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You are on page 1of 65

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,

POTTAPALAYAM 630 612.

DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOBILE

ENGINEERING

(AU Chennai - R2013)

Question Bank

Prepared by

Dr.J. RAJESH BABU, M.E,Ph.D/ASP

Mr.S.Suresh,M.E,(PhD)/AP(SG)

Department of Automobile Engineering

CE 6451 - FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Part A questions:

Density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of a fluid to its volume.

Specific weight or weight density of a fluid is defined as the ratio between the weight

of a fluid to its volume.

unit mass of a fluid.

Specific volume vs = volume/ wt = 1/ = 1/g ----- for liquids

Viscosity is defined as the property of fluid which offers resistance to the movement

of one layer of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid.

It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density of fluid.

Page 1 of 22

= / (m2/s)

a. Ideal fluid,

b. Real fluid,

c. Newtonian fluid,

d. Non-Newtonian fluid,

e. Ideal Plastic fluid.

7. Define Compressibility.

It is defined as the ratio of volumetric strain to compressive stress.

Surface tension is defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of the liquid in

contact with a gas or on the surface between two immiscible liquids such that the

contact surface behaves like a membrane under tension.

Surface Tension, = Force/Length (N/m)

Surface tension on a hollow bubble, =

pd/8 Surface tension on a liquid jet, = pd/2

Surface tension

(N/m) d Diameter (m)

relative to the adjacent general level of liquid when the tube is held vertically in the

liquid. The rise of liquid surface is known as capillary rise while the fall of liquid

surface is known as capillary depression.

Page 2 of 22

= 0 for glass tube and water

= 130 for glass tube and mercury

When vaporization takes place, the molecules start accumulating over the free liquid

surface exerting pressure on the liquid surface. This pressure is known as Vapour

pressure of the liquid.

boundaries around the control volume are referred to as control surfaces. An open

system is also referred to as a control volume.

13. Write the continuity equation.

equation.

u/x + v/y = 0 ----- two dimensional flow

a. Steady and unsteady flow

b. Uniform and non-uniform flow

c. Laminar and Turbulent flow

d. Compressible and incompressible flow

e. Rotational and ir-rotational flow

f. One, Two and Three dimensional flow

Steady flow

Fluid flow is said to be steady if at any point in the flowing fluid various characteristics

such as velocity, density, pressure, etc do not change with time.

V/t = 0 p/t = 0 /t = 0

Unsteady flow

Page 3 of 22

Fluid flow is said to be unsteady if at any point flowing fluid any one or all

characteristics which describe the behavior of the fluid in motion change with time.

V/t 0 p/t 0 /t 0

Uniform flow

When the velocity of flow of fluid does not change both in direction and magnitude

from point to point in the flowing fluid for any given instant of time, the flow is said to

be uniform.

V/s = 0 p/s = 0 /s = 0

Non-uniform flow

If the velocity of flow of fluid changes from point to point in the flowing fluid at any

instant, the flow is said to be non-uniform flow.

V/s 0 p/s 0 /s 0

It states that For a steady uniform flow, the shear stress on a fluid element is layer is

directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of proportionality is

called the coefficient of viscosity.

Compressible flow

The compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes

from point to point i.e. the density is not constant for the fluid. It is expressed in

kg/sec.

constant

Incompressible flow

The incompressible flow is that type of flow in which the density is constant for the

fluid flow. Liquids are generally incompressible. It is expressed in m3/s.

= constant

Rotational flow

Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along

stream lines and also rotate about their own axis.

Ir-rotational flow

If the fluid particles are flowing along stream lines and do not rotate about their own

axis that type of flow is called as ir-rotational flow

Z = datum head

21. State the assumptions used in deriving Bernoullis equation

a. Flow is steady;

b. Flow is laminar;

c. Flow is ir-rotational;

d. Flow is incompressible;

e. Fluid is ideal.

22. List the instruments works on the basis of Bernoullis equation.

a. Venturi meter;

b. Orifice meter;

c. Pitot tube.

23. Define Impulse Momentum Equation (or) Momentum Equation.

The total force acting on fluid is equal to rate of change of momentum. According to

Newtons second law of motion, F = ma

F dt = d(mv)

In a steady flow of frictionless and incompressible fluid flow system, the total energy

per unit weight of flowing fluid remains constant.

25. What is known as Eulers equation of motion?

If the flow is assumed to be ideal viscous force and it is zero then the equation of

motion is known as Eulers equation of motion.

Page 5 of 22

UNIT 2 - CLOSED THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUCTS

Part A questions:

1. Mention the range of Reynoldss number for laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe.

If the Reynolds number is less than 2000, the flow is laminar. But if the Reynoldss

number is greater than 4000, the flow is turbulent flow.

2. What does Haigen - Poiseuilles equation refers to?

The equation refers to the value of loss of head in a pipe of length L due to viscosity

in a laminar flow.

(P1-P2) / g = hf = 32 L / gD2

= Average velocity,

= Coefficient of viscosity,

D = Diameter of pipe,

L = Length of pipe

4. Write the expression for shear stress?

(r/2) max = - (p/x) (R/2)

formula for velocity distribution is given as u =

- ( ) (p/x) (R2-r2)

r = Radius of the fluid element

The equation for average velocity is given as

= - (1/8) (p/x) R2

Umax / = 2

Coefficient of friction between pipe and fluid in viscous flow f =16/ Re

Where, f = Re = Reynolds number

9. What are the factors to be determined when viscous fluid flows through the circular

pipe?

The factors to be determined are:

a. Velocity distribution across the section.

b. Ratio of maximum velocity to the average velocity.

d. Drop of pressure for a given length.

10. Define kinetic energy correction factor?

Kinetic energy factor is defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow per sec

based on actual velocity across a section to the kinetic energy of the flow per sec

based on average velocity across the same section. It is denoted by ().

K. E factor () = K.E per sec based on actual velocity / K.E per sec based on

Average velocity

11. Define Boundary layer.

When a real fluid flow passed a solid boundary, fluid layer is adhered to the solid

boundary. Due to adhesion fluid undergoes retardation thereby developing a small

region in the immediate vicinity of the boundary. This region is known as boundary

layer.

12. What is mean by boundary layer growth?

At subsequent points downstream of the leading edge, the boundary layer region

increases because the retarded fluid is further retarded. This is referred as growth of

boundary layer.

a. Laminar boundary layer,

b. Transition zone,

c. Turbulent boundary layer.

14. Define Laminar sub Layer

In the turbulent boundary layer zone, adjacent to the solid surface of the plate the

velocity variation is influenced by viscous effects. Due to very small thickness, the

velocity distribution is almost linear. This region is known as laminar sub layer.

15. Define Boundary layer Thickness.

It is defined as the distance from the solid boundary measured in y-direction to the

point, where the velocity of fluid is approximately equal to 0.99 times the free stream

velocity (U) of the fluid. It is denoted by .

a. Displacement thickness(*),

b. Momentum thickness(),

c. Energy thickness(**)

17. Define displacement thickness.

should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in flow rate on account of

boundary layer formation.

* = [ 1 (u/U) ] dy

should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid

on account of boundary layer formation.

= [ (u/U) (u/U)2 ] dy

The energy thickness (**) is defined as the distance by which the boundary should

be displaced to compensate for the reduction in kinetic energy of the flowing fluid on

account of boundary layer formation.

** = [ (u/U) (u/U)3 ] dy

When the fluid flows through a pipe, it loses some energy or head due to frictional

resistance and other reasons. It is called energy loss. The losses are classified as;

Major losses and Minor losses

The major energy losses in a pipe is mainly due to the frictional resistance caused by

the sheer force between the fluid particles and boundary walls of the pipe and also

due to viscosity of the fluid.

22. Explain minor losses in a pipe.

The loss of energy or head due to change of velocity of the flowing fluid in magnitude

or direction is called minor losses. It includes: sudden expansion of the pipe, sudden

contraction of the pipe, bend in a pipe, pipe fittings and obstruction in the pipe, etc.

23. State Darcy-Weibach equation OR What is the expression for head loss due to

friction?

d = Diameter of the pipe (m),

= Coefficient of friction

24. What are the factors influencing the frictional loss in pipe flow?

Frictional resistance for the turbulent flow is,

c. Proportional to the area of surface in contact.

d. Independent of pressure.

e. Depend on the nature of the surface in contact.

25. Define the terms a) Hydraulic gradient line [HGL] b) Total Energy line [TEL]

Hydraulic gradient line: It is defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure

head and datum head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect the reference line.

HGL = Sum of Pressure Head and Datum head

Total energy line: Total energy line is defined as the line which gives the sum of

pressure head, datum head and kinetic head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect

to some reference line.

TEL = Sum of Pressure Head, Datum head and Velocity head

Page 9 of 22

UNIT 3 - DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

Part A questions:

dimensions as an aid to solution of several engineering problems. It plays an

important role in research work.

motion.

parameters.

systematic manner.

3. List the primary and derived quantities.

Primary or Fundamental quantities: The various physical quantities used to

describe a given phenomenon can be described by a set of quantities which are

independent of each other. These quantities are known as fundamental quantities or

primary quantities. Mass (M), Length (L), Time (T) and Temperature () are the

fundamental quantities.

velocity, acceleration, energy, power, etc are termed as derived quantities or

secondary quantities because they can be expressed by primary quantities.

2

, Mass density () ML-3, Power (P) -ML2T-3

on its LHS are same as the dimensions of the terms on its RHS.

6. Mention the methods available for dimensional analysis.

a. Rayleigh method,

b. Buckingham method

It states that if there are n variables (both independent & dependent variables) in a

physical phenomenon and if these variables contain m functional dimensions and

are related by a dimensionally homogeneous equation, then the variables are

arranged into n-m dimensionless terms. Each term is called term.

8. List the repeating variables used in Buckingham theorem.

Geometrical Properties l, d, H, h, etc,

The small scale replica of an actual structure or the machine is known as its Model,

while the actual structure or machine is called as its Prototype. Mostly models are

much smaller than the corresponding prototype.

a. Model test are quite economical and convenient.

b. Alterations can be continued until most suitable design is obtained.

c. Modification of prototype based on the model results.

advance.

a. Geometric similarities,

b. Kinematic similarities,

c. Dynamic similarities

12. Define geometric similarities

It exists between the model and prototype if the ratio of corresponding lengths,

dimensions in the model and the prototype are equal. Such a ratio is known as

Scale Ratio.

13. Define kinematic similarities

It exists between the model and prototype if the paths of the homogeneous moving

particles are geometrically similar and if the ratio of the flow properties is equal.

14. Define dynamic similarities

It exists between model and the prototype which are geometrically and kinematic ally

similar and if the ratio of all forces acting on the model and prototype are equal.

15. Mention the various forces considered in fluid flow.

a. Inertia force,

b. Viscous force,

c. Gravity force,

d. Pressure force,

e. Surface Tension force,

f. Elasticity force

16. Define model law or similarity law.

The condition for existence of completely dynamic similarity between a model and its

prototype are denoted by equation obtained from dimensionless numbers. The laws

on which the models are designed for dynamic similarity are called Model laws or

Laws of Similarity.

17. List the various model laws applied in model analysis.

a. Reynoldss Model Law,

b. Froudes Model Law,

c. Eulers Model Law,

d. Weber Model Law,

e. Mach Model Law

18. State Reynoldss model law

For the flow, where in addition to inertia force the viscous force is the only other

predominant force, the similarity of flow in the model and its prototype can be

established, if the Reynoldss number is same for both the systems. This is known as

Reynoldss model law. Re(p) = Re(m)

When the forces of gravity can be considered to be the only predominant force which

controls the motion in addition to the force of inertia, the dynamic similarities of the

flow in any two such systems can be established, if the Froude number for both the

system is the same. This is known as Froude Model Law. Fr(p) = Fr (m)

In a fluid system where supplied pressures are the controlling forces in addition to

inertia forces and other forces are either entirely absent or in-significant the Eulers

number for both the model and prototype which known as Euler Model Law.

Page 12 of 22

When surface tension effect predominates in addition to inertia force then the

dynamic similarity is obtained by equating the Webers number for both model and

its prototype, which is called as Weber Model Law.

22. State Machs model law

If in any phenomenon only the forces resulting from elastic compression are

significant in addition to inertia forces and all other forces may be neglected, then the

dynamic similarity between model and its prototype may be achieved by equating the

Machs number for both the systems. This is known Mach Model Law.

23. Classify the hydraulic models.

The hydraulic models are classified as: Undistorted model & distorted model

24. Define undistorted model

An undistorted model is that which is geometrically similar to its prototype, i.e. the

scale ratio for corresponding linear dimensions of the model and its prototype are

same.

Distorted models are those in which one or more terms of the model are not identical

with their counterparts in the prototype.

26. Define Scale effect

An effect in fluid flow that results from changing the scale, but not the shape, of a

body around which the flow passes.

27. List the advantages of distorted model.

a. The results in steeper water surface slopes and magnification of wave heights

in model can be obtained by providing true vertical structure with accuracy.

small model.

Page 13 of 22

UNIT 4 - ROTO DYNAMIC MACHINES

Part A questions:

The machines which use the liquid or gas for the transfer of energy from fluid to rotor

or from rotor to fluid are known as fluid machines.

2. How are fluid machines classified?

Fluid machines are classified into two categories depending upon transfer of energy:

electrical energy.

hydraulic energy.

3. What are called turbines?

Hydraulic turbines are the machines which use the energy of water and convert it into

mechanical energy. The mechanical energy developed by a turbine is used in

running the electrical generator which is directly coupled to the shaft.

The general expression for the work done per second on impeller is

Q[Vw1u1 + Vw2u2]

The difference between head race level and tail race level is known as Gross Head

6. Define Net head of a turbine.

It is also called effective head and is defined as the head available at the inlet of the

turbine. H = Hg hf

Impulse Turbine:

If at the inlet of the turbine, the energy available is only kinetic energy, the turbine is

known as impulse turbine. The pressure at the inlet of the turbine is atmosphere.

This turbine is used for high heads. The water strikes the bucket along the tangent of

the runner. Ex: Pelton Wheel Turbine.

Page 14 of 22

Reaction Turbine:

If at the inlet of the turbine, the water possesses kinetic energy as well as pressure

energy, the turbine is known as reaction turbine. As the water flows through the

runner, the water is under pressure and the pressure energy goes on changing into

kinetic energy. The runner is completely enclosed in an air-tight casing and the

runner and casing is completely full of water. This turbine is used for medium heads.

Ex: Francis Turbine.

It is defined as the ratio of the pitch diameter (D) of the Pelton wheel to the diameter

of the jet (d). It is denoted by m and is given as m = D/d

Impulse turbine (Pelton wheel)

Reaction turbine (Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine, Propeller turbine)

b. Based on head available at inlet

High head turbine [ > 250 m ] - (Pelton wheel)

Medium head turbine [ 60 to 250 m ] - (Francis turbine)

Low head turbine [ < 60 m ] (Kaplan turbine, Propeller turbine)

c. Based on specific speed

Medium specific speed turbine - (Francis turbine)

Low specific speed turbine - (Pelton wheel)

d. Based on direction of flow through runner

Tangential flow turbine Radial flow turbine

Axial flow turbine Mixed flow turbine

11. Define Radial flow reaction turbine and their types.

If water flows in the radial direction in the turbine then it is referred as radial flow

turbine.

Types:

Inward radial flow reaction turbine: If the water flows from outwards to inwards

through the runner, the turbine is known as inward radial flow reaction turbine. Here

the outer diameter of the runner is inlet diameter whereas the inner diameter of the

runner is outlet diameter.

Outward radial flow reaction turbine: If the water flows from inwards to outwards

through the runner, the turbine is called as outward radial flow reaction turbine. Here

the outer diameter of the runner is outlet diameter whereas the inner diameter of the

runner is inlet diameter.

The draft tube is a pipe of gradually increasing area which connects the outlet of the

runner to the tail race. One end of the draft tube is connected to the outlet of the

runner while the other end is sub-merged below the level of water in the tail race.

13. Why do draft tubes have enlarging passage area in the direction of flow?

The pressure at the exit of the reaction turbine is generally less than atmospheric and

this makes the water NOT to discharge directly to the tail race. By the introduction of draft

tube, which has enlarged area in the direction of flow, the kinetic head reduces and

pressure head increases. There by discharge of water to the tail race safely.

a. Discharges water to tail race safely

energy

c. Net head of the turbine is increased.

15. Types of draft tube:

Conical draft tube, Simple elbow tube, Moody spreading tube and Elbow draft tube

with circular inlet and rectangular outlet.

16. Define specific speed of a turbine.

It is defined as the speed of the turbine which is geometrically similar and it will

develop unit power when working under unit head.

Ns = N P/ (H)5/4

The max speed reached by the turbine after the removal of the external load is called

runaway speed of turbine. The various rotating components of the turbine should be

designed to remain safe at the runaway speed.

The manometric head is defined as the head against which a centrifugal pump has to

work.

Hm = Vw2u2/g - loss of head

a. Main Characteristic Curves (or) Constant Head Curves

b. Operating Characteristic Curves (or) Constant Speed Curves

c. Muschel Curves (or) Constant Efficiency Curves

20. What is roto dynamic pump?

centrifugal force then the pump is called as roto dynamic pump.

Hydraulic pump means it converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. If the

mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy means of centrifugal force

acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called Centrifugal Pump.

22. Define Specific speed of a centrifugal pump.

similar pump which would deliver 1 m3/s against a head of 1 m.

UNIT 5 - POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES

Part A questions:

Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump. This means the liquid is first

sucked into the cylinder and then displaced or pushed by the thrust of a piston.

2. What is single acting pump and double acting pump?

If the water is in contact with one side of the piston the pump then it is known as

single acting reciprocating pump. For one complete revolution one suction stroke and

one delivery stroke occurs.

If the water is in contact with both sides of the piston the pump then it is called

double acting reciprocating pump. For one complete revolution two suction strokes

and two delivery strokes occurs.

3. What is Discharge through a Reciprocating Pump?

For Single acting Reciprocating Pump: Workdone = gALN(hs+hd)/60

For Double acting Reciprocating Pump: Work done= 2gALN(hs+hd)/60

Where,

N=Speed (rpm),

hs, hd=Suction and Delivery head (m).

5. Define slip and % slip.

The difference between the theoretical discharge (QT) and actual discharge (Qact) is

Slip = QT - Qact

% Slip = [ (QT - Qact)/QT ] x 100

pump. Cd=Qa/Qth. If Cd > 1 then ive slip occurs and if Cd < 1 then +ive slip occurs.

7. Write the expression for pressure head due to acceleration in suction and delivery

pipes.

Pressure head due to acceleration in suction pipe, has = (ls/g) (A/as) 2r Cost

Where,

Pressure head due to acceleration in delivery pipe, had = (ld/g) (A/ad) 2r Cost

8. Write the expression for head due to friction in suction and delivery pipes.

radius of crank.

Head loss due to friction in delivery pipe is,

The indicator diagram for a reciprocating pump is defined as the graph drawn

between the pressure head in the cylinder and the distance traveled by the piston for

one complete revolution of the crank.

10. Define ideal indicator diagram?

a. It is defined as the graph between pressure head in the cylinder and stroke

length of the crank under ideal condition is known as ideal indicator diagram.

b. During the suction stroke, the pressure in the cylinder is below atmospheric

pressure.

c. During the delivery stroke, the pressure in the cylinder is above atmospheric

pressure.

11. What is the relation between Work done of a Pump and Area of Indicator Diagram?

Work done by the pump is proportional to the area of the Indicator diagram.

12. What is the Work done by the Pump per sec due to acceleration and friction in the

suction and delivery Pipes?

Where, hfs, hfd =loss of head due to friction in suction and delivery pipes.

StrokeLengthHatm Delivery strokeSuctionstrokePressure headhdhsL = StrokeLength

13. What is an air vessel?

An air vessel is a closed chamber containing compressed air in the top portion and

liquid at the bottom of the chamber. At the base of the chamber there is an opening

through which the liquid may flow into the vessel or out from the vessel. When the

liquid enters the air vessel, the air gets compressed further and when the liquid flows

out of the vessel, the air will expand into the chamber.

14. What is the purpose of an air vessel fitted in the pump?

a. To obtain a continuous supply of liquid at a uniform rate.

resistance in the suction and delivery pipes, and

c. To run the pump at a high speed without separation.

15. What is the work saved by fitting an air vessel in a single acting, double acting

pump?

Work saved by fitting air vessels in a single acting pump is 84.87%, In a double

acting pump the work saved is 39.2%.

16. Define Cavitation.

If the pressure in the cylinder is below the vapour pressure, the dissolved gases will

be liberated from the liquid and air bubbles are formed. This process is termed as

cavitation.

Due to cavitation process the continuous flow of fluid will get affected and separation

takes place. The pressure at which separation takes place is known as separation

pressure and the head corresponding to separation pressure is called separation

pressure head.

18. How will you obtain the maximum speed during suction stroke?

The absolute pressure head will be minimum at the beginning of suction stroke.

Thus, in the cylinder the separation taking place at the beginning of suction stroke

only. In this case, the absolute pressure head will be equal to the separation

pressure.

Equating both the angular velocity() and Speed (N) are obtained. This N is the

maximum speed of the pump during the suction stroke without separation.

19. How will you obtain the maximum speed during delivery stroke?

The absolute pressure head will be minimum at the end of delivery stroke. Thus, in

the cylinder the separation taking place at the end of delivery stroke only. In this

case, the absolute pressure head will be equal to the separation pressure.

Equating both the angular velocity () and Speed (N) are obtained. This N is the

maximum speed of the pump during the delivery stroke without separation.

The maximum speed at which no separation flow is taking place in the cylinder is

called maximum speed of a reciprocating pump. It will be the least value of speeds

obtained from maximum speed during suction stroke and maximum speed during

delivery stroke.

21. Write the workdone saved by fitting the air vessel in reciprocating pump.

By fitting the air vessel the head loss due to friction in suction and delivery pipe is

reduced. This reduction in the head loss saves a certain amount of energy.

Therefore, the workdone saved is given by,

22. Write the formula for workdone against friction with air vessel in reciprocating pump.

Workdone against friction with airvessel = [K/] gQ [4fl/2gd] [(A/a)

Q = 2ALN/60 for double acting reciprocating pump

f = coefficient of friction

l = length of pipe (m)

d = diameter of pipe (m)

A = area of piston (m2)

= angular velocity (rad/s)

= 2N/60

r = radius of crank

23. What will be the total % work saved by fitting the air

vessel? For single acting reciprocating pump = 84.8 %

For double acting reciprocating pump = 39.2 %

CE6451 - FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

(AU Chennai - R2013)

IMPORTANT (PART -A Questions)

Unit I

1. State Newtons law of viscosity.

2. Define (a) Dynamics viscosity and (b) Kinematic viscosity and derive its unit.

3. What is meant by capillarity and surface tension?

4. Define Steady and Unsteady flow.

5. Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow.

6. State the assumption made in Bernoullis equation.

Unit II

1. What is meant by energy loss in a pipe?

2. Define hydraulic gradient line.

3. Sketch velocity distribution curves for laminar and turbulent flows in a pipe.

4. Find the loss of head when a pipe of diameter 200 mm is suddenly enlarged to a diameter of 400 mm. The

rate of flow of water through the pipe is 250 litres/s.

5. Write down Darcy equation.

6. Define Boundary layer Thickness. .

Unit III

1. Define dimensional homogeneity.

2. State Buckinghams theorem

3. What are the types of forces acting in moving fluid?

4. What are types of dimensionless number?

5. Define model law or similarity law

6. What is meant by kinematics and dynamic similarity?

Unit IV

1. Define slip and % slip.

2. When negative slip will occur?

3. Write a note on positive displacement pump.

4. Define indicator diagram.

5. When will select a reciprocating pump?

6. What is the necessity of fitting air vessel in reciprocating pump?

7. What is meant by suction head and delivery head?

8. What do you mean by manometric efficiency and mechanical efficiency of a centrifugal pump?

9. What is the role of a volute chamber of a centrifugal pump?

Unit V

1. List the Classification of hydraulic turbines.

2. Differentiate between the turbines and pumps.

3. Define specific speed of a turbine.

4. Draw the characteristics curves of a turbine with head variation.

5. What do you mean by cavitation in turbines?

6. What are the functions of a draft tube?

IMPORTANT PART B-Questions

Unit I

1. The space between two square flat parallel plate is filled with oil. Each side of the plate is 720mm. The

thickness of the oil film is 15mm. The upper plate, which moves at 3 m/s requires a force of 120N to maintain

the speed. Determine (i) Dynamic viscosity of the oil in poise. (ii) The kinematic viscosity of the oil in stoke, if

the specific gravity of oil is 0.95. (8)

2. The dynamic viscosity of oil, used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve is 6 poise. The shaft is of

diameter 0.4m and rotates at 190r.p.m. Calculate the power lost in the bearing for a sleeve length of 90mm. the

thickness of the oil film is 1.5mm. (8)

3. Two large plane surfaces are 3cm apart. The space between the surfaces is filled with glycerine. What force

is required to drag a very thin plate of surface area 0.6m2 between the two large plane surfaces at a speed of 0.6

m/sec and its weight 20N? If

(i) The thin plate is in the middle of the two plane surfaces (ii) The thin plate is at a distance of 1.2cm from one

of the plane surface? Take the dynamic viscosity of glycerine = 0.810 N-s/m2. (15)

4. Calculate the capillary effect in mm in a glass tube of 4mm diameter, when immersed in (i) Water and (ii)

Mercury. The temperature of the liquid is 20oc and the values of the surface tension of water and mercury at

20oc in contact with air are 0.073575 N/m and 0.51 N/m respectively. The angle of contact for water is zero

that for mercury 130o. Take density of water at 20oc is equal to 998 kg/m3 and specific gravity of mercury is

13.6. (8)

5. In a 45o bend a rectangular air duct of 1 m2 cross sectional area is gradually reduced to 0.5m2 area. Find the

magnitude and direction of the force required to hold the duct in position if the velocity of flow at the 1 m 2

section is 10m/s and pressure is 2.943 N/cm2. Take density of air as 1.16 kg/m3. (10)

6. A pipe 300m long has a slope of 1 in 100 & tapers from 1.2m diameter at the high end to 0.6m diameter at

the lower end. Quantity of water is flowing 5,400 lit / min, If the pressure at the high end is 68.67 Kpa, find the

pressure at the low end. Neglect all losses. (8)

7. A 30 cm diameter pipe, conveying water, branches into two pipes of diameters 20cm and 15 cm respectively.

If the average velocity in the 30 cm diameter pipe is 2.5 m/s, find the discharge in the pipe. Also determine the

velocity in 15cm pipe of the average velocity in 20 cm pipe is 2 m/s. (8)

8. State Bernoullis theorem for steady flow of an incompressible fluid. Derive an expression for Bernoullis

theorem. (15)

Unit II

1. Derive Hagen- Poiseuille equation and state the assumption made. (16)

2. A pipe line 10km long delivers a power of 50 Kw at its outlet ends. The pressure at inlet is 5000 kN/m2 and

pressure drop per km of pipeline is 50kN/m2. Find the diameter of the pipe and efficiency of transmission.

Take 4f = 0.02. (16)

3. A fluid of = 0.7 N-s /m2 and Sp.gravity = 1.3 is flowing through a circular pipe of diameter 10cm. The

maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is given as 196.2 N/m2. Find the Pressure gradient, average velocity and

Reynolds number. (8)

4. Derive DarcyWeisbach formula for calculating loss of head due to friction in a pipe. (8)

5. The rate of flow of water pumped into a pipe ABC. Which is 200m long, is 20 litres/s. the pipe is laid on an

upward slope of 1 in 40. The length of the portion AB is 100m and its diameter 100mm, while the length of the

portion BC is also 100 m but its diameter is 200mm. the change of diameter at B is sudden. The flow is taking

place from A to C where the pressure at A is 19.62N/cm2 and end C is connected to a tank. Find the pressure at

C and draw the hydraulic gradient and total energy line. Take f =0.008.

(16)

(i) A stream of water with a velocity of 4 ms-1

(ii) A steam of air with a velocity of 4 ms-1

(iii) A steam of air with a velocity of 9 ms-1

Compare the growth of laminar boundary layer in the three cases. Take mass density of water =1000kg m-3,

dynamic viscosity of water =0.001 N s m -2, mass density of air = 1.2 kg m-3 and dynamic viscosity of air=

19x 10-6 N s m-2. (16)

7. Explain about boundary layer concepts. For the velocity profile 5.48 X / Rex ,find the thickness of

boundary layer at the end of the plate and the drag force on one side of a plane 1m long and 0.8m wide when

placed in water flowing with a velocity of 150 mm per second. Calculate the value of coefficient of drag also.

Take for water =0.01 poise. (16)

Unit III

1. Show by dimensional analysis, the discharge of a centrifugal pump is given by

Q = ND3 [ gH / N2D2, / ND2]

N = Speed of the Pump, D = Diameter of the impulse, g = Acceleration due to gravity,

H = Manometric head, = Viscosity of the fluid flow, = Density of the fluid. (16)

2. The pressure difference P in a pipe of diameter D and length l due to viscous flow depends on the

velocity v, viscosity and density . Using Buckinghams theorem, obtain an expression for P.

(16)

3. The pressure difference p in a pipe of diameter D and length 1 due to turbulent flow depends on the

velocity V, viscosity , density , and roughness k. Using Buckinghams -theorem, obtain and expression for

p. (16)

4. The ratio of length of a submarine and its model is 30:1. The speed of submarine (prototype) is 10 m/s. The

model is to be tested in a wind tunnel. Find the speed of air in wind tunnel. Also determine the ratio of the drag

(resistance) between the model and its prototype. Take the value of kinematics viscosity for seawater and air is

0.012 stoke and 0.016 stokes respectively. The density of seawater and air is given as 1030 kg/m3 and 1.24

kg/m3. (16)

5. A ship 300m long moves in sea water, whose density is 1030Kg/m3, A 1: 100 model of this ship is to be

tested in a wind tunnel. The velocity of air in the wind tunnel around the model is 30m/s and the resistance of

the model is 60N. Determine the velocity of ship in sea water and also the resistance of the ship in sea water.

The density of air is given as 1.24kg/m3. Take the kinematic viscosity of sea water and air as 0.012 stoke and

0.018 strokes respectively. (16)

Unit IV

1. A single acting reciprocating pump is running at 30 rpm., delivers 0.012 m3/s of water. The diameter of the

piston is 25cm and stroke length 50cm. Determine (i) Theoretical discharge of the pump (ii) Co-efficient of

discharge (iii) Slip and percentage of slip of the pump. (iv) Determine the acceleration head at the beginning

and middle of the delivery stroke. (10)

2. A double acting reciprocating pump, running at 50 rpm is discharging 900 liters of water per minute. The

pump has stroke of 400mm. The diameter of piston is 250mm. The delivery and suction heads are 25m and 4m

respectively. Find the slip of the pump and power required to drive the pump. (10)

3. Find the maximum speed of a single acting reciprocating pump to avoid separation, which occurs at 3m of

water (abs.). The pump has a cylinder of diameter 10cm and a stroke length of 20cm. The pump draws water

from a sump and delivers to a tank. The water level in the sump is 3.5m below axis and in the tank the water

level is 13m above the pump axis. The diameter and length of the suction pipe are 4cm and 5m while of

delivery pipe the diameter and length are 3cm & 20m respectively. Take atmospheric pressure head is 10.3m of

water. (16)

4. A single acting reciprocating pump is to raise a liquid of density 1200 kg/m3 through a vertical height of

11.5m, from 2.5m below pump axis to 9m above it. The plunger, which moves with S.H.M, has diameter

125mm and stroke 225mm. The suction and delivery pipes are 75mm diameter & 3.5m and 13.5m long

respectively. There is a large air vessel placed on the delivery pipe near the pump axis. But there is no air

vessel on the suction pipe. If separation takes place at 8.829 N/cm2 below atmospheric pressure. Find (i)

Maximum speed with which the pump can run without separation taking place (ii) Power required to drive the

pump, if f = 0.02.

(16)

5. A double acting pump with 35cm bore and 40cm stroke runs at 60 strokes per minutes. The suction pipe is

10 M long and delivery pipe is 200m long . The diameter of the delivery pipe is 15cm. The pump is situated at

a height of 2.5 m above the sump, the outlet of the delivery pipe is 70 m above the pump. Calculate the

diameter of the suction pipe for the condition that separation is avoided Assume separation to occur at an

absolute pressure head is 2.5m of water. /find the Horse power required to drive the pump neglecting all losses

other than friction in the pipes assuming friction factor f as 0.02.

(16)

6. A centrifugal pump delivers water against a net head of 14.5 meters and a design speed of 1000 rpm. The

vanes are curved back to an angle of 300 with the periphery. The impeller diameter is 300 mm. Determine the

discharge of the pump if manometric efficiency is 95%. (16)

7. A centrifugal pump is to discharge 0.12 m3/sec at a speed of 1450 rpm against a head of 25 m. The impeller

diameter is 250 mm, its width at outlet is 50 mm and manometric efficiency is 75%. Find the vane angle at the

outer periphery of the impeller.

(16)

8. A centrifugal pump is running at 1000 r.p.m. The outlet vane angle of the impeller is 45 and velocity of

flow at outlet is 2.5 m/s. The discharge through the pump is 200 lit/s when the pump is working against a total

head of 20m. If the manometric efficiency of the pump is 80%. Determine diameter of the impeller (outside

diameter), Width of the impeller at outlet.

(16)

9. A Centrifugal pump is provided at a height of 5 m above the sump water level and the outlet of the delivery

pipe is 10 m above the sump. The vane angle at outlet is 500. The velocity of flow through the impeller is

constant at 1.6 m/s. Find: The pressure head at inlet to the wheel, the pressure head at outlet of the wheel.

Assume that the velocity of water in the pipes is equal is equal to the impeller, ignore losses.

(16)

10. Draw and explain the main parts of a centrifugal pump and derive the work done by the centrifugal pump

on water. (16)

11. With the aid of a sketch describe the working of a reciprocating pump. Also explain about ideal indicator

diagram for it. (16)

12. Explain with the help of a sketch, the principle and working of (i) Rotary gear pump (i) Vane pump.

(16)

Unit V

1. Design a Pelton wheel for a head of 80 m and speed of 300 r.p.m. The Pelton wheel develops 103 kw. Take

Cv = 0.98, speed ratio = 0.45, overall efficiency = 0.80. (16)

2. A Pelton wheel has to be designed for the following data. Power to be developed = 6000 kW; Net head

available = 300 m; Speed = 550 rpm; Ratio of jet diameter to wheel diameter = 1/10 and overall efficiency =

85%. Find the no. of jets, diameter of the jet, diameter of wheel, the quantity of water required.

(16)

3. Obtain an expression for the workshop per second by water on the runner of a Pelton wheel. Hence derive an

expression for maximum efficiency of the Pelton wheel giving the relationship between the speed and bucket

speed. (16)

4. A Peloton wheel works under a gross head of 510 m. One third of gross head is lost in friction in the

penstrock. The rate of flow through the nozzle is 2.2 m3/sec. The angle of deflection of jet is 1650. Find the

(i) Power given by water to the runner

(ii) Hydraulic efficiency of Pelton wheel. Take (C = 1.0 and speed ratio = .45) (16)

5. Pelton wheel is having a mean bucket diameter of 1 m and is running at 1000 rpm. The net head on the

Pelton wheel is 700 m. If the side clearance angel is 150 and discharge through nozzle is 0.1 m3/s, find (1)

power available at the nozzle and (2) hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Take C = 1.

(16)

6. A Pelton wheel produces 8,000 kW under a head of130 m at a speed of rpm. The coefficient of velocity of

jet issued through nozzle is 0.98, hydraulic efficiency is 85%, speed ratio is0.45 and jet ratio is 10. Find the

discharge, diameter of the wheel, diameter and number of jet required and the specific speed. The mechanical

efficiency is 75%.

(16)

7. A turbine is to operate under a head of 25 m at 200 rpm. The discharge is 9 m3/s. If the efficiency is 90%

determine, specific speed of the machine, power generated and type of turbine.

(8)

8. With the help of neat diagram explain the construction and working of a Pelton wheel turbine.

(16)

9. Design a Francis Turbine runner with the following data: Net head = 70 m speed N = 800 rpm. Out put

power 400 Kw Hydraulic efficiency = 95% Overall efficiency = 85% Flow ratio = 0.2 Breadth ratio = 0.1 Inner

diameter is outer diameter. Assume 6% circumferential area of the runner to be occupied by the thickness of

the vanes. The flow is radial at exit and remains constant throughout.

(16)

10. A reaction turbine works at 450 rpm under a head of 120 m. Its diameter at inlet is 120 cm and the flow

area is 0.4 m2. The angles made by absolute and relative velocity at inlet are 200 and 600 respectively, with the

tangential velocity. Determine, the volume flow rate, the power developed and hydraulic efficiency. Assume

velocity of whirl at outlet is zero. (16)

11. With the help of a simple sketch, explain the construction and working of a Francis turbine.

(16)

12. A Kaplan turbine working under a head of 20 m develops 11772 kW shaft power. The outer diameter of the

runner is 3058 m and hub diameter 1.75 m. the guide blade angle at the extreme edge of the runner is 350. The

hydraulic and overall efficiencies of the turbines are 88% and 84% respectively. If the velocity of whirl is zero

at outlet, determine:

(i) Runner vane angles at inlet and outlet at the extreme edge of the runner, and

(ii) Speed of the turbine (16)

13. Calculate the diameter and speed of the runner of a Kaplan turbine developing 6000 k W under an effective

head of 5 m. Overall efficiency of the turbine is 90%. The diameter of the boss is 0.4 times the external

diameter of the runner. The turbine speed ratio is 2.0 and flow ratio 0.6.

(16)

Fluids: Substances capable of flowing are known as fluids. Flow is the continuous deformation of

substances under the action of shear stresses.

Fluids have no definite shape of their own, but confirm to the shape of the containing vessel. Fluids

include liquids and gases.

Fluid Mechanics:

Fluid mechanics is the branch of science that deals with the behavior of fluids at rest as well as in

motion. Thus,it deals with the static, kinematics and dynamic aspects of fluids.

The study of fluids at rest is called fluid statics. The study of fluids in motion, where pressure

forces are not considered, is called fluid kinematics and if the pressure forces are also considered for

the fluids in motion, that branch of science is called fluid dynamics.

Fluid Properties:

1.Density (or )Mass Density:

Density or mass density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fluid to its volume.

Thus, Mass per unit volume of a fluid is called density.

Mass of fluid

Mass density,

Volume of fluid

The value of density for water is 1000 kg/m3.

Specific weight or weight density of a fluid is the ratio between the weight of a fluid to its

volume.

The weight per unit volume of a fluid is called specific weight or weight density.

Weight of fluid

Weight density

Volume of fluid

Mass of fluid X g

w

Volume of fluid

1 g

S.I unit of specific weight is N/m3.

The value of specific weight or weight density of water is 9810N/m3 or 9.81 kN/m.

Specific volume of a fluid is defined as the volume of a fluid occupied by unit mass.

Volume per unit mass of a fluid is called Specific volume.

Page | 1

Volume of a fluid 1

Specific volume

Mass of fluid

Thus specific volume is the reciprocal of mass density. S.I unit: m3/kg.

P Specific Gravity (s):

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the specific weight of a fluid to the

specific weight of a standard fluid.

Specific weight of liquid

Specific gravity

Specific weight of water

Specific gravity is also equal to Relative density. Relative density =

2. Viscosity:

Viscosity is defined as the property of a fluid which offers resistance to the

movement of one layer of fluid over adjacent layer of the fluid.

apart, move one over the other at different velocities,

say u and u+du as shown in figure. The viscosity

together with relative velocity causes a shear stress

acting between the fluid layers.

The top layer causes a shear stress on the adjacent

lower layer while the lower layer causes a shear

stress on the adjacent top layer.

This shear stress is proportional to the rate of change

of velocity with respect to y.

or

Kinematic Viscosity():

It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density of the fluid

1. =.=

SI unit: m2/s; CGS unit stoke. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/ sec = 10-4 m2/s

Unit-3

Dimensional Homogeneity:

Dimensional homogeneity means the dimensions of each terms in an equation on both sides equal.

Thus if the dimensions of each term on both sides of an equation are the same the equation is known

as dimensionally homogeneous equation. The powers of fundamental dimensions (i.e., L, M, T) on

both sides of the equation will be identical for a dimensionally homogeneous equation.

L

Dimension of L.H.S = V = LT 1

T

2

T 2 T

L

LT 1

=

T

1

Dimension of L.H.S = Dimension of R.H.S = LT

Equation v 2gh is dimensionally homogeneous.

Dimensions of quantities

If the number of variables involved in a physical phenomenon are known, then the relation

among the variables can be determined by the following two methods.

1.Rayleighs method, and

2. Buckinghams theorem

1. Rayleighs method:

This method is used for determining the expression for a variable which depends upon

maximum three or four variables only. If the number of independent variables becomes more than

four then it is very difficult to find the expression for the dependent variable.

Let X is a variable, which depends on X1, X2 and X3 variables. Then according to Rayleighs

method, X is function of X1, X2 and X3 and mathematically it is written as

X= f [X1, X2, X3]

K is constant and a, b and c are arbitrary powers.

The values of a, b and c are obtained by comparing the powers of the fundamental dimension on

both sides. Thus the expression is obtained for dependent variable.

2.Buckinghams theorem:

If there are n variables (independent and dependent variables) in a physical phenomenon and if

these variables contain m fundamental dimensions (M, L, T), then the variables are arranged into (n-

m) dimensionless numbers. Each term is called term.

Let X1, X2, X3, Xn are the variables involved in a physical problem. Let X1 be the

dependent variable and X2, X3, Xn are the independent variables on which X1

depends. Then X1 is a function of X2, X3, Xn and mathematically it is expressed as

X1= f (X2, X3, Xn) -------------------- (1)

The above (2) is a dimensionally homogeneous equation. It contains n variables. If there are m

fundamental dimensions then according to Buckinghams theorem, equation (2) can be written on

terms of dimensionless groups or - terms is equal to (n-m). Hence equation (2) becomes as

f1 (1 , 2, 3, n-m) = 0. -------------(3)

Each - term is dimensionless and is independent of the system. Division or multiplication by a constant does

not change the character of the - term. Each - term contains m+1 variables, where m is the number of

fundamental dimensions and is also called repeating variables. Let in the above case X2, X3, and Xn are

repeating variables if the fundamental dimension m, (M, L,T) = 3. Then each - term is written as

1= X2a1.X3b1.X4c1.X1

2= X2a2.X3b2.X4c2.X5

.

.

.

n- m= X2an- m.X3b n- m.X4cm.Xn ----------------------(4)

Each equation is solved by the principle of dimensional homogeneity and values of a1, b1, c1 etc.

are obtained. These values are substituted in equation (4) and values of 1 , 2, 3, n- m are

obtained. These values of s are substituted in equation (3). The final equation for the phenomenon is

obtained by expressing any one of the - terms as a function of others as

1= [ 2, 3, n-m ]

2= [ 1, 3, n-m ] ---------------------(5)

Method of selecting Repeating variables: The number of repeating variables are equal to the number of

fundamental dimensions of the problem. The choice of repeating variables if governed by the following

considerations.

1. As far as possible, the dependent variable should not be selected as repeating variable.

2. The repeating variables should be choosen in such a way that one variable contains geometric property,

other variable contains flow property and third variable contains fluid property.

Variables with geometric property are (i) Length, l (ii) d (iii) Height H etc.

Variables with flow property are (i) Velocity, V (ii) Acceleration etc.

Variables with fluid property are (i) (ii) (iii) w etc.

4. The repeating variables together must have the same number of fundamental dimensions.

5. No two repeating variables should have the same dimensions.

In most of fluid mechanics problems, the choice of repeating variables may be (i) d, v, (ii) I, v, or (iii) I,

v, or (iv) d, v, .

For predicting the performance of the hydraulic structures (such as dams, spill ways etc.) or

hydraulic machines (such as turbines, pumps etc.), before actually constructing or manufacturing,

models of the structures or machines are made and tests are performed on them to obtain the desired

information.

The model is the small scale replica of the actual structure or machine. The actual structure or

machine is called prototype. It is not necessary that the models should be smaller than the prototypes

(though in most of cases it is), they may be larger than the prototype. The study of models of actual

machines is called model analysis. Model analysis is actually an experimental method of finding

solutions of complex flow problems. The followings are the advantages of the dimensional and

model analysis.

1.The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be easily predicted, in

advance, from its model.

2. With the help of dimensional analysis, a relationship between the variables influencing a flow

problem in terms of dimensionless parameters is obtained. This relationship helps in conducting tests

on the model.

3. The merits of alternative designs can be predicted with the help of model testing. The most

economical and safe design may be, finally, adopted.

4.The tests performed on the models can be utilized for obtaining, in advance, useful information

about the performance of the prototypes only if a complete similarity exists between the model and

the prototype.

Similitude is defined as the similarity between the model and its prototype in every respect, which

means that the model and prototype are completely similar. Three types of similarities must exit

between the model and prototype. They are

1. Geometric Similarity 2. Kinematic Similarity 3. Dynamic Similarity

1.Geometric Similarity:

The geometric similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratio of all

corresponding linear dimension in the model and prototype are equal.

Lm= Length of model , bm= Breadth of model

Dm= Dismeter of model Am= area of model

V m= Volume of model

and Lp, Bp, Dp, Ap, V p =Corresponding values of the prototype.

For geometric similarity between model and prototype, we must have the relation,

Lp bp D

p L r

L b D

m m m

For areas ratio and volumes ratio the relation should be as given below.

Ap L p

b p 2

L r L r L r

Am L m b m

3 3 3

V L b D

p p p p

V L b D

m m m m

2. Kinematic Similarity :

Kinematic similarity means the similarity of motion between model and prototype. Thus

kinematic similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratios of the velocity

and acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and at the corresponding points in the

prototype are the same. Since the velocity and acceleration are vector quantities, hence not only the

ratio of magnitude of velocity and acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and

prototype should be same, but the directions of velocity and accelerations at the corresponding points

in the model and prototype also should be parallel.

Vp2= velocity of fluid at point 2 in prototype,

ap1= Acceleration of fluid at point 1 in prototype,

ap2= Acceleration of fluid at point 2 in prototype,

Vm1, Vm2, am1, am2 = Corresponding values at the corresponding points of fluid velocity and

acceleration in the model.

For kinematic similarity, we have

V V

p1 p2 V

V V r

m1 m2

a a

For acceleration, we have p1 p2

a

a a r

m1 m2

Also the directions of the velocities in the model and prototype should be same.

3. Dynamic Similarity:

Dynamic similarity means the similarity of forces between the model and prototype. Thus

dynamic similarity is said to exist between the model and prototype if the ratios of the corresponding

forces acting at the corresponding points are equal. Also the directions of the corresponding forces at

the corresponding points should be same.

(Fi)p= Inertia force at a point in prototype,

(Fv)p= Viscous force at the point in prototype,

(Fg)p= Gravity force at the point in prototype,

Fi)p, (Fv)p, (Fg)p = Corresponding values of forces at the corresponding point in model.

F p F p F

i v g p

Fr

F F F

i m v m g m

where Fr is the force ratio.

Also the directions of the corresponding forces at the corresponding points in the model and

prototype should be same.

DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS:

Dimensionless numbers are those numbers which are obtained by dividing the inertia force

by viscous force or pressure force or surface tension force or elastic force. As this is a ratio of one force to the

other force, it will be a dimensionless number. These dimensionless numbers are also called non-dimensional

parameters. The following are the important dimensionless numbers:

1. Reynolds number 2. Frouds number

3. Eulers number 4. Webers number 5. Machs number

1.)Reynolds number: It is defined as the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the viscous force of

the fluid. The expression for Reynolds number is obtained as

V d Vd

Re or

2.Frouds Number (Fe) : The Frouds Number is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a

flowing fluid to the gravitational force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

F F

i

e

F

g

AV 2 V2 V

ALg Lg Lg

3. Eulers number (Eu): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid to

the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

E Fi

Eulers number u

Fp

4. Webers number (We): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid to

the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Fi

Webers number We

F

g

5. Mach number (M): Mach number is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid

to the elastic force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

M Inertia force F

Mach number i

Elastic force F

e

V

M .

C

3. Eulers model law 4. Webers model law

5. Machs model law

1.Reynolds model law: Reynolds model law is the law in which models are based on Reynolds number.

Model based on Reynolds number includes:

= AV r Lr 2Vr

r r r

Froude Model law: Froude Model law is the law in which the models are based on Froude number which

means for dynamic similarity between the model and prototype, the Froude number for both of them should be

equal. Froude Model law is applicable when the gravity force is only predominant force which controls the flow

in addition to the force of inertia.

V

p V L

V r r

m

3. Webers Model law: Webers Model law is the law in which models are based on Webers number which is

the ratio of the square root of inertia force to surface tension force. Hence where surface tension effects

predominant in addition to inertia force, the dynamic similarity between the model and prototype is obtained by

equating the Weber number of the model and its prototype. Hence according to this law:

V

(We)model = (We)prototype where We is Weber number = L

5.Mach Model law: Mach Model law is the law in which models are based on Mach number which is the ratio

of the square root of inertia force to elastic force of a fluid. Hence where force due to elastic compression

predominant in addition to inertia force, the dynamic similarity between the model and prototype is obtained by

equating the Weber number of the model and its prototype.

Hence according to this law:

(M)model = (M)prototype

UNIT - 4 PUMPS

Impact of jets - Theory of roto-dynamic machines - various efficiencies-velocity components at entry and exit

of the rotor- velocity triangles. Centrifugal Pumps: Definition-Operations- Velocity Triangles Performance

curves - Cavitations-Multi-staging.Reciprocating Pumps: Operation - Slip - indicator Diagram - Separation - Air vessels.

HYDRAULIC PUMP

A hydraulic pump is a mechanical source of power that converts mechanical power into hydraulic energy .

It generates flow with enough power to overcome pressure induced by the load at the pump outlet. When a

hydraulic pump operates, it creates a vacuum at the pump inlet, which forces liquid from the reservoir into the

inlet line to the pump and by mechanical action delivers this liquid to the pump outlet and forces it into the

hydraulic system.

Centrifugal Pump :The main components of a centrifugal pump are: i) Impeller ii) Casing iii) Suction pipe

iv) Foot valve with strainer, v) Delivery pipe vi) Delivery valve.

Impeller is the rotating component of the pump. It is made up of a series of curved vanes. The impeller is

mounted on the shaft connecting an electric motor.

Casing is an air tight chamber surrounding the impeller. The shape of the casing is designed in such a way

that the kinetic energy of the impeller is gradually changed to potential energy. This is achieved by gradually

increasing the area of cross section in the direction of flow

Suction pipe: It is the pipe connecting the pump to the sump, from where the liquid has to be lifted up.

Foot valve with strainer: The foot valve is a non-return valve which permits the flow of the liquid from the su

other words the foot valve opens only in the upward direction. The strainer is a mesh surrounding the valve, it p

debris and silt into the pump.

Delivery pipe is a pipe connected to the pump to the overhead tank. Delivery valve is a valve which can regulat

the pump.

Working:

A centrifugal pump works on the principle that when a certain mass of fluid is rotated by an

external source, it is thrown away from the central axis of rotation and a centrifugal head is

impressed which enables it to rise to a higher level.

Working operation of a centrifugal pump is explained in the following steps. 1) Close the

delivery valve and prime the pump. 2) Start the motor connected to the pump shaft, this causes

an increase in the impeller pressure. 3) Open the delivery valve gradually, so that the liquid

starts flowing into the deliver pipe. 4) A partial vacuum is created at the eye of the centrifugal

action, the liquid rushed from the sump to the pump due to pressure difference at the two ends

of the suction pipe. 5) As the impeller continues to run, move & more liquid is made available

to the pump at its eye. Therefore impeller increases the energy of the liquid and delivers it to

the reservoir. 6) While stopping the pump, the delivery valve should be closed first, otherwise

there may be back flow from the reservoir.

It may be noted that a uniform velocity of flow is maintained in the delivery pipe. This is due to

the special design of the casing. As the flow proceeds from the tongue of the casing to the

delivery pipe, the area of the casing increases. There is a corresponding change in the quantity

of the liquid from the impeller. Thus a uniform flow occurs in the delivery pipe.

Centrifugal pump converts rotational energy, often from a motor, to energy in a moving fluid.

A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid enters axially through eye of

the casing, is caught up in the impeller blades, and is whirled tangentially and radially outward

until it leaves through all circumferential parts of the impeller into the diffuser part of the

casing. The fluid gains both velocity and pressure while passing through the impeller. The

doughnut-shaped diffuser, or scroll, section of the casing decelerates the flow and further

increases the pressure. The negative pressure at the eye of the impeller helps to maintain the

flow in the system. If no water is present initially, the negative pressure developed by the

rotating air, at the eye will be negligibly small to suck fresh stream of water. As a result the

impeller will rotate without sucking and discharging any water content. So the pump should be

initially filled with water before starting it. This process is known as priming.

Use of the Casing

From the illustrations of the pump so far, one speciality of the casing is clear. It has an

increasing area along the flow direction. Such increasing area will help to accommodate newly

added water stream, and will also help to reduce the exit flow velocity. Reduction in the flow

velocity will result in increase in the static pressure, which is required to overcome the

resistance of pumping system.

NPSH - Overcoming the problem of Cavitation

If pressure at the suction side of impeller goes below vapor pressure of the water, a dangerous

phenomenon could happen. Water will start to boil forming vapor bubbles. These bubbles will

move along with the flow and will break in a high pressure region. Upon breaking the bubbles

will send high impulsive shock waves and spoil impeller material overtime. This phenomenon

is known as cavitation. More the suction head, lesser should be the pressure at suction side to

lift the water. This fact puts a limit to the maximum suction head a pump can have.

However Cavitation can be completely avoided by careful pump selection. The term NPSH

(Net Positive Suction Head) helps the designer to choose the right pump which will completely

avoid Cavitation. NPSH is defined as follows.

V is speed of water at suction side

For a given pumping system it will have an NPSH called 'Available NPSH'. Pump anufacturer

will specify the minimum NPSH required for each pump for its safe operation, known

as 'Required NPSH'. If the pump needs to work without Cavitation the 'Available

NPSH' should be greater than

'Required NPSH'.

The rotating impeller of a centrifugal pump imparts energy to the fluid. As mentioned in earlier

lesson, the impeller contains radial flow passages formed by rotating blades (vanes) arranged in

a circle. A disk in the back (base plate) connects the impeller assembly to the shaft and another

disk (crown plate) covers the blades on the front. The flow enters axially near the center of

rotation and turns in the radial direction inside the impeller as shown in Fig. Thus, the liquid

enters the impeller at its center and leaves at its outer periphery.

The flow follows certain streamlines inside the rotating impeller, approximately parallel to the

blade surfaces. The shape of the blades and the resulting flow pattern in the impeller determine

how much energy is transferred by a given size of the impeller and how efficiently it operates.

The theoretical energy increase [i.e., theoretical head rise (Hmth) through the impeller] can be

found by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum.

The components of flow through an impeller can be best studied by means of velocity vectors

as illustrated in Figure. In this figure, the inlet and outlet velocity diagrams of an impeller with

backward curved vanes are shown. Note that this figure shows a portion of the impeller of a

centrifugal pump with one blade only. The velocity vector diagram is triangular and hence, it is

known as a velocity triangle. It can be drawn for any point the flow path through the

impeller.

However, velocity triangles are usually drawn at the impeller inlet and outlet (exit) and are

called inlet or entrance velocity triangle and outlet or discharge velocity triangle,

respectively.

Unit -4 PUMPS

=( 3.14 X 0.20X1200 ) / 60 = 12.56 m/s

u2 = D2N / 60

=( 3.14 X 0.40X1200 ) / 60 = 25.13 m/s

vf1 = 4.57 m/s

tan = vf1 / (u2 vw2)

vw2 = 17.215 m/s

work done = vw2 u2 / g

17.215x25.13 / 9.81 = 44.1 Nm

A simple centrifugal pump use a single impeller mounted on a shaft to produce a specific head

and a specific discharge rate but what if you need n times greater head or discharge rate. This

problem can be solved by using the multistage centrifugal pump

There are two possible reason why multistage centrifugal pumps are used.

2. Need more discharge rate at constant head

Mounting more than one impeller on a same shaft and closing them in same casing will

produce higher head than single impeller pump but the discharge rate will be same as single

impeller.

If two pumps are installed parallel to each other at same sump then the discharge rate will be

increase but head will be same as that of single pump

PUMP IS SERIES

In series arrangement of pumps, more that one impellers are mounted on the single shaft of a

centrifugal pump and closed under a same casing. This arrangement can increase the head of

the pump by keeping the discharge rate constant.This type is used to deliver small quantity of

liquid at high head.

In this type of arrangement impeller one take is input from the sump and discharge is at a

specific head and discharge rate. This out put if impeller one is the input for the impeller

number two. Output of impeller number two will be same discharge and twice the head.

H total = n H

n = number of impeller

H = head made by single impeller

Unit -4 PUMPS

Advantages

Less frictional losses

Reduce stresses

Less slip leakage

Thrust can be eliminated

High suction lift at relatively low impeller speed

PUMP IN PARALLEL

For a single centrifugal pump it is impossible to deliver a huge quantity of liquid at small head

but it is possible with parallel arrangement of pump. More that one pumps are install at a

single source and both of them work separately to produce a specific discharge rate then their

output is merged in a single delivery pie to get a greater discharge rate than single pump.

Q total = n Q

n = number of pump installed

Q = Discharge of single pump

Problem 2

Unit -4 PUMPS

A three stage centrifugal pump has impeller 40 cm in diameter and 2 cm wide at outlet.the vane are

curved back at the outlet at 45 o and reduce the circumference area by 10 %.the manometric efficiency

is 90 % and the overall efficiency is 80 % .determine the head generated by the pump when running at

1000 rpm .delivering 50 litre per second.what should be the shaft horse power?

Given ,

n = 3 ; D2= 0.4 m ; B2 = 0.02 m ; = 45 o reduction in area = 0.1 ; area at outlet = 0.9 x x 0.4 x0.02

= 0.02262 m2

manometric efficiency = 0.90 ; overall efficiency = 0.80 ; N= 1000 rpm ; Q = 50 lit/s

vf2 = Q/A = 0.05/0.02262 = 2.21 m/s

u2 = D2N / 60 = 20.94 m/s

tan = vf2 / (u2-vw2)

vw2 =18.73 m/s

manometric efficiency = gHm / vw2 u2

Hm=35.98 m

Total head generated = n x Hm = 3 x 35.98 = 107.94 m

Power output of the pump = (weight of water lifted x total head ) / 1000

=( 1000 x 9.81 x 0.05 x 107.94 ) / 1000 = 52.94 kw

Overall efficiency = power output / power input = 52.94/ shaft power

Shaft power = 66.175 kw

RECIPROCATING PUMP

If the mechanical energy is converted into hydraulic energy by sucking the liquid into a

cylinder in which a piston is reciprocating, which exerts the thrust on the liquid and increases

its hydraulic energy is know as reciprocating pump. A reciprocating pump is a positive

displacement pump. It is often used where relatively small quantity of liquid is to be handled

and where delivery pressure is quite large.

Reciprocating pump consists of following parts.

1. A cylinder with a piston5. suction pipe

2. piston rod6. delivery pipe

3. connecting rod7. suction valve

4. crank8. delivery valve

Unit -4 PUMPS

Q = Discharge in one revolution x No.of revolution per second

Problem 3

A single acting reciprocating pump ,running at 50 rpm , delivers 0.01 m3/s of water.the diameter of

The piston is 200 mm and stoke length 400 mm. Determine i)theoretical discharge ; ii)co-efficient of

discharge ; iii)slip and percentage of slip

A= X 0.02 / 4 = 0.0314 m2

i)Qth =ALN / 60 = (0.0314 X .40 X 50 )/ 60

= 0.01047 m3/s

A double acting reciprocating pump is shown in Fig. It consists of two suction and two delivery

pipes connected to one cylinder. Each suction and delivery pipe is provided with a one-way

valve. The piston has a connecting rod-crank mechanism to drive it. It is connected to a prime

mover. When the prime mover is started the piston moves forward and backward. During each

forward and backward strokesuction and delivery takes place simultaneously.

Suction valve remains closed when delivery takes place either on the front side or rear side of

the piston.

Similarly, delivery valve remains closed when suction takes place either on the front side or

rear side of the piston. The discharge is twice that of a single acting pump.

Discharge through a double-acting reciprocating pump.

2 LAN m3

s

Discharge , Qth = 60

The above equation gives the discharge of a double-acting reciprocating pump. This discharge is two

Unit -4 PUMPS

Slip is defined as the difference between theoretical discharge and actual discharge. If actual

discharge is greater than theoretical discharge negative value is found this negative value is

called negative slip.

When Qa > Qth then the slip of the pump becomes negative. Where Qa is the actual discharged

Qth is the theoretical discharge. This is possible when the length of suction pipe is

considerably long, delivery head low and pump is running at high speed.

% of slip = (Qth - Qa ) / Qth

INDICATOR DIAGRAM:

A pressure volume diagram (or PV diagram) is used to describe corresponding changes in

volume and pressure in a system.

PV diagrams, originally called indicator diagrams, were developed for understanding the

efficiency of steam engines. A PV diagram plots the change in pressure P with respect to

volume V for some process or processes. Typically in thermodynamics, the set of processes

forms a cycle, so that upon completion of the cycle there has been no net change in state of the

system; i.e. the device returns to the starting pressure and volume.

The figure shows the features of a typical PV diagram. A series of numbered states (1 through

4) are noted. The path between each state consists of some process (A through D) which alters

the pressure or volume of the system (or both).

A key feature of the diagram is that the amount of energy expended or received by the system

as work can be estimated as the area under the curve on the chart. For a cyclic diagram, the net

work is that enclosed by the curve. In the example given in the figure, the processes 1-2-3

produce a work output, but processes from 3-4-1 require a smaller energy input to return to the

starting position / state; thus the net work is the difference between the two.

Air vessels are a closed container, in which the half part is filled with water & upper half part is

filled with compressed air. These air vessels installed very near to the suction valve & delivery

valve to avoid the separation.

Unit -4 PUMPS

An air vessel usually fitted in the discharge pipe work to dampen out thepressure variations

during discharge. As the discharge pressure rises the airis compressed in the vessel, and as the

pressure falls the air expands. The peak pressure energy is thus stored in the air and returned to

the system when pressure falls. Air vessels are not fitted on the reciprocating boiler feed pumps

since they may introduce air into the de-aerated water.

The top half contains compressed air and lower half contains fluid being pumped. Air and

water are separated by a flexible diaphragm which is movable as per difference of pressure

between two fluids.

Air vessel is connected very near to the pump at nearly pump level. Without air vessel

frictional head increases and reaches a maximum value at mid stroke and decreases to zero.

With air vessel frictional head is constant throughout the stroke.

Impact of Jets

The liquid comes out in the form of a jet from the outlet of a nozzle which is fitted to a pipe

through which the liquid is flowing under pressure.

The following cases of the impact of jet, i.e. the force exerted by the jet on a plate will be

considered:

Plate is curved

Plate is curved

Force exerted by the jet on a stationary vertical plate

Consider a jet of water coming out from the nozzle strikes the vertical plate

V = velocity of jet, d = diameter of the jet, a = area of x section of the jet The force exerted by

the jet on the plate in the direction of jet.

= initial momentum final momentum / time

= mass x initial velocity mass x final velocity / time

= mass/time (initial velocity final velocity)

= mass/ sec x (velocity of jet before striking final velocity of jet after striking)

= aV (V -0)

Fx= aV2

Consider, a jet of water strikes the flat moving plate moving with a uniform velocity away from the jet.

V = Velocity of jet

a = area of x-section of jet;

u = velocity of flat plate

= a(V - u) [(V - u) 0]

In this case, work is done by the jet on the plate as the plate is moving, for stationary plate the w.d is ze

Work done by the jet on the flat moving plate.

UNIT 5 TURBINES AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

Hydraulic Turbines: Classification of hydraulic turbines-Working principle of Pelton wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines -

velocity triangles - draft tube - hydraulic turbine characteristics. Governing of turbines

Dimensional Analysis: Needs and methods -Buckingham's Theorem, Non-Dimensional Numbers, Similarities of flow. Model

studies

Hydraulic Turbines:

Hydraulic Turbines are defined as the hydraulic machines which convert hydraulic energy into mechanical

energy. This mechanical energy is used in running an electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of

the turbine. Thus the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. The electric power which is

obtained from the hydraulic energy (energy of water) is known as Hydro-electro power.

1. According to the type of energy at inlet:

(a) Impulse turbine (b) Reaction turbine

(a) Tangential flow turbine (b) Radial flow turbine (c)Axial flow turbine (d) Mixed flow

turbine 3.According to the head at inlet of turbine:

(a) High head turbine (b) Medium head turbine (c) Low head turbine

4.According to the specific speed of turbine:

(a) Low specific speed turbine (b) Medium specific speed turbine (c) High specific speed turbine

(a)Low head turbine (b) Medium head turbine (c)High head turbine

(a)Pelton turbine (b) Francis turbine (c)vKaplan turbine

The Pelton wheel turbine is a pure impulse turbine in which a jet of fluid leaving the nozzle strikes

the buckets fixed to the periphery of a rotating wheel. The energy available at the inlet of the turbine

is only kinetic energy. The pressure at the inlet and outlet of the turbine is atmospheric. The turbine

is used for high heads ranging from (150-2000) m.

Parts of the Pelton turbine

Nozzle and flow control arrangement

The water from the reservoir flows through the penstocks at the outlet of which a nozzle is fitted.

The nozzle converts the total head at the inlet of the nozzle into kinetic energy. The amount of water

striking the curved buckets of the runner is controlled by providing a spear in the nozzle. The spear is

a conical needle which is operated either by a hand wheel or automatically in an axial direction

depending upon the size of the unit.

Runner and buckets

The rotating wheel or circular disc is called the runner. On the periphery of the runner a number of

buckets evenly spaced are fixed. The shape of the buckets is of a double hemispherical cup or bowl.

Each bucket is divided into two symmetrical parts by a dividing wall which is known as the splitter.

The jet of water strikes on the splitter. The splitter then divides the jet into two equal paits and the

water comes out at the outer edge of the bucket. The buckets deflect the jet through an angle between

(160-165) in the same plane as the jet. Due to this deflection of the jet,the momentum of the fluid

is changed reacting on the buckets. A bucket is therefore, pushed away by the jet.

Casing

The casing prevents the plashing of the water and discharges the water to tail race. The spent water

falls vertically into the lower reservoir or tail race and the whole energy transfer from the nozzle

outlet to tail race take place at a constant pressure. The casing is made of cast iron or fabricated steel

plates.

Braking jet

To stop the runner within a short time, a small nozzle is provided which directs the jet of water on to

the back of the vanes. The jet of water is called the "braking jet ". If there is no braking jet, the

runner due to inertia goes on revolving for a long time.

Figure shows the shape of buckets and inlet and outlet velocity triangles of a Pelton wheel.

= [ 1 1 2 2]

For a Pelton wheel, u1 = u2 = u = 60

= angle between the direction of flow at inlet and redirection of motion of runner = 0 = angle made by the relative velocity Vr1 with the

direction of motion of runner = 0 The quantity of flow striking the runner, Q = aV1 in which, a = area of jet = 42,

where d= diameter of jet

Hence, the work done by the jet in the case of Pelton wheel by,

aVV w1 V w2

u 1

Work done 1

V V u

aV g g w1 w2

1

Q= ( 1 1 + 2)u

1 cos

Hydraulice fficiency h

2

Problems solved:

Pb:1

RADIAL FLOW REACTION TURBINES:

Radial flow turbines are those turbines in which the water flows in the radial direction. The

water may radially from outwards to inwards (i.e., towards the axis of rotation) or from inwards to

outwards. If the water flows from outwards to inwards through the runner, the turbine is known as

inward radial flow turbine. And if the water flows from inwards to outwards through the runner, the

turbine is known as outward radial flow turbine.

Francis Turbine

Main Parts:

1.Casing 2.Guide Mechanism 3.Runner and 4.Draft tube.

Figure shows a schematic diagram of a Francis turbine The main parts of a Francis turbine are:

1.Penstock: It is a large sized conduit which conveys water from the upstream of the dam/reservoir

to the turbine runner

3. Spiral scroll casing: It constitutes a closed passage whose cross sectional area gradually decreases

along the flow direction, area is maximum at inlet and nearly zero at exit.

4. Guide vanes (wicket gates): These vanes direct the water onto the runner at an angle appropriate to

the design. Their angles are controlled by means of a hand wheel or automatically by a governor.

5. Governing mechanism: It changes the position of the guide blades/vanes to affect a variation in

water flow rate, when the load conditions on the turbine change

6. Runner and runner blades: The driving force on the runner is both due to impulse and reaction

effects. The number of runner blades usually varies between 16 to 24.

7. Draft tube: It is a gradually expanding tube which discharges water, passing through the runner, to

the tail race.

The modem Francis turbine is an inward mixed flow reaction turbine (in the earlier stages of

development Francis turbine had a purely radial flow runner), i.e. water under pressure, enters the

runner from the guide vanes towards the centre in radial direction and discharges out of the runner

axially. The Francis turbine operates under medium heads and also requires medium quantity of

water It is employed in the medium head power plants This type of turbine covers a wide range of

heads. Water is brought down to the turbine through a penstock and directed to a number of

stationary orifices fixed all around the circumference of the runner. These stationary orifices are

commonly called as guide vanes or wicket gates.

The head acting on the turbine is partly transformed into kinetic energy and the rest remains as

pressure head There is a difference of pressure between the guide vanes and the runner which is

called the reaction pressure and is responsible for the motion of the runner That is why a Francis

turbine is also known as reaction turbine. In Francis turbine the pressure at inlet is more than that at

outlet. This means that the water in the turbine must flow in a closed conduit. Unlike the Pelton type,

where the water strikes only a few of the runner buckets at a time, in the Francis turbine the runner is

always full of water. The moment of runner is affected by the change of both the potential and

kinetic energies of water. After doing the work the water is discharged to the tail race through a draft

lube of gradually enlarging section. It does not allow water to fall freely to tail race level as in the

Pelton turbine. The free end of the draft tube is submerged deep in tail water, making the entire water

passage right from the head race up to the tail race totally enclosed

Work done per sec ond per unit weight of water per sec ond 1V uV u

w1 1 w2 2

g

V uV u

Hydraulic efficiency w1 1 w2 2

gH

AXIAL FLOW REACTION TURBINE:

If the water flows parallel to the axis of the rotation of the shaft, the turbine is known as axial

flow turbine. And if the head at the inlet of the turbine is the sum of pressure energy and kinetic

energy and during the flow of water through runner a part of pressure energy is converted into

kinetic energy, the turbine is known as reaction turbine.

For axial flow reaction turbine, the shaft of the turbine is vertical. The lower end of the shaft is

made larger which is known as hub or boss. The vanes are fixed on the hub and hence hub acts as

a runner for axial flow reaction turbine. The following are the important type of axial flow reaction

turbine.

1.Propeller turbine: When the vanes are fixed to the hub and they are not adjustable, the turbine

is known as propeller turbine.

2. Kaplan turbine: When the vanes on the hub are adjustable, the turbine is known as Kaplan

turbine.

1.Scroll casing 2.Guide vanes mechanism 3.Hub with vanes or runner of the turbine and

4.Draft tube.

Kaplan turbine is a low head reaction turbine in which water flows axially. In this type of turbine, the

water flows parallel to the axis of rotation. The shaft of the turbine may be either vertical or

horizontal. The lower end of the shaft is made of larger to form the boss or the hub. When the vanes

are composite with the boss the turbine is called as propeller turbine. When the vanes are adjustable

the turbine is called as Kaplan turbine.

All the parts of the Kaplan turbine (viz. spiral casing, guide wheel and guide blades) are similar to

that of the Francis turbine, except the runner blades, runner and draft tube. The runner and runner

blades of the Kaplan turbine resemble with the propeller of the ship. Hence. Kaplan turbine is also

called as Propeller Turbine. The blades of a Kaplan turbine, three to eight in number are pivoted

around the central hub or boss, thus permitting adjustment of their orientation changes in load and

head.

Draft Tubes

The water after working on the turbine, imparts its energy to the vanes and runner, thereby reducing

its pressure less than that of atmospheric pressure (Vacuum). As the water flows from higher

pressure to lower pressure, it cannot come out of the turbine and hence a divergent tube is connected

to the end of the turbine. Draft tube is a divergent tube, one end of which is connected to the outlet of

the turbine and other end is immersed well below the tailrace water level. The major function of the

draft tube is to increase the pressure from the inlet to outlet of the draft tube as it flows through it and

hence increase it more than atmospheric pressure. The other function is to safely discharge the water

that has worked on the turbine to tailrace. Depending on the shape and alignment, draft tubes are

classified as follows:

Vertical divergent draft tube: The draft tube has the shape of a frustum of a cone. This is generally

provided for low specific speed. The cone angle is not to exceed 8. For greater value of the cone

angle it is seen that the flowing body of water may not touch the sides of the draft tube. This will

lead to the eddy formation bringing down the efficiency of the draft tube.

Moody's draft tube or hydra cone: This is a bell mouthed draft tube or a conical tube with a solid

conical central core. The whirl of discharged water is very much reduced in this arrangement. Elbow

draft tube: This draft tube affords to discharge the water horizontally to the tail race.

Elbow draft tube with circular inlet and rectangular outlet: This is a further improvement of the

simple elbow draft tube.

In all the types mentioned above, the outlet of the draft tube should be situated below the tail water

level.

Governing of turbines:

A Governor is a mechanism to regulate the speed of the turbine. The turbine is coupled to shaft of

the generator, which is generating power. The power generated should have uniform rating of current

and frequency which in turn depends on the speed of the shaft of the turbine. The above figure shows

the oil pressure governor of the turbine.

It is defined as the speed of a turbine which is identical in shape, geometrical dimensions, blade angles,

gate opening etc., with the actual turbine but of such a size that will develop unit power when working under unit

head.

N P

Ns

Q5/4

CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF HYDRAULIC TURBINE:

2.Operating Characteristic Curves or Constant Speed Curve

3.Muschel Curves or Constant Efficiency Curve

These curves are characteristic of a particular turbine which helps in studying the performance of

the turbine under various conditions. The data that must be obtained obtained in testing a turbine are

the following:

2. The speed of the turbine N

3. The discharge,Q

4. The net head, H

5. The power developed, P

6. The overall efficiency , o

b) Constant speed curves or operating characteristic curves

c) Constant efficiency curves

Constant head curves: Maintaining a constant head, the speed of the turbine is varied by admitting

different rates of flow by adjusting the percentage of gate opening. The power P developed is

measured mechanically. From each test the unit power Pu, the unit speed Nu, the unit discharge Qu

and the overall efficiency o are determined. The characteristic curves drawn are

a) Unit discharge vs unit speed

b) Unit power vs unit speed

c) Overall efficiency vs unit speed

Constant speed curves: In this case tests are conducted at a constant speed varying the head H and

suitably adjusting the discharge Q. The power developed P is measured mechanically. The overall

efficiency is aimed at its maximum value.

The curves drawn are

P vs Q

o Vs Q

o Vs Pu

Constant efficiency curves: These curves are plotted from data which can be obtained from the

constant head and constant speed curves. The object of obtaining this curve is to determine the zone

of constant efficiency so that we can always run the turbine with maximum efficiency.

This curve also gives a good idea about the performance of the turbine at various efficiencies.

65

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