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2007

Japanese Geotechnical Society

STONE COLUMN AND CONVENTIONAL STONE COLUMN

ABSTRACT

Stone columns, one of the most commonly used soil improvement techniques, have been utilized worldwide to in-

crease bearing capacity and reduce total and dierential settlements of structures constructed on soft clay. Stone

columns also act as vertical drains, thus speeding up the process of consolidation. However, the settlement of stabilised

bed is not reduced in many situations for want of adequate lateral restraint. Encasing the stone column with a geogrid

enhances the bearing capacity and reduces the settlement drastically without compromising its eect as a drain, unlike

a pile. The behavior of the encased stone column stabilized bed is experimentally investigated and analysed numerical-

ly. In the numerical analysis, material behaviour is simulated using Soft Soil, Mohr Coulomb and Geogrid models for

clay, stone material and encasement respectively and is validated with experimental results. The parametric study car-

ried out on varying the L W D ratio (Llength of the column; Ddiameter of the column) of column, stiness of ge-

ogrid and angle of internal friction of stone material gives a better understanding of the physical performance of the

encased stone column stabilized clay bed.

Key words: coupled FE analysis, geogrid encasement, settlement reduction ratio, soft clay, stone column (IGC:

E2/E13/E14/K3/K14/M9)

INTRODUCTION column is not aected.

Soft clay deposits are geologically very young deposits, The theory of load transfer, estimation of ultimate

widely spread along the coastal plains all over the world. bearing capacity and prediction of settlement of stone

These deposits pose a major problem to geotechnical en- column was developed over a period of four decades by

gineers because of low shear strength and high compres- numerous researchers (Greenwood, 1970; Hughes and

sibility. Ground improvement by the stone column tech- Withers, 1974; Aboshi et al., 1979; Balaam and Poulos,

nique overcomes these problems by reducing the total set- 1983; Priebe, 1976; Van Impe and De Beer, 1983; Mad-

tlement under load and by speeding up the process of hav et al., 1994, Boussida and Hadri, 1995). Mitchell and

consolidation. Stone columns derive their axial capacity Huber (1985) have shown that stone columns reduce the

from the passive earth pressure developed owing to bulg- settlement signicantly. Lee and Pande (1998) proposed a

ing of columns and resistance to lateral deformation un- numerical model to analyze elastic as well as elastoplastic

der superimposed loads. Stone columns act as drains and behavior of foundation bed reinforced with stone

accelerate the primary consolidation. However, when columns. To understand the mechanism of encased stone

used in soft clay, stone columns have certain limitations. column, Deshpande and Vyas (1996) conducted test on

The interface layer between the clay and the stone column encased stone column and demonstrated that the elastic

is a mixed layer of clay and stones, which prevents the behaviour of encasement induces hoop compression that

eective drainage (i.e. clogging of drain). Materials results in an upward thrust releasing part of column load,

(stone pieces) of stone column get into the surrounding and reduces lateral pressure to the surrounding clay.

soil due to inadequate lateral connement, particularly at Katti et al. (1993) proposed a theory for improvement of

depths closer to the ground. This eect is severe in soft soft ground using stone columns with geosynthetic encas-

clays, thus causing the stabilized bed to settle excessively. ing based on particulate concept. Sivakumar et al. (2004)

To overcome these limitations, stone columns are en- have conducted two series of triaxial tests on sand

cased using geosynthetics. In the encased stone column, columns of 32 mm diameter, with and without geogrid

hoop stresses develop in the encasement, which act as an encasing of dierent lengths and concluded that the

elastic tube, and provide the necessary restraint to the columns longer than ve times the diameter do not con-

stone column. Further, encasement prevents intermixing tribute to the increase in load-carrying capacity. Bauer

i)

Research Scholar, Division of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Anna University, India (malar_snyahoo.com).

ii)

Professor, ditto.

The manuscript for this paper was received for review on September 1, 2006; approved on May 29, 2007.

Written discussions on this paper should be submitted before May 1, 2008 to the Japanese Geotechnical Society, 4-38-2, Sengoku, Bunkyo-ku,

Tokyo 112-0011, Japan. Upon request the closing date may be extended one month.

873

874 MALARVIZHI AND ILAMPARUTHI

and Nabil (1996) carried out triaxial tests on two types of Table 1. Properties of clay selected for this study

granular material with and without the geogrid sleeves. Specic gravity 2.68

They reported that the granular material packed within Liquid limit 55z

the cylindrical sleeve, increased the stiness of the system Plastic limit 18z

considerably. Adayat and Hanna (2005) used encapsulat- Plasticity index 37z

ed stone to improve collapsible soils. A few studies have Clay 65z

Silt 27z

reported the application of geotextile encased stone Unied Soil Classication CH

columns (Short et al., 2004; Alexiew et al., 2005; Raithel Compression Index 0.75

et al., 2005), yet the proper understanding of the behav-

iour of the columns is limited.

The scope of this study is to understand the behavior of Table 2. Properties of the stone chips

encased stone columns in soft clay and to bring out the

parameters which play dominant role in load sharing and Conning pressure, s3 Initial tangent

(kN Wm2 ) modulus, Ei (kN W m2 )

settlement reduction in the encased stone column stabi-

lized bed. With this as objective, laboratory tests were 50 2857

carried out on scaled down models approximately 1 W 20 100 4200

200 13300

size of prototype. The encased stone column stabilized Angle of shearing resistance 469

models were also analyzed using PLAXIS FEM code. An

attempt was made to include non-linear behavior of soil

and column material. The results of numerical analyses Table 3. Specications of the nets used

were compared with the experimental results of this study

as well as with the earlier theories and experiments pub- Net Wt.

Aperture size Es (kN W

m)

lished. An extensive parametric study was carried out to Id. m2

gm W

understand the inuence of L W D ratio of column, the net1 260 Diamond 1 mm 1 mm 15

stiness of geogrid and the angle of internal friction of net2 475 Square 4 mm 40

stone material on settlement reduction of the stabilized net3 730 Diamond 8 mm 6 mm 60

clay bed.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION plane strain condition of direct shear test. However, the

Selection of Clay dierence is marginal (5z), therefore q value of direct

Clay with high compressibility was required for this shear test was used in the analysis.

study. Therefore, the soil samples were collected from

dierent locations and tested for their index properties. Materials Used for Encasement

The soil collected from Tharamani area, near Chennai, Three dierent materials were used for encasement,

which is on the southeast coastline of India is geologically which are (i) Nova curtain (net1), commercially known as

young and is highly compressible (Cc0.75). The test for mosquito net, (ii) Netlon square mesh (net2) known as

particle size distribution showed that the nes are 92z the garden net and (iii) Netlon CE121, known as geonet

out of which clay fraction alone was 65z. The other (net3). Cylindrical tubes were stitched using these materi-

properties of the soil are presented in the Table 1 and the als for encasing the stone columns. The connection of the

soil is classied as CH type. Moreover, stone column cylindrical tube was made with high strength polyester

technique is in practice to support large storage tanks in cord. The properties of the nets (manufacturer's data)

this deposit. Therefore, the clayey soil of Tharamani area and their initial tensile modulus (Es) obtained from the

is considered suitable for the research study. tensile strength tests (ASTM D6637) are presented in

Table 3. Columns encased using net2 and net3 were addi-

Properties of Stone Column Material tionally covered with a thin geotextile to allow drainage

Stone column of 30 mm diameter was formed using without clogging of soil into the aperture and to prevent

granite stone chips of particle sizes varying from 2 to 6.35 slipping of stone particles smaller than the aperture open-

mm. The maximum particle size (6.35 mm) of the stone ing. The geotextile was arranged in such a way that it

used is 1 W5 diameter of the column, which is slightly would not contribute either to the vertical or lateral sti-

higher than the recommended guidelines of Nayak ness of the encased stone column.

(1983). The stone column material was well graded and

found to have q value of 489at a unit weight of 16 kN W m3 Preparation of Soft Clay Bed

as obtained from the large shear box tests. The initial tan- The air-dried clayey soil was mixed with required quan-

gent moduli of the column materials were determined at tity of water to achieve a consistency index of 0.1 at a

the unit weight of 16 kN W m3 under three conning pres- water content of 52z. Initially the soil was thoroughly

sures and the values are presented in Table 2 along with mixed with the water and kept covered for 48 hours to en-

the angle of shearing resistance. The angle of shearing sure uniform consistency. After 48 hours of hydration,

resistance obtained through triaxial test is 29less than the the soil was mixed and kneaded well and checked for

ENCASED AND CONVENTIONAL STONE COLUMN 875

moisture content. Loss of water, if any due to evapora- Meyerhof and Sastry (1978) established that the failure

tion, was compensated before forming the bed. Care was zone extends over a radial distance of about 1.5 times the

taken to avoid entrapment of air while preparing the bed. diameter from the periphery of column. Load tests were

However, each layer of clay was tapped gently using a conducted on clay beds stabilized with stone column and

wooden plank to remove entrapped air, if present. encased stone column independently by loading the plate

in 8 to 15 equal load increments. The cumulative equal in-

Formation of Stone Column crements of load thus applied were maintained constant

The centre of the cylindrical tank was properly for a period of one hour. During this one-hour period,

marked, a casing of required diameter was placed, and settlements were recorded at an interval of 10 minutes us-

then clay bed was formed in layers around the casing. The ing two sensitive dial gauges resting at diametrically op-

stones were carefully charged into the casing and com- posite ends of the plate.

pacted using 12 mm diameter rod to achieve a density of

16 kN W m3. At the end of compaction of each layer, the

casing tube is withdrawn to a certain level and stone is MODELS USED FOR NUMERICAL STUDY

charged and compacted. This procedure is repeated until Numerical analyses of the model tests were accom-

the full length of column is formed. plished by the PLAXIS nite element software.

Elastoplastic behaviour of stone-column is modeled by

Formation of Encased Stone Column Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion employing a non-associ-

For the encased stone column, geogrid W net was stitch- ated ow rule. The non-associated ow rule in this case

ed into a tube of required diameter as explained earlier has a signicant meaning in the sense that the dilation of

and inserted along with the casing. The stones were com- the stone-column on shearing can be represented by ad-

pacted in the same way as it was done in the case of the justing the dilatancy angle.

stone column. The non-linear behaviour of clay is represented by the

The bed thus prepared was loaded with a seating pres- modied critical state model, the Soft soil model. The

sure of 2.5 kN W m2 to the entire area of the bed for 24 Soft soil model is extensively described in Vermeer and

hours to obtain uniform bed, which also ensured proper Brinkgreve (1998), which is similar to the modied Cam

contact between clay and encased stone column. The test clay model, without softening behaviour. The Soft Soil

carried out after 24 hours of preparation of the bed also model is meant for primary compression of near nor-

ensured gain in the strength of disturbed clay. mally-consolidated clay-type soils. Some features of the

Soft-Soil model are:

Experimental Setup for the Load Test Stress dependent stiness (logarithmic compression be-

Tests were conducted on a single stone column of di- haviour).

ameter 30 mm for various L W D ratios (Llength of the Distinction between primary loading and unloading-

column; Ddiameter of the column) on a standard load- reloading.

ing frame as a stress-controlled test. The loading arrange- Memory for pre-consolidation stress.

ment is shown in Fig. 1. The size of the tank was 300 mm Failure behaviour according to the Mohr-Coulomb

in diameter and 300 mm in height, (H). The equivalent di- criterion.

ameter of the tributary area for a spacing of 2D in a Soft Soil model requires the following material constants:

square pattern is 2.3D (1.13 times spacing). So the modied compression index, l*, modied swelling index,

stabilized clay bed is loaded through a steel rigid circular k*, cohesion, c?, friction angle, q, dilatancy angle, c,

plate of diameter 2.3D. The lateral dimension of the tank poison's ratio and k0, coecient of lateral stress in nor-

was chosen to be such that the minimum free distance be- mal consolidation. The dierence of this model from the

tween the periphery of the column and the side of the Modied Cam clay model is that it is a function of volu-

tank does not interface with the failure wedge. metric strain instead of void ratio. The parameter l* is

the modied compression index, which determines the

compressibility of the material in primary loading given

by Eq. (1). It is assumed that there is a logarithmic rela-

tion between the volumetric strain, en, and the mean eec-

tive stress, p?, which can be formulated as:

ene0nl* ln pp

?

0 (1)

initial stress p 0. The parameter k* is the modied swelling

index, which determines the compressibility of the

material in unloading and subsequent reloading. Note

that k* diers from the index k as used by Burland (1965)

in Modied Cam clay model. The ratio l* W k* is,

Fig. 1. Schematic arrangement of stone columns however, equal to Burland's ratio l W k. The parameters

876 MALARVIZHI AND ILAMPARUTHI

l* and k* are obtained from the one-dimensional com- both the experimental and the numerical results of Lee

pression test. A relationship exists with the international- and Pande (Fig. 2). Therefore, these two models were

ly recognized parameters for one-dimensional compres- adopted for further analysis.

sion, Cc given by Eq. (2). The properties of the clay and stone are presented in

Cc Table 4. These properties of stone material and clay were

l * (2) determined through triaxial tests conducted on specimens

2.3(1e) in the laboratory as per ASTM D4767. When the stone

The factor 2.3 is obtained from the ratio between the material alone was tested at low conning pressures and

logarithm of base 10 and the natural logarithm. The ratio the volume change was measured through drained triaxial

l* Wk* (l W k) ranges, in general, between 3 and 7. The tests on stone specimens of 75 mm diameter, the dilatan-

elastic behaviour is described by Hooke's law and it re- cy was observed to be 269. However, the dilatancy of the

lates linear stress dependency on the tangent bulk modu- stone material was found to be only 49when it was pack-

lus as in Eq. (3). ed within the geogrid encasing. The initial tangent modu-

lus obtained from triaxial test on the encased stone

Eur p?

Kur (3) column was used for the stone material within the encase-

3(1 2nur) k*

ment to incorporate the initial connement eect oered

The sux `ur' stands for unloading reloading. Neither by the geogrid encasement.

the elastic bulk modulus, Kur, nor the elastic Young's The geogrid was modeled as linear elastic continuum

modulus, Eur, is used as an input parameter. Instead, nur element whose axial stiness was taken as the initial tan-

and k* are used as input constants for the part of the gent modulus, obtained from the tension test. The initial

model that computes the elastic strains. The poisson's tensile modulus, (EA) of the geogrids (ratio of the axial

ratio used is the well known pure elastic constant rather

than a pseudo-elasticity constant as used in the Mohr

Table 4. Parameters used for material modeling

Coulomb model. It is also possible to specify undrained

behaviour in an eective stress analysis using eective Stone Encased Stone

Parameter Clay

model parameters. The presence of pore pressures in a column column

soil body, usually caused by water, contributes to the Mohr Mohr

total stress level. According to Terzaghi's principle, total Model Soft soil

Coulomb Coulomb

stresses s can be divided into eective stresses s? and pore E [kPa] Not reqd. 2500 9000

water pressures sw, given by sxxs?xxsw; syys?yysw. n 0.2 0.3 0.3

g [kN Wm 3] 11 16 16

However, water is supposed not to sustain any shear

F?[9] 24 48 48

stress, and therefore the eective shear stresses are equal c? [kPa] 6 0.1 0.1

to the total shear stresses (sxys?xy). Cohesion and angle c [9] 0 26 4

of internal friction are the eective stress parameters k (m Wday) 5.94e4 1 1

obtained from the drained triaxial test. The permeability, l* 0.136 Not reqd. Not reqd.

k* 0.054 '' ''

k is calculated from the cv obtained from the consolida-

eo 1.42 '' ''

tion test.

Application of these two material models were veried

with the published results of Lee and Pande (1998)

wherein Cam clay and Mohr Coulomb models were used

to analyze the stone column stabilized clay bed. The

result of numerical study compares reasonably well with

Fig. 2. Validation of FEM with Lee and Pande (1998) Fig. 3. Typical FE model of clay bed and column

ENCASED AND CONVENTIONAL STONE COLUMN 877

tlement

Column type m2 )

Expt. (kN W m2 )

FEM (kN W

Clay 18 16

D5)

sc (L W 22 23

D7.5)

sc (L W 27 28

D10)

sc (L W 40 38

role in settlement reduction. For an applied pressure, the

settlement observed is less when the stone column length

is increased. The higher the L W D ratio is, the lesser the

settlement.

The load-settlement curves obtained through FEM

analyses show almost similar trend as observed in experi-

ments and are compared in Fig. 4. In case of virgin clay,

the load-settlement behaviour is obtained using Soft soil

model, which compares well with the experimental curve.

The load-settlement response for stone column stabilized

Fig. 4. Load vs. Settlement curve of stone columns

beds (both oating and end bearing) using Soft soil and

Mohr coulomb models for clay and stone column respec-

tively are compared with the corresponding experimental

force per unit width and the axial strain) obtained from curves. The comparison is extremely good for oating

the tension tests on net1, net2 and net3 (Table 3) were stone columns and for the end bearing columns, the

incorporated in the model. Axisymmetric nite element dierence in load is around 5z for a given settlement.

analysis was carried out since studies were on single The loads for 10 mm settlement are presented in Table 5.

column stabilized bed under symmetric load. A typical Experimental results are found to agree very well with the

nite element idealization of the laboratory model is FEM results. The increase in carrying capacity is of the

shown in Fig. 3(a) wherein numbers (06) indicate the se- order of 2.2, 1.5 and 1.2 times that of the untreated bed

quence followed in creating geometric boundaries. In for columns with L W D ratio 10, 7.5 and 5 respectively.

PLAXIS nite element code, mesh generation is auto-

matic with 6 or 15 noded triangular elements (Fig. 3(b)). Behavior of Conventional Stone Column

Fifteen noded triangular elements were chosen for mesh- The deformed shape of the stone column stabilized bed

ing. The nodes at the vertical boundaries were not al- shows considerable bulging as shown in Fig. 5. The

lowed to displace horizontally but allowed to undergo bulging was observed both from the numerical and

vertical displacement whereas for the nodes at the bottom experimental investigations. From numerical studies, it

surface, both horizontal and vertical displacements were was found to extend from the column head to a depth

arrested. varying between 2.5 and 6 times the column diameter.

The radial deformation, x (expansion of outer face of the

column in the radial direction due to load on the

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION column), in other words bulging, increased gradually

Load-Settlement Response of Clay and Stone Column with the pressure as shown in Fig. 6 and the bulging was

Stabilised Beds maximum at a depth of 1.75D from the top. It was ob-

In Fig. 4, the load-settlement behavior of soft clay bed served to be 6.7 mm (i.e. 0.22D) for a vertical pressure of

(c) and stone column stabilized bed (sc) are compared. 60 kN W m2. The bulging of stone column was also meas-

The settlement of clay bed increases with increase in load ured by exhuming the stone column, which was grouted

and shows a continuous deformation (settlement) at a at the end of the test. Maximum bulging was seen at 1.5D

more or less constant load (pressure). This response typi- depth of the column, and compared well with the numeri-

es the behaviour of highly compressible clay. The load- cal analysis.

settlement response of stone column stabilized bed also Greenwood (1970) postulated that the stone column

shows similar trend but for a given load, the settlement is resists the vertical load by the passive resistance oered

less and is decreased with increase in column length. The by the surrounding soil to the bulging of column and that

settlement is lesser for end bearing column than oating the depth of bulge is around 2 times the pile diameter.

columns (f) for a given consistency and thickness of clay However, Hughes and Withers (1974), showed that the

bed. Further, the rate of increase of settlement decreases critical length is 4 times the pile diameter, in case of bulg-

with column length. Thus, the load carrying capacity and ing failure. Thus, observations made in this study agree

stiness of clay bed are improved due to stone column well with the ndings of earlier investigators.

878 MALARVIZHI AND ILAMPARUTHI

Fig. 7(a). Load vs. Settlement of encased columns

Fig. 7(b). Load vs. Settlement response of oating and end bearing

columns with encasement (net3)

and overall load carrying capacity is also increased. The

eect of length of column on the load resistance is com-

Load-Settlement Response of Clay Bed Stabilized with pared in Fig. 7(b) for the columns stabilized with net3.

Encased Stone Column The bearing pressure increases as the length increases, but

The load-settlement responses of stone columns en- the improvement is not signicant when the columns are

cased with three dierent nets (net1, net2 and net3) for oating (f). The improvement is signicant when the

dierent L W D ratios are presented in Fig. 7(a), 7(b) and columns are end bearing.

7(c). In all these cases, the shape of load-settlement curve The load settlement response of end bearing columns

is almost similar to clay bed stabilized with stone column. (L WD10) is presented in Fig. 7(c) and compared with

These curves show higher resistance against the load and the response of FEM analysis. For a particular settle-

the rate of increase of settlement is less while comparing ment, the load carried by the encased stone column is

with stone column stabilized bed. higher than the stone column. The tensile strength of net1

In Fig. 7(a), the eect of stiness of reinforcement is is very small therefore the load capacity is not signicant.

compared with stone column for a oating column arran- The net3 column oered higher resistance than net2

gement (L W D5). As stated earlier the characteristic be- column for a given settlement of the stabilized bed. Table

haviour of stabilized bed is not aected but the bed sti- 6 summarises the load for 10 mm settlement for the beds

ness is increased with the stiness of the encasing material stabilized with encased stone column. The bearing pres-

ENCASED AND CONVENTIONAL STONE COLUMN 879

kN Wm2

Column D 5

LW D7.5

LW D10

LW

sc 21 27 40

net1 22.5 29 45

net2 30 32 63

net3 35.5 39 81

A typical deformed shape of encased stone column

stabilized bed, from the nite element analysis is shown

in Fig. 8. When the encased stone column is subjected to

vertical load, the column material tends to dilate and in-

duces lateral pressure. If the resistance oered by the sur-

rounding soil is not sucient to restrain bulging especial-

Fig. 7(c). Comparison of load vs. settlement response between experi-

ment and FE analysis ly in soft soil, the column may fail due to excessive bulg-

ing, in which case the lateral conning eect is oered by

the encasing material.

sure for oating columns (L W D5) at 10 mm settlement Stone material dilates and lateral strain in the stone

is 21 kN W m2, 22.5 kN Wm2, 30 kN W m2 and 35.5 kN W m2 for column induces hoop tension in the encasement, which

stone column, net1 column, net2 column and net3 results in radial compression in stone column. The hoop

column respectively. Thus, the respective capacities are tension developed depends on the stiness of geogrid and

1.05, 1.4 and 1.7 times the stone column stabilized. Simi- it oers a passive resistance to the stone column, which is

larly, for oating stone column with L W D ratio of 7.5, the otherwise oered by the surrounding soil. The lateral

carrying capacities of net1, net2 and net3 columns are pressure thus developed results in an upward thrust

1.07, 1.2 and 1.4 times the capacity of the stone column (Deshpande and Vyas, 1996).

stabilized bed. The bearing pressures at 10 mm settlement The stress transferred to the stone thus increases,

are 45 kN W m2, 63 kN W m2 and 81 kN W m2 for net1, net2 which in turn reduces the load on the clay. Despite the in-

and net3 encased end bearing columns respectively. The crease in stress in the column, bulging of stone column

increase in carrying capacity is of the order of 1.1, 1.6 was reduced signicantly. The settlement of stabilized

and 2.0 times that of the stone column stabilized bed. The bed was much less for the same magnitude of pressure.

end bearing columns performed better than the oating For a pressure of 60 kN W m2, the maximum horizontal

columns. In all the cases, the increase in capacity is more deformation or maximum bulging was found to be 0.73

than two times the capacity of respective oating columns mm, 0.24 mm and 0.17 mm in net1, net2 and net3 respec-

with L W D5. In all the cases, it was found that the load tively as against 6.7 mm in the conventional stone

capacity of the stabilized bed increases in proportion to column. The hoop forces mobilized in the geogrid

the increase in the stiness of geogrid material. reduced the bulging. The mobilization of hoop forces in

The load-settlement response of encased stone column the geogrid increases with applied load. The stier the ge-

stabilized beds is obtained using FEM, wherein encase- ogrid is, the greater the hoop stress is developed. Maxi-

ment (geogrid) is modeled as linear elastic material. The mum hoop force is developed at the depth around 1D of

FEM curves showed almost similar response as that of the encasement, which is shown in Fig. 9. For higher pres-

the experimental curves (Fig. 7(c)). Thus the material sures, hoop forces are mobilized over the entire length of

models viz. Soft soil, Mohr coulomb and geogrid model the encasement.

used in this study for clay, stone column and encasement

880 MALARVIZHI AND ILAMPARUTHI

Stress concentration ratio is dened as the ratio of axial PARAMETRIC STUDY

stress experienced by the column to the vertical stress An axisymmetric FEM analysis was carried out on a

component sustained by the soil for the same applied single column stabilized clay bed to bring out inuence of

pressure. Due to the increased stiness of the stone various column parameters. Column of 1 m in diameter

column, stress concentration is more on the column than and 10 m in length was modeled in a clay bed of 20 m

in the surrounding soil. When the stone column is en- thick. The loads of equal increments were applied over an

cased, the stress concentration ratio in the stone further area with diameter equal to 2.5 times the diameter of

increases as shown in Fig. 10 and the magnitude of in- stone column and incremented at equal time intervals.

crease depends on the stiness of material used for the en- Each load increment was 10 kN W m2 and the time interval

casement. The stress concentration ratio on the stone was 10 days (Fig. 11). The maximum load considered was

column is 8.4 for an applied pressure of 20 kN W m2 and 200 kN W m2, which corresponds to load intensity under a

2

reduced to 3.7 for 60 kN W m . From Fig. 10, it is observed circular storage tank of 20 m height.

that the stress concentration ratio increased proportional- The parameter chosen for comparison is settlement

ly with the stiness of geogrid encasement. For a pressure reduction ratio, which is dened as the ratio of the settle-

of 120 kN W m2, the stress concentration ratio of the en- ment of treated ground to that of the untreated ground

cased stone column was observed to be 14, 41 and 54 for under identical surcharges (Aboshi et al., 1979, Schlosser

net1, net2 and net3 respectively which is in proportion to et al., 1983, Rao and Ranjan, 1988). It is the inverse of

their initial tensile modulus of 15 kN W m2 Wm, 40 kN W m2 W the settlement ratio dened by Poorooshasb and

2

m and 60 kN W m W m respectively. Meyerhof (1997). The analysis was done for various L W D

ratios, angle of internal frictions of the stone material

and the stiness of geogrids. The inuence of these

parameters on SRR is elaborately discussed.

m2 at

Fig. 11. Load settlement behavior: incremented load of 10 kN W

an interval of 10 days

Fig. 9. Variation of hoop force in encasements

Stone Encased

Parameter Clay

column stone column

Mohr- Mohr-

Model Soft-

Coulomb Coulomb

Soil

E [kPa] Not reqd. 24000 48000

n 0.2 0.35 0.3

g[kN Wm 3] 12 16 16

f?[9] 30 3248 3248

c? [kPa] 6 0.3 0.3

c [9] 0 2W 3f 1W 3f

k (m Wday) 5.94e4 1 1

l* 0.136 Not reqd. Not reqd.

k* 0.054 '' ''

eo 1.42 '' ''

Fig. 10. Stress concentration ratio in column

ENCASED AND CONVENTIONAL STONE COLUMN 881

study are shown in Table 7. A constrained modulus of

100 MN W m2 for the eld stone material (Priebe, 1976) is

generally used to predict the settlement of stabilized bed

theoretically. However, in this study a smaller value of

initial tangent modulus (24 MN W m2 ) is used because of

the very small conning eect oered by soft clay. But in

the case of modeling the stone column within the encase-

ment, a higher initial tangent modulus is used to take care

of high conning eect (48 MN W m2 ). The dilatancy angle

of the stone within the encasement is chosen to be half the

value (Bauer and Nabil, 1996) of it when used without en-

casement.

Fig. 12. Excess pore water contours under cumulative surcharge pres-

Bulging Behavior m2

sure of 60 kN W

A comparison is made on the behavior of stabilized

m2. Bulging was ob-

beds for a load intensity of 60 kN W

served in the stone column and its magnitude was 0.187 tion. Poorooshasb and Meyerhof (1997) have modied

m. When an encasement possessing a stiness of 500 kN W the Barron's equation to include the eect of stress con-

m2 Wm was used, bulging reduced to 0.021 m and hoop centration and computed the performance factor with

stress developed was 45.5 kN Wm2 Wm. respect to time. Since the coupled eect of deformation

and dissipation of pore water is incorporated in PLAXIS

Settlement and Stress Concentration FEM code which uses BIOT's (1941) system of dieren-

The settlement for the pressure of 60 kN W m2 in clay bed tial equations solved by integration over time, the stress

of 20 m thick without stone column was 1.14 m. It concentration eect is automatically taken care of in the

reduced to 0.5m in stone column bed and 0.26 m in en- present analysis. It is observed from Fig. 12 that the pore

cased stone column bed. The settlement reduction ratio is water pressure distribution is concentrated below founda-

0.42 when stone column was used, and it is as low as 0.22 tion in the unstabilized bed, whereas in the encased stone

when geogrid was used. The vertical eective stress (mean column and in the conventional stone column stabilized

of the vertical eective stress of the elements just below bed, the concentration of pore water pressure is distribut-

the loaded area) in unstabilized clay bed at the end of 60 ed to deeper depths and the intensity is far less than un-

days was observed to be 39 kN W m2. In the conventional stabilised condition.

stone column stabilized bed, the stress observed in the

stone column was 233 kN W m2 whereas in clay it was aboutLW D ratio on SRR for Stone Column

2

12 kN W m . In the encased stone column stabilized bed, Variation of SRR for dierent pressures is presented in

the stress on stone column was 369 kN W m2 and in clay, it

Fig. 13. When the pressure on the bed is less, SRR is less

2

was 6 kN W m . Due to the presence of columns, the stress and around 0.4 for a pressure of 50 kN W m2. However,

transferred to clay is less. The stress concentration in theSRR increases with pressure for all the L WD ratios and the

conventional and the encased stone columns was 19 and SRR is 0.6 for a pressure increase of 200 kN W m 2.

61 respectively. Increase in stress concentration was three As the L W D ratio increases, SRR reduces. But the in-

fold in the encased column. crease in the length of column beyond L W D7.5 does not

contribute to the settlement reduction. However, the rate

Pore Pressure Distribution of reduction in SRR is decreased and reached almost to a

Figure 12 shows the distribution of excess pore water constant value for L W D more than 10. Narasimha Rao

pressure due to cumulative surcharge pressure of 60 kN W (2000) has also reported that a slenderness ratio (L W D) of

m2 after the cumulative loading period of 60 days. For 5 to 10 is ideal and increase in L W D ratio does not contrib-

identical loading conditions, it is observed that the pore ute to either load carrying capacity or reduction in settle-

water pressure is less in an encased stone column bed than ment.

in stone column stabilised and unstabilised clay beds.

One has to distinguish between the settlement reduction L W D ratio on SRR for Encased Stone Column

due to the enhanced stiness of the composite soil struc- A behavior as said above was observed in the encased

ture and the settlement acceleration due to the function- stone column also. As the L W D ratio increases, SRR

ing of columns as vertical drains (i.e., acceleration of reduces, but it is eective up to L W D7.5 against 10 for

pore water pressure dissipation). the conventional stone column. Further increase in the

Han and Ye (2001) proposed modied coecients of length of column does not contribute to the settlement

consolidation to account for the eect of stone column- reduction. The SRR at dierent pressures is presented in

soil modular ratio as against the classical Barron's theory Fig. 14. For an applied pressure of 100 kN W m2, SRR va-

(1948), which ignores the eect of stiness between the ries from 0.65 to 0.55 (Fig. 13) for L W D varying from 5 to

drain well and the surrounding soil, on rate of consolida- 10 in case of a stone column stabilized bed. In the case of

882 MALARVIZHI AND ILAMPARUTHI

LW

Fig. 16. Load intensity vs. SRR for a stone column

LW

in Fig. 16, SRR is less in the well packed column, (q

469) and is almost 0.4 for the pressures between 50 kN W

m2 and 150 kN W m2. But for q349 , the SRR is 0.8 for

the pressure of 50 kN Wm2 and reduces to 0.5 for the pres-

sure of 150 kN W m 2.

Unlike in stone column, SRR is less aected in encased

column by the angle of internal friction of column

material, which can be seen in Fig. 17. The SRR for

dierent stone column materials enclosed with geogrids

Fig. 15. Angle of internal friction vs. SRR of varying axial stiness is plotted in Fig. 18. The SRR

for the column material with lesser angle of internal fric-

tion (q349) is 0.9 in conventional stone column, but is

an encased stone column, SRR varies from 0.40 to 0.30 only 0.275 in the case of encased stone column. This

(Fig. 14), which means, the settlement is 50z of the con- proves that the encasement is very eective for weak

ventional stone column bed. column material. When the stiness of geogrid material is

high, SRR is small. SRR as small as 0.1 is obtained for

q vs. SRR (stone column) the modulus of encasement of 3000 kN W m2 Wm irrespec-

As the angle of internal friction of stone increases, the tive of angle of shearing resistance of stone material. This

settlement reduction ratio decreases and is observed to be indicates that the settlement of soft clay bed can be

the same for all load intensities. However, when the ap- reduced to 10z by encased stone column stabilization.

plied load is low and column is very loose, e.g. for q

329, the settlement reduction ratio is almost 1 (Fig. 15), Inuence of stiness of geogrid

which implies that a loose material is less sti and does As the stiness of geogrid material (Es) increases, SRR

not contribute much to load carrying capacity. As the reduces, but beyond a certain value, further increase in

ENCASED AND CONVENTIONAL STONE COLUMN 883

Fig. 18. Angle of internal friction vs. SRR

Fig. 19. Stiness of geogrid on SRR for dierent pressures Fig. 21. Horizontal displacement vs. Stiness of geogrid for dierent

q? values

sity of 20 kN W m2, it can be seen from Fig. 19 that as the But the eect of axial stiness is highly pronounced than

stiness value increases from 60 to 1000 kN W m2 Wm, SRR the angle of shearing resistance of stone column material

reduces from 0.45 to 0.2, but when the stiness is dou- as seen in Fig. 21. However, the stiness of more than

bled, say 2000 kN W m2 Wm, the ratio is just 0.17. The trend 2000 kN W m2 Wm is not eective for the conditions of the

is the same for higher pressures also, but SRR is less for column analysed in this study. Similarly, the hoop force

higher pressures. For the conditions presented, the in- in the geogrid is less if the angle of shearing resistance in

crease in stiness of geogrid beyond certain value is not the column is more and the mobilized hoop force is

eective in reducing the SRR. Therefore, it can be said almost constant despite the increase in axial stiness. The

that when an appropriate geogrid material is used the maximum hoop forces for all the eld models were ob-

SRR value is reduced eectively and it will be cost eec- served to be at about 0.75D from the column top.

tive.

Almost similar trend is observed when the column

material has dierent angle of internal friction as shown CONCLUSIONS

in Fig. 20. It is seen that higher the q value, the lesser the Based on the observation of experimental investigation

SRR for a given stiness of the geogrid. The angle of on model encased stone column stabilized bed and de-

shearing resistance of the material is also contributing to tailed parametric study through FEM analysis following

some degree in reducing the SRR. Therefore, column conclusions are drawn.

material needs good compaction so that higher q value is 1. Stone columns improved the load carrying capacity

achieved, which will enhance the eciency of encased of the stabilized bed. As the length of the stone

stone column in reducing the SRR. The importance of column increases, there is an increase in the load

higher value of internal friction in stone column material carrying capacity. Column has shared higher load

(adequate compaction of stone column) is further by the passive resistance against bulging. Bulging is

strengthened through the variation of horizontal defor- observed eectively at the top 4D of the column.

mation of column and hoop forces with respect to axial 2. Encasing the stone column with geogrids improved

stiness of geogrid material (Figs. 20 and 21). With in- the load carrying capacity of the stabilized bed ap-

crease in angle of shearing resistance, the deformation of preciably. The stier the geogrid is the higher is the

column is reduced for an axial stiness of the geogrid. load carrying capacity.

884 MALARVIZHI AND ILAMPARUTHI

3. The load-settlement curves obtained from nite ele- Foundation Engineering, 114.

ment analyses compare well with experimental 4) ASTM: D476704Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression

Test for Cohesive Soils.

curves suggesting that material models viz. Soft

5) ASTM: D663701Determining Tensile Properties of Geogrids by

soil, Mohr Coulomb and geogrid models used in the the Single or Multi-Rib Tensile Method.

FEM analyses are eective in idealising the behav- 6) Balaam, N. P. and Poulos, H. G. (1983): The Behavior of founda-

iour of soft clay, stone column and encasement re- tions supported by clay stabilized by stone columns, Proc. Specialty

spectively. Sessions, VII European Conference on SMFE, 2.

7) Barron, R. A. (1948): Consolidation of ne-grained soils by drain

4. Numerical studies conrmed the bulging mechan-

wells, Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers,

ism of stone column. The bulging of stone column 113, paper 2346, 718724.

is eective up to the depth of 4 times the diameter of 8) Bauer, G. E. and Nabil, A. J. (1996): Laboratory and analytical in-

the column, which is in conformity with classical vestigation of sleeve reinforced stone columns, Geosynthetics: Ap-

theories of Hughes and Withers (1974) and Green- plication, Design and Construction, 463466.

9) Biot, M. A. (1941): General theory of three-dimensional consolida-

wood (1970) and the present experimental study.

tion, J. Appl. Phys., 12, 1941a, 155165.

5. The mobilised hoop force in the geogrid material in- 10) Bouassida, M. and Hadhri, T. (1995): Extreme load of soils rein-

creases with increase in surcharge pressure. Initial- forced by columns: The case of an isolated column, Soils and Foun-

ly, the hoop force is mobilised over the top 1D dations, 35(1), 2135.

depth, and as the pressure increases, the hoop force 11) Burland, J. B. (1965): The yielding and dilation of clay, G eotech-

nique, 15, 211214.

is mobilised over the length of column apart from

12) Datye, K. R. and Nagaraju, S. S. (1981): Design approach and eld

increase in its magnitude. Further, the hoop stress is control for stone columns, Proc. 10th International Conference on

always maximum at 1D depth of the column for the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 637640.

parameters analysed in this study. 13) Deshpande, P. M. and Vyas, A. V. (1996): Interactive encased

6. Encasing the stone column increases the stress con- stone column foundation, 6th International Conference and Exhi-

bition on Piling and Deep Foundation, DFI'96, ISSMFE, 119.

centration on the column, thereby reducing the load

14) Greenwood, D. A. (1970): Mechanical improvement of soils below

on clay, consequently reducing the settlement. The ground surface, Conference on Ground Engineering, Institution of

parametric study shows that the settlement reduc- Civil Engineering, 1122.

tion ratio in the encased stone column bed is about 15) Han, J. and Ye, S. L. (2001): Simplied method for consolidation

50z of stone column bed for identical conditions. rate of stone column reinforced foundations, J. Geotechnical and

Geoenvironmental Engg, 127(7), 597603.

7. The stress concentration factor increased with the

16) Hughes, J. M. O. and Withers, N. J. (1974): Reinforcing of soft co-

stiness of encasement and is always higher than in hesive soils with stone columns, Ground Engineering, 7(3), 4242

conventional stone column irrespective of applied and 4749.

pressure. 17) Katti, R. K., Katti, A. R. and Naik, S. (1993): Monograph to Anal-

8. The parametric study shows that the increase in ysis of Stone Columns with and without Geo-synthetic Encasing,

CBRI publication, New Delhi.

stiness of encasement reduces the settlement, but

18) Lee, J. S. and Pande, G. N. (1998): Analysis of stone column rein-

when the stiness is increased beyond 2000 kN W m2 W forced foundations, Int. J. Numerical and Analytical Meth in Ge-

m, the contribution to settlement reduction ratio omech., 22, 10011020.

becomes insignicant for the conditions analysed in 19) Madhav, M. R., Miura, N. and Alamgir, M. (1994): Analysis of

this study. granular column reinforced ground, 5th International Conference

on Geotextile, Geomembranes and Related Products.

9. As the L W D ratio of column increases, settlement

20) Meyerhof, G. G. and Sastry, V. V. R. N. (1978): Bearing capacity

reduces and if the L W D ratio is more than about 10, of piles in layered soils, part I and II, Canadian Geotechnical Jour-

it does not contribute much to settlement reduction. nal, 15, 171189.

10. The angle of shearing resistance of column material 21) Mitchell, J. K. and Huber, T. R. (1985): Performance of a stone

also aects the SRR of encased stone column but column foundation, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 111,

205223.

not to the extent of stiness of encasing material.

22) Narasimha, Rao. S. N. (2000) Studies on groups of stone column in

Eciency of encased stone column is higher if the soft clays, Symposium on Ground Improvement Techniques For

column material is compacted well to achieve high Practicing Engineers, India, 8493.

angle of shearing resistance. 23) Nayak, N. V. (1983): Recent advances in ground improvements by

stone volumn, Proc. Indian Geotechnical Conference, 1, V19.

24) Poorooshasb, H. B. and Meyerhof, G. G. (1997): Consolidation

REFERENCES settlement of rafts supported by stone columns, Journal of Ge-

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CompozerA method to improve characteristics of soft clays by improved by vibroreplacement (en alem an), Bautechnik, (53),

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niques, 1, 211216. Foundation of constructions on very soft soils with geotextile en-

2) Adayat, T. and Hanna, A. M. (2005): Encapsulated stone columns cased columnsState of the Art, Geofrontiers 2005, GSP 131 In-

as a soil improvement technique for collapsible soil, Ground Im- novations in grouting and soil improvement, 111.

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3) Alexiew, D., Brokemper, D. and Steve, L. (2005): Geotextile En- analysis of skirted granular piles, Journal of Geotechnical En-

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ENCASED AND CONVENTIONAL STONE COLUMN 885

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2005 Annual Meeting Report. 32) Vermeer, P. A. and Brinkgreve, R. B. J. (1998): Plaxis Finite Ele-

30) Sivakumar, V., Mckelvey, D., Graham, J. and Hughes, D. (2004): ment Code for Soil and Rock Analyses, Rotterdam, Balkema.

Triaxial tests on model sand columns in clay, Canadian Geotechni-

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