force,
c. Gravity force,
d. Pressure force,
e. Surface Tension force,
f. Elasticity force
16. Define model law or similarity law.

The condition for existence of completely dynamic similarity between a model and its
prototype are denoted by equation obtained from dimensionless numbers. The laws
on which the models are designed for dynamic similarity are called Model laws or
Laws of Similarity.
17. List the various model laws applied in model analysis.
a. Reynoldss Model Law,
b. Froudes Model Law,
c. Eulers Model Law,
d. Weber Model Law,
e. Mach Model Law
18. State Reynoldss model law

For the flow, where in addition to inertia force the viscous force is the only other
predominant force, the similarity of flow in the model and its prototype can be
established, if the Reynoldss number is same for both the systems. This is known as
Reynoldss model law. Re(p) = Re(m)

## 19. State Froudes model law

When the forces of gravity can be considered to be the only predominant force which
controls the motion in addition to the force of inertia, the dynamic similarities of the
flow in any two such systems can be established, if the Froude number for both the
system is the same. This is known as Froude Model Law. Fr(p) = Fr (m)

## 20. State Eulers model law

In a fluid system where supplied pressures are the controlling forces in addition to
inertia forces and other forces are either entirely absent or in-significant the Eulers
number for both the model and prototype which known as Euler Model Law.

## 21. State Webers model law

Page 12 of 22
When surface tension effect predominates in addition to inertia force then the
dynamic similarity is obtained by equating the Webers number for both model and
its prototype, which is called as Weber Model Law.
22. State Machs model law

If in any phenomenon only the forces resulting from elastic compression are
significant in addition to inertia forces and all other forces may be neglected, then the
dynamic similarity between model and its prototype may be achieved by equating the
Machs number for both the systems. This is known Mach Model Law.
23. Classify the hydraulic models.

The hydraulic models are classified as: Undistorted model & distorted model
24. Define undistorted model

An undistorted model is that which is geometrically similar to its prototype, i.e. the
scale ratio for corresponding linear dimensions of the model and its prototype are
same.

## 25. Define distorted model

Distorted models are those in which one or more terms of the model are not identical
with their counterparts in the prototype.
26. Define Scale effect

An effect in fluid flow that results from changing the scale, but not the shape, of a
body around which the flow passes.
27. List the advantages of distorted model.

a. The results in steeper water surface slopes and magnification of wave heights
in model can be obtained by providing true vertical structure with accuracy.

## c. Sufficient tractate force can be developed to produce bed movement with a

small model.

Page 13 of 22
UNIT 4 - ROTO DYNAMIC MACHINES

Part A questions:

## 1. What are fluid machines or Hydraulic machines?

The machines which use the liquid or gas for the transfer of energy from fluid to rotor
or from rotor to fluid are known as fluid machines.
2. How are fluid machines classified?
Fluid machines are classified into two categories depending upon transfer of energy:

## a. Turbines hydraulic energy is converted to mechanical energy and then

electrical energy.

## b. Pumps electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy and then

hydraulic energy.
3. What are called turbines?

Hydraulic turbines are the machines which use the energy of water and convert it into
mechanical energy. The mechanical energy developed by a turbine is used in
running the electrical generator which is directly coupled to the shaft.

## 4. What is known as Eulers equation for turbo-machines?

The general expression for the work done per second on impeller is

Q[Vw1u1 + Vw2u2]

## 5. Define Gross Head of a turbine.

The difference between head race level and tail race level is known as Gross Head
6. Define Net head of a turbine.

It is also called effective head and is defined as the head available at the inlet of the
turbine. H = Hg hf

## 8. What are an impulse turbine and a reaction turbine?

Impulse Turbine:

If at the inlet of the turbine, the energy available is only kinetic energy, the turbine is
known as impulse turbine. The pressure at the inlet of the turbine is atmosphere.
This turbine is used for high heads. The water strikes the bucket along the tangent of
the runner. Ex: Pelton Wheel Turbine.

Page 14 of 22
Reaction Turbine:

If at the inlet of the turbine, the water possesses kinetic energy as well as pressure
energy, the turbine is known as reaction turbine. As the water flows through the
runner, the water is under pressure and the pressure energy goes on changing into
kinetic energy. The runner is completely enclosed in an air-tight casing and the
runner and casing is completely full of water. This turbine is used for medium heads.
Ex: Francis Turbine.

## 9. Define Jet Ratio.

It is defined as the ratio of the pitch diameter (D) of the Pelton wheel to the diameter
of the jet (d). It is denoted by m and is given as m = D/d

## a. Based on type of energy available at inlet

Impulse turbine (Pelton wheel)
Reaction turbine (Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine, Propeller turbine)
b. Based on head available at inlet
High head turbine [ > 250 m ] - (Pelton wheel)
Medium head turbine [ 60 to 250 m ] - (Francis turbine)
Low head turbine [ < 60 m ] (Kaplan turbine, Propeller turbine)
c. Based on specific speed

## High specific speed turbine (Kaplan turbine, Propeller turbine)

Medium specific speed turbine - (Francis turbine)
Low specific speed turbine - (Pelton wheel)
d. Based on direction of flow through runner
Tangential flow turbine Radial flow turbine
Axial flow turbine Mixed flow turbine
11. Define Radial flow reaction turbine and their types.

If water flows in the radial direction in the turbine then it is referred as radial flow
turbine.
Types:

Inward radial flow reaction turbine: If the water flows from outwards to inwards
through the runner, the turbine is known as inward radial flow reaction turbine. Here
the outer diameter of the runner is inlet diameter whereas the inner diameter of the
runner is outlet diameter.
Outward radial flow reaction turbine: If the water flows from inwards to outwards
through the runner, the turbine is called as outward radial flow reaction turbine. Here
the outer diameter of the runner is outlet diameter whereas the inner diameter of the
runner is inlet diameter.

## 12. What is mean by Draft Tube?

The draft tube is a pipe of gradually increasing area which connects the outlet of the
runner to the tail race. One end of the draft tube is connected to the outlet of the
runner while the other end is sub-merged below the level of water in the tail race.

13. Why do draft tubes have enlarging passage area in the direction of flow?
The pressure at the exit of the reaction turbine is generally less than atmospheric and
this makes the water NOT to discharge directly to the tail race. By the introduction of draft
tube, which has enlarged area in the direction of flow, the kinetic head reduces and
pressure head increases. There by discharge of water to the tail race safely.

## 14. Uses of draft tube:

a. Discharges water to tail race safely

## b. Converts a large proportion of rejected kinetic energy into useful pressure

energy
c. Net head of the turbine is increased.
15. Types of draft tube:

Conical draft tube, Simple elbow tube, Moody spreading tube and Elbow draft tube
with circular inlet and rectangular outlet.
16. Define specific speed of a turbine.

It is defined as the speed of the turbine which is geometrically similar and it will
develop unit power when working under unit head.

Ns = N P/ (H)5/4

## 17. Define Runaway speed of Turbine.

The max speed reached by the turbine after the removal of the external load is called
runaway speed of turbine. The various rotating components of the turbine should be
designed to remain safe at the runaway speed.

## 18. Define Manometric Head.

The manometric head is defined as the head against which a centrifugal pump has to
work.

## Hm = head imparted by the impeller to the water loss of head

Hm = Vw2u2/g - loss of head

## 19. List the characteristic curves of Hydraulic turbine.

a. Main Characteristic Curves (or) Constant Head Curves
b. Operating Characteristic Curves (or) Constant Speed Curves
c. Muschel Curves (or) Constant Efficiency Curves
20. What is roto dynamic pump?

## When the increase in pressure is developed by rotating impeller or by action of

centrifugal force then the pump is called as roto dynamic pump.

## 21. Define Centrifugal pump.

Hydraulic pump means it converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. If the
mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy means of centrifugal force
acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called Centrifugal Pump.
22. Define Specific speed of a centrifugal pump.

## The specific speed of a centrifugal pump is defined as the speed of a geometrically

similar pump which would deliver 1 m3/s against a head of 1 m.

## Ns = N Q/ (H)3/4 (OR) Ns = N P/ (H)5/4D

UNIT 5 - POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES

Part A questions:

## 1. What is a reciprocating pump?

Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump. This means the liquid is first
sucked into the cylinder and then displaced or pushed by the thrust of a piston.
2. What is single acting pump and double acting pump?

If the water is in contact with one side of the piston the pump then it is known as
single acting reciprocating pump. For one complete revolution one suction stroke and
one delivery stroke occurs.

If the water is in contact with both sides of the piston the pump then it is called
double acting reciprocating pump. For one complete revolution two suction strokes
and two delivery strokes occurs.
3. What is Discharge through a Reciprocating Pump?

## 4. What is the Workdone by Reciprocating Pump per sec?

For Single acting Reciprocating Pump: Workdone = gALN(hs+hd)/60
For Double acting Reciprocating Pump: Work done= 2gALN(hs+hd)/60
Where,

## (m2), L= Stroke Length (m),

N=Speed (rpm),
hs, hd=Suction and Delivery head (m).
5. Define slip and % slip.

The difference between the theoretical discharge (QT) and actual discharge (Qact) is

## known as slip of the pump.

Slip = QT - Qact
% Slip = [ (QT - Qact)/QT ] x 100

## It is defined as the ratio of actual discharge to theoretical discharge of reciprocating

pump. Cd=Qa/Qth. If Cd > 1 then ive slip occurs and if Cd < 1 then +ive slip occurs.

7. Write the expression for pressure head due to acceleration in suction and delivery
pipes.

Pressure head due to acceleration in suction pipe, has = (ls/g) (A/as) 2r Cost

Where,

## as Area of suction pipe; Angular velocity; r Radius of crank.

Pressure head due to acceleration in delivery pipe, had = (ld/g) (A/ad) 2r Cost

## Max pressure head due to acceleration, ha = (l/g) (A/a) 2r

8. Write the expression for head due to friction in suction and delivery pipes.

## as area of suction pipe; ds diameter of suction pipe; Angular velocity; r

radius of crank.
Head loss due to friction in delivery pipe is,

## 9. Define indicator diagram?

The indicator diagram for a reciprocating pump is defined as the graph drawn
between the pressure head in the cylinder and the distance traveled by the piston for
one complete revolution of the crank.
10. Define ideal indicator diagram?

a. It is defined as the graph between pressure head in the cylinder and stroke
length of the crank under ideal condition is known as ideal indicator diagram.

b. During the suction stroke, the pressure in the cylinder is below atmospheric
pressure.

c. During the delivery stroke, the pressure in the cylinder is above atmospheric
pressure.
11. What is the relation between Work done of a Pump and Area of Indicator Diagram?

Work done by the pump is proportional to the area of the Indicator diagram.

12. What is the Work done by the Pump per sec due to acceleration and friction in the
suction and delivery Pipes?

## For Double acting : Workdone/sec = 2gALN(hs+hd+0.67hfs+0.67hfd)/60

Where, hfs, hfd =loss of head due to friction in suction and delivery pipes.
StrokeLengthHatm Delivery strokeSuctionstrokePressure headhdhsL = StrokeLength
13. What is an air vessel?

An air vessel is a closed chamber containing compressed air in the top portion and
liquid at the bottom of the chamber. At the base of the chamber there is an opening
through which the liquid may flow into the vessel or out from the vessel. When the
liquid enters the air vessel, the air gets compressed further and when the liquid flows
out of the vessel, the air will expand into the chamber.
14. What is the purpose of an air vessel fitted in the pump?
a. To obtain a continuous supply of liquid at a uniform rate.

## b. To save a considerable amount of work in overcoming the frictional

resistance in the suction and delivery pipes, and
c. To run the pump at a high speed without separation.

15. What is the work saved by fitting an air vessel in a single acting, double acting
pump?

Work saved by fitting air vessels in a single acting pump is 84.87%, In a double
acting pump the work saved is 39.2%.
16. Define Cavitation.

If the pressure in the cylinder is below the vapour pressure, the dissolved gases will
be liberated from the liquid and air bubbles are formed. This process is termed as
cavitation.

## 17. Define separation pressure and separation pressure head.

Due to cavitation process the continuous flow of fluid will get affected and separation
takes place. The pressure at which separation takes place is known as separation
pressure and the head corresponding to separation pressure is called separation
pressure head.

## hsep = 10.3 7.8 = 2.5 m (Absolute pressure)

18. How will you obtain the maximum speed during suction stroke?

The absolute pressure head will be minimum at the beginning of suction stroke.
Thus, in the cylinder the separation taking place at the beginning of suction stroke
only. In this case, the absolute pressure head will be equal to the separation
pressure.

## , has = (ls/g) (A/as) 2r

Equating both the angular velocity() and Speed (N) are obtained. This N is the
maximum speed of the pump during the suction stroke without separation.
19. How will you obtain the maximum speed during delivery stroke?

The absolute pressure head will be minimum at the end of delivery stroke. Thus, in
the cylinder the separation taking place at the end of delivery stroke only. In this
case, the absolute pressure head will be equal to the separation pressure.

## , had = (ld/g) (A/ad) 2r

Equating both the angular velocity () and Speed (N) are obtained. This N is the
maximum speed of the pump during the delivery stroke without separation.

## 20. What is mean by Maximum speed of a Reciprocating Pump?

The maximum speed at which no separation flow is taking place in the cylinder is
called maximum speed of a reciprocating pump. It will be the least value of speeds
obtained from maximum speed during suction stroke and maximum speed during
delivery stroke.

21. Write the workdone saved by fitting the air vessel in reciprocating pump.

By fitting the air vessel the head loss due to friction in suction and delivery pipe is
reduced. This reduction in the head loss saves a certain amount of energy.
Therefore, the workdone saved is given by,

## b. Fitting airvessel without airvessel with airvessel

22. Write the formula for workdone against friction with air vessel in reciprocating pump.
Workdone against friction with airvessel = [K/] gQ [4fl/2gd] [(A/a)

## Q = ALN/60 for single acting reciprocating pump

Q = 2ALN/60 for double acting reciprocating pump
f = coefficient of friction
l = length of pipe (m)
d = diameter of pipe (m)
A = area of piston (m2)

## a = area of pipe (m2)

= angular velocity (rad/s)
= 2N/60
r = radius of crank

23. What will be the total % work saved by fitting the air
vessel? For single acting reciprocating pump = 84.8 %
For double acting reciprocating pump = 39.2 %
CE6451 - FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
(AU Chennai - R2013)
IMPORTANT (PART -A Questions)

Unit I
1. State Newtons law of viscosity.
2. Define (a) Dynamics viscosity and (b) Kinematic viscosity and derive its unit.
3. What is meant by capillarity and surface tension?
4. Define Steady and Unsteady flow.
5. Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow.
6. State the assumption made in Bernoullis equation.
Unit II
1. What is meant by energy loss in a pipe?
2. Define hydraulic gradient line.
3. Sketch velocity distribution curves for laminar and turbulent flows in a pipe.
4. Find the loss of head when a pipe of diameter 200 mm is suddenly enlarged to a diameter of 400 mm. The
rate of flow of water through the pipe is 250 litres/s.
5. Write down Darcy equation.
6. Define Boundary layer Thickness. .
Unit III
1. Define dimensional homogeneity.
2. State Buckinghams theorem
3. What are the types of forces acting in moving fluid?
4. What are types of dimensionless number?
5. Define model law or similarity law
6. What is meant by kinematics and dynamic similarity?
Unit IV
1. Define slip and % slip.
2. When negative slip will occur?
3. Write a note on positive displacement pump.
4. Define indicator diagram.
5. When will select a reciprocating pump?
6. What is the necessity of fitting air vessel in reciprocating pump?
7. What is meant by suction head and delivery head?
8. What do you mean by manometric efficiency and mechanical efficiency of a centrifugal pump?
9. What is the role of a volute chamber of a centrifugal pump?
Unit V
1. List the Classification of hydraulic turbines.
2. Differentiate between the turbines and pumps.
3. Define specific speed of a turbine.
4. Draw the characteristics curves of a turbine with head variation.
5. What do you mean by cavitation in turbines?
6. What are the functions of a draft tube?
IMPORTANT PART B-Questions
Unit I
1. The space between two square flat parallel plate is filled with oil. Each side of the plate is 720mm. The
thickness of the oil film is 15mm. The upper plate, which moves at 3 m/s requires a force of 120N to maintain
the speed. Determine (i) Dynamic viscosity of the oil in poise. (ii) The kinematic viscosity of the oil in stoke, if
the specific gravity of oil is 0.95. (8)

2. The dynamic viscosity of oil, used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve is 6 poise. The shaft is of
diameter 0.4m and rotates at 190r.p.m. Calculate the power lost in the bearing for a sleeve length of 90mm. the
thickness of the oil film is 1.5mm. (8)

3. Two large plane surfaces are 3cm apart. The space between the surfaces is filled with glycerine. What force
is required to drag a very thin plate of surface area 0.6m2 between the two large plane surfaces at a speed of 0.6
m/sec and its weight 20N? If
(i) The thin plate is in the middle of the two plane surfaces (ii) The thin plate is at a distance of 1.2cm from one
of the plane surface? Take the dynamic viscosity of glycerine = 0.810 N-s/m2. (15)

4. Calculate the capillary effect in mm in a glass tube of 4mm diameter, when immersed in (i) Water and (ii)
Mercury. The temperature of the liquid is 20oc and the values of the surface tension of water and mercury at
20oc in contact with air are 0.073575 N/m and 0.51 N/m respectively. The angle of contact for water is zero
that for mercury 130o. Take density of water at 20oc is equal to 998 kg/m3 and specific gravity of mercury is
13.6. (8)

5. In a 45o bend a rectangular air duct of 1 m2 cross sectional area is gradually reduced to 0.5m2 area. Find the
magnitude and direction of the force required to hold the duct in position if the velocity of flow at the 1 m 2
section is 10m/s and pressure is 2.943 N/cm2. Take density of air as 1.16 kg/m3. (10)

6. A pipe 300m long has a slope of 1 in 100 & tapers from 1.2m diameter at the high end to 0.6m diameter at
the lower end. Quantity of water is flowing 5,400 lit / min, If the pressure at the high end is 68.67 Kpa, find the
pressure at the low end. Neglect all losses. (8)

7. A 30 cm diameter pipe, conveying water, branches into two pipes of diameters 20cm and 15 cm respectively.
If the average velocity in the 30 cm diameter pipe is 2.5 m/s, find the discharge in the pipe. Also determine the
velocity in 15cm pipe of the average velocity in 20 cm pipe is 2 m/s. (8)

8. State Bernoullis theorem for steady flow of an incompressible fluid. Derive an expression for Bernoullis
theorem. (15)
Unit II
1. Derive Hagen- Poiseuille equation and state the assumption made. (16)

2. A pipe line 10km long delivers a power of 50 Kw at its outlet ends. The pressure at inlet is 5000 kN/m2 and
pressure drop per km of pipeline is 50kN/m2. Find the diameter of the pipe and efficiency of transmission.
Take 4f = 0.02. (16)

3. A fluid of = 0.7 N-s /m2 and Sp.gravity = 1.3 is flowing through a circular pipe of diameter 10cm. The
maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is given as 196.2 N/m2. Find the Pressure gradient, average velocity and
Reynolds number. (8)

4. Derive DarcyWeisbach formula for calculating loss of head due to friction in a pipe. (8)

5. The rate of flow of water pumped into a pipe ABC. Which is 200m long, is 20 litres/s. the pipe is laid on an
upward slope of 1 in 40. The length of the portion AB is 100m and its diameter 100mm, while the length of the
portion BC is also 100 m but its diameter is 200mm. the change of diameter at B is sudden. The flow is taking
place from A to C where the pressure at A is 19.62N/cm2 and end C is connected to a tank. Find the pressure at
C and draw the hydraulic gradient and total energy line. Take f =0.008.
(16)

## 6. A smooth flat plate is placed in

(i) A stream of water with a velocity of 4 ms-1
(ii) A steam of air with a velocity of 4 ms-1
(iii) A steam of air with a velocity of 9 ms-1
Compare the growth of laminar boundary layer in the three cases. Take mass density of water =1000kg m-3,
dynamic viscosity of water =0.001 N s m -2, mass density of air = 1.2 kg m-3 and dynamic viscosity of air=
19x 10-6 N s m-2. (16)

7. Explain about boundary layer concepts. For the velocity profile 5.48 X / Rex ,find the thickness of
boundary layer at the end of the plate and the drag force on one side of a plane 1m long and 0.8m wide when
placed in water flowing with a velocity of 150 mm per second. Calculate the value of coefficient of drag also.
Take for water =0.01 poise. (16)

Unit III
1. Show by dimensional analysis, the discharge of a centrifugal pump is given by
Q = ND3 [ gH / N2D2, / ND2]
N = Speed of the Pump, D = Diameter of the impulse, g = Acceleration due to gravity,
H = Manometric head, = Viscosity of the fluid flow, = Density of the fluid. (16)

2. The pressure difference P in a pipe of diameter D and length l due to viscous flow depends on the
velocity v, viscosity and density . Using Buckinghams theorem, obtain an expression for P.
(16)

3. The pressure difference p in a pipe of diameter D and length 1 due to turbulent flow depends on the
velocity V, viscosity , density , and roughness k. Using Buckinghams -theorem, obtain and expression for
p. (16)

4. The ratio of length of a submarine and its model is 30:1. The speed of submarine (prototype) is 10 m/s. The
model is to be tested in a wind tunnel. Find the speed of air in wind tunnel. Also determine the ratio of the drag
(resistance) between the model and its prototype. Take the value of kinematics viscosity for seawater and air is
0.012 stoke and 0.016 stokes respectively. The density of seawater and air is given as 1030 kg/m3 and 1.24
kg/m3. (16)

5. A ship 300m long moves in sea water, whose density is 1030Kg/m3, A 1: 100 model of this ship is to be
tested in a wind tunnel. The velocity of air in the wind tunnel around the model is 30m/s and the resistance of
the model is 60N. Determine the velocity of ship in sea water and also the resistance of the ship in sea water.
The density of air is given as 1.24kg/m3. Take the kinematic viscosity of sea water and air as 0.012 stoke and
0.018 strokes respectively. (16)

## 6. Write a detailed note on models and similitude. (10)

Unit IV
1. A single acting reciprocating pump is running at 30 rpm., delivers 0.012 m3/s of water. The diameter of the
piston is 25cm and stroke length 50cm. Determine (i) Theoretical discharge of the pump (ii) Co-efficient of
discharge (iii) Slip and percentage of slip of the pump. (iv) Determine the acceleration head at the beginning
and middle of the delivery stroke. (10)

2. A double acting reciprocating pump, running at 50 rpm is discharging 900 liters of water per minute. The
pump has stroke of 400mm. The diameter of piston is 250mm. The delivery and suction heads are 25m and 4m
respectively. Find the slip of the pump and power required to drive the pump. (10)

3. Find the maximum speed of a single acting reciprocating pump to avoid separation, which occurs at 3m of
water (abs.). The pump has a cylinder of diameter 10cm and a stroke length of 20cm. The pump draws water
from a sump and delivers to a tank. The water level in the sump is 3.5m below axis and in the tank the water
level is 13m above the pump axis. The diameter and length of the suction pipe are 4cm and 5m while of
delivery pipe the diameter and length are 3cm & 20m respectively. Take atmospheric pressure head is 10.3m of
water. (16)

4. A single acting reciprocating pump is to raise a liquid of density 1200 kg/m3 through a vertical height of
11.5m, from 2.5m below pump axis to 9m above it. The plunger, which moves with S.H.M, has diameter
125mm and stroke 225mm. The suction and delivery pipes are 75mm diameter & 3.5m and 13.5m long
respectively. There is a large air vessel placed on the delivery pipe near the pump axis. But there is no air
vessel on the suction pipe. If separation takes place at 8.829 N/cm2 below atmospheric pressure. Find (i)
Maximum speed with which the pump can run without separation taking place (ii) Power required to drive the
pump, if f = 0.02.
(16)
5. A double acting pump with 35cm bore and 40cm stroke runs at 60 strokes per minutes. The suction pipe is
10 M long and delivery pipe is 200m long . The diameter of the delivery pipe is 15cm. The pump is situated at
a height of 2.5 m above the sump, the outlet of the delivery pipe is 70 m above the pump. Calculate the
diameter of the suction pipe for the condition that separation is avoided Assume separation to occur at an
absolute pressure head is 2.5m of water. /find the Horse power required to drive the pump neglecting all losses
other than friction in the pipes assuming friction factor f as 0.02.

(16)
6. A centrifugal pump delivers water against a net head of 14.5 meters and a design speed of 1000 rpm. The
vanes are curved back to an angle of 300 with the periphery. The impeller diameter is 300 mm. Determine the
discharge of the pump if manometric efficiency is 95%. (16)

7. A centrifugal pump is to discharge 0.12 m3/sec at a speed of 1450 rpm against a head of 25 m. The impeller
diameter is 250 mm, its width at outlet is 50 mm and manometric efficiency is 75%. Find the vane angle at the
outer periphery of the impeller.
(16)

8. A centrifugal pump is running at 1000 r.p.m. The outlet vane angle of the impeller is 45 and velocity of
flow at outlet is 2.5 m/s. The discharge through the pump is 200 lit/s when the pump is working against a total
head of 20m. If the manometric efficiency of the pump is 80%. Determine diameter of the impeller (outside
diameter), Width of the impeller at outlet.
(16)

9. A Centrifugal pump is provided at a height of 5 m above the sump water level and the outlet of the delivery
pipe is 10 m above the sump. The vane angle at outlet is 500. The velocity of flow through the impeller is
constant at 1.6 m/s. Find: The pressure head at inlet to the wheel, the pressure head at outlet of the wheel.
Assume that the velocity of water in the pipes is equal is equal to the impeller, ignore losses.
(16)

10. Draw and explain the main parts of a centrifugal pump and derive the work done by the centrifugal pump
on water. (16)

11. With the aid of a sketch describe the working of a reciprocating pump. Also explain about ideal indicator
diagram for it. (16)

12. Explain with the help of a sketch, the principle and working of (i) Rotary gear pump (i) Vane pump.
(16)
Unit V
1. Design a Pelton wheel for a head of 80 m and speed of 300 r.p.m. The Pelton wheel develops 103 kw. Take
Cv = 0.98, speed ratio = 0.45, overall efficiency = 0.80. (16)

2. A Pelton wheel has to be designed for the following data. Power to be developed = 6000 kW; Net head
available = 300 m; Speed = 550 rpm; Ratio of jet diameter to wheel diameter = 1/10 and overall efficiency =
85%. Find the no. of jets, diameter of the jet, diameter of wheel, the quantity of water required.
(16)

3. Obtain an expression for the workshop per second by water on the runner of a Pelton wheel. Hence derive an
expression for maximum efficiency of the Pelton wheel giving the relationship between the speed and bucket
speed. (16)

4. A Peloton wheel works under a gross head of 510 m. One third of gross head is lost in friction in the
penstrock. The rate of flow through the nozzle is 2.2 m3/sec. The angle of deflection of jet is 1650. Find the
(i) Power given by water to the runner
(ii) Hydraulic efficiency of Pelton wheel. Take (C = 1.0 and speed ratio = .45) (16)

5. Pelton wheel is having a mean bucket diameter of 1 m and is running at 1000 rpm. The net head on the
Pelton wheel is 700 m. If the side clearance angel is 150 and discharge through nozzle is 0.1 m3/s, find (1)
power available at the nozzle and (2) hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Take C = 1.
(16)

6. A Pelton wheel produces 8,000 kW under a head of130 m at a speed of rpm. The coefficient of velocity of
jet issued through nozzle is 0.98, hydraulic efficiency is 85%, speed ratio is0.45 and jet ratio is 10. Find the
discharge, diameter of the wheel, diameter and number of jet required and the specific speed. The mechanical
efficiency is 75%.
(16)

7. A turbine is to operate under a head of 25 m at 200 rpm. The discharge is 9 m3/s. If the efficiency is 90%
determine, specific speed of the machine, power generated and type of turbine.
(8)

8. With the help of neat diagram explain the construction and working of a Pelton wheel turbine.
(16)

9. Design a Francis Turbine runner with the following data: Net head = 70 m speed N = 800 rpm. Out put
power 400 Kw Hydraulic efficiency = 95% Overall efficiency = 85% Flow ratio = 0.2 Breadth ratio = 0.1 Inner
diameter is outer diameter. Assume 6% circumferential area of the runner to be occupied by the thickness of
the vanes. The flow is radial at exit and remains constant throughout.
(16)

10. A reaction turbine works at 450 rpm under a head of 120 m. Its diameter at inlet is 120 cm and the flow
area is 0.4 m2. The angles made by absolute and relative velocity at inlet are 200 and 600 respectively, with the
tangential velocity. Determine, the volume flow rate, the power developed and hydraulic efficiency. Assume
velocity of whirl at outlet is zero. (16)

11. With the help of a simple sketch, explain the construction and working of a Francis turbine.
(16)

12. A Kaplan turbine working under a head of 20 m develops 11772 kW shaft power. The outer diameter of the
runner is 3058 m and hub diameter 1.75 m. the guide blade angle at the extreme edge of the runner is 350. The
hydraulic and overall efficiencies of the turbines are 88% and 84% respectively. If the velocity of whirl is zero
at outlet, determine:
(i) Runner vane angles at inlet and outlet at the extreme edge of the runner, and
(ii) Speed of the turbine (16)

13. Calculate the diameter and speed of the runner of a Kaplan turbine developing 6000 k W under an effective
head of 5 m. Overall efficiency of the turbine is 90%. The diameter of the boss is 0.4 times the external
diameter of the runner. The turbine speed ratio is 2.0 and flow ratio 0.6.
(16)
Fluids: Substances capable of flowing are known as fluids. Flow is the continuous deformation of
substances under the action of shear stresses.
Fluids have no definite shape of their own, but confirm to the shape of the containing vessel. Fluids
include liquids and gases.
Fluid Mechanics:
Fluid mechanics is the branch of science that deals with the behavior of fluids at rest as well as in
motion. Thus,it deals with the static, kinematics and dynamic aspects of fluids.
The study of fluids at rest is called fluid statics. The study of fluids in motion, where pressure
forces are not considered, is called fluid kinematics and if the pressure forces are also considered for
the fluids in motion, that branch of science is called fluid dynamics.

Fluid Properties:
1.Density (or )Mass Density:
Density or mass density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fluid to its volume.
Thus, Mass per unit volume of a fluid is called density.

Mass of fluid
Mass density,
Volume of fluid

## S.I unit of density is kg/m3.

The value of density for water is 1000 kg/m3.

## 2.Specific weight (or) Weight Density (w ):

Specific weight or weight density of a fluid is the ratio between the weight of a fluid to its
volume.
The weight per unit volume of a fluid is called specific weight or weight density.
Weight of fluid
Weight density
Volume of fluid
Mass of fluid X g
w
Volume of fluid
1 g
S.I unit of specific weight is N/m3.
The value of specific weight or weight density of water is 9810N/m3 or 9.81 kN/m.

## 2. Specific Volume ():

Specific volume of a fluid is defined as the volume of a fluid occupied by unit mass.
Volume per unit mass of a fluid is called Specific volume.

Page | 1
Volume of a fluid 1
Specific volume
Mass of fluid
Thus specific volume is the reciprocal of mass density. S.I unit: m3/kg.
P Specific Gravity (s):
Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the specific weight of a fluid to the
specific weight of a standard fluid.
Specific weight of liquid
Specific gravity
Specific weight of water
Specific gravity is also equal to Relative density. Relative density =

2. Viscosity:
Viscosity is defined as the property of a fluid which offers resistance to the
movement of one layer of fluid over adjacent layer of the fluid.

## When two layers of a fluid, at distance dy

apart, move one over the other at different velocities,
say u and u+du as shown in figure. The viscosity
together with relative velocity causes a shear stress
acting between the fluid layers.
The top layer causes a shear stress on the adjacent
lower layer while the lower layer causes a shear
stress on the adjacent top layer.
This shear stress is proportional to the rate of change
of velocity with respect to y.

or
Kinematic Viscosity():
It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density of the fluid
1. =.=
SI unit: m2/s; CGS unit stoke. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/ sec = 10-4 m2/s
Unit-3
Dimensional Homogeneity:
Dimensional homogeneity means the dimensions of each terms in an equation on both sides equal.
Thus if the dimensions of each term on both sides of an equation are the same the equation is known
as dimensionally homogeneous equation. The powers of fundamental dimensions (i.e., L, M, T) on
both sides of the equation will be identical for a dimensionally homogeneous equation.

## Let us consider the equation v 2gh

L
Dimension of L.H.S = V = LT 1
T
2

## Dimension of R.H.S = 2gH = L xL = L2

T 2 T
L
LT 1
=
T
1
Dimension of L.H.S = Dimension of R.H.S = LT
Equation v 2gh is dimensionally homogeneous.
Dimensions of quantities

## METHODS OF DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS:

If the number of variables involved in a physical phenomenon are known, then the relation
among the variables can be determined by the following two methods.
1.Rayleighs method, and
2. Buckinghams theorem

1. Rayleighs method:
This method is used for determining the expression for a variable which depends upon
maximum three or four variables only. If the number of independent variables becomes more than
four then it is very difficult to find the expression for the dependent variable.
Let X is a variable, which depends on X1, X2 and X3 variables. Then according to Rayleighs
method, X is function of X1, X2 and X3 and mathematically it is written as
X= f [X1, X2, X3]

## This can also be written as X = K X1a. X2b. X3c Where

K is constant and a, b and c are arbitrary powers.
The values of a, b and c are obtained by comparing the powers of the fundamental dimension on
both sides. Thus the expression is obtained for dependent variable.

2.Buckinghams theorem:
If there are n variables (independent and dependent variables) in a physical phenomenon and if
these variables contain m fundamental dimensions (M, L, T), then the variables are arranged into (n-
m) dimensionless numbers. Each term is called term.

Let X1, X2, X3, Xn are the variables involved in a physical problem. Let X1 be the
dependent variable and X2, X3, Xn are the independent variables on which X1
depends. Then X1 is a function of X2, X3, Xn and mathematically it is expressed as
X1= f (X2, X3, Xn) -------------------- (1)

## f1 (X1 , X2, X3, Xn) = 0 ------------------- (2)

The above (2) is a dimensionally homogeneous equation. It contains n variables. If there are m
fundamental dimensions then according to Buckinghams theorem, equation (2) can be written on
terms of dimensionless groups or - terms is equal to (n-m). Hence equation (2) becomes as

f1 (1 , 2, 3, n-m) = 0. -------------(3)
Each - term is dimensionless and is independent of the system. Division or multiplication by a constant does
not change the character of the - term. Each - term contains m+1 variables, where m is the number of
fundamental dimensions and is also called repeating variables. Let in the above case X2, X3, and Xn are
repeating variables if the fundamental dimension m, (M, L,T) = 3. Then each - term is written as
1= X2a1.X3b1.X4c1.X1
2= X2a2.X3b2.X4c2.X5
.
.
.
n- m= X2an- m.X3b n- m.X4cm.Xn ----------------------(4)
Each equation is solved by the principle of dimensional homogeneity and values of a1, b1, c1 etc.
are obtained. These values are substituted in equation (4) and values of 1 , 2, 3, n- m are
obtained. These values of s are substituted in equation (3). The final equation for the phenomenon is
obtained by expressing any one of the - terms as a function of others as
1= [ 2, 3, n-m ]
2= [ 1, 3, n-m ] ---------------------(5)
Method of selecting Repeating variables: The number of repeating variables are equal to the number of
fundamental dimensions of the problem. The choice of repeating variables if governed by the following
considerations.

1. As far as possible, the dependent variable should not be selected as repeating variable.
2. The repeating variables should be choosen in such a way that one variable contains geometric property,
other variable contains flow property and third variable contains fluid property.
Variables with geometric property are (i) Length, l (ii) d (iii) Height H etc.
Variables with flow property are (i) Velocity, V (ii) Acceleration etc.
Variables with fluid property are (i) (ii) (iii) w etc.

## 3. The repeating variables selected should not form a dimensionless group.

4. The repeating variables together must have the same number of fundamental dimensions.
5. No two repeating variables should have the same dimensions.
In most of fluid mechanics problems, the choice of repeating variables may be (i) d, v, (ii) I, v, or (iii) I,
v, or (iv) d, v, .
For predicting the performance of the hydraulic structures (such as dams, spill ways etc.) or
hydraulic machines (such as turbines, pumps etc.), before actually constructing or manufacturing,
models of the structures or machines are made and tests are performed on them to obtain the desired
information.

The model is the small scale replica of the actual structure or machine. The actual structure or
machine is called prototype. It is not necessary that the models should be smaller than the prototypes
(though in most of cases it is), they may be larger than the prototype. The study of models of actual
machines is called model analysis. Model analysis is actually an experimental method of finding
solutions of complex flow problems. The followings are the advantages of the dimensional and
model analysis.

1.The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be easily predicted, in
advance, from its model.

2. With the help of dimensional analysis, a relationship between the variables influencing a flow
problem in terms of dimensionless parameters is obtained. This relationship helps in conducting tests
on the model.

3. The merits of alternative designs can be predicted with the help of model testing. The most
economical and safe design may be, finally, adopted.

4.The tests performed on the models can be utilized for obtaining, in advance, useful information
about the performance of the prototypes only if a complete similarity exists between the model and
the prototype.

## SMILITUDE TYPES OF SIMILARITIES:

Similitude is defined as the similarity between the model and its prototype in every respect, which
means that the model and prototype are completely similar. Three types of similarities must exit
between the model and prototype. They are
1. Geometric Similarity 2. Kinematic Similarity 3. Dynamic Similarity

1.Geometric Similarity:
The geometric similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratio of all
corresponding linear dimension in the model and prototype are equal.
Lm= Length of model , bm= Breadth of model
Dm= Dismeter of model Am= area of model
V m= Volume of model
and Lp, Bp, Dp, Ap, V p =Corresponding values of the prototype.

For geometric similarity between model and prototype, we must have the relation,
Lp bp D
p L r
L b D
m m m

## Lr is called the scale ratio.

For areas ratio and volumes ratio the relation should be as given below.

Ap L p
b p 2
L r L r L r
Am L m b m
3 3 3
V L b D
p p p p
V L b D
m m m m

2. Kinematic Similarity :
Kinematic similarity means the similarity of motion between model and prototype. Thus
kinematic similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratios of the velocity
and acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and at the corresponding points in the
prototype are the same. Since the velocity and acceleration are vector quantities, hence not only the
ratio of magnitude of velocity and acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and
prototype should be same, but the directions of velocity and accelerations at the corresponding points
in the model and prototype also should be parallel.

## Vp1 = velocity of fluid at point 1 in prototype,

Vp2= velocity of fluid at point 2 in prototype,
ap1= Acceleration of fluid at point 1 in prototype,
ap2= Acceleration of fluid at point 2 in prototype,

Vm1, Vm2, am1, am2 = Corresponding values at the corresponding points of fluid velocity and
acceleration in the model.
For kinematic similarity, we have
V V
p1 p2 V
V V r
m1 m2

## where Vr is the velocity ratio.

a a
For acceleration, we have p1 p2
a
a a r

m1 m2

## where ar is the acceleration ratio.

Also the directions of the velocities in the model and prototype should be same.

3. Dynamic Similarity:
Dynamic similarity means the similarity of forces between the model and prototype. Thus
dynamic similarity is said to exist between the model and prototype if the ratios of the corresponding
forces acting at the corresponding points are equal. Also the directions of the corresponding forces at
the corresponding points should be same.
(Fi)p= Inertia force at a point in prototype,
(Fv)p= Viscous force at the point in prototype,
(Fg)p= Gravity force at the point in prototype,

Fi)p, (Fv)p, (Fg)p = Corresponding values of forces at the corresponding point in model.

## Then for dynamic similarity, we have

F p F p F
i v g p
Fr
F F F
i m v m g m
where Fr is the force ratio.
Also the directions of the corresponding forces at the corresponding points in the model and
prototype should be same.

DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS:
Dimensionless numbers are those numbers which are obtained by dividing the inertia force
by viscous force or pressure force or surface tension force or elastic force. As this is a ratio of one force to the
other force, it will be a dimensionless number. These dimensionless numbers are also called non-dimensional
parameters. The following are the important dimensionless numbers:
1. Reynolds number 2. Frouds number
3. Eulers number 4. Webers number 5. Machs number

1.)Reynolds number: It is defined as the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the viscous force of
the fluid. The expression for Reynolds number is obtained as

V d Vd
Re or

2.Frouds Number (Fe) : The Frouds Number is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a
flowing fluid to the gravitational force. Mathematically, it is expressed as
F F
i
e
F
g

AV 2 V2 V
ALg Lg Lg

3. Eulers number (Eu): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid to
the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as
E Fi
Eulers number u
Fp

4. Webers number (We): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid to
the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as
Fi
Webers number We
F
g
5. Mach number (M): Mach number is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid
to the elastic force. Mathematically, it is expressed as
M Inertia force F
Mach number i
Elastic force F
e
V
M .
C

## 1. Reynolds model law 2. Frouds model law

3. Eulers model law 4. Webers model law
5. Machs model law

1.Reynolds model law: Reynolds model law is the law in which models are based on Reynolds number.
Model based on Reynolds number includes:
= AV r Lr 2Vr
r r r

Froude Model law: Froude Model law is the law in which the models are based on Froude number which
means for dynamic similarity between the model and prototype, the Froude number for both of them should be
equal. Froude Model law is applicable when the gravity force is only predominant force which controls the flow
in addition to the force of inertia.
V
p V L
V r r
m

3. Webers Model law: Webers Model law is the law in which models are based on Webers number which is
the ratio of the square root of inertia force to surface tension force. Hence where surface tension effects
predominant in addition to inertia force, the dynamic similarity between the model and prototype is obtained by
equating the Weber number of the model and its prototype. Hence according to this law:
V
(We)model = (We)prototype where We is Weber number = L

5.Mach Model law: Mach Model law is the law in which models are based on Mach number which is the ratio
of the square root of inertia force to elastic force of a fluid. Hence where force due to elastic compression
predominant in addition to inertia force, the dynamic similarity between the model and prototype is obtained by
equating the Weber number of the model and its prototype.
Hence according to this law:
(M)model = (M)prototype
UNIT - 4 PUMPS

Impact of jets - Theory of roto-dynamic machines - various efficiencies-velocity components at entry and exit
of the rotor- velocity triangles. Centrifugal Pumps: Definition-Operations- Velocity Triangles Performance
curves - Cavitations-Multi-staging.Reciprocating Pumps: Operation - Slip - indicator Diagram - Separation - Air vessels.

HYDRAULIC PUMP

A hydraulic pump is a mechanical source of power that converts mechanical power into hydraulic energy .
It generates flow with enough power to overcome pressure induced by the load at the pump outlet. When a
hydraulic pump operates, it creates a vacuum at the pump inlet, which forces liquid from the reservoir into the
inlet line to the pump and by mechanical action delivers this liquid to the pump outlet and forces it into the
hydraulic system.
Centrifugal Pump :The main components of a centrifugal pump are: i) Impeller ii) Casing iii) Suction pipe
iv) Foot valve with strainer, v) Delivery pipe vi) Delivery valve.
Impeller is the rotating component of the pump. It is made up of a series of curved vanes. The impeller is
mounted on the shaft connecting an electric motor.
Casing is an air tight chamber surrounding the impeller. The shape of the casing is designed in such a way
that the kinetic energy of the impeller is gradually changed to potential energy. This is achieved by gradually
increasing the area of cross section in the direction of flow
Suction pipe: It is the pipe connecting the pump to the sump, from where the liquid has to be lifted up.
Foot valve with strainer: The foot valve is a non-return valve which permits the flow of the liquid from the su
other words the foot valve opens only in the upward direction. The strainer is a mesh surrounding the valve, it p
debris and silt into the pump.
Delivery pipe is a pipe connected to the pump to the overhead tank. Delivery valve is a valve which can regulat
the pump.
Working:
A centrifugal pump works on the principle that when a certain mass of fluid is rotated by an
external source, it is thrown away from the central axis of rotation and a centrifugal head is
impressed which enables it to rise to a higher level.
Working operation of a centrifugal pump is explained in the following steps. 1) Close the
delivery valve and prime the pump. 2) Start the motor connected to the pump shaft, this causes
an increase in the impeller pressure. 3) Open the delivery valve gradually, so that the liquid
starts flowing into the deliver pipe. 4) A partial vacuum is created at the eye of the centrifugal
action, the liquid rushed from the sump to the pump due to pressure difference at the two ends
of the suction pipe. 5) As the impeller continues to run, move & more liquid is made available
to the pump at its eye. Therefore impeller increases the energy of the liquid and delivers it to
the reservoir. 6) While stopping the pump, the delivery valve should be closed first, otherwise
there may be back flow from the reservoir.
It may be noted that a uniform velocity of flow is maintained in the delivery pipe. This is due to
the special design of the casing. As the flow proceeds from the tongue of the casing to the
delivery pipe, the area of the casing increases. There is a corresponding change in the quantity
of the liquid from the impeller. Thus a uniform flow occurs in the delivery pipe.

Centrifugal pump converts rotational energy, often from a motor, to energy in a moving fluid.
A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid enters axially through eye of
the casing, is caught up in the impeller blades, and is whirled tangentially and radially outward
until it leaves through all circumferential parts of the impeller into the diffuser part of the
casing. The fluid gains both velocity and pressure while passing through the impeller. The
doughnut-shaped diffuser, or scroll, section of the casing decelerates the flow and further
increases the pressure. The negative pressure at the eye of the impeller helps to maintain the
flow in the system. If no water is present initially, the negative pressure developed by the
rotating air, at the eye will be negligibly small to suck fresh stream of water. As a result the
impeller will rotate without sucking and discharging any water content. So the pump should be
initially filled with water before starting it. This process is known as priming.
Use of the Casing
From the illustrations of the pump so far, one speciality of the casing is clear. It has an
increasing area along the flow direction. Such increasing area will help to accommodate newly
added water stream, and will also help to reduce the exit flow velocity. Reduction in the flow
velocity will result in increase in the static pressure, which is required to overcome the
resistance of pumping system.
NPSH - Overcoming the problem of Cavitation
If pressure at the suction side of impeller goes below vapor pressure of the water, a dangerous
phenomenon could happen. Water will start to boil forming vapor bubbles. These bubbles will
move along with the flow and will break in a high pressure region. Upon breaking the bubbles
will send high impulsive shock waves and spoil impeller material overtime. This phenomenon
is known as cavitation. More the suction head, lesser should be the pressure at suction side to
lift the water. This fact puts a limit to the maximum suction head a pump can have.

However Cavitation can be completely avoided by careful pump selection. The term NPSH
(Net Positive Suction Head) helps the designer to choose the right pump which will completely
avoid Cavitation. NPSH is defined as follows.

## Where Pv is vapor pressure of water

V is speed of water at suction side

For a given pumping system it will have an NPSH called 'Available NPSH'. Pump anufacturer
will specify the minimum NPSH required for each pump for its safe operation, known
as 'Required NPSH'. If the pump needs to work without Cavitation the 'Available
NPSH' should be greater than
'Required NPSH'.

## FLOW AT IMPELLER INLET AND EXIT

The rotating impeller of a centrifugal pump imparts energy to the fluid. As mentioned in earlier
lesson, the impeller contains radial flow passages formed by rotating blades (vanes) arranged in
a circle. A disk in the back (base plate) connects the impeller assembly to the shaft and another
disk (crown plate) covers the blades on the front. The flow enters axially near the center of
rotation and turns in the radial direction inside the impeller as shown in Fig. Thus, the liquid
enters the impeller at its center and leaves at its outer periphery.
The flow follows certain streamlines inside the rotating impeller, approximately parallel to the
blade surfaces. The shape of the blades and the resulting flow pattern in the impeller determine
how much energy is transferred by a given size of the impeller and how efficiently it operates.
The theoretical energy increase [i.e., theoretical head rise (Hmth) through the impeller] can be
found by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum.
The components of flow through an impeller can be best studied by means of velocity vectors
as illustrated in Figure. In this figure, the inlet and outlet velocity diagrams of an impeller with
backward curved vanes are shown. Note that this figure shows a portion of the impeller of a
centrifugal pump with one blade only. The velocity vector diagram is triangular and hence, it is
known as a velocity triangle. It can be drawn for any point the flow path through the
impeller.
However, velocity triangles are usually drawn at the impeller inlet and outlet (exit) and are
called inlet or entrance velocity triangle and outlet or discharge velocity triangle,
respectively.
Unit -4 PUMPS
=( 3.14 X 0.20X1200 ) / 60 = 12.56 m/s
u2 = D2N / 60
=( 3.14 X 0.40X1200 ) / 60 = 25.13 m/s

## Wkt , tan = vf1 / u1

vf1 = 4.57 m/s
tan = vf1 / (u2 vw2)
vw2 = 17.215 m/s
work done = vw2 u2 / g
17.215x25.13 / 9.81 = 44.1 Nm

## MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

A simple centrifugal pump use a single impeller mounted on a shaft to produce a specific head
and a specific discharge rate but what if you need n times greater head or discharge rate. This
problem can be solved by using the multistage centrifugal pump

There are two possible reason why multistage centrifugal pumps are used.

## 1. Need high head at constant discharge rate

2. Need more discharge rate at constant head

Mounting more than one impeller on a same shaft and closing them in same casing will
produce higher head than single impeller pump but the discharge rate will be same as single
impeller.

If two pumps are installed parallel to each other at same sump then the discharge rate will be
increase but head will be same as that of single pump

PUMP IS SERIES
In series arrangement of pumps, more that one impellers are mounted on the single shaft of a
centrifugal pump and closed under a same casing. This arrangement can increase the head of
the pump by keeping the discharge rate constant.This type is used to deliver small quantity of
liquid at high head.

In this type of arrangement impeller one take is input from the sump and discharge is at a
specific head and discharge rate. This out put if impeller one is the input for the impeller
number two. Output of impeller number two will be same discharge and twice the head.

H total = n H
n = number of impeller
H = head made by single impeller
Unit -4 PUMPS

## Fig: Two stage pump-Impellers in series

Advantages
Less frictional losses
Reduce stresses
Less slip leakage
Thrust can be eliminated
High suction lift at relatively low impeller speed

PUMP IN PARALLEL

For a single centrifugal pump it is impossible to deliver a huge quantity of liquid at small head
but it is possible with parallel arrangement of pump. More that one pumps are install at a
single source and both of them work separately to produce a specific discharge rate then their
output is merged in a single delivery pie to get a greater discharge rate than single pump.

Q total = n Q
n = number of pump installed
Q = Discharge of single pump

## Fig: Pumps in Parallel

Problem 2
Unit -4 PUMPS

A three stage centrifugal pump has impeller 40 cm in diameter and 2 cm wide at outlet.the vane are
curved back at the outlet at 45 o and reduce the circumference area by 10 %.the manometric efficiency
is 90 % and the overall efficiency is 80 % .determine the head generated by the pump when running at
1000 rpm .delivering 50 litre per second.what should be the shaft horse power?
Given ,
n = 3 ; D2= 0.4 m ; B2 = 0.02 m ; = 45 o reduction in area = 0.1 ; area at outlet = 0.9 x x 0.4 x0.02
= 0.02262 m2
manometric efficiency = 0.90 ; overall efficiency = 0.80 ; N= 1000 rpm ; Q = 50 lit/s
vf2 = Q/A = 0.05/0.02262 = 2.21 m/s
u2 = D2N / 60 = 20.94 m/s
tan = vf2 / (u2-vw2)
vw2 =18.73 m/s
manometric efficiency = gHm / vw2 u2
Hm=35.98 m
Total head generated = n x Hm = 3 x 35.98 = 107.94 m
Power output of the pump = (weight of water lifted x total head ) / 1000
=( 1000 x 9.81 x 0.05 x 107.94 ) / 1000 = 52.94 kw
Overall efficiency = power output / power input = 52.94/ shaft power
Shaft power = 66.175 kw

RECIPROCATING PUMP
If the mechanical energy is converted into hydraulic energy by sucking the liquid into a
cylinder in which a piston is reciprocating, which exerts the thrust on the liquid and increases
its hydraulic energy is know as reciprocating pump. A reciprocating pump is a positive
displacement pump. It is often used where relatively small quantity of liquid is to be handled
and where delivery pressure is quite large.
Reciprocating pump consists of following parts.
1. A cylinder with a piston5. suction pipe
2. piston rod6. delivery pipe
3. connecting rod7. suction valve
4. crank8. delivery valve

Unit -4 PUMPS

## Discharge of the pump per second

Q = Discharge in one revolution x No.of revolution per second

Problem 3
A single acting reciprocating pump ,running at 50 rpm , delivers 0.01 m3/s of water.the diameter of
The piston is 200 mm and stoke length 400 mm. Determine i)theoretical discharge ; ii)co-efficient of
discharge ; iii)slip and percentage of slip

## Given ,N= 50 RPM ; Q = 0.01 m3 /s ; D= 0.20 m; L=040 m

A= X 0.02 / 4 = 0.0314 m2
i)Qth =ALN / 60 = (0.0314 X .40 X 50 )/ 60
= 0.01047 m3/s

## WORKING OF A DOUBLE-ACTING RECIPROCATING PUMP

A double acting reciprocating pump is shown in Fig. It consists of two suction and two delivery
pipes connected to one cylinder. Each suction and delivery pipe is provided with a one-way
valve. The piston has a connecting rod-crank mechanism to drive it. It is connected to a prime
mover. When the prime mover is started the piston moves forward and backward. During each
forward and backward strokesuction and delivery takes place simultaneously.
Suction valve remains closed when delivery takes place either on the front side or rear side of
the piston.
Similarly, delivery valve remains closed when suction takes place either on the front side or
rear side of the piston. The discharge is twice that of a single acting pump.
Discharge through a double-acting reciprocating pump.
2 LAN m3
s
Discharge , Qth = 60
The above equation gives the discharge of a double-acting reciprocating pump. This discharge is two
Unit -4 PUMPS

## SLIP OF A RECIPROCATING PUMP

Slip is defined as the difference between theoretical discharge and actual discharge. If actual
discharge is greater than theoretical discharge negative value is found this negative value is
called negative slip.
When Qa > Qth then the slip of the pump becomes negative. Where Qa is the actual discharged
Qth is the theoretical discharge. This is possible when the length of suction pipe is
considerably long, delivery head low and pump is running at high speed.
% of slip = (Qth - Qa ) / Qth

INDICATOR DIAGRAM:
A pressure volume diagram (or PV diagram) is used to describe corresponding changes in
volume and pressure in a system.
PV diagrams, originally called indicator diagrams, were developed for understanding the
efficiency of steam engines. A PV diagram plots the change in pressure P with respect to
volume V for some process or processes. Typically in thermodynamics, the set of processes
forms a cycle, so that upon completion of the cycle there has been no net change in state of the
system; i.e. the device returns to the starting pressure and volume.
The figure shows the features of a typical PV diagram. A series of numbered states (1 through
4) are noted. The path between each state consists of some process (A through D) which alters
the pressure or volume of the system (or both).

A key feature of the diagram is that the amount of energy expended or received by the system
as work can be estimated as the area under the curve on the chart. For a cyclic diagram, the net
work is that enclosed by the curve. In the example given in the figure, the processes 1-2-3
produce a work output, but processes from 3-4-1 require a smaller energy input to return to the
starting position / state; thus the net work is the difference between the two.

## AIR VESSEL IN RECIPROCATING PUMP

Air vessels are a closed container, in which the half part is filled with water & upper half part is
filled with compressed air. These air vessels installed very near to the suction valve & delivery
valve to avoid the separation.
Unit -4 PUMPS

An air vessel usually fitted in the discharge pipe work to dampen out thepressure variations
during discharge. As the discharge pressure rises the airis compressed in the vessel, and as the
pressure falls the air expands. The peak pressure energy is thus stored in the air and returned to
the system when pressure falls. Air vessels are not fitted on the reciprocating boiler feed pumps
since they may introduce air into the de-aerated water.
The top half contains compressed air and lower half contains fluid being pumped. Air and
water are separated by a flexible diaphragm which is movable as per difference of pressure
between two fluids.
Air vessel is connected very near to the pump at nearly pump level. Without air vessel
frictional head increases and reaches a maximum value at mid stroke and decreases to zero.
With air vessel frictional head is constant throughout the stroke.

Impact of Jets
The liquid comes out in the form of a jet from the outlet of a nozzle which is fitted to a pipe
through which the liquid is flowing under pressure.

The following cases of the impact of jet, i.e. the force exerted by the jet on a plate will be
considered:

Plate is curved

## Plate is inclined to the jet

Plate is curved
Force exerted by the jet on a stationary vertical plate

Consider a jet of water coming out from the nozzle strikes the vertical plate

V = velocity of jet, d = diameter of the jet, a = area of x section of the jet The force exerted by
the jet on the plate in the direction of jet.

## Fx = Rate of change of momentum in the direction of force

= initial momentum final momentum / time
= mass x initial velocity mass x final velocity / time
= mass/time (initial velocity final velocity)
= mass/ sec x (velocity of jet before striking final velocity of jet after striking)
= aV (V -0)
Fx= aV2

## 1st Case: Force on flat moving plate in the direction of jet

Consider, a jet of water strikes the flat moving plate moving with a uniform velocity away from the jet.

V = Velocity of jet
a = area of x-section of jet;
u = velocity of flat plate

## Fx = Mass of water striking/ sec x [Initial velocity Final velocity]

= a(V - u) [(V - u) 0]

In this case, work is done by the jet on the plate as the plate is moving, for stationary plate the w.d is ze
Work done by the jet on the flat moving plate.
UNIT 5 TURBINES AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

Hydraulic Turbines: Classification of hydraulic turbines-Working principle of Pelton wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines -
velocity triangles - draft tube - hydraulic turbine characteristics. Governing of turbines
Dimensional Analysis: Needs and methods -Buckingham's Theorem, Non-Dimensional Numbers, Similarities of flow. Model
studies

Hydraulic Turbines:

Hydraulic Turbines are defined as the hydraulic machines which convert hydraulic energy into mechanical
energy. This mechanical energy is used in running an electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of
the turbine. Thus the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. The electric power which is
obtained from the hydraulic energy (energy of water) is known as Hydro-electro power.

## Classification Hydraulic Turbines:

1. According to the type of energy at inlet:
(a) Impulse turbine (b) Reaction turbine

## 3. According to the direction of flow through runner:

(a) Tangential flow turbine (b) Radial flow turbine (c)Axial flow turbine (d) Mixed flow
turbine 3.According to the head at inlet of turbine:
(a) High head turbine (b) Medium head turbine (c) Low head turbine
4.According to the specific speed of turbine:
(a) Low specific speed turbine (b) Medium specific speed turbine (c) High specific speed turbine

## 5.According to head of water with which the turbines are working:

(a)Low head turbine (b) Medium head turbine (c)High head turbine

## 6. According to the name of the originator:

(a)Pelton turbine (b) Francis turbine (c)vKaplan turbine

## Working principle of Pelton wheel

The Pelton wheel turbine is a pure impulse turbine in which a jet of fluid leaving the nozzle strikes
the buckets fixed to the periphery of a rotating wheel. The energy available at the inlet of the turbine
is only kinetic energy. The pressure at the inlet and outlet of the turbine is atmospheric. The turbine
is used for high heads ranging from (150-2000) m.
Parts of the Pelton turbine
Nozzle and flow control arrangement
The water from the reservoir flows through the penstocks at the outlet of which a nozzle is fitted.
The nozzle converts the total head at the inlet of the nozzle into kinetic energy. The amount of water
striking the curved buckets of the runner is controlled by providing a spear in the nozzle. The spear is
a conical needle which is operated either by a hand wheel or automatically in an axial direction
depending upon the size of the unit.
Runner and buckets
The rotating wheel or circular disc is called the runner. On the periphery of the runner a number of
buckets evenly spaced are fixed. The shape of the buckets is of a double hemispherical cup or bowl.
Each bucket is divided into two symmetrical parts by a dividing wall which is known as the splitter.
The jet of water strikes on the splitter. The splitter then divides the jet into two equal paits and the
water comes out at the outer edge of the bucket. The buckets deflect the jet through an angle between
(160-165) in the same plane as the jet. Due to this deflection of the jet,the momentum of the fluid
is changed reacting on the buckets. A bucket is therefore, pushed away by the jet.
Casing
The casing prevents the plashing of the water and discharges the water to tail race. The spent water
falls vertically into the lower reservoir or tail race and the whole energy transfer from the nozzle
outlet to tail race take place at a constant pressure. The casing is made of cast iron or fabricated steel
plates.
Braking jet
To stop the runner within a short time, a small nozzle is provided which directs the jet of water on to
the back of the vanes. The jet of water is called the "braking jet ". If there is no braking jet, the
runner due to inertia goes on revolving for a long time.

## Work Done and Efficiency of Pelton Wheel

Figure shows the shape of buckets and inlet and outlet velocity triangles of a Pelton wheel.
= [ 1 1 2 2]
For a Pelton wheel, u1 = u2 = u = 60

## From the velocity triangles in Figure, we have

= angle between the direction of flow at inlet and redirection of motion of runner = 0 = angle made by the relative velocity Vr1 with the
direction of motion of runner = 0 The quantity of flow striking the runner, Q = aV1 in which, a = area of jet = 42,
where d= diameter of jet

## Fig:Velocity triangles of a Pelton wheel

Hence, the work done by the jet in the case of Pelton wheel by,

aVV w1 V w2
u 1
Work done 1
V V u
aV g g w1 w2
1
Q= ( 1 1 + 2)u

1 cos
Hydraulice fficiency h
2
Problems solved:
Pb:1
RADIAL FLOW REACTION TURBINES:
Radial flow turbines are those turbines in which the water flows in the radial direction. The
water may radially from outwards to inwards (i.e., towards the axis of rotation) or from inwards to
outwards. If the water flows from outwards to inwards through the runner, the turbine is known as
inward radial flow turbine. And if the water flows from inwards to outwards through the runner, the
turbine is known as outward radial flow turbine.

Francis Turbine
Main Parts:
1.Casing 2.Guide Mechanism 3.Runner and 4.Draft tube.

Figure shows a schematic diagram of a Francis turbine The main parts of a Francis turbine are:
1.Penstock: It is a large sized conduit which conveys water from the upstream of the dam/reservoir
to the turbine runner
3. Spiral scroll casing: It constitutes a closed passage whose cross sectional area gradually decreases
along the flow direction, area is maximum at inlet and nearly zero at exit.
4. Guide vanes (wicket gates): These vanes direct the water onto the runner at an angle appropriate to
the design. Their angles are controlled by means of a hand wheel or automatically by a governor.
5. Governing mechanism: It changes the position of the guide blades/vanes to affect a variation in
water flow rate, when the load conditions on the turbine change
6. Runner and runner blades: The driving force on the runner is both due to impulse and reaction
effects. The number of runner blades usually varies between 16 to 24.
7. Draft tube: It is a gradually expanding tube which discharges water, passing through the runner, to
the tail race.
The modem Francis turbine is an inward mixed flow reaction turbine (in the earlier stages of
development Francis turbine had a purely radial flow runner), i.e. water under pressure, enters the
runner from the guide vanes towards the centre in radial direction and discharges out of the runner
axially. The Francis turbine operates under medium heads and also requires medium quantity of
water It is employed in the medium head power plants This type of turbine covers a wide range of
heads. Water is brought down to the turbine through a penstock and directed to a number of
stationary orifices fixed all around the circumference of the runner. These stationary orifices are
commonly called as guide vanes or wicket gates.
The head acting on the turbine is partly transformed into kinetic energy and the rest remains as
pressure head There is a difference of pressure between the guide vanes and the runner which is
called the reaction pressure and is responsible for the motion of the runner That is why a Francis
turbine is also known as reaction turbine. In Francis turbine the pressure at inlet is more than that at
outlet. This means that the water in the turbine must flow in a closed conduit. Unlike the Pelton type,
where the water strikes only a few of the runner buckets at a time, in the Francis turbine the runner is
always full of water. The moment of runner is affected by the change of both the potential and
kinetic energies of water. After doing the work the water is discharged to the tail race through a draft
lube of gradually enlarging section. It does not allow water to fall freely to tail race level as in the
Pelton turbine. The free end of the draft tube is submerged deep in tail water, making the entire water
passage right from the head race up to the tail race totally enclosed

## Inward radial flow turbine:

Work done per sec ond per unit weight of water per sec ond 1V uV u
w1 1 w2 2
g
V uV u
Hydraulic efficiency w1 1 w2 2
gH
AXIAL FLOW REACTION TURBINE:
If the water flows parallel to the axis of the rotation of the shaft, the turbine is known as axial
flow turbine. And if the head at the inlet of the turbine is the sum of pressure energy and kinetic
energy and during the flow of water through runner a part of pressure energy is converted into
kinetic energy, the turbine is known as reaction turbine.

For axial flow reaction turbine, the shaft of the turbine is vertical. The lower end of the shaft is
made larger which is known as hub or boss. The vanes are fixed on the hub and hence hub acts as
a runner for axial flow reaction turbine. The following are the important type of axial flow reaction
turbine.
1.Propeller turbine: When the vanes are fixed to the hub and they are not adjustable, the turbine
is known as propeller turbine.

2. Kaplan turbine: When the vanes on the hub are adjustable, the turbine is known as Kaplan
turbine.

## The main parts of a Kaplan turbine are:

1.Scroll casing 2.Guide vanes mechanism 3.Hub with vanes or runner of the turbine and
4.Draft tube.

Kaplan turbine is a low head reaction turbine in which water flows axially. In this type of turbine, the
water flows parallel to the axis of rotation. The shaft of the turbine may be either vertical or
horizontal. The lower end of the shaft is made of larger to form the boss or the hub. When the vanes
are composite with the boss the turbine is called as propeller turbine. When the vanes are adjustable
the turbine is called as Kaplan turbine.
All the parts of the Kaplan turbine (viz. spiral casing, guide wheel and guide blades) are similar to
that of the Francis turbine, except the runner blades, runner and draft tube. The runner and runner
blades of the Kaplan turbine resemble with the propeller of the ship. Hence. Kaplan turbine is also
called as Propeller Turbine. The blades of a Kaplan turbine, three to eight in number are pivoted
around the central hub or boss, thus permitting adjustment of their orientation changes in load and
head.
Draft Tubes
The water after working on the turbine, imparts its energy to the vanes and runner, thereby reducing
its pressure less than that of atmospheric pressure (Vacuum). As the water flows from higher
pressure to lower pressure, it cannot come out of the turbine and hence a divergent tube is connected
to the end of the turbine. Draft tube is a divergent tube, one end of which is connected to the outlet of
the turbine and other end is immersed well below the tailrace water level. The major function of the
draft tube is to increase the pressure from the inlet to outlet of the draft tube as it flows through it and
hence increase it more than atmospheric pressure. The other function is to safely discharge the water
that has worked on the turbine to tailrace. Depending on the shape and alignment, draft tubes are
classified as follows:

Vertical divergent draft tube: The draft tube has the shape of a frustum of a cone. This is generally
provided for low specific speed. The cone angle is not to exceed 8. For greater value of the cone
angle it is seen that the flowing body of water may not touch the sides of the draft tube. This will
lead to the eddy formation bringing down the efficiency of the draft tube.
Moody's draft tube or hydra cone: This is a bell mouthed draft tube or a conical tube with a solid
conical central core. The whirl of discharged water is very much reduced in this arrangement. Elbow
draft tube: This draft tube affords to discharge the water horizontally to the tail race.
Elbow draft tube with circular inlet and rectangular outlet: This is a further improvement of the
simple elbow draft tube.
In all the types mentioned above, the outlet of the draft tube should be situated below the tail water
level.
Governing of turbines:

A Governor is a mechanism to regulate the speed of the turbine. The turbine is coupled to shaft of
the generator, which is generating power. The power generated should have uniform rating of current
and frequency which in turn depends on the speed of the shaft of the turbine. The above figure shows
the oil pressure governor of the turbine.

## SPECIFIC SPEED (Ns):

It is defined as the speed of a turbine which is identical in shape, geometrical dimensions, blade angles,
gate opening etc., with the actual turbine but of such a size that will develop unit power when working under unit
head.
N P
Ns
Q5/4
CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF HYDRAULIC TURBINE:

## 1.Main Characteristic Curves or Constant Head Curve

2.Operating Characteristic Curves or Constant Speed Curve
3.Muschel Curves or Constant Efficiency Curve

## Characteristic curves of a Turbine

These curves are characteristic of a particular turbine which helps in studying the performance of
the turbine under various conditions. The data that must be obtained obtained in testing a turbine are
the following:
2. The speed of the turbine N
3. The discharge,Q
4. The net head, H
5. The power developed, P
6. The overall efficiency , o

## a) Constant head curves or main characteristic curves

b) Constant speed curves or operating characteristic curves
c) Constant efficiency curves
Constant head curves: Maintaining a constant head, the speed of the turbine is varied by admitting
different rates of flow by adjusting the percentage of gate opening. The power P developed is
measured mechanically. From each test the unit power Pu, the unit speed Nu, the unit discharge Qu
and the overall efficiency o are determined. The characteristic curves drawn are
a) Unit discharge vs unit speed
b) Unit power vs unit speed
c) Overall efficiency vs unit speed
Constant speed curves: In this case tests are conducted at a constant speed varying the head H and
suitably adjusting the discharge Q. The power developed P is measured mechanically. The overall
efficiency is aimed at its maximum value.
The curves drawn are
P vs Q
o Vs Q
o Vs Pu

Constant efficiency curves: These curves are plotted from data which can be obtained from the
constant head and constant speed curves. The object of obtaining this curve is to determine the zone
of constant efficiency so that we can always run the turbine with maximum efficiency.
This curve also gives a good idea about the performance of the turbine at various efficiencies.
65