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Fourier Series

Z. Aliyazicioglu

Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept.

Cal Poly Pomona

Fourier Series

Periodic signal is a function that repeats itself every T seconds.

x(t ) = x(t nT )

T: period of a function, n: integer 1,2,3,

x(t)

t

T x(t)

2T 3T

x(t)

t

T 2T

t

T 2T

1

Fourier Series

Periodic signal can be represented as sum of sinusoidals if the

signal is square-integrable over an arbitrary interval ().

t1 +T

t1

x(t ) dt <

2

where 0 =

x(t ) = a0 + an cos(n0t ) + bn sin(n0t ) T0

n =1 n =1

0 fundamental frequency

= c0 + cn cos(n0t + n ) of the periodic function in

n =1

[rad/s].

n0 , for n = 2,3,4,...

= Xe

n =

n

jn0t

are harmonic frequencies

Fourier Series

The parameters are called Fourier series expansion or coefficients and

given by

t1 +T0

1

a0 =

T0

t1

x(t )dt

Where t1 is arbitrary. It

t1 +T0 can be set t1 = 0 or

2

an =

T0

t1

x (t ) cos( n 0t )dt

n = 1, 2,3,...

t1 = T0 / 2

t1 +T0

2

bn =

T0

t1

x (t ) sin(n 0t )dt

n = 1, 2,3,...

bn

cn = an2 + bn2 n = tan

an

c0 = a0

t1 +T0

1

Xn =

T0

t1

x (t )e jn0t dt

n = 1, 2, 3,...

2

Fourier Series

Using Eulers rule, X n can be written as

t1 +T0 t1 +T0

1 1

Xn =

T0 x(t )cos(n0t )dt j

T0 x(t )sin(n0t )dt Xn =

1 1

an j bn

t1 t1 2 2

*

1

t1 +T0

1 t1+T0 1 1

x(t )e 0 dt

jn0t jn t

X n = x(t )e dt = X n = an + j bn

T0 t1

T0 t1 2 2

X n = X *

n

To obtain and

1

an = 2Re {X n } bn = 2 Im {X n }

Xn = cn e jn , n = 1, 2,3

2

Fourier Series

Remember that

t1 +T0

t1

cos(n0t ) dt = 0 for all n

t1 +T0

t1

sin(n0t ) dt = 0 for all n

t1 +T0

t1

cos(n0t ) sin(m0t ) dt = 0 for all n and m

t1 +T0 t1 +T0

t1

cos(n0t ) cos(m0t ) dt = 0 for all n m

t1

sin(n0t ) sin(m0t ) dt = 0 for all n m

T T

= for all n = m = for all n = m

2 2

3

Fourier Series

Example: Find the Fourier series of the following periodic signal

v(t)

Vm

Vm

v (t ) = t t

T

T 2T 3T

t1 +T0 T

1 1 Vm 1V T 1

a0 =

T0

t1

x(t )dt =

T 0 T

t dt = m t 2 = Vm

T 2T 0 2

T T

2 Vm 2V

T 0 T

an = t cos( n 0t ) dt = 2m t cos( n 0t ) dt

T 0

2Vm 1 t T

= 2 2 2

cos( n 0t ) + sin( n0t )

T n 0 n 0 0

2Vm 1 2 1

= cos( n T ) 2 2 = 0 for all n

T 2 n 2 02 T n 0

Fourier Series

T T

2 Vm 2V

T 0 T

bn = t sin( n 0t ) dt = 2m t sin( n 0t ) dt

T 0

2Vm 1 t T

= sin(n0t ) cos( n 0t )

T 2 n 2 02 n 0 0

2Vm T 2 V

= 0 cos( n T ) = m for n

T2 n 0 T n

Vm Vm

v (t ) = a0 + bn sin(n0t ) v (t ) = sin(n0t )

n =1 2 n =1 n

Vm Vm V V

v (t ) = sin(0t ) m sin(20t ) m sin(30t ) ...

2 2 3

4

Fourier Series

Lets assume that Vm=2V and T=1ms 2

0 = = 2 1000 rad/s

T0

>> Vm=2;

>> T=0.001;

>> w0=2*pi/T;

>> t=0:0.00001:0.002;

>> v1=Vm/2-Vm/pi*sin(w0*t);

>> plot (t,v1)

>> hold on;

>> v2=Vm/2-Vm/pi*sin(w0*t)-

Vm/(2*pi)*sin(2*w0*t);

>> plot (t,v2)

>> v3=Vm/2-Vm/pi*sin(w0*t)-

Vm/(2*pi)*sin(2*w0*t)-

Vm/(3*pi)*sin(3*w0*t);

>> plot (t,v3)

>> v4=Vm/2-Vm/pi*sin(w0*t)-

Vm/(2*pi)*sin(2*w0*t)-

Vm/(3*pi)*sin(3*w0*t)-

Vm/(4*pi)*sin(4*w0*t);

>> plot (t,v4)

>> xlabel ('t[s]')

>> title('v(t)')

Fourier Series

Vm

bn = for n=1,2,3,...

n

Vm

cn = an2 + bn2 = for n=1,2,3,...

n

bn

n = tan = 90 v (t ) = c0 + cn cos(n0t + n )

an

n =1

1 1 1 Vm 1 1 Vm j 90

Xn =

2

an j bn = j

2 2 n Xn = cn e jn = e

2 2 n

X 0 = c0

5

Fourier Series

The Effect of symmetry on the Fourier Coefficients

Even-function symmetry

Even-function is defined as x (t ) = x ( t )

t1 +T0 T0 / 2

1 4

a0 =

T0 x(t )dt an =

T0 0

x (t ) cos( n 0t )dt bn = 0 for all n

t1

x(t)

t

T 2T

Fourier Series

The Effect of symmetry on the Fourier Coefficients

Odd-function symmetry

Odd-function is defined as x (t ) = x ( t )

t1 +T0

1 4

T0 / 2

a0 =

T0

t1

x(t )dt bn =

T0 0

x (t )sin( n 0t )dt an = 0 for all n

x(t)

-T T t

6

Fourier Series

Example: x(t)

-T0 -t1 t1 T0

series coefficients of in exponential and trigonometric form.

Plot the discrete spectrum of x(t).

x (t ) = x ( t ) t1 +T0

4

T0 / 2

1

a0 = x(t )dt an =

T0 x (t ) cos( n 0t )dt

T0 t1

0

bn = 0 for all n

Fourier Series

Example: 1 T0 / 4 1

a0 = 1 dt = t

T0 / 4

T0

T0 / 4

T0 / 4 T0

1 T T 1

= 0 + 0 =

T0 4 4 2

T0 / 4

4 4 1

an = 1cos(n t ) dt = T sin( n 0t ) T0 / 4

0 n 0

0 0

T0 0

4 1 2 T0 2 n

= sin( n ) 0 = sin

T0 n 2 T0 4 n 2

T0

2 2 2 2

an = ,0, ,0, ,0, ,....

3 5 7

1 2 2 2 2

x(t ) = + cos(0t ) cos(30t ) + sin(50t ) cos(70t )...

2 3 5 7

7

Fourier Series

>> t=0:0.001:8;

>> T=4;

>> w0=2*pi/T;

>> v=1/2+2/pi*cos(w0*t)-

2/(3*pi)*cos(3*w0*t)+2/(5*pi

)*cos(5*w0*t)-

2/(7*pi)*cos(7*w0*t);

>> plot (t,v)

>> xlabel ('t[s]')

>> title('v(t)')

Fourier Series

Example :

1

1 1

4 1

Xn = 1e jn0t dt = e jn0 e jn0

j 4n0

1 1 jn0

= e

e jn0

2n0 j 2

1 1 sin(n0 )

= sin(n0 ) =

2n0 2 n0

1 sin(n 2 / 4) 1 sin(n / 2)

= =

2 n2 / 4 2 n / 2

1 n

= sinc( )

2 2

sin( x )

where sinc( x ) =

x

8

Fourier Series

1 n

Example.1: (cont) x(t ) = Xe

n =

n

jn0t

= 2 sinc( 2 )e

n =

jn0t

n 1 n

an = 2 X n = sinc( ) a0 = cn = sinc( )

2 2 2

bn = 2 X n sin(X n ) = 0 n = 0,

1 n

x (t ) = + sinc( ) cos( n0t )

2 n =1 2 x(t) n=1,3, 5,has odd numbers

harmonics. The even numbers

Since 0 = 2 / 4 harmonics are zero. Xn is always real,

so that the phase is either zero or .

1 n n t The magnitude of discrete spectrum is

x(t ) = + sinc( ) cos( ) shown in next page.

2 n =1 2 2

Fourier Series

Example.1: (cont)

>> n=-10:1:10;

>> x=0.5*sinc(n/2);

>> stem (n,x)

>> title('The 1/2*sinc(n/2) signal');

>> xlabel('n');

9

Fourier Series

Example.1: (cont) >> t=-5:0.1:5;

>> n=0;

>> x=0.5;

>> plot (t,x)

>> hold on

>> n=1;

>> an=(sinc(n/2)*cos(2*pi*t*n/4));

>> x=x+an;

>> plot (t,x)

>> n=3;

>> an=(sinc(n/2)*cos(2*pi*t*n/4));

>> x=x+an;

>> plot (t,x)

>> n=5;

>> an=(sinc(n/2)*cos(2*pi*t*n/4));

>> plot (t,x)

>> x=x+an;

>> plot (t,x)

>> n=7;

Fourier series approximation >> an=(sinc(n/2)*cos(2*pi*t*n/4));

of signal x(t) for . >> x=x+an;

>> plot (t,x,'r')

n = 0,1,3,5, and 7 >> title('Fourier Series approximation for

Different n values')

>>

Fourier Series

x(t)

Example. 2:

1

t

-T0 -T0/4 0 -T0/2 T0

-1

t1 +T0

1

a0 =

T0

t1

x(t )dt = 0

t1 +T0

1

Xn =

T0

t1

x(t )e jn0t dt n = 1, 2, 3,...

1 T0 / 2 jn t T0

Xn = e 0

dt + e jn0t dt

T0 0 T0 / 20

10

Fourier Series

Example. 2: (cont)

1 1 T0 / 2 1 T0

Xn = e jn0t e jn0t

T0 jn 0 0 jn0 T0 / 2

1 1 1

Xn = (e jn0T0 / 2 e jn0 0 ) (e jn0T0 e jn0T0 / 2 )

T0 jn0 jn0

1 1

2 T0 2 2 T0

jn jn T0 jn

Xn = 1 e 0 + e 0 e 0

T 2 T T 2

T0 j n 2

T0

1

Xn = 1 e jn + e jn 2 e jn

jn 2

2

Xn = 1 e jn

jn2

Fourier Series

Example. 2: (cont) n Xn

1 0-j 0.6366

2 j n j n j n 2 0+j0

Xn = e 2 e 2 e 2

jn 2 3 0-j0. 212

4 0+j0

2 j 2 n 5 0-j0. 127

Xn = e sin 2 n n = 1, 2, 3,...

n 6 0+j0

7 0-j 0. 0909

8 0+j0

j n

sin n

j n n

Xn = e 2 2 = e 2

sinc ( ) 9 0-j0. 0707

n 2

10 0+j0

2

11 0-j 0. 05787

>> n=1:11;

>> x=(2./(pi*n)).*(sin(pi/2*n)).*exp(-j*(pi*n/2));

11

Fourier Series

Example. 2: (cont)

1 1

Xn = an j bn bn=(-2)*imag(x)

2 2

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

3 9 7

4 1 1 1

x(t ) = sin0t + sin30t + sin50t + sin70t + ....

3 5 7

Fourier Series

Example. 2: (cont) >> t=0:0.000001:0.002;

>> b1=1.273*sin(2*pi*1000*t);

>> plot (t,b1)

>> hold on

>> b3=0.4244*sin(2*3*pi*1000*t);

>> b=b1+b3;

>> plot (t,b,'r')

>> b5=0.2546*sin(2*5*pi*1000*t);

>> b=b1+b3+b5;

>> plot (t,b,'g')

>> b7=0.18189*sin(2*7*pi*1000*t);

>> b=b1+b3+b5+b7;

>> plot (t,b,'y')

>> b9=0.14147*sin(2*9*pi*1000*t);

>> plot (t,b,'m')

>> title ('sum (b_n sin(n \omega t)')

>>

12

Fourier Series

Example. 2: (cont)

>>n=1:11;

>>

x=(2./(n)).*(sin(pi/2*n)).*exp(j

*(pi*n/2));

xn=abs(x);

theta=(180*angle(x))/pi;

subplot (2,1,1);

stem(n,xn)

xlabel('n\omega_0');

ylabel('X_n');

title('X_n(n\omega_0)');

subplot (2,1,2)

stem(n,theta)

xlabel('n\omega_0')

ylabel('\theta')

title('\theta (n\omega_0)');

Fourier Series

Problem.1 x(t)

t

-T0 0 t1 T0

series coefficients of in exponential and trigonometric form.

Plot the discrete spectrum of x(t).

Compare with Example 1

13

Fourier Series

Problem:

Write the Fourier series for the following periodic signal and

plot the sum of first 10 harmonics

x(t)

t

-T0 -T0/4 0 -T0/4 T0

-1

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