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: OFFICIAL A.E.F~, 1475-2 i

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GAS ,MANUAL

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Part 11




Use of Gas by the Artillery

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: General Headquarters
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: American Ex:pedJtlon.aey Forces, Franca :

: MarclT, 1919 :



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GENEHAL HEADQUAR'fERS
AMERICAN EXPEDITION:A.IlY FORCES
llfarch, 1919,
'he "Gas Manual" in six parts is approvud and published
for the infoi;rol!1 ion and gnitlance of the A.meric.'m Expedition-
aey Forces. A.lthougll this manual prosents tbe practice .in. the
American E,-peditionary' Forees, its _publication is not intended
to convey approval for adoplien in Che future .milltary s~rvice
of t11e Unit-ed. States of any details of organization coutalned
herein.
BY COMMAND OF GE~ERAL PB118l:llNO:

JAMES W. McANDI\EW,
Chi~ of Slaff.
0Pil1C1At:
ROBERT C. DA VIS,
Adjntant General.
CONTENTS
par t I-Tactical Employment of Gases .. A. E. F. No. 14-75-l G-6
p art II-Use of Gas by ilie Artillery.. . . A, E. F . No. 1476-2 G-6
part m-use ot Gas by Gas Troops ...... A. E. F. No. 1475-3 G-5
Plll!l IV-Use of Gas by Infantry .. ...... A. E. F. No. li/6-4 G-5
p art ,r-U11e of Gas by Air SetYice . ..... A. E. F. No. 1415-5 G-6
pnrt VI-Defense Against Gas ... . . .. ... A.E.F. No. 1433 G-6

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Par.
Jntroduction . . ......... . ....... . ... .. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l
Inform a lion to be Obtained. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Du lies oI Ga-s Officer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Sa:fe Doses of R. S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
D angerous Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
"Fire for Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Fite for Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
li'irin.g Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Expenditure of Ammunition....... . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
For Non-Persistent$................ . .... . . . .... . .. . .. 15
F or Persislents.................................... . .. 16
For Lachrym.ators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Meteorological a.Pd Topographical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
i\leleo.r o Logy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Topography ... ........... . .. ... .. .. , ... .... . , . . . . . . HI
Wind Circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Taetical Use of Al'lillery Shell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-:1
D~truction Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Neutralizing Fire .. . . ......... . . , ............. . .. . . . . 21-22
Couote-r-Dattecy ......... . .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-
Hnrass1ng ...... . .... , ......... ... , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Blanketiug .............. , . . . .... .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Int~rdict iou Fire . ........ . .. . .... ... .... ... ....... , . 26
B0mbard1nent of Azea ...... ... . .......... ............ 27-~9
Bat"rage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... . ...... 3031
Smoke- ...... . ... .. ... . ..... . ..... .. .... .. . . ......... SZ..34
Qunnl ltir:. o f :- hdl ne~irctl . .. ..... .. .. ... . . .... . . . . 35-37
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continuldl .
Par.
Handling and Storage of Oas Sheil .. .............. , . . 38
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S8
Di'SpositioJJ of Leaking Shell .... . . ........ ...... ..... . 39-40
Transpor-l . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Dumps . . ........... .. . .......... . . .. ...... . .. ... , . . 43
SpeciaJ Precau lion J\elative t o lf. S ................. , . . 44
Ghemical ArWlery Amnn1nition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Gn s Sbell ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 46-4 7
Fol' Non-Pe.rsistent G,15. . 48
For Semi-Persistent Uas ..................... , . 49
For Pe.trutenL Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Constrncrt:ion of SbP.l r.... - . ......... . ........ 51-55
'.['ype of Amcnic111, Slitll l .... , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5fl
Marldng..s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7
Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . , .................... . ..... f>ll-59
FiJUngs . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 58
P1encl1 Shell.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . ..... 60-62
Smoke Shen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . , . 63
w. ]? ... .... ... .... . .. . . ....................... ... . 64:.-.65
F. )f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .... 64-65
" c ........... . . , . .. ...... .... . ,. . ........... ... .. . 66
Frencb No, 20. . . . . . . . ............... ... . , . . . . . . 66
F1eneb No, 21.. . . . ... .... , .. , , , . 66
Packing and -Boxing . ...... .. , .... ........... , . . 67-69
Incendiary Sbell. . . . . . . . .. . . , ....... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
f'useS- . ............... , ... . ......... , . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,1
Genc.ral Descriptio.n .... , ..... ... . .......... ...... 72-77
F.rench RY Model 1917 . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. , 83
Fl'ench lA l\'.fodel 1915 ...... . ..... . , ...... .... ... 78-79
French IAL .Model 191.tL .. ............ ............. 78-80
u. s. l\'fal'k m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... ........... i8-81
French 1 l\[odel 1914. . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . 84
Frm~b Schlliljder Mod c1 1QI 6, . , .. , ........ , .. , 85
i\>1odified .Bl'llis1l H)6. . . . . . . . . . ...... ........ 86
Oescriptio- American Ghemicnl Shel I .... 87. 8'9-02, 94, 96-98
Description French Chemica l Sho.,J I. .. . . .. . . . 88. 93, 95
GAS MANUAL

PART II

USE O F GAS BY THE ARTILLERY

IN'J'H.OOOCTION.
1. 'fhe loformalion in this part of the Gas 11,fanu:tl on lbe
use of gas in artillery shell, is compiled wil.h the ccrta-in defi-
1tite purpose of furni shing the artilleryman and the gas ojJlcer
oouci:ic information on the use of chemical ammunition. All
subject matter which is covered in other cbaplcl'S of Lbis pamph-
let and any documents or pamphlets C!Jmpiled by the Ameri-
can Expeditionary Forces dealin_g with U1e subject of arlillci'y
firing, has been on1illed. Information contained in other cbnp-
tcr~ trenting in detail on the characteristics of gases, their tac-
tica I 11 se, gll's defense and gas training, will, however, be use-
ful.
2. Information. In accordance with Par. 1, G. 0. No. 107,
G. H Q. A. E. F., l 018, gas officers will be consulted preparatory
lo the offense use of gas on a 1arge scale. In order that lh~
gils office.r may give intelligent advice, in!ounation must he
furn ished him oo the following points:
Information of the Enemy:
(1) -Points of concentration.
(2) Su-ong -points.
(3) .Batter~ positions.
(4) Reserves.
(5) Dnmps.
(6) Lines of comlllllnlcation.
Information of Our Own Troops:
(1) Positions.
(2) P lan of action.
(3) Location of batteries.
(4) Number of guns.
(5) Calil>er of guns.
(6) Quantity of ammunition available.
----- (7) Kind of ammunition.
e Ga11 Manual-Part 11

~- The Gas Officer mnsL ma.ke a careful study of the top0-


graphlcal reatu:res of the terrain and the meteorological coucU.
tions applying. After a solution has been arrived at. the Gu om.
cer must be able to advise deflaitely the Chief of Staff or Artl l-
lel'Y Commander ns to the following:
(1) Location of target,
(2) T'nne of shoot.
(8) Rate of tire.
(4) Kind of gas shell.
(5) Nu:mber of gas shell reqnired.
(6) Object to he accomplished.
4. The effective range of ,n gun must be considered. and,
therefore. its posiljo:U as rega1ds distance from available tar-
gets must he known.
5.
The volume o f fire which can be pla.ocd on a position
is limited by the quantity o.f gas shell on liand, and by the
percentage of all gns- shell fired which will f;i U -wi f.hin an e:ff'ee--
the distance of th' same. This la~t cros.s es the line of demar-
cation of the duties of a Gas Officer and of an Artillery Com.
mander, and the latte1 m'tlst he consulted by Uie former, so
that impossible solutio.ns are not ariived at.
6. Sbi:apnel, H. E. and gns she! I eaeh has its disUnc.-tive uses
and in many cases efficjent results cannot be oht.wied by sn:b-
,;titutiOD. U the artilleryman. understands the simple. rules gov-
ern! og the use of gas shell, he hns an Cl'i'.Cellent weapon at his
command, and its proper use i.J1curs no danger to his men or
to others of om own forces.
Safe Dose of Micsiard Gas. The tollowing tab.le gives
7.
the maximuni number of ro1mds of H. S. wlii cb may .be fired
without endangering our own troops. The greater fhe raoge
the more can .he safely used,
Rounds per 100 meters front.

SIZE -011" $BELL f tns.


G-AS
OF/Mli:Tl'YR$
:mo 11000 I 20.io \ aooo Mlil'l'lilJ<S
lllil'l'l'lR:,; Mln'rNR;J AND BEYOKD
I
TG mm , ... . l .35 I 0 I 15 I 50 I 100 or mor~
4. 7" G ...... . -I 4.2 I a I 9 I 30 I 60 or more
5" s. C .... .... .... I lr.10 I 2 I 8 2Q
I l lO or more
$" s. o. ....... ... 1 JC,.l l I :I I 10 I 20 or more
l.56mm ... ... ... 1 10.:m l I
1 8 I clO I 20 or more
&" Bow . .. ... . .... I 21.B I I I 4 I 8 or more
"~!2" now ....... .. I ~8.S I .. I I s I II or mote
~-~ How .......... f 80.J I I I ~ I 3 or. mn,.,.
8. In sbelllbg an ru'ea with mustard ga, you. need .not use
fl'lote than .one 75 mm. $hell for eaob 25 .J1qnare met-e:rs (5 meters
square), :ind for larger :sbel'I you caa use propo:rt.lonately less.
L st' tJ/ c.ittS by .,1 rliller//
?

9. Al ran.ges less thl!.o 2,600 meters. the :ftrlng ah~uld not


be repeated wilh mustal'd gas Qftent>r than onee every s1 x hOlll's.
lndeed, il is hardly ever nccessru,y to l'epeaL muslarcl gas firlng
llt more .requenl intervals. Chlorpicrin and similar moder-
ately pers.islen_t gase:. _may be .ftre<l it~ double the above qu~-
tltics a.ad at uite1vals of hall the lime shown above. With
phosgene and similar lethal low-per1;isTent gases, 21/2 times
as much JtmY be fued and repeated nt iJJtCll'Vili of one hour
or even less, though nol oftcucr U.tan ,every SO minutes. For
Group IV, lire 1/2 as much as for musl.a l'd gas 1uHl repeat not
pOencr than every ! hows.
10. Miscellaneous Hints.
(nJ Use instuntaneo\ls fui.e; 1:ilher French lAL or Ameri-
can Mark III.
(b) 11he largest nngle of fall posstlJle is desired.
(e) Secure enfilade fire whenever possible so g;ts cloud_will
reach as ntany o[ enemy as possible.
(d) H. E. or slll'npnel -should accompany gas shell when-
e,,m possible. They add to lhe conf-u sion of'. tl1e enemy and
CHmoullag-e Ute use of gas. They do n-0t app1eciably dissipate
the gas cloudt..
Zonlt$ tn fro11t of our ow11 lines within wl1ic.h il is dan-
11.
gerous io place 3helL
Wl~'D BLOWING
TOW ARD Olffi 'LINJllS.
Non-Pen;iR tents.
Smnll Qul\llil tr 300 .meten< 1000 meterA
Lltg!l Qull.lltlty ...... ..... ' 800 mtera 2000 meten,
Pel!!Jhrtents,
l;mnJI QWUltlq .. , . . . 1000 met~a 1000 meters
Llil'ge QoantJ!y . . . . . . . . . 200() meters 2000 mctcra
If you do place shell wi1.hi)1 these zones, study -the matter care-
fully and be sure to warn our own. h'oops SI> that ma.sks mny
be WOl!D and other precautions tnken. Including temporary
evacuation if advisable.
12. Fire for Adjustmen(.
For adjnstmenE use special Jlgnid smoke ahell (marke1I
(11)
with 2 yellow hands). w:hen special smoke shells a.re not avail-
able, H. E. sbell may be employed fol" ranging, in which case
correction must be _made for the difference in -ballistic. eoeJll-
c.ient b etween tbe solid .filled H, E. Shdl and the liquid Olled
ga:; shell. Fol' 76 mm. caliber the difference In range hetweeu
H. E. and g11s shell is negliglble al 2:000 meters, hut at 70.00
IBllte'CS gas .s.heU range 3hort of H. E. by 200 mate-rs. At ranges
between 2000 and 7000 the difference may be taken ns propor-
tional. Range differences far other ea.libel's of shell will be
puhfished as soon as available.
a Gas Manu<d-Part lJ

{b) Adjustment in gas shellinjf should he don e on a datum


point in the same general direction an? at approximately the
same range as the target hut sufficiently di$tant therefrom so
11s not to attract attention. as effective gas bomba:rdmant must
set iD suddeJlly. If the cessatio11 of the bombardment is cov-
ered by a repetition of sbelling of individual ohjactives ~pos-
sibly with a fewer number of shots), the timely reinforcement
of the enemy is then hindered. The enemy wilJ tl'>o .be obliged
to we.ar hl~ gas mask_ longer.
(c) Ose fuing tables for Semi-Steel Shell (F-0nle acierce)-
with f use wherever special tables ior Gas Shell are n QL provided.
(d) Accuracy of fire is essential.
(A) Gorreet for differences in weight when substituting
gas shell for H. E. or Smoke Shell.
(B) With l'jon-Persistent Gases. Seek nanow Jnacltet; if
there is no wjn<f a!lopt mean angle of elevation of bra'cket in
fire for ell'e-ct. lf there b a wind, modify tlie mean angl e of
elevation by 1/6 fork to the windward.
(C} With Persistent Gases. Seek narrow bracket and
adopt nieau llllgle of elevation reg_arpJess of wind dirc_etion.

13. Fire for Effect.


(a) With Non-Persistent Gases. Execute Precision Fire.
On ta"!'gets of depth repeat fire every 100 meters in depth.
(b) With: Persistent Gases. Execute Zone Fire.

EXPENDITURE OF MIJNlTION.
14. To ascertain number of guns on.d rounds required to gas
an e11em11 position, see Appendix, C. G. chart.Fig. 1. Tqe follow-
ing notes 1,how bow to use the chart.

15. For Non-Pe:rf;istent Gases (Phosgene) . Siuce intense rate


&! fire is necessary to obtain effective concentration of ga-s, it is
ns im;portan.t to know the number of guns Tequ:ired as well as
Ihe number of rounds necessary.
(a) Determine range and front of objective.
(b) Locate intersection o( the ran_g ordinate, and the curve
for the- c:ilihre of gqn chosen,
(c) Project to the right and read. number of guns required
fo) each fifty meters front, firing at "R" rate of fire.
(d) Multiply this p.umhel' of guns by the numbe1 of times
50 is contained in the objective front -measured perpendicnlar t o
the dtrection of the -wind, to get the total number of gl,lDS:.
(e) Number of guns ,c R -ii: 2 equals expenditure of .ammu-
nition.
ff) Carry fractions through to end of eomputations hut
take result in round n1nnbers.
lfse Of Gas b,y Arlillery
(g) If niixed eaJibers are to be used becawe of bein_g avaH-
nble determine effective kilograms of gas to be had from one
gun as :re4d at left and combine guns to give the- total lethal
dose.
(h:) Tf P. S. js u~ed for lethal effect, cx])end:iture of ammu-
n.ilion should be at least thnt for C. G.
16. For Persistent Gases (Mustard Gas). (See Appendix, H. S.
Cbart Fig, 2}. Since intensity of fire i~ not neeessary for Ulese
gnseS, the numller of guns used is unimpe>rta:nt-the total :rounds
fired being the only fi,g ure necessary to obtain. Hence t11e above
cnlculn,tion simplifies as follows:
('a) 1)et ermine range and area to be covered and read _dire.ct
r~nm cbart numher of rounds required fol' each a.Te~ 100 meters
sq11a1e,
(b) lf P. s. is used in place of' H. S., expenditu.re of ammu-
uitien should be the same.
17. For Lachrymatory Gases.
(a) With brombenzylcyantde (C. A,) use 1/20 as many
totU]dS as given _by the chart for H. S.
(b) When fuin_g cblorpicrin (P. S.) for laclu,ymatory effect,
itse 1/4 n,s many ronnds as given by the chart for H. S.
(c) To 111a:intain the laehrymato~ atmosphere with
hroniben.i,)'ley:rnjcle continue to fire eve~ four hours Ute s:m:11:
amount as fi,red at first. Tbnt ls. gi"e the same dose e-V<:Ty four
hours.
(d) If chlorpic:rin is used, repeat the -o:viginal dose every
hom.
Whenever enough ammunition is available us.e a "{actor of
safety," by doubling the amounts obtained from the cb11rt. This
,1ill .make up {or unknown factors SllCh as local wjnd currents
nt enemy position. etc.

'METEOROLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHIC COND1TIONS.


18. Meteoralogicdl.
(1) Stability of i1 ir. Ill dry, sunny weather, upwaid air 1,,u,-
rents ru:e usually present. They Iapidly-di~sipate gas~. There-
fore, a warm, sunny day is not a particularly good time in
which Lo fire gas. The b~st time lo fire gas Js usually at night,
h~1U1usc the atm9spherc then i~ relatively staJ1le. lo the case of
.i. persistent gas. a:, soon '11.s lhe sun comes up the beat causes
the li,quid ob the gi'olPld and foliaf~ to vaporize, thereby in-
creasing the concentration.
(2) Fog. .Fo.ggy days a\e usu illy e."tcellent for fi1 ing gas,
fr,r t:he almospliere at such tim.es is fairly stahl.c.
C:jJ Ratn. Very heavy rain washes d6wn all g-0s.es and is
Itco1uiderahle rlisadvant~. Vt.-ry Ji.gi.,t rain1i OJ' dr'ILzles uc
often beneficia1.
10 Gas Manual-Purl lJ

(A) Barometer. With n low barometer, the air near the


surface is full of "pockets" and npwa:rd currents which may
dissi'pate lhe gas.
(o) T'Smperature. A low temperature lessens the concen-
tration of persistent gases since lhe llquid evap1>r11tes mol'e
slowly. The highly lef.htil, non-persistent gases are not much
affected by a low temperature.
(&) Time. Fc,r persistent gases, :my hours m:e t;ood,
though the hours after 'JD.idnigW al'e best. Tl1eh hes1 e!reats are
ol>fa.ined dn.ring tl1e weather .iruniliarly termed "warm and
muggy,n whicl1 is warm euo1Jgh to cause the gas to rise freely,
when llie heavy air assists their p'elletratiyc action l!y causing
llie gas clouds to spread.
(7) W'inds. Winds bnve a consjderahle influence. Gener-
-ally, toxic gases or low pcrsistenoy should .be limited to velocity
not exceeding ten 1niles per hour (Alm meters per sccbnd). Limit
persistent and tear gases to wind ye}ocil.3 not excee,Ii:ng 20 miles
per hour (9 meters per second).
The ideal weather conditions aiie 11sually fQund on i,mnmei,
n ~hts as well as the late evening 1.1.nd e.'lrly mornlng holll's or
spriug and autumn.

19. Topogr<1plly,
The use of gas is greatly in Ouenced by earth forms. The
effect of topograpliy is closely connected wfth utmos1>heric con-
dition-s. -w1rleb it in!111enws by a lierin_g the direction and force
of arr currents. WoClrled and very [[IJQolating grou.nd bas a very
great l.n.Ouence on the result of a gas shell homba'rdment.
Gases, lreing slightly heavier-th.AD air, lend to fiow into gullies.
w,aws. an.d valleys, leaving the tops of bills Cree. In deep, nar -
row and long valleys, currents of air lll!C usually found whicl1
caITy the gas long di stances.
In hilly coWJtry special tlttention must be pa.id to devintic>ns
of llie letl1a1 wind from the gener-al air curront ai1d lo the
mountam winds which in clear weatl1cr sel in at cerbtin pe_riods
of the day. A drifting of the ga:ses from hjgher to lower pl~ces.
suob as obtains wifh attacks wilh gas projectors, c.a:nnot .be
reckoned wiih. f(li the gai, densily in t.he ai.r is less in bo1t1hard-
~nts thll.D io the spl'aying method.
Gas may he usea uode- inte:ll.igent dil'ectiqn .in __nearly e'1ery
character of terrain. It Tn!lY lle most saffsfr :torily used in Ill~
most level. slightly undu1t1ting clistricts.
TaTgcts, such as wood:;, may be shelled with good results
when U1e wind has too b.lgl1 velocity !Ql' targets situated in ope.n
i;round. w'hea undu.ll1tions in the ground n.re very marked, the
fact lbat the wind ls stronger oo higl1 ground l.han on low must
be taken into account. High ground- and open places must,
therefore, receive a more intense eoncentraUon tbl\n those lo-
t11 lities -..hi<!h Al'P ,v1,otlerl m 11nrloi.ecl.
Ult! of Gas by Artillery 11

l'hl> dfects c,J gali shell wilJ he dimjnish~<l in 111ru-S'.hy groUDd


or ln an inlesely shelled area, lf U1e cratCil'S are full of water.
During gas sbell bom.l)a.r.dments in open country, _particular
attention must be pnid to the devialioa of thee 1ocal wiD.d from
the general wind direction and lo alr currents pi:cruiar to t he
ombined action of mountains nnd valleys, wblch occur oncer-
~a:.in d~s in bright wealhe1. 'That is, you must, if possible,
consider wruil the wind conditio,ns are at the enemy position.
\Vith the long range of artinery, gas may he safely sent over
to u1 c enemy no matter what the directian of lhe wind. It is
merely necessary to establish safety z-ones (s~e _paragraph 11),
and knowing tbc chacacteristics of U1e gasc:;s available, deUve1
the g:i.:;- where ii may be needed in t'lil effective dose. which at
lbe same ti:me cannot be blown hack in dangerous quanlities to
0 ur_ own Jine. To d1;1 Lhls requires the ability to make use of
lopogrnphic maps and judge the effect of LOJ)Ofr1'apby on pre-
1':iiJing winds.

20. Tlte Wind Circle. The Gas Ofilcel' cannot do .good w ork
withbut good lopographic maps. On each map which erliihits
the trench systems, lle should mark_ the Ga:S- Safety Zones and
draw u wind t!irele six inches in din111eter. This wind circle is
clivided into orly parts, called ''Grads," nuuiliered clockwise.
The daily meteorological repo1rt gives lbe direction of the
wino by nrunberl?. The wincl blows from the ei:J-cmnfaence to
the center or lhe eh-hle, ,vhi:lili 1epresenls lhe guu position. The
O of tbe cit1cle is north, 10 is east. 20 is ~ouili tutd 30 is wesl.
ln trn:nsmltting wind data, 50 is added to w"iod speeds to pre-
'lent ,eoofusJou wilh the numbe1s which indfcate wind di:iection.
The speed is lll meters per second.
The artillerymen uses the -wind c-cle to make :meteorological
corrections to lli$ firing data. The G.as Officer uses the wind
circle lo study the prolwWe eltect of typography on the travel
of a gas cloud impelled by lhe -prevailing wind. The wind direc-
tion should he plotted on lhe maps.
The Chis 01lieer should lay o-ver his map each <lay a _piece of
tranw.atent paper. Ou this be should Lrace the bowrda:l"ies of
the safety zon-e, .a _few of the- heavier eontou.rs showing .marked
earth forms and a"lso the botlom of all large de-prejsions and
the crests of all hilli, indlcatlng lleights by ftgu:res. Across the
hills and valleys he should draw in yellow pencil parallel lines
indicating the wind direction. Mark in figures on t11ese lines
Lhe speed in meters _par second. Date c.acb sheet and sign ft.
With the data thus reatly, the- Gas Officer can quickly deside
Jnst what gas Co use on a certain targel 1111d the quantity. These
aheets shonla be filed for record lllld the one ru;ect on the day on
wJ1ich g3s is fued should accompany tl1e reporl on the firing, a
copy bei.ll;g. retained at headquarle1s.
12 Gers ~fanutr(-l~art 11

1n order lo l)e allle to allO"-' for Wlexpecled atmospheric


changes, the firing order should, if necessary, be given by pre.
o.uanged signAl visible at great dlslance; for .instance, from 11
etiptlve balloon. A similar signal is also to b e decided upon in
case break 01 cessation of the bombardment is necessary. The
lighter the boml1a'rdme11ts ro:~ the more can these measures be
modified.

TACTICAL USE OF ARTILLERY CHEMICAL $HELL.


21. Two gimeral types or bombardment wjth gas shell may be
carried out. Variations and combinations of these two types
should be o[ten employed. The two general types are:
(1) Destrnctio11 Fire. This type of bom baidment is to he
cruirJed en with let11al sbell, aud ill intended to produce cas-
ualties. Orilinarfly, fiTing for more than Lwo mi.uules Ill one
time is not J>rofltah(e, though in dead calm or thick woods and
similar _places. especially at night, the time-may he extended lo
five :mi:Dutes. Too mueh emphasis cnnuol .be laid upo11 the fart
that a ias at.tack mllsl be execu.ted wHb the gr.ealel)t r11pidity of
fl.re .and that the hils be close together, so a,s to etell'te a solid
gas cloud. Onl:r in complete n.bsence of wind m.ay the rapidity
of fire be decreased. In case of air currents, allowa:nce must he
made accordingly in lhe range flndiug. Gas effects at the objec-
tive must be ohlained quickly. The necessary number of roun ds
' is tnerefqre to be distrH>uted to as m11ny ba:tterJcs as possible.
(2) Neutralizing Fire. This fire is intended to lower the
physical resistitu<:e, morale of the enemy, an.cl lo lulerfere with
bis activities, by causing b im to wear his mas1l: continueusly,
fot a considerable time. ThJs result can be obtained most
economically with persistent gases-R. S.

22, A h eavy .fire, 01 a very r:rpid rate of fir.e, with a per-


si.stent gas is not necessary. smce instantaneous lethal effects
:,re .not obt/WUlble, a heavy burst 9f .fire at the commencemeul
of .a bombardment is not Tequil-ed. After the desired c9ncen-
tratiou has bee11 reached, it is only necessary to fire a small
n u.mher of shell occasionally in order that this concentration
will be maintained. A sudden burst of Jire -with H. S. amount-
ing to 1/1'0 th-at t"or phosgene may be usee to begin a bombard
ment.

2S. Cquntq-JJallery. This, as a rul~, sh9uld consist of a


hurst of destruction fire, f.ollowtid by n slow, neu~aliz,i.ng fire
with a persistent gas. The final burst of concentrated fire with
a lethal gas is often useful, if the neutralizing fire has been
malntained for tour or more hoUl's. This final burst of fire
snould last f,or ten or Jlfteen minutes. Its purpose is to penetrate
-the c.nemy m-asks that h;rve been exhaw,ted hy long continued
wearing.
l'.<re vf Gas by . IrriTTerJ/ 1S

24-. TJ_c,1YJ.ssi11g 'l'llii, is solely a. n~ulraU.z.iug fire, for llie


u,irpose of hampering enemy movements of mate1ial, and
iroaps, and to. c1uise e..uanstion of personnel through wearing
tha mask.
l.ncbrymntory gases nrt' u.sed 111imarily fcQr harassing effllcl.
\ny lethal eff-ect obtn.ined fr01n those g.ases wi 11 be purely inci-
dental, and they shoulcl not be used for U1is purpose, t\s the
11
mount required would be abnorroaL Where lethal c!Tec;l is
desired after tilcllry:matory firjng, a boml>n:rdrnenl willi lethal
shell may follnw immedilltely.

25. Blauketi11g. This is a lype of ne~trau.zing .fire which


roay ~e employed under especially favorable weathe1 conditions.
During a ~ead ealin {at nigh~) jt is possil1Je, with n compara-
jvel v l>'Tllill nu.ml)eJ" of shell, to form clouds of gas -which will
lie i:n pools of fog. in 'holl~ws and valleys, for a considerable
time after the shelling has cea,sea. If no wm(L a'rises, tl)<:
euemy wHl hnve to wear his .mask au .night, or vacate the ]ow
g)'ound. Non-persislenl, lethal gases are usefu.l il:t such eases.
Caution: The ol>jective. must he far enough .iway fi,om the
f:rie11dly line to ::l\'oid danger from a slight dlift of lhe ~londs or
fron1 I\JJ adverse wind spl'inf:ling UJ).

26. Tnlerd.ictiou Fil'c. This t.s a type of neub-alfa.ing iire for


Lhe, purpose of rendedng i inpoitant positions untenable. Thi!>
i.s best carrjed out by U1e use of mustiud gas, unless our I roop:;
expect lo occupy or J1a.ss over the area soon after the .bon,bard-
ment.

27, Bombardment of Area. In the bombardment of an_ area,


which fs essenlialy a questio.n of neutralizing fue. it should he
uotad that it is of~en ad,isable ~o open the fire wiili a burst
of ietluu shell on certain. i1I1,portaut I argets 10 llic ;.u-ea, ancl
U1en to carry out tbe slow ..neutralizing !il'e.

28. \Vhile. attacking oue front, a h!U'rassing and neutralizing


mustard gas hombardmenl can be eff.eclively ruitde on fronts,
flanks, real' areas,, a:nd sbong points not thus '8ttackccl. Troop
i.:oncentrations, reserves, artillery groups, lines of couuuunica-
~on. villages, illld. extended aret1s which it i's conlcn1,11Ialed the
adva:ncmg troops 'Will not 1each, may b~ atL'feked with muslai'<i
gas.
When more than one objective is to i>e tttta:'ckced for surprise
eirect with a lethal, gas, the objective lo I.he leeward of lhe wind
is to be bombarded .flr~t.. In this way the surprised effect ou
t.be second objective ls not lost. However, if fire on othel'
targets a.re made soon enough so the wind -w,ill .not carcy gas to
later tiu-gets before fire is opened on them this rule .need not be
ttppHed.
14 Ga, Mcuu(al-Pll.r( lJ

29. When hrunssing fire wilh a Lear gas ii; lo he used upoll
more thnn one objective, lhe ol.Jjective to the windwa1cl should
})e lhstliorublll'ded.
Wlieo it is.not considered pi,ncticahle to attack a strong- posi-
tion by frontal assault lhe posit Ion may he rendered u.nlenable
for the enemy by sholling heavily wilh mustard gas. whfob
will 1Jot interfere with surr()uodlng or pass'ing a.rou~id position,
SO .Ban:a{fes. Gns shell may be employed in a barrage, in
the following ways:
(a) Accompanied by H. E,. -when used unde.r favorable
weatber condiLions, gas tends t<1 ca use confusion _among the
enemy. About 25% oi gas shell (1 gun per battery) should b e
used. While no danger to our o,vn Lroops will oceu:r from lh1.:
use oitnis sm:rll percentage of gas sh.ell, it. wi11 serve to iieeeiv1.,
the enemy, causing hi.m to wear his mas.It, and in this way hln-
der hi.s activity. Wftll a four m.p. b. -wind, 'Dien can follow
within one m,inute.
(bJ May be used. in "back" b'arrage-.s, during an attack, t o
place en~y ~sQrves and reinforcing l.roQps al a disadvantage,
by compelling thern to wear masks. This is highly dest ructive
lo morale.
~1. .Formations for Counler-AttacJ,. After an inCanit:cy ob
jective has been 1cached, a gas attack will c:ause casualties, con-
'fu si.oa and .delay; among enem:r troops inten<bd for use in
countCJ"-attacks,
SlfO.KE.
S2. Sc.reens. Smoke screens have many times greatly aided
in the el;;ecut1oo of al1 serts of operalions, l a-r_ge and smttU, and
it would seem that Lbeir use: should be greaUy extended. Smoke
candle,, 01 grenades will ahvays: be used fo1 tbe produc.Uon of
smoke, when 'lbefr use is possible. Williin the limit of their
i:ange trench mortlll.'.S shou1d he 'U.Sed. Al greater di sl.rulces
artillery shell a.re a necessity. For all uses of smoke clouds,
wind conditions must be carefuly studied.
S'S. Kiads of S'l)'loke Shell . There are two vai>ieties of smoke
.shell in. our service.: White Phosphorous (W. P.) shell, used
enly for screening purpose~. and Ulanium tecrachloride (F. M.)
shell, us.e d only fo1i' ranging purposes. 'l'he W. P. shell rue not
.intended for rangilng, but lbcy can be lll!Cd ,fo1 this purpose
w.hen i.he F. M. sh~h ls n<>t available., provided cerl:a.i.n correc-
tions are made. (See paragraph. 12). Vice ver.sa, the F. M. shell
a.re not intended for screening pW'poses, although l11ey may be
-used as such, if W. P. shell are not available. The F . lf:' !!hell
will .not give--as dense and du.rab!e a cloud of smoke or as gieat
a acreening et'tect ns llie same size W. P. shell, hence. ft will
!>e necessary to in~ease the numher of F. M. sneD used n:ud the
nte of fire over the figures prescribed for establishing smoke
acreens with W, P, shell.
y~ of Gas by A.rtillerg 16

3,1. Smol.! ~:lay be Used bu tl1e Artillery:


(1) To blind enemy observation posts, ll'lacblne gun em-
locements. infantl-y or art.ille1y, thereby screening-ill infanl:J1-
p
rnlds or ot11e1 epera....
H
ons,
(2) I:n order to draw fiTc and distract attention (tom an-
oth.cr oper.alion.
(3) To define vfaibily the limJts of ai, attack or raid.
(4-) As a fa.ke ..gas att11.ek, or to make the enemy think a
real gas attack is more extended.
(6} 1n buck areas to screen gun posltions. etc.
(6) Occasionally for b.nrning effect against enem y troops.

36. Considerations Affecting the Q1.1,rmfilfes of Smoke Shell


Req11ired to Form a Screen. Tho number of smoke snell r e-
quired to form an effective s,creen depend.s upo~ the considera-
ti ons enllJl'lerated under t11e general d1scus,s1on on " Sm oke
Scr eens" (See paragraph 32). In w inds mucb over 20 miles
per hour it rs practically inipossible to form an opaque screen.
The bi.ronger the -wind Lbe further mast be tl1e source of the
screen from the objective. Ex,periments have ::;pown, h<>wevi:,:-,
lhal a screen can .be farmed even in a strong wind. Th e best
wind fnr tbe use of artillery s.h eiI appears to b e on e h av ing a
veloclly 01 a.bout 14. m. p. Ji. (6 melers per second), and blowing
across tne object to b.e concealed.
1110 yards per 10 feet per second of wind ma,y be taken as a
general guide as to the distance from ilie object at which artil-
Jey $1TlOke shell sbouJd be placed. In hot weather pal'ticularly
the smoke tends to rise from the ground, and UJere is, therefore,
a great er t endency 1;or gaps to form: i.n the screen.
The effect of pbosphorons sh.ell of all kinds Is cnmuJati'vc, as
the globules of phosporous continue to .burn on the ground for
15 lo 20 minutes. As the clo u d in the case or phos borons l)rO
jectiles is at it.,; lhicke~t soo11 after tbe bursts, it will be main-
~ained more evenly .by adding small quantities at freqnent
mtcrvals of Ume rather lban by adding large gnantities at
greater intervals.

36. N'II111.ber of Shell Requ.iredi No de1inite rnles can be


mid down as to tlle exact quantities of smoke shell required
to fo:i:m a screen, as the conditions will vary to a very- large
exten t . However, as a genei,al guide it may be tal,en that the
fo1J11wi ng number of $hell are 1-eqn.ired to Conn :tn adequate
~nn,ltc screen under noNDal conditions:
15 mm. sheU, 2 ronDda per 10 Yds. pcF 1Linut.e,
4.. 7 In. shell, 2 Pounds per 15 Yds. per -Minute.
155 mm, :;hell. 2 l'llunds per 25 Yd$. per Mi nute.
GCts .M.an ua.l-Pari 11
16
37. The above ti.gures appJy to the c~lnhlisb1ne11t of the smoke
:-creen whicJt )Day thereafter be mainlaincd hy a teduced Tate of
fl.re. which should be controlled primarily by observing the
behavior of the smoke screen. In general. il may be stated that
(lne haH the above rate of 6..re will e.ffecti'vely maintain a smoke
scree11 .after it is once established and under an:rm.al conditions.
The follo'Wi.ng exiunple is given for guidance:
4.'1-inch Srnoke Screen. The four guns -0f t11e battery ,vere
concentr11ted on 11 poi.tit 400 yards te the windward of the 'Place
where the comn1enccment of the screen was 1eqn:ircd. The wind
,1L th.e time was 40 ft. per second. TheTelalion of the distan'*-
400 yds. to the wind-40 f. p. s. is worth noting. Battery .fire,
10 second intervals was 1rsed and -the result -was effective.

HANDLlNG AN:0 STORAGE OF GAS SHELL.


General.
38. The chief .source of danger in handling gas shell is leak~
age, w.llich can always be detected by the smell, or by tl1e effect
produced upon the eyes, All personnel .haJJdling these shell
shonl<L carry gas mosks.
The halloli:ng of shell unde1 sns.Picion, and the rescue of any
man effected by the fumes will be the duty of special detach-
ments ,vhieh slwuld be detailed and tl'ained for this purpose.
If a leak is suspected, it should be teported immediately and
all men working in Lbe vicinity should b:ri11g the respirator to
the "alert" p0siUon.
S-9. I~eakiny gas shell ma!J be disposed of in two wags:
(a) By brying the.n1. Sllell s,1ould be butied sX'i feet deep
and c overed with a layer of chloride of limo before filling in
the eru:th.. They should not be lirecl rro111 I.he gun. Spots where
defective shell ar.e buried should be indicated by sign i,osts
driven into the ground nnd marked in an. it.ppropriate. manne1.
Leaky shell e!l.Tl generally be delet:ted by lhe smell of the gils.
(b) By eiqilod.in~ tbem.
40. If there a.re J111ge nuntLel's of lenki:Dg shell. it is more
sati.sfac.to:ry to cixplode them than to bury them, thus preventing
the contamination Qf tl1e area from a large nu.mhec o.f .buried
shell. \Vhea !{as projeclUes are to be blown up, they should
be collected in lots so as not ot e.'l.ceed H)O lbs. of gas. Eaell l ol
should be exploded singly and anothe1 lot shQuld not be e.'1.-
pli>ded until the. first gas cloud formed ha:i dlsappeu.red. The
ga~ elo1,1d from one lot of tl1i s sjze is d1U1geT01.1s up to 500 yards'
tlistu.nce. a.nd persormel witl1ip tl1nt <list:n1ce to ieewarcl s.hould
be, wnrned. Thi. procedure f11r exploding the .!.lS projectiles is
almost llle sarne as Lllal fallowed ft>v exploding R. E. and shrap-
nel. The projectiles ll.l'e piled in a n{UTQW d.iteh alrout 6 mt
LJ;;e (}/ Gus t,y Artillery 17

dc:~p. wd au ~,cplosive or hla:.1..ing charge is placed in t.he center


of Lhe lol and cotu)eCled up to the bl.llsll.ug loads or lime fuse.
Thu Jol ls then covered wilb sand bugs or oLher 1uaterl-al to keep
lite 1)'.letuJ pieces from scntteriug. Tbe Tot is then exploded,
Tben w11en 11.l,e gas cloud has fairly well clerued, men wearing
tbe respirn tors will fill in the holes, fhsl covering wi Lh a fayer
o! chloride oJ' lim.e. Men worldug at destroying !he blind gas
prnje.oliles s!tt>uJd n1way:i wear Lbe 1c5cpirator from !be moment
tliey slitrt to blast. Under _no conditions should leaking shell .be
thrown into w11ter. The necessity of c,arefl,l] handling of thls
sort of ammunilion cannot be- impressed loo strongly. These
wstrucLlonli, however, are purely precautionary and are nol
intended t1, gi'lie the impression that the bmulling of these shell
is unduly d:111gerous.

TTlANSPORT OF GAS SHEl,.L.


4-1. Wngo os containing gns sluill, on arrival at depots. will
be opcued by n gns N. C. 0. who will supervise the unloading
nnd stora.ge Of shell. Ii Lbe presence of n Leaking shell is. sus_-
pccted in 11rry wagon, the matter must he repnrted al once lo the
oJlre.cr in du1rge. Such a wagou will tnen be unJonded by n
sreciru rletaclilfleut wcariug the respirator in the alert position.
1I possible. gns runmunition sh'(,uld be carried in LTucks pro-
-vided with :;hullers whiel1 should be left open. U closed Lrucks
only arc 11vail11h!e, on arrival at tne ammuniilon depot, ox
dump, the <loors of both sides should be opened by a com-
petent person nnd no- one $hould be allowed l() ente1 the llnek
llnl i I it is usccl'laiued whet.her or not :iny gas has leaked. If-,
of necessity, opeu trucks have to be 11sei1. no tarpalllins should
he put on.

STORAGE OF GAS SHEL!.


.~2. This nmmuuiUon should be stored i_n separate hays and
should be vrmtilatcd as well as possihlc, compatible wtlb tJ,e
exclu.~lon of rain. tr stored U!lder ta:rp11ul1ns, ar:rangemenh
should be .made to give access of air to the stn~k. Gas s}lell
should be lefl in a cool place. as heat Jncreases the internal
pressure 11.Dd the possibility- of leaks.
Bu i'ld 1n1Js on 01 about the line between the gas area of tbi'
nmmuuiliuu depot and the dlr~clion of the wind, must uol be
occupied du.ring a raid. A_ messenger "'CJ1ting a box respirator
should l>e sent orr to l'OUSc sleeplng meo In such uuildlngs and
lo see t1111t the bu ildiTigs are clear. Ir gas runn, nniUon h11s been
destroyed, it is (nrhidden to entel' thes.e buildings lllllll they
hnve been ventilated lhoroughly, hy men weat'ing respirators.
AU windows and doors or tho building may be opened and wood
fh,es bumied in the center or fue cellars. The buildlng will be
11ccnpied only when dec.Jil.red safe b;y a gas officer or .ga_s N. C. 0.
18 Gas Man u,./ Part If

l.11as111uch 11:s llrn pr<tporlio n of lea:ks tends to lncreas-e w j t,


:>torage a mmrmitiou parks should supply batteries from the
oldest Jot11 on band.
GAS STIBLL DUMPS AT BATTERIES.
4B. At battery positions, _gas shell should be piled ln small
dumps, the number in each b.eing gener:tlly li:mited as follows :
The 'Z5 m~............. . .... . . .... .... 100
The 4.7 in ....... . ... . ... .. ....... . .. 50
Tb e 155 mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Dumps should preferably he localed to Lhe leeward of bat-
tery _positions, accoFding to tha prevailing wind.
J.f' a direct bit occrrrs on a du1np of gas sheTI, y,espirators will
he put on inunedialely and wilbout waiting for ol'ders, and if
1>ossible a tnove will be made to the windward. All personnel
of a battery will be !te-pt coustantJy informed of the direction
Qf the wind. (Flag, wind-vanes, etc.)
"Dud" gas sbcll, or gas sh.ell debris, mi.1st not he touched
until e:tamiued by- :t gus N. C. O. wl10 will atleud Lo the proper
disposal of the same.

SEECIAL PRECAJJTTONS RELATIVE TO M lJSTARD GAS SHELL.


411-. Mustard gas shell which show tr-aces of leakage should
be lrandlcd onJy hy men -who are -protected with respirators
and special gloves. Men detailed for such worl; should like-
wise he equipped with pi:otective clothing (If obtainable), when-
eve'r there is n .P1>Ssibilily -of the projectiles coming in contact
with the clo~s.
As soon as the shell are received, they should be e.~amined.
Any indication of leakage at t11e gaine joint is a dan_ger sign .
(Masks artd gloves should be wtirn.l
Whenever pessible, cases containing the shell should be stored
in s-tnall J)iles in the open air.
Near all such piles, a heap of emth and a supply of chloride
of lime should he pl'ovidcd for covering any shell that may be
burst by cmemy flre. AO storage depots should be supplied with
shovels, and with cl1locide of lime i n air-tight conln.iners.
If an ammunition dump is reached hy enemy fl.re, 1111 person-
nel shonld ,move off lo the windward 1.1nd all men withJn 200
meters to tlie leeward sho1.1ld be warned. Uroken shell sho11-ld
be co'vered with a layer of chloride of lime on top of which 6
inches of enrth. should be spread. During this work, masks
and protective gloves should be worn.
Unda.milged shell or a smal1 dump strnck by a direct' hit will
not be set apart for Cuture use, but wU I be hurled with the
fragments of the daroag:e,d shell In a hole six: feet deep and
covered with n layer of ehlori<I<' of lime hefore ftllin~ in.
rse of Gus by Artillery. 19

CHEMICAL ARTTI"LEt1Y Al\>lMUNITION.


45. The follow:ing Js a brief description of the chemical am-
munili.o11 -which may be used by our. troops. lt iJ:teludes not
only chemical shell of American manuiacliure but also French
shell wJ,ich may be used by o~1: tro?p-s. It does not include n
dJfieussion of n:rtlllery nmmu.nJUon 10 general wb.ioh. has been
fn Jly c,.)Vcred in Notes on A:rtiJJe.ry Ammunition'', issued by the
Office hf the Gbief Ordnance Officer, A. E. F.
Ju our ,5ervice, cbeniical sbell include the follow:ing classes:
G-as.
Smoke.
Incendiary.
GAS SHELL.
4-6. A de aaipUon of the gases which ba,e been approved
for use in ouf artJUery ~eU is given he.reinafler. A thorough
knowledge of the gases, their prGp<1rties and effects, is neces-
sttry. Gases may be divided into three clasess, as Collows :
i'lnn-Pe1sistent.
'iem i-Persistenl.
Persistent.
.f7. The following tahle shows our gases, divided according
11;1 t,h i's class i flea Li on, and their principal characteristics:

CLASS
~. .,rr;
I IN rJI' CMS I
ORDlllil OF
Pl!JHSffiTIJl~oY
Tl{Hf.1 NG
I () I'"''1
' ''
l
P$YS10LOGIC,\ I,
Au
~rrO"
"

1 ;i(QD-l'<1rslt<tent.. D .A.J - s
f.t'Oml anti
o.n.J + C. steiuufn.tQ17
1
.I P.O.) n -
!! ~-Pttid,font .. N.O,) .X - 'Peq~trnrwc an,t
' F.S.) + il2 Cl. Sull'~caut

~ Pvrlllswiu .... .I C A,l - T:arbryma.f111y nwt


I n.S.1 .L
'
2J f "' C. Vr-Flrnal
1<. is a mixture of' 80% P. S. and 20% R. J. The
N. C.
ablhe prin<'iple ,)f this mixture is P. S.; the K . .T. n.eting J;Tlere-
ly to st~.lYillze flie P. S. n-no hcl]l Jmnetrale the m11sk.
xx . .r.G. is a mixture of 75% P. S. and 26% C. G. As witl1
'<. C. Ille aeflve ingredient is P. S.-fhe put:pose ~ f tne C. (i.
heing to s.tahjl!ze the P. S. :ind to add to jts to1(icity.
lV1Jn-Per"Sis lc1Lt (;ases.
48. rt will be noted thnt the only non -pe'rsistenl !(as ,vhid,
we al'e ttsing. (C. G.) is l ethal and hoils at +8C. t~6F.I. lu
i:enernl, Lhe non-persistent gases all h ilvc lbese so.roe eb:uac-
t.D .\. IA not a true gas. It Is II sulld sol=tnc;., untl Its acllt111 Is vert
ll rteri!nt rrnn1 that of 1be llqu16~. Upon lb" 'pu.r11tlug ti! the 1!11ell tile D. A.
111 expJ!IJeil n:om thnl ot a hlgb]r i;mlvwzecJ cloud at il11$t. 'l'hl!l!e 11111
11artlt1il'.t f~11Hnfn 111 ~fl!-ftMJJ,:,lori 111 tlte- nlr -nn(I tlH? part1ollH pa~ l111,-.11C!h 1J11,
11111~1;.J
20 Gas ilian u:(ll-Part n
teristlc$, They ai-e all lelhal and boil below +-20C. (68F,).
i. e., below normal nfmospherie summer Lempe1nh:ire. FoJ' this
reason these i;nses change frelll JJ u.ic.ls l1:1 gu~,:,s wi U1ott.l the aid
of any nrt-iAcial agency. W11en Lbe shell is hurst the liquid at
once. gnsill<.s. Hence, the sn1nllei;l bursting chnrge that will
ea'ectively ope11 the shell is used. However, the hu rsting charge
1nust be of sufficient strength not only to burst the shell, hut
also to check, to a large extent, Ute forward Ve'locily of the
h11se portion of lhe shelL Otherwise a considerol>Je pnrtion of
the liq11id will be cupped in the base portion of the shelf and
buried in the ground or ca.:rr,ied by richochet beyond the point
of hu1st.
Tn the em11loyment of lethaj gases, tlii! main dhiect is to pro-
duce a e1ottd of the highest possible. initial conceairnt Ion wh.icl1
-will dJ.,ifJ down wind :ind completely envelop tl1e object :rt.-
Lacked. Such a clo\ltl should consist of a highly concentrated
.nucleus when liberated f:rom Uie sncll. This will drift dow11
wind 1tnd expand by lateral r:tlher Lhan upward i:>nlargement.
The formation of s1-1ch n cl crud i-eq11ires: First, complete vap-
orization at lhe n1on1ent of liberation; and -Second, a hursUng
i'harge which will completely shatter tl,e shell, hut which is
not so strong as to give undue dissrp:ilion of the liquid con-
tents, p:trticularJy in an trpwm:d d.rrect:ion.
Tt is essential that tne bursting charge should hrcu.k the sbe U
completely into small fragments. The more rapid a.nd com-
plete the hreal1-up. the mon~ concentrate-ii is Lhe cloud. More-
o-ver, lhe loss of hent ilue to 1.he sudd.en vapori7.ation add~ den-
sity to the cloud nucleus formed.
Semi-Persistent Gn$U.
The semi-pensistent gases boil between +20C. nnd
,1_.9.
+.200G.. i. e., above normal atn1ospheric temperature. With
these fas.e s to ohta In a clo11d nncleus Gf Jtrentest pO\>~ible con-
cenf.:tntiQll it is necessary lo expel the liquid co-ntents lo n higl1
stnte of atomizalion. This 1es11lts in the i;nost rapid vnpor.lz:i-
tion with Lhc least p-ossible dishll'bonce of the cloud. To sectn'<'
tbi s eil'e:et, lbe hu-rsting cb81'-_gt\ sh011ld ]1e of higl, power to i11-
s1Jte mamnunl atomii:ation, a.ad yet not so high as to destroy
the g.as b)' di,ssociation. 'l'be object is l8 en-sure thnt the. liquld
is converted i 1110 o clo11d with least possible djsLtrrhanoc. This
requhes 11. more powerful bursting charge lhan lhe non- persist-
ent _gases nnd n s11eU of grea ter 1esistm1ce, .so tl1at the liqnid
may be released under maximum nressu re.

Persi(;lenl Gases.
60. In the case of persistent gases, hotling above .1.20()C
the object sought is quite clifferent. lTere. the cloud should lJe re-
rluced to lhe minimum. and the area spr.aye.d by the 1iq11id con
lt"nf ~ of tne ,hell lncrefll-1.'i'I tn n ma-ximurn. Thfs reqniTes :,
rr11e of Gas by Artillery lll

1n.rge hurstlng charge of relatively .big), capacity but or slower


action Lban the charge for the ~en1i-persistenL gases. and at
the s:ime time, a sl1el1 of relatively less s-henglh lhnn that l'e-
cp1i:l'CU (or com;plete atomiznlion, but of sufficient reslslanC'e to
gi ve t.be maxinnm1 airJount of. coarse spray that will reach the
ground as such. The charge which sprays the greatest area ot'
ground and gives the roiuj~um cloud Is lhe one of maximum
cfl'ect!vene5s,Dne to their highboilinC points, the pe-rslstent g_ases
ure relatively slow in their action, and hence prompt effects
cannot be obtaiued unless Lhe vai>orization of the gas is secured
bv some artiflcial means. Such a means is a bursHng charge
cl~vcl,oping high teni-parature and pressure, both of these can-
clitious accelerating vapol'lzation, the temperature acting di-
1ectly and the pressure tliro11gb increased pulve.rizal ion. Con-
seq.ueplly, if it is desi'red to ob'tain quick effl\Ct from perslstenl
gases such as H. $., the sbcll should be loaded wiili JI super-
charge. of high e""Plosive, but it musJ be. remembet'ed tlrnt hy
~o d()ini; the ~:un in a.ctivlty of {he g:is is ohtnincd al the e:-.-
pcnse of greatly red,u cing its persistency. An<llller aa~antage
in ])1'0\'iding H. .S. shcl] with -a super-charge of high e~plosive
is that they detonate. wilh the noise a:nd lbe sbock of n true
R . Et sbell and tbus disguise llie fact that they are gas. shelL
Recent developments in fhe use of ll. S. h.a ve juclicllted that a
l)ortion, al: l8"sl, of lhese shell should be provided wilh :1 snpet'-
charie of high e~.plosive lo accelerate their action. If H. S.
shell hovin! .a supe;r-charge of bigb e;tp)osive nre. -used they will
0

be slenciTied with some distinguishing- mark to Indicate the fact


that Lne bursting charge is above normal.
OONSTRUOTJON OF GAS SHELL.
1. In general gas shell are similar to high e-i>loslve shell.
111 fact, the majority of gas shell in use at the present lime are
con,erted H. E. shell. \Vhile lhe principles invOlved tn the de-
sign or _gas shell are radically dUTerent f,-om those alTecHng
TI. E. shl!J I, ll bas .been consideFed desirable to simplify the
man11faeluring l)l'Ogram by !!(lnverling H. E . shell into gas shell.
.\s the propnrlion of gas shell to II. E. shell inct'eruiei:, it be-
comes more and mere important fOl' gas sl1cll to he spccia11y
designed.
52. Gas shell con~ist of the s'hell body, which contains thl'
gas, U1e. iraine tube (.nd:ipter and hoosler casiTig) , which screws
Into rhe nose or Lhe shell itnd contoins the bursting charge:
and the bursting charge- which consists of o sma11 quantity of
h1gb explosive .sufficient to open Ute shell. aniI. ln some _cases,
to atom ize the Uguid eonte_nts. Since most o! the g~scii used
enter the shell, as liquids, they ~-pm1d asJiquids when heated,
and H is, therefol'e, Decessnry to leave a space for this expan~
sion and only paTtially ffll the shell. The void amounts to
rl'011l 6% to 11 % of the total ciweaity o'f tne shell: depending
22 Gas Manual-Part 1J

upon the coefficient of expansion and the vapor pressul'e of


the ga.s and the pressure which the joint between the 5heI1 and
gatne tube will wtLbstana.
~. There a,e various methods of making these joints g~s
tight:
(a} The general method employed by the British t1> pre-
ve11t leakage ot' gas into the gaine tube, is to make the adapter
and gain-e tube or one piece, so that there i.s no joint through
-which gas may leak ilito the game tube. 'To prevent {he _ge.s
from leaking through the .ioint between U:ie adapter and the
shell body, the BrHtsh paint the threads with cement, screw
the adapter il:\, and then "spin" over the extedor of the joint
_between the ad~piei a:nd shell. This joint is made befo;re the
shell is filled ancl a test pressure of 100 Lbs. per square inch
is a]Jplied ta the shell, through lbe filling bole lTI the side of
the shel1 to test tbe integritJ of the joint. The shell is then
filled and t.li1: filling liole pll,igged a:p with a small tapered iron
Jl)lug.
(b) Th<' Fr eoch use. in some cases, a one-piece adapter
.and gaine tul>e. In other cases, bowever, the gidne tube is
tthreaded Jntci the adapter. The following is quoted from a
'French docume1Jt a1;1d shows the method of closing joint be-
tween the adapter a-nd shell body:
"To close this, we pnt in the first place between the bottom
part of the head of the gaine and the macblned shell, around
toe eye of the IJNjeclile, a pUabl"C ring of lead tubing with a
core of asbestos; in se.'ttin_g Lhe gaine into the eye of the pr.o-
jectile, this ring is compressed and forms a dam between the
!head of the galne 1.1ad the throat of the eye of lhc shell. Fur-
thermore, tbe threads are painted with a cement which is not
attacked by lhe charging liqu:id and wltieh in ~ddition to stop-
ping 1eakage adds to the solidity of the union of the two
par:ts . ... .... t
(c) Tn our 1>resent Ame-rican models of gas shell the game
tube is welded to the adapter, though it is probable that, for
certain gases at lenst, Uiis method will be abondonea for a
one-piece adnpter and gajne htbe. The Joint between the aiJ-
aptcr and the shell bo.dy is -maiJe gas tight by means of n
tapered or ptpe thread. The ndapter ru1d gnine tube are screwed
into the shell untiJ the tapered tbre:ids bind tignU~ and pro-
d1tce a- gas light jeint. To facilitate assem bling, l11~ threads on
the n:dapter are lnbricnt-ed with oil, J>ut no cement is used; ile-
pendence for gas tighmess Is placeil entirely upon the mel11l
to metal contact between the threads.
64. OC tJ1e three methods n1tntioned above, that employed bf
fhe British is prabably lhe most satisfactor,J', and the melh1,>d
of ~ide 011mg has the additienaJ advantage of pel'IDitti.ng the
l(Sli11g of tlir jc,int bffnrc fflli,,g .
23

55. For cel'taia gases, aotably lhose cont.aiuiug JJi,ontiue


compounas, which have. a corrosive action -upon steel, it is nec-
essary lha.L lhe shell have a lining of glass o:r lead; and the
game tu.be, a coatin.g of enamel; in order Lo protect the metal
from the action of the gas.

TYPES OF A:J'liERlCAN SHELL.


56. lt js infCllded LO provide American chemical m:tillery
shell in Lbe following calibers.:
76 mm. Gun
4.7" Gun
155 mm. Gu.n
156 mm. Row.
6" S. C. Gun
6" S. C. Gun
8" s. C. GUD
8" How.
9.2" How.
240 nun. How.

MAR1UN6S FOR AMERICAN SHELL.


51. American chen1ical arWlery shell will be marked with
i:olored band~ to denote the differen t ty:Qes of gases, as fol-
lo.ws, (See Appendix, Fig. 3):
IJ. $.
Symbol
l Jn.too
.S. Milrklngs %" Bt\llds \ t,I. s.
11d Sholl " ' .F'olJom, Symbol
\ U. S. Mnrk!Ui(s Y./'
atpo11<1 s1,.,11 n11c h'ollowij
J,laoO:!'

D.A. 1 Wlllte I .'B.J\. J :Red


Cl.El. 2 Wblte I e.A. ~ llell
P.G-. 11 W.hlt~. 1 Red, l. White I H.S. :., nrQ
r.~. I 1 Wbtte, 1 lll!d I W.P. 1 Y,iJl(tw
~.c. fl Wbfte. J rtrd, 1 Ye!l('tw J F.M. ~ Yenow
Jlerl Bands denote -persi1>tency.
lVhilt Bnnrls denote non-persbteacy and let.ha] action.
Yellow Bands denote smoke.
Purple Bands denote incendiary.
The numher of banas indicates the relative strengtl1 of th!!
1>rope'tty indicated. Thus, three red bands denote n gas more
~~rsistent than one red band, and three white bands indicate
n gas wnere Leth~ a~tion is greater than one marked with only
one white hand.
The body of the shell is painted gray. The words "Special
Gas" or 'JSpecial Smoke," as the case may be, are stenciled
lengthwise of tbe shell i:n black block letters 6/8" liigh.
lncendiany shell are painted gray, with the word "Specinl ln-
cendiai,y'' stencilled lengfillwise in l>JacK block letter~ 6/1!" high.
hut with no distinguishing hands.
I
t\lU~H.lC,\N SHELL FfLLING

1'he falllowing an, U1e- au1,Junts of each kind of c;,hemicalOlling C,J11t11lnetl in ihc dilferenl calibl!rs.

\ \ Al!l!J'\1:dmo t,V 1'h :f_p_prnidunlte Wf'lgllt (lf ;'Jb~H 1:'11 LJng


,volgbL ot 0:!8 I Stuu~e
I/ \ l'ft~":t:,~, ~fu
1
u.i:;. I I I I o.:a.. I I I w.t>.
'rime
F!Uld
r
I
Cn ll h"ri; Mtai. I
1
nlllng In pouml, I Lbll. l
c.G.
Lb~. I
t,,l:,
t,bQ. '
'
P.S.
n,it. I LbR. I
B.A.
1,lls, I
Jr,li.
l,b~. I l,,bij,
G11u .. 71; rum. u tQ.21 t.Jlv' l.:l:! 1,7..t 1.-t:, t.!lT l.7.l
Q1m .
l'fow.....
~-7"
15:i mm,
J.l
II
l.17.40
80.81)
4.88
1_1.110
-L:n
1 L.tlo~
1i~62
H.~D
r.:3o f .H (I.SO !!,;ill
1.0(1
11.14
18.00 i2.1s l 0.-1-1 l'.b:30 l~. 8!"i
qun . .... lijll llJID.. vn 19,.,r, u.ao u.oo 11.110 lll.08 t <l,30
. ...
12.18 10di lt;.Sij
G,w, ... .
'Gu .....
G"
6"
'\71
I.Ll
,(2.!I~
'N.03
G.ll8
111.r,o ...
.. .... . .. . ....
.... .
. ...
..... 0.70
18,28
.. ....
.....
BO-W.... . 8'' Ul 160.7r. 22.4~ 2:! .(11 2S:oo >

!!7 .20
' '

U.2p
. .. .. .... . ...
8Z~6'1 28.IO 31.~0
. .. ... ..
I .. .
G)ln. $'' UL' lGO. 7li 22.15 ~
2$.40
llow-.... , D.2 252.05 29.45 2$.ff9 8'i .S() ~il.6!? a1.to -t2. i'S 8'7.20 H.:iO
Tlow, ..... 210 mm. 31!3.50 :i7.!!O 8Q.5,1 18.-20 .I 15.:l'r 40.-lI 54.~!I -t'T.40 62,6
. .
11111,xr vo1mnt'.>< p.ru 1<1 !'-<'d no lht TI.1!1. ijhelt . - -
~otc.-Ot ilie dlllniis :;lv~u In tbo aboV1! lnble fr should he n<1-wd: t.'.0. I$ the =~
,us P.S. o;.!{<.'t}-pl the.t lt oou(itln~ 11 sq1bll~
(K .J ,). 11.J.. AcQd O.A.. sh~ll /\TC both IA~rym11t,,ry u,J ~'n ht nsM ln1Prel1nui;t,:Lbly, ~ce1,>t that I' .A. IJ! $t~ra1 tlw~s inotl' effeetlw
lbim ll.A.

F'. M. e.0,1 W.P. ,boll Are l>()tb sn1111'<' !!hell. Il\M. 18 n llqultl. nnt.1 r ~I'. nhell Are theretotu nrlmull~ lllt!'1ldM t11r . rcrngi,ng a,,,
llbltll. W.P. !~ ll ~lllTd II Qtl prb<ltw,, " ,fon M 8.lll1 mote p,w&Je.tenl ~tllnJr~ thn11 ll'.J'J .. hence W.P. shl!ll ehcml4 b use.I prhnarlly tr,r ,mo>--
1,n rrAg~11 01,~l Pt:l'("a-n12.
T)se of Gas by Artillery

With ilxcd nmmu11itio11 (75- mm. nnd 4.7{'), chemical shell


n1e nlso mru,k{ld on the base of tlle cartridge cose by a black
bnna 3/8" wide and lbe words "Special Gas." "Speciul Smoke.''
ol' rnccndiory," i:n 1/.I" letters.
The boxes in wb(,;:h chemic:il shell nte packed nre marked
un each end wiU1 distioguishi11g bands illld words used on tl1,
!>tiell in addition to ruark-lngs common lo all ,artillery she,11.
WEIGHTS OF AMERICAN Cll.EMTCAL SilELL,
58. For lbe present, lhe system of weighln~ nnd mn1ki.ng
of chemical sl1ell wiH follow lhe g.eneral scheme employed
wllb H.B. a;tillcry .i,bcll, i.e., each r:illh~, or shell w ill be d i-
vided into a number of dif[erent wc,ight lots and marked on
(he 75 mn1. l>y crosses jusl above the rotaLing baud, on tbc
4.7" by squares just below the bourelet ,and for cnlil,ers larger
tlrnn 4.7", by squnr-es 011 lhe ogive. In addition, {or calibers
gnenler than 4.7" the mean weight of lhP lol will be shmcilled
bn the shell, on 6'' shell just above the driving band and on
other calibers nn Lhe oght:.
/ This system will proha:bly J>e cllnnged i;o that ehemical sh.el I>
~ i l l be ot one weight only fo1 each c~eT.
59. The method of i;,ctica!ing 1he we'igllt Tots under Lht.
.
1wescnl i;v~len.1 i:, sho\VTI in lbe following ta.blt,: .
I I"fom 1 '.1:0
W~lllht

OallbN I Lbs. /)t. I Lbs, o... Welghl Mnrks


'i E!ten,11

10 ll ll 0 L
I
11 0 11 6 +
7ll mm. 1l 6 1l 11 + t-
u u 12 0 +++ \
u () 1.2- 5 ++t+ I
48 lJ D
I
4,8 0
j 43
4- 7" !;lw U
~
ll
ti II -H.
~
6
l
DO
I 10
50.10
11
8
6
GO
111
112
08 \
orn
li0.90
:Sl. 70

87.:18
811 L...I
'1 Incl}. lI 88
81)
10
1
DD
D::JD \
88.~
1)0.84

OD f -ll K 700
I 111
02
3
G
Oil
98
II
I\ I moo
ODO I -1,2 l'C 200
42. R 700
1~fi mm. 98
IH R
(I 114
(lll
;I

10 1 mom l ll.H K 200


911 Ill !IR 1l
I 01 q 1n[Il Ill K 7011

192 I 1911
" I n 1D4:MI

a lncli. 1911 6 198 11 DO 107.88


198 tl tot 0 LL!.J tol.20
Gas Mmmal-l'art II

FRENCH C'JiEMIC.AJ, SHELL


60. The only F_ren ch chemical shell to be used by our serv-
ire are the 76 mm. gun. ll1e lo5 mm. lflJ.n and howitzer, and the
240 mm. howilzcr. The 240 min. howitzer _gas sbell is still in
prt>U4:'-~ll of development.

WEIGHTS OF FRENCH CHEMICAL SHELL.


61. The gene:raJ weight classification ()f the 75 mm. and 155
mm. sheIJ is tlie same as the U. S. classification.

MAIUNG OF FRENCH CHE~lICAL SHELL.


62. The sy:;te1n of marki:ng and the weight, nature, and ac-
tion of the fllliug of the French che1nrcal shell whicb mn.y com"
into the hands of our troops are shown under dcscrip.t lon nf
shell. Mixt:uresc No. 4 and 4B a rc not authorized ft>r use ill
o ur servi_ce.

SMOllE SHELL.
63. Tn addition to the use oC smoke shell for smoke ha1-
rages, tbcse sne,ll wlll be used in oui servii:e for ranging gits
shell. I

Ga.~ shefl of the F'l'ench, British, and Germans :ill have visible
huvsts. due lo the pieseuce of a smoke p;roducing mii-ture in
lhe she.II. The Frenco mix a "fn1nigAne", <)r smoke -pred11cing
c.!)mpou.nd, with. fhe chemical filling. The Brjtisli incorporate
tbe smoke producing m1tterial with Lhc bUTsting chfjrg-e. 'l'he
Germans p:r~duce a vfsiple burst by use of a very large bursting
charge. All of these methods red.nee the efficiency of the shell
iu1d also have the ifisadvantag~ of p.rodncing a visible gas cloud
whose limits are "l'eadily discernahle by the enemy.
All smoke producing compounds wiTI be omitted from Amcci-
l'.aa gas shell and the hnr~ts will, tl1irnefore, be p.racticaDy in-
''isibJe. For ranging, therefore, it is necessary to have smoke
shell of the same weight and ballisUc cliaracter.isties as the gas
:-hell. Smoke s hell wrU first be fl-red until the correct range has
heen ascertai11ed, :ind then the fire for effect will he continued
with gas shcll having invisible hnrsts.

64. By far the best smoke producing material for sn1ok~


barrages a11d curtains is white. phosphorous, and this is used
in aU smoke shell intended for barrage p1;1.rposes. These shell
are known as W. P. sbelJ and are marked wit.b one yello\V band.
H:owovor. ;rince phosphorou:i is a solld material, the w. P. shell
is not aceu_rate for ranging purposes, since shell fi.lled with
liquids (as -all our gas sh~Us are) have different ballistic char-
octeristics and therefo:rc di fl'el'ent ranges from selid filled sbelJ.
For lhls reason J.t is necessary that smoke shell for rangin g
pwposes be liquid filled. The best liquid smoke produch11,
m:11(r1,i11J is f. !\f. wl1iclJ hns been. adopted for our s moke rangini;
"Itel I.
27

6f>, \'Vhile the 'vV. P. shell is nol 1111end,etl for ra11giL1_g, il <:a1i
be used for this _purpose when the 1". i\'l. shell a.re uuav11ilol1lc,
provJded ceplnin range COJ'rections are made. The F. M. shell
js not intended for barrage purposes a:llhough it may be so used,
if W. P. shell are not available. 'J;'J,e J.'. 11I. shell wfll not give
as dense and durable a clo.n d <>f smoke or as grcal a sereeaing
elieot as the same size W. P. shell, hence it is necessary to in-
c:rease tb.e number of shell -used and the rate of fJie, over the
figures prescribed for smoke screens with \V, 1?,. shell. The
exact :tmount of sbell and l'!ll e of fire can best be deter.mined
by observation of the smoke screen durirr_g its establishment
and maintenance.
,. rAJJLC OF Fh ENCli Sl>E6I~L Pfiu.JEOTlL&S. ...
_FR{)PEn:r:ra_s OflATIGE V Ii'lLf,rNO l'IUMIDI M.AliKWG$ Nll'.rms 1ill,1'1N01lllNOY
!!BELL /
-- -----
7 Carl>.,u Olijul
,,tlloe ,v1o1t;e Go !no. M,idnl l!Ul'1 <Ho.en Ofrl ve.
i7
nec1
1lll4. Soldo.red joint hqdy. No. 2 on top B<Jllt ot 1b11Jl
ru tum.

-
l'llo~pbnrous H2tl 1r
f IICtDt11 "11', I'er1:11!>!!J00 tu,ie 24 / 1) n oil Iv1: 1U1ti '&li!u o.xploRlTe. -
OJrJ. a.t lnccn
- 2.- - Ne,.
l,lln,, W
fnlrl,
C\'l'rlr- -
-
or-n. on uotwm.-
-
Gatne 2utlt!l 1Sll7 G teen Ozlva. flotl 11\)<f)' I)( shell
Whit.- Phos U)l-1. Soluur.ctt J<1111t. lmd1.
71\ tum. Iuo~ntllury, l>horo11s Nt11tvnl 4Str 1,..'1'f> ~f). ll nu cirp tosJ ve.
No. 3. 240 "e<' PMoul.'lllon t w;~ :.!.I/ tori 1tn,1 &,ttam.
r.1t1utc1. :n.t-t.
- J m1(1l ,Jta l1~1 all#
t,alne Motlril HW7 Ch~t\Jl., 2 w IL I r t ii:'Xrl'>fl.r t' tu ~ e !OrlOll tli>ll ~xploflqo
70 m111. ,1m. t 11uttc
1 1 '!OH. S11111erCt1 Julut . rl:nirf'. ~~ . .J. CUl bg tu lltte'd wit b ~lo1,1U la tltnl ltut
No. 4. ro.,h.". t}UfttCI'.
4 7,S !:-" " l'oro11i;1&lon t a,se 24-t h>I' .I\Q(l !J1>ttom. wru,bor o! pw,.. dlh11Juo qull't1t1 ,r,
nnJru (V'4) :M ' 141. tlu metal. <'M'.nse. I ts ,fll
clt-t\ ~J".
'

J, '
- I 1nn1Nll1a.telj" ll1te?
t omadna f.'Z1)l08fIll)
75 mm,
Nu. '113,
Violrn t
ti,t~~u.
Vltr~-
~IIIQ lte
C. ')
'" 1,.llI:;
1
iSt17-1914 ~I<ll. 2 Wb Ito J.lap,1...
neln,y g!llot> 2.,f/il I 4D11 tin 111,rive, bnc
per~ut,,sl,1n. u ~lft t. llllll Bile!! C48C.
. ~IOU\! 1, t~l; UQ
1]1.U' ~rt:a1n rondl
~l~iill! P. 111% tl~llll It a,a1 bav~ i
111 Jtin t ti t-tfon..
- -- Oulnc Mou,\L 11:lO'i
~ l'lxf,lQSlvtl ( n " P luunc'tllnte ur 11<'-
Ta mm. Colloogltl', 2;,1 181-1, So 1 ii ~ I' e 1\ G.reeu, Wl>H~ holr> llttc1/ wi th (o_yed 8 !ll.l llCCt'td
1
'l'n~lc. 71,t gill. Jiilut.. P l!,r~ussJ,,u IUug, .l<U. ti on IOI waslmr ot J>las- lox to conctmtrn
N<i. ~. Clpacl t~, 1/3 fnsa 2,1. / Sl , , 1'I ,ma bot tum,. tt~ Jllf!tO.l. ll~n.
Mll,
-
'Tl'i mm , J..iac.heymtl bu 7 ,
is
Aquln , 3/4 v
.
7\l!l
Ha.Inc M~iM
191"1.
JIIOT.
$ O I t;l 1' r O <1 GJ'lletl; 1 Orange
i 'l'l'cnH~l"n ycl low rlnic. No, i In (lrPllU)' atl)II . G l>OlltQ.

Opacl to. 1/4 iolnt$,
_f!'-<,.
No. i. roxlc. U!'e 2-J / !\l,, '14 r,o top a n1l botlNIJ
-- -- lt.tdl.
G:\(ne ~todel l!H)',.
-
rr. mm. IJ';pclll'JmR{Orf, Mftrtanlt~ p. 607 wa.
101-L f;t o l d c r t, cl ,1,eeu. t Ora111ge
N<,. !l, 0<)\nt~- .L>ere11~slm1 -.vll~'I)' ring. No. 0 In p.r c;i11nUi>ll ~ tht)' "
'l"oxlo. Otm~lte 9t> gra.
, ftt~<>
\1dJ.
24. / 31, . IA on top 1u1t1 bottom

71:i mm. -Vr1d1 1fint. Yperlle wlth 'I'. 500 Kram~. l8!17 ' l 4 M.,T, Ri>
$<,!vent. C. Snl- ur 111.Y Oa.lu~ 21/Sl :.! OrllnJ.te :Yollo><' J:i .-IUJ'lf
No. 20. 'l'ox-lc. ~,mt. ti:"~(; t;Tt\W8 P1,r. Fn.se,~ 1 J .Mdr nuuiJ~ .. 2.0,-,
'
~ .
v, Jo]jIIDt '07' lJ. u': .
~ ..
.
.Eiuu1n, ,
,r. ~l~,I Oaini> wllhout
iii mm.
No. !1,
I

IJ uppe~ oamit... la.


ft,qltlll:11.. l;80.
osri b"'1' , . ~:rtC'rt&lOD '14 -,fod~J 1.-
21/31 . I. l'er<:uJf. Bnod.
c,rlt.iUl{I.!
2t
Ytl..\oW j :, 1\,, "':t;: - -
I
I ' 91011 Fo~o.
m,101: -111. c;~ttJ'ld(ll' CQ.at 'f>t4.>el -tb\:.) l, rmm~lfint!;Q' 1.c,.,..
1511, wm. H'I ro,n. W&li;llll G.rl){<D Body. 2 mo11el 'l.4 Cl)lumuullJll, tlPlt>!<loD
.Ii'. A. 'r1,~hl'. Vlnuru,utto. 2 ~gs. r ing ll:1/$0 P err.n Wlllte Hlop. No. li11le 10,m,ll!l 1~- t auit but dllu-
.No. -1. (iuat~11a,~. 8~0 ~Inn tuKC.. 2'1--/ll1 I on top Ol,'1Ye, of Ii~ t,11 p!Jl.11tl t10n
rn<,rol ,lvg,
i~olC!kly dtt
ore11~.e tte cl!lcieuu.
IA.
I Jwlnt> HI, cuttldt;e
ir-o mqs.
E . .<\. To;i.l~.
ol1ongl1e, 2/3. I K~.
J47 mm. Wu4\!ltig Ol'f.8D j)orly. l whi r.
rllw 2-!/31 P~r<n~- rlog:. )le,, 5 r1n t111
Snmo
~1,,,,".t'. 'lo JDt)I

~o. ;;. op2fotte, 1/ll. :100 i:t1v'1J nu;o. 24/8l l'!,lve.


. IA
Uu~o" .J.u, Uu.rl el~1
Lu{> mllJ. .147 mm, Wedge G1-oeo body. 1 whiu $&me tllS I SOIi 0 boun
l III i,hey u1a torl' Aqnlnlte, !l/-1.
.D\ ti..
OJ11>0lte, 1/1. rlllg !!4/3l, Per. ring, No. i . on t,,1\ 5.
No. 'I, '1\1:t'l~. . (us~ .!?!IJ-31 IA. n t t h n o~h-e .
U!\l'T-J OIA Mill. JW- 2 Ona.nge Yellt1w
i.110 ~llll. 1:l)erlte wlth 'lt. a~ 20 (/,_rs IBY l,,'lWlll 2-1 / 8 1 l11Uld8. i r, 11Jt111.
ves1c11nt 420 OD
JJ' A .
No. 2U. I '~:..i_c. r (l!j,hent O.) 0,1:!0 gt!< p~rcuSston r 1l s e t<11) o! ogive.
H11.t llr11del.
- -
11:1115 Model Oy l,
1,n.e1>rymo.tory ~O-ga.tne but wlt.h, 1 Orau,re Yellow
l:lii lIWI. :!1'711 grs. uu t l'rll!DB!tio ror Band, .:ii, on cu11 1 ii l!ny,
]'. A . 1.,J' ltp tl'll ol.)Jl\>r Camltu, .13. ~ ID o k e i;m,dua'l-.
No. 2~. ,eal)l r&tory .AJ,trilultc, 1011. Qf the v!ILye.
,P rlm,;d u l be !>o.

-~-
lrtl.<.'t~.
- .

Carl/l)o illl!ul
phlcle Bud 'l;ar. 1)6() cc. G1tlne system ; to Green 1:11., Rt><l 1',bvt,ilon I
16<1 11111, J:'boi;-pbOoOUS J
F . A , ' l'YTK' 1InC1?endhu7. 650 cc. :!Z/S-l l . Head, mul l>latk ObJlrge.
l(g. Oyl. Ot O'f co. d ug.
!,;a:ud. ln~dlst)'

- -
ruattcr.
-- - - --
Qnrbon dl!cul
1>blde an(I 'l!M, 1521). Cl!. G1tlllll -40, WMJl"
1!1~ IDlil.
,Ste11ll [n-ccnt1111r>. Wli)to J)bu!I- ~ tti;,,. a()() Rlll.11' and tnse 14/
TWS Na.UIL pilorous. Oyl. ot , Kg11. 160. 31 I. ur 1. A.
lliMnlla ry.
Gus Manuul- 11<1rl II

trn. \\ '!tile lhe above remark:, concerning the prc:.eucc ,1J


smoke pruducing substances in our own. and F1encb and British
gas shell are generally bue, there ,u:e e.~ceptions as follows:
(1) Tb.e Fhmch gas shell No. 20 (YperHe or II .S.) marked
wilh Lwo orange--yeLlow b1wds and No. 21 (Camite or C. A.)
11'rarkeo with one orange-yollow hand, COiitain no ft1migen, and
henee some smoke l)Jo_du,ciug shell must be used for ranging.
{2) In Americttn shell N. C. (1 whiLe; 1 1ed and l yellow
1.and) has 20% l{. J. in H to stabilize the P. S. R. ,J. is a smoke
produce1-. Therefore, K. C. shell give a visllile cloud on burst
..111d require no I'll nging shell. In fact N. C. shell cnn them-
selves be used as Ta11ging shell.

~7. lu Jibe case of the French 7:'/ IDlD, No. 2(1 ano No. 21
+
~]Jell, their pn1.ctice is to pack one No. 5 sbell (C.G. K.J.) witl1 8
~o. 20 or No, 2J shell, in a bo-x whicll bolds 9 sbcll. The No.
i> shell, so used, ls madi:ed on the body o! the shell with a re<l
slar aod on the shell case wjlh a gre\m stru and is employed as
., rangi ng shell for Lhe No. 20 and No. 21 shell.
Iu the laI"ger caliber Preneh shell, lhe box conla:inj ng only
oue or two shell, no atte,m pl is made to pack smo.lce Cl>nlaining
shell witli the giis shell, but eITorls ![lie Iliad~ to forward )Vitli
every nine boxes of gas she1I a box <;if smoke sbell, so that
constant ratio ot the two will he mniutainecl io supply.
Al the present Li me our 75' 111 a,. g,ts shell are being assembled
in France, and :.iuce no smolee shell have arrived irom the
St ates, and our boxes also hold 9 shell, we have followed
Pl'eneh practice; and Olll' gas sbeU will be ,Packed 8 in a box
with one N. C. shell lo be used for _ranging the other gas shell.
The box will JJe marked around its middle wilh tbe c.luu~cter-
isUc color sl.ci_j)es or Lhe gas shell centained therein. The N. Q.
shell to be used for raugillg, can be distinguished by ils char-
acter istic bands (1 white. 1 red. 1 yellow). 1n lhis connection,
it shquld be pointed oul Lhlll ltle ratio of 1 smol;te-contaio.ing
shell lo 8 gas shell is much higher than uecessaty for purely
ranging pu.r1>oses. n .is prohah!e that 5% smoli:e sli.ell will
prove suilicient t<Jl' -:r~gistration and to maintain fire direction
and control, so that there will, soo.ner or later, _he an accum11la-
Uon of N. C. shell at each battery fulng ga:;. shell, N. C, sheli
~o aec.umula.ted sbou1d he 11Jed by themselves for effect under
chicumslances and conditions prescribed for this gas.
68. When used for _rangig Jilie.r gas sh-ell, no 1nore N. C.
shell sheuld be fired lb-an is absolutely uceessary l(J effect regis-
1.ration and to maintain fire d1rection and control, fo1 the rea-
son that continued ftting of smoke-coi1taiuing shell results ill
the buildiug u1> of visible Lo.xic cfoud whlch the enemy may
avoid by withdrawal beyond its limits. Furlhrumore, the au:r-
p1ise element is largely lost by lhe visible bui:st of smoke-eon-
Use qf Gas b1r Artillery 31

taiuin~ gas sbell. The u.se of large quantllies of 1,11-nging shell


(either F. M,. W. P., 01 N. C.) during a gai; shoot will Jargel_y
neutralize U1e advantages of our gas shell.
69. Americau 4.7" ga~ $bell are paclted two ln a box. No
smoke shell will he packed with lbe gas shell I){ this caliber.
m*tead, a l>ox of 2 smoke shell will be forwarded with every
!J !)oxes of .gas shell. This box will be marked wit11 charac-
tel'istic coloJ' stripes of the smoke-producing shell.
Our l11rg1Jl' caliber gas shell come packed oue in a box ancl
the same scbame as for the 4.7" will apply to these calibe1s.
Battery commanders :;hould, from tin1e lo time, verify the
fact lbal there are always on hAnd sufficient sn1oke-containiil'g
sbell lo amount to at least 5% of the gas shell on hnn.d.
rNCEND1AR-Y SHELL.
70. No s!ltisf11ct01y American incendiary shell bas been de-
Y'elo,ped as yet.(The .French have t.bsee callbws of inceJ!diary
. rr..<->-Shell-76 Em., 120 mm. and 155 mm. Thel!e a:re made from
/o/.Y commo11 :H. __E. shell by replacing a part of t.he explosive chaTge
by a n11mber of special incendiary cylinders, known as fneen-
iliary Cylinaer ?vfl. 1878. T.be Tnceodiary Cylinder Ml . 1878 con-
sists p1'imarily of a bundle of slow action quick.match, tied with
nitrated string, and internally nnd externally p1imed 'l\iith a
small quantity of -ordinnfy qu.rck match. This bunifle is en-
oJoseil in n rectnngle of e1-el1>n:ne cloth coated ,vlth an incendlory
ciomposllion, and securely fastened wi.lb a heat-treat~ brass
wire. The weight of the cylinder proper is 30 gr. and reaches
46 If' whe11 enclosed in a tar paper C!lverioi;. Oo explosion of
the 1,rojectile, the cylinder is ignited al llolh ends and -projects
10 to 15 em. fl.re jets for a period of 10 to 20 seconds, at th~
expiration of which time it burns, torch-like~ for 70 to 80 sec-
ond~. TotiLl combustion of tho cylind er is, thel'efore, completed
n approximately one and a half minutes. lSee Fig. f.J
FUSES.
71. The action of all percussion fuses is startej:J by. the flash
produced by the contact of -a firing pin with a special detonator
called a primer. Thls p'l'imer is :filled with a very sensitive
mjxture of fulminate t>f mercury and other ingredients. The
con sll'llction of all percussion fuses is sneh that the primer and
the firing pin cn:nnot come in contact unW the shell is fired,
and they nre then kept a small distance apart until tne shell
or fuse toucbes the ground. Then lbe fl.ting pin and the primer
are Drought in eon.tact in one of the following way.s:
(a) The fir.mg pin may .be attachea to a movable plunger
::it the front end of t.he fuse and be forced back lnte tho fuse
Lhe instant the plunger comes In contncl- wilb tl1e ground. 'T'h h
will cau$e the .firing pin to hit the pl'imer which i,; attached to
Uie fuse lx>dy.
S2 Gas Manaal-Part 11

Cb) The 'J)riml!:I' may .be Clll'I'ied in a movable J)art inside


U,e fuse. When the shell rs checked by striking the ground
the inefllia of this movable part curries it f'orward cnosiug lhe
primer to l1it the firing pin.
Tl is evident that the nclion described h1 (n} wjll bring ll1e
needle In con tac( wfth the primer as so oil as the resista11ce of
I he groun{I is sufficient to overco-me lbe inerlin ot U1e plunger
nnd focre II into the fuse. Tl is, thercl'ore, a quicker nction tbru1
described in Cb) which will ll!ke place only when the tnerlin
of the shell ttself bas been overcome by 1he resistance of the
.ground.
72. Fnses having. the action desc:ribed in (n) are called
"super-quick." OJ1JJ such fuses nre suilabl~ fol' cltemical shell.
rt is essenti:tl !'hnt :i ruemicnl shell should burst a.h ove ground.
A f'us.e whose action is not snper~quiek allows !he shell either
I.<) hury iti;clf, at lea~t pa:rllaUy, or lo 1icochet heroro bur:<lin!(.
If the shell is even :p1rrliaJ ly blll'ied before hur,ting Lhe ef-
fectiveness of a pnrt of lhe contents of I.he shell is lost due. to
its. s~aldng into the grouna. If the. shell ricocl.1ets before burst-
ing, the gas may be carded beyond Lhe larget.
73. .Even with S'tlper-quick fuses, a certain amount of the
l!ffectiveness of l:he chemical she11 is lost owtng lo the (net
I.hat the shell bursts at the o~iv~ which leaves lhe base and
-part of lhe borly moTe or less unbroken, and 11cts ns a cnl'rier
f,,;r a certain portion of the liquid gases. If U1e angle. o! fnl1
ii; low, ll1e unbroken portion oI lhe shell may rlcocl.u.t rmd
cnrry a JX>rlion of the _g-n,i past the Carget. lf the angle of foll
is great the ttnbroken portion will penetrate into the ground,
thereby set1ling itir opea end a.:nd preventing the liquid 1.herein
from being liberated.
74. In, order tba':t 11 super-quick fuse may function. it must
laIJd on itos point. lf the angle of fall is small !he ogive of the
shell will bit the grolind first, the shell ma)' lh~n ricochet be-
fore tbe polnt of the !use can come in contact wtth the ground,
m1d the fuse. will not function. For this reason, and for the
reasons given in the-preceding paragraph, che mica l i,hell should
I 1 fired wtll1 reduced cliarg.es whenever p()SSililC. This -snoulcl
nt)t, however. be carried lo the extreme of using vertical fire,
as by so doing the dispersion is greatly increased and 1he un-
broken base and body of the shell will bury part of the cen-
tents as explained in tl,e preceding parngraph.
75. Ow'in.g U,e 1'ailwe of super-quick fuses to functfon n!
low a~les, and the increase in dii;persion 1111d decrease in rang,,
(cil ua~d by the greet length of such !wics) ,~hen: us<ed witl1 smnll
i;aUbers oJ shell, the Fretwb use short fuses, ,vhich arc nol
s11per-quick, in the 75 mm, rt Is a quesli')l'I whether Lhe in-
crease in dispersion is more desirnble. th.an the los~ of eliec-
t!vene~s due to 111.. comr11ratfvely ,;lo~ action of thr sb<>1'1
fuses.
Cse of Gas by Artillery 88

Fi<;. 4

0
r/ff]i(/1 IHCc/10/ARY CYL!!l!Zlf HctJEL ~7/J
, .
i , '. 0Ff'l!tr:JJ! 0/Jl{,:;/oN. _Cl'IG. c5cc. C. W6 55,~o

.
Gas Man uaL - Par/ If
34
76. For smoke shell, w:Oen used tor smoke bn.rrages, and for
gases sucll as R. S., it is someUmes highly dcsi-rable to have
Ume fuses, 11-llowing air bursts. With smoke shell l).ir bursts
permit the adju_stmcul o f Ute dimensions of the smoke cl otul
and thus greatly fa.cilila le the establishment and control of
effective smoke curtains. W'ith. vesjcanl gases, air bursts al-
low a gre11,ter and wore efficient dispersion of the. liquid con-
tents. A conibinathin fuse, combining a time clement and 11
super-qui ck pe.1:cussion element is now being developed, s() n~
l.o enable batteries to conduct gas or smoke shoo ts witb bol h
ground. and air burst. An effective combh1atjon. fuse wil l also
greatly red1.u~e the number of duds, since its-doubl~ action w ill
ca1.1se the shell to explode on contact ii it fails on time anti
v-ice versa.
TYPES OF FUSES TO USE WITH CHEMICAL SHELL.
77. Drawings and descriptions of fuses -whicb may be usc!I
with gas shell together with remarks ns to their advanta!(b
n nd disadvan tages follows:
FRENCH T. A. )\10D.E;L 1915, 1. A. L. MODEL 1916 AND U. S.
MARI( ill FUSES.
(Fig. 6) .
i8. The gene-ral functioning and coustructioD of the'se three
fuses ~re simila.i, the l. A. L. and the Mork III b eing successive
modifications of tbf.! 1. A. All are super-quiclt fuses, functioning
by me~ns of -a plunger in the f.ront of the fuse being driven into
contact with a fulminate o:i' mercury primer.
Arming,-'Ihe firing plunger i~ prevented from coming in
contact with tJ1e primer du:th1g transpo)'tation, 1md wliile th e
shell ils in the bore of the gun, by means of two steel half col-
lars which engage with a shoulder on the fttlng plunger and
prevent its movement to the -rear. Two haJf collars are hel d
in place by beh1g wi.:apped with a brass ribbon on tbe end of
which is a lhird half collar. Tbe ribbon being wound in a
direction opposite to the 1otation of the gun.,. tends ~to tighten
as long as there is TOtational acceleration. When -rotational ac-
celeration is over, ce-ntrifugal force throws the third half col-
lar out, and unwinds the :ribbon, releasing the inner half col
lars and -fre4iug tlle flriog plunger. The fh:iJ1g plunger fa pre-
vented Crom being forced to the rear during :fligbl by a shenr
wire.
Firing.-On impact the end of the 1>lu.nger hitl? fu-st and is
driven into the l>ody, shearing the shear pin, and impinging on
the pTinler beiore. the shell itself has touched the ground.
79. I. A. (Instantaneous -elongatea) . Model 1915.
In this fuse the- low-er detonator is made of comnressed mel-
Jnite and is connected to t]1e upper detonator by a length of
deton_a ting fase.
U:se of Gas /Jy Arlillerg S5

Fio.S
~!'ix'611 J.Ol'V;,l
mw,HJd
'.

F'U3 OODY
Gas Manual- Part ll

80. /. A, L. (lnslantaneo11.~ Elongated Lefeure). odel 191(;


This fuse Is tne same M the I. A. with the exception lhat lbt,
lower detonatol' ls of fuln1inate and there is an empty flash t ube
l)etween U and the U.llper detonator. To readily distinguish it
!}om Uie I. A., the I .A. L. ls pninted blue around lhe l>o dy just
llelow t'.he tinfoil cover.

81. U. S. Mark JTJ.


Th.is fuse is identical with tb-e I. A. L.
A nurohe.r. howeYCJ', as sho'WD in the- illustraHon, will have
a safety device added. This consists of a centrifugal bolt which
blocks lhe passage connecting the upper and lowex detonators
until after ''set back" is over and Lhe pro,iatile is 'OUl of l he
gun. 1, for any reason, the upper detonator fires prematurely.
the flash will be prevented from read1ing the lower delonalOr
by means of tbe sa[ely boll. In .a number of lbese fuses, as
shown in thti drawlng, the firing plunger impinges direclly on
lhe upper denotator, thus going away with lhe i-ntermed.iatc
primer,
SaJety.-The aTtning mechanism of these fuses is held in
-place 1,iy means of a gummed ta-pe of oil cloth and a t'infoil
cover.
The tinfoil cover and tape are easily removed before firing.
but c!lle must be taken lhnt in so clo.irii, the brass .rj}ibon and
weights a1e not also ren1oved. The cover should not be re-
moved until after the fUJie has been scre"<ed iuto the shell.
i\tever 11se n fuse whlell bns DQ brass ribbon. Destroy it or
send it to tJ1e rear. Ii the brass .ribbon becomes UTlWound do
not atten1pt to rewind it. Decstroy the fu$e \,Ir. send ii to the
Tea:r,
A fuse which is painted red on. the end of the plu1:1ge1 and
on the top of the tin.toil cover is wound for left hand ri:iling
and5hould n ot be ttsed in any of our gw1s.

82. Use. T.bese I.uses are the most satisfacl-ory now ln use
for gas sbeH.
They cm. be used with all calibers.
At angles of fall of less than 10, ap))roxlmately, lhe ogive of
the sh'el1 will hit before the point o'f the fuse can t,oueh. the
gTonnd, end the shell will probably ricochet bef:.or.e the t'.nse
can (u.nelioo.
With 75 mm. shell the dispersion when using fuses is con-
siderably greater than with. short fuses.
[hie of Ga:; by .4r fillu y 37

STRJK!if? PUJft
Yl"({/l(E/(_ >!EA

!m?//(E8 ROD

8 El'CRE FIIU/IQ

l/'15Ti4NT,4/t/E{}{J3 PERCU55/@N DE7VNAT!Nfi F{/S_e


Z"1-/.J! R V 1917 MOIJEL
0f"FEl{,1E /)/Vl,YIIJI(, f.1t~.Je,:: C.)1(,5. 35.!J~
Gas- ,ILw1ual-JJur/ JI

1: JIEKCH IL Y. MODEL J9J7 POSES.


(Fig. 6.)
S3. This is a super-qui~ fuse and the following advantab-'
nre claimed (or it over the I. A. L.: (1) It is safe, and (2) Hs
shape is sucb as lo prodU-ce bettel' ballistic "Clfects, and, tberc-
f-oTe, lesl! ctispCJ'sion.
Action.-The firing pin an.d p:rin1e:r cannot come in contact
until both have m-oved. On "set back," the plunger Jl1oves lo
the rea1 until lhe head engages with Lhe body of the fuse. ll
is then -as far to the rear as po_sslble, and it becomes neces-
slr:ry for the _primer to move forward to c'?me in eonl.act with
Lb.e firing pin. The p1!i:me1 cannot move fo-rward beca-use Lhe
sleeve iuound the firing pin, at the bottom oi_ which the primer
is fastened, is engaged with the prongs of the up_per h-alf of the
safety piece, which, in hun, is prevented Crom movig forward
by engaging w,ith the body of the fuse. On ''set back," the lower
ll.alf di the safety pl11ce moves lo lhc rear, freeing the up_per
lrnli and allowiug the uppe_:r 4a}f lo move to Lbe rear, the prongs
being forced out of tne. groove in the primer sleeve. The upper
hA1f of lhe safety -piece continues to "sel baok" 1.1ntiJ the prongs
catch in the lower gyoove. The upper half of. U1e safety piece
is thus farther down o.n. the primer slee.ve than _before the gun
W$1S fired.
A.!te,: ''set back" is over, and lhe velocity of the vrojectile
begins lo dimtnish, the inertia o[ the parts free Lo move ca,1ses
them to "cl'eep" forwaril. T.he. upper half of the safety piece
r.et:urns to ils original position, c'il.rryiug the pdm'er sleeve and
primer wilh it. Tlle ('l'imer has t.bus moved forward in t.hc
flLSe. A). the same Lime the cflring plungei, creeps" forward
to its original position.
On impaat, the firillg pl11nge1 is driven back to the position
it had dW'ing lhe "set l,ack." The primer, however, has moved
forward, so lllal the !iring pin now com1.:s in contact with it.
Safety.-The cov~r o-ver the head of the firillg 1>lunger is
plli:nled red, and should not be removed.

FRENCH I MODEL 1914 FUSE.


(Fig. 7)
81. This is a fa se used extensively by lhe Frencl1 for 15 rnm.
irrui sheU. The bead of [his use is usually 1>ainted red, though
on certain mode.ls it is painted yellow.
It bas not becu adoped by our service as it is considered
unsafe. The I 1[odel 1914- Fuses js not to be used.
/i-sr t1/ Gns br, I rfi/lery 39

FtG. 7
e,?-l-/1
t.

D
w
/<43
/'ju Jt\-
0

I f'1L
f 2.f S\
/1 [4
\
I

FRENCH
INSTANTANEOUo FUcSt.
/'10DEL /914

J
,1() Gas Manual-Part JI

FRENCH SCHNElDER MODEL 1916 FUSE.


(Fig. 8)
Sa. TIUs is- a nOll-supe1quick fuse ui,cd by the FTeTich for
'15 rom &!'lS shell. lt cnu.ses conside:rnbly less dispersion l11ni1
tbe 1. A. L., hut it is not considered quick enough for ga.s shell.
U should not be used -1th gas shell of caliber g1eater than
15 mm. a1Jcl should not be used when any of the super-qulclt
fuses are available.
The beaa o.f tbu. fuse is _painted white to indicate non-delay
action.
Aetion.-Por this fuse to function it is necessary ror the
primer pcJlet, to move torwnrcl so lliat Ure 'primer cnmcs in. con-
tact with lhe Jld:ng pin.
On "s.et back" lhe ring A moves to the rea,'. 1,ending nr> the
flanges on the ring I3 so tha1: bo-U1 A nnd B are free to move back
inside of the cylinder C. This movement eompresse;s lhe sprillg
D unlil the flangs of B catches Qn the prongs E o! U1e cylinder
C. When "set back" is over, the spring D forces A, B and C
fot'Ward. The sagmcnls F a_rc then free to mo,e outwards by
centrifugal fot"ce, When they 11::n'e moved sufficiently lbe spring
G 1,ushes forward the guard H until lhe shoulder I of the
guard H is in su.eb a posilion a,5 to prevent any return of the
segments F into their original positi-on. The primer pellet .J
is now frte lo mo~e forward on Impact.
trs-i: of Gn:; by ,Jrtillery

r fG.8

5(//tflcOfR l1(J{}EL 1916 rl/5f


t.u
.,. .
Gae M.a111u1./ 1'11,-/ II

i\lOOil.-[EL> HR1T1SH XO. 106 FUSE.


86. Thjs i!> a fuse of the super-quJck type and has only re-
.:cnlly been nd1,pted by us. it is suitable f-or ail cailbers a.nd
rnnks next to the l\lark ID and 1. A. L. fu:.es for chemical skill.
87. AMERICAN 75. l\1M. COMMON STEET.., SHELL l'i1ARI{ TI.
(Fig. 9.)
l\'I ARKING.

1 , ,isc.; USj!(J
'l!bc Shen Is Plllntell State II
Grny with tb1 b"())lowlng Tliec -Folfowlng Wo,dS
Appto:>:l
m1Hc.
Wolgbt
.," .BanilB Ar<.>Ulld tho ueogthwiae on the Body. of Clrtle,;.
13!l<Q'. Pounds.
8.$. 3 Red Special Gas i.ss-
0.A. z l!.ed Spedtti G8d l.411
B.A. l .Red Sl)eolal Gae l.QT
-:i.Q. 1 White, 1 Red, l 1'/ellow Speclal Oas 1.1~...
O,G. 2 White SPMlal GIIS 1.824'
}l'. Xf. {l -Xcllow S11ec1J1J Smokce 1.71
W.P. l YeUow Sj>eclal Smoke 1.90

Tp.e bottom of the cartridge case is matln~d with a black band


!l/8" wide and the words ''Special Gas". or "SpecfaJ Snt'o)!.e".
The weig11ts of the shell are Lhe same as for Il. B. shell and
are n1arked as Iollows:
FROM 10 I Weight M~rk .TuM
1.1>s. 01'. T,l,s. Oi. abore Jirlvtng Bon,L
I , 11 11 II I.
IJ 11 l I :i I
11 :, lt !I ++
ti l1 12 1) +ff
12 lJ 12 G ++++
Imrnedialely abo'Vc the weight mnrks, and on lhe side of the
she.LI opposite the word~ "Special Gas" are ll1e letters 76-G.
The following fuses are authorized for use with tnese shell:
U. S. ~lark III.
French r. A. L., ~fodel 1916.
French 1. A., Model 1915.
These tluee fuses are similar in general constxuction .111.!
action, and are here listed in order 0f prefe.rence.
l\lodiflcd British No. JOG (when issued).
French R. Y.
French Schneider, Model 1916.
These last two fuses ha\'e not heen adopted by otrr Service.
but may b~ encountered hy troops who rue suPT,>lied from F1ench
Dump$. T"jle Sch.ncider Model 1916 ls to ba used t)nly when
other fuses are oot ava,! lahle.
1'he Prench :Model 191 ~ (red head) L~ not to h e used. It is
unsafe.
/'$( of G(ls by drliller11 4!J

NfT CA!a4C/Tt Z8.6 Ctl,IN,


f!G. ;j

'A 9"11--1-11- ~
. 3<;3'

/!CLLOW .,-

75 % CCN!i?!I 5TCLL 5fltlL 114/fl( If


MARl(/!V6 TYPICAL FOP. W.P,
_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __::0:!_;11'.~EE,r{.:,E D1WSll:'lf1, LtiG t).~o. i'.W.J. .552&_
Gt(S Afannal-Part 11

r1G. ro

I \

20
YT
AU.819718


l;
~
filUIV(; ~
.
; /fE:IJ

++

r-/fENCff 75"'/,, STEE.L .JHELL MOOEL !Bio


MA/i'lf'!AIG TYPICAL FOR N!l,?()M!A'TV!(E (H.<Y)
use of Gas. by Artillery 46
FRENCH 76 :MM. STEEL SHELL MODEL, 1916.
. (Fig. 10)
88. T11e following are the 75 mm. Frend! chemical sh~ll in
~oJJl.JllOD use:
Ma~klng
Flliloi; a. s. Tile sllell Ill pnlnteJ green wi t h Wefght or Gas
No. Symbol the ro11owillg dlstin- ID ;oun.1Je ,

-z
~
1DL'(:Wll1lry
S1noke W.P.
gnl$l!iug marks
lo~eDllla,:7 Red Ogive, No. 2 on Ogive
Rtd Oglvl\, No. 3 OD Ogive
ApJitoxlnillh
....
t.oo
n Gollonglfo O.G. l. White bal\ll aroun<l body No.
II on Qgle l.1'il\
1 Aqollllte N.O. l. Orange Yellow band aroITT'.lo

0 Mntonlte B.A.
bndy, No. 7 QD- l)glve
1 Cnange Yellow oand al'(lnnd,
bo(lV, No. o on Ogle
1.76

1.34
.
20 Ypm,ff,e Il.S. 2 Orange Yellow bandff, No.
20 on Ogive 1..fl l
21 e,,.mJte 0.11 . l Orange Yellclw band No.
21 on Ogj,ve 1 .5~

On tb:e ogive, immediately below the number of the mixture.


Me. letti?rs indicating its nature. Wltll No. 20, "Yt" tndicate,;
Yperile ~solved ln carbo11tetrach1oride, and "Ye" indicntes
Yperite dissolved in monochlo.rnenzene.
Immediate ly below tl1ese letters, the date and place of fill-
ings are placed. ''Aub" for 'A:ubervilliera, "Vis" t'or Vio~oniis.
"P.Cx" for Pont-de-Claix.
With t:he exception of No. 20 and No, 21, the above mix-
tures contain a percentage of opaeite (slaunie chloride) added
to produce smoke.
The numbers of the mixtures ue also placed on the base of
the. cartridge case.
No. 4 mixtuxe (Vince'nnlte) and No. 4:B, are not RnJhorized
for -use.
The weight classHication and weight marking of this sbcil
are the same a.s the U.S. 75 mm.
.
The ~ame fuses are to be. used with this shell as with the
U.S. 75 mm.
46 Gas MaJ111,1l- Pn11 II

89. AMERJ.CAN 4.7" COlllMON STEEL SHELL. MART{ JI.


--
(Fig. 11.) .
SJ:lll'_,LI, IS PAINTED SLATIO &RAY
\w.TR THm 1!'0.L- A.~D FOLLOW- A-Pl"'ROXlMATll:
G:AS1'JS USED "LO'Vl'.N0-1/2~ BANDS ING W!ORDS \'\'.EI G BT e Ii'
.WOUND 'l1HE LENGTElW ls:E) GASES, LBS.
!!00'2' ON 'fTIE llODY

Fl.$. 3 Rctl !'<pecl&I G!fS 4-38


.A,. 2 Rrfl Speclal Qott 4.44
Fl.A:. 1 Red Speclll,I Gas !,!.S6
P.$. i
Rtorlc-1 WWl.e R11er1J1 I Gas 5.8
1 Rw--1 Whltc-1 Yellow Speelaf (lo& ' 5.112
N.C.
C.G. 2 White Special Gas _,
4.. .,.
I!'.~. 2 Trll'o,v, Rpeolll.l l\mokc IPl!l
W.P. ] Yellow Rpeclal Smoke G.1A

The bottom of the cartTidg~ case is marked ,vil;h a Jilack


bane 3/8" wide and llie words "Speeili.l Gas, " "Special Smtlkc"
or "Incendiary!'
The weig.l1ts of the shell are the s,arne ns for H. E. and are
11Htrked as follO'I\':;:
WEJl1BT MARK JUST
1nmr TO B'l!lLOW BOUBR>ELl!lT

11 Ozs.
48 Lbs.
I
13 l.bs.
43 J,b9.
,f.4 Ll\lJ.
0 Ozs.
11 0"8.
6 ~)Z8.
4Jl LJ)s.
43 Lb!!. I
6 o.~,
1 O.s.
ds
ow
The weight 111a.rk~ are ,{' square.s with a center-pw;icb marl,
i11 llle center of each sqnnr.
Im mediately above tl,e driving band are steu,cilled the lett,ir s
-4.7 G.
The following fuses are aulhori7.ed for use. with this shel1:
u. s. l'lfark m.
Frenehl. A. L. 1'Iodel 1916.
Fl'lench 1. A. l\fodel 1915.
These l),1ee fuses are sintllar in general construction anrl
ocLion, and are here listed in order of preference.
Mod.Hied British No. 106 (when iss1ted).
F-rench 1\. Y. (This fuse is only to be us~d 1n case others are
not available.)
A 4.7" semi-steel shell Mark V has also been ,:leveJQpcd wl1ich
dHiers from q,e steel sbelJ on1 in that the net capacity is
Ted.need (rom 92.4 cu. in. to 90.9 en. in.
rrsc a/ Gas by ).pli/lt!1'1J 47

,J/5.1 (!:,4PACITV 92.4 Cl/, IN.. FtG, / /


: AOAP'Tf/1 ANO'--~~:::!:::::;:s,.
BOO~cF{
C.A1 il"-G MARK l7
Pl PE rHl(t..AO

F I LLING

REo .....--1

4.7 IN. COMMON 5TEEL SHELL MARK II


MARKING TYPICAL FOR 8 :)i.
0FFtt:J/! Dr.-,s,ctt CfiG .Jec. C.W.J. 5,,~
Gu11 Manul-J>art I I

NIT CAPAC/Tr' 113 CL< IN. fiG . lc

~-.W'41' r&"R ANp I I I I


IJ0.05 TIN'? I
(.As1'H<1 MARX ') '
P1PE. rHRf:A 0

,qt

I
" I

~------i1h4.98'- -
.48 ' '<II
"'.... .,..
,( ~

YELLOW -
/
- ..
u I)
~

sf
~
~

6" IN.COMMON .5TEL.5H/...L POINT FUSE MA!?J<PI


MARKING TYPICAL F;.OR F. M. .
OFpEl{SE urva,,ar,, 'l:tk.. .JEC. C'. lt!<J 5.r,z5
Use of Gas by Arlille.ry 49

9-0. AMERICAN 5-lliCH COMNION STEEL SHELL MARK VJ.


(Fig, 12.)
.
f,lililLL 1S I? A INTED SLATJil Gll.A.Y
,u'ff) 101,LOW &PPitO:&:ntATill
C{. ~S USJllll WITR THE FOL- 1KG WORD~ WllllGHT OF
LOWING 1/2" BA1'-'DS LONOJTm'\lNAL l;.\.$ES
-U! O'f'1\.'D llODY 0~ smrnJ
1:1.S. 3~ Sp<!<!Ial G.o G.SS
J1'.M. 2 l'.ollow i>1>C1>liil Srlwki! 0.79

' he weights of the shell are the same as for- H .E. and 1hf>
e'ns are ma1ked as follo"\vs:
FnOM
o~. lihs.
.TO
@t,,
I ot OIUVFl
I Wl!IIG.l'ITS S'J$N
WEI RT MA.RR!! 01LG1llJl JUST ABOVlll
OllTVl~G BAND
.LJJ/1
I I
40 11 GO 8 I n ri0.10
l!0.9.0
~o 8 Ill 6 OD 51.70
r.1 5 62- 2 D IIJ

The weil{ht mal'ks on tbe ogive are 'A:" squares witb a center
rruncb mar.k in the center 0f e:ich square.
.Ju.st below the weight marks the ammunition lot numl>er is
stencilled in letters 1" bJgh.
The weight stencils just above the driving band ai-e 1" letters.
and .inst above them arJ the letters 5-G.
The .following fuses are authorized r-on- use with this shell:
u. s. Mark m.
French 1. A. L. Model J!llo.
French I. A. Model 1915.
These three fuses are sbnilar in general construction and
action, Md are lie11e listed in ()rder of pl"eference.
l\fodified British No.. 106 (when issued}.
F:ren.ch R. Y. (Tliis fuse ili -to be i1i;ed only in cmse othei;s
nre n1>t available) .
A 5,inch semi-steel sbel1 has also been. develo-pcd wnic-h dif-
fe-r s from toe steel shell only in .redncrd capacity.
50 Gas Manual-Part 1
.
91. AMERICAN 6-lNCH. COMM.ON STEEL SHELL,
MAl'lK Ill, FOR GUN.
(Fig. 13.)
SBlllLL rs PA)NT'.mO SLA'.l'E GBAY-
AND F<mI..OW- APPROXIMA! '.lll
wrr-ff THE Il"OL- U-G WOR1;>S WllllGBT OJ
0.A.Slll$11S1!lD LOWTN~ 1/2" BANDS GASES, f,l~!~
LENGTIDVI:Slll
All0U?<"D BODY ON BODY-

B'.S. S Roo Special GMeu 1.0.so


11".?,{. 2 Yellow. Specllll Smoke 18.28

Tlie weights of the sbelJ are the same as for H. E. and the
l!l1ells are marked as follow'i;
WF,IGBT STENOlL
LB.&,
I
():a;S :LR!!.
I
OZll WEIG-BT MAllKS

\~
O,N OGJVE I
I
JUST ABO"\"E
URlVlNG BA.ND

87.ISO

d!3
86 88
88
89 10
89
91 ,: I I 88.M-
90.M

The we1j!ht marks on the ogtve are 11.i" squares with a prick
]>unch mark in the center of each square,
Just below the weight marlts tbe ammunition lot number is
stencilled in letters 1" high.
The weight stencils just above the driving band are 1" letters:.
and just above them are the letters 6-G.
The following fuse:;c a.re authorized for use with this slieU:
U.S. Mork Ill.
Froilc.h I. A. L. Model 1916.
Frmc.h 1. A. !todcl 1915.
These three fnses ore stmilar in _general constructioD ancl
action, and are be.re listed in order of preference.
Modified J:jritish No. 1106 (when issued).
French R. Y. (This fuse is to be used only in case others
are :not available).
A 6-lncb semi-steel shell has also been developed which dif-
fers from the steel shell only in reduced ca.1>aeity.
-i e of Gcu by Artillel'y 61

fiu.13
.
-ADAPTlfR AN 0

l tJCC:Trt:'J<-
CAStN6 MARK "f!1

6 /N. COMMON :5TEEL 5Hl:LL MARK m


MAn'KIMi TY;P/Clr'L f1Jli' f/.S.
OFFElf~E- DtVISION lil'IG. J.ec.CW.,J..55:3!
62 Gas A1CUlual-Par II

NET CAPACITY~ Ct/. I#. f"rG./4 I

-=-Af(IT ~C:::j::::r;
I /
Wh'6 /11{8/(Ti
l'll'r iil/Ab

FILLVfG

l~J'!lr CO/'lff(7'! 5TCCL 511cLL MARK "JI. rCW lfOWITBfl


MARKING TVP!CAL FOR N.C.
OFFEH:S~ /JJVl:SlON. Et,a._Sec. C. W ,5. 5S-"
l.'i,e of 6 rw by Artillery 53

112.. AMERIC,Ui 1p5 ~IM. COMMON STEEL SHELL.


1\L<\RK Il, FOR H.O'\Vl'fZER.
(Fig. 14.)

~l.J.l'O!JLl)W- AP~~OXL\U.
t.rASES W1'L'll Tl'!El ,FOL- Jl\lG WORDS WEIGH'l.' OF
LOWlX~ 1/2" BAJSDS ;.A.};f.!!'!b, tns .
.ARO'ON)) BODY LE.NGTBWlSB
ON B(lJ J Y

n.s. :1 lted s, ,.1111 au,; 11.3


u.,. .-\.. ;? lttl S1>l!cllt1 Gas 12.lS
B .~. 1 H<!d b),ooial ytts 16,41
l,>.$. l lll\il-1 White $pecla I G HI! )J$,OH
l'( .c. l ~ed-1 w,,Jte--1 Ylll<>W $peo(q l I ,U,< 1'.1.5 , / '
0.G. 2 \Vlilt() .S.l!<!Cfal Gos ll.O
F.M. 2 ~ellow Special Smok~ 1').30
,V.!'. l Yen(lw Spedll! Smoke 1 r,_85

-
The weights of the shell are the same a~ for fl . 0
c. and Lhc
shells are Oinrked as follows:

Lbs,
FROM
Oz. I Lbn,
TO
Oz-.
I ()~ OG-nE
I WlllIGHl'S STJilN
WlillG.HT MARKS omt.lDD JtJ'S'l' ABOVl!l
D~IVTNG BAl\>'D

91 3 0-2 5 ::TI 4'1 K 'i'UO


92 G 9.tl G []DO '12 K l!Oo
9S 0 94 8 rnoo C! .K 'i'!}O.
91 8 911' 10 DODOO 43 K 200
fi;i 10 96 )2 OOOITJD J3 K 20!)

The weight mark::. on the ogive are ~!?" squares with a ccnte1:-
1mnch mark in llie tenter of oacb square.
Just below the weight maTks the ammunition lat number i s
slencilled in letlers 1" hi_gh,
The weight slcncils just above lhe driviug band nre in l"
let Lc1s., and ,jusl ii.hove them a:re tl1e lette1. s 155 Ff.
The followwg fuses 11.re aulhori:1:ed to1' use wilh this shell:
U. S. Mark Ill.
French r. A. L. Moue! 1916.
French I. A. Model 1916.
These Lhrec fns.es nre similar in genera.I conslruclion and
action, u.nd are llere listed in 01der oi' preference.
Modiiled British No. 106 (when issued).
Fi:ench B. Y. (This fuse is lo be used only in case others
are not av~ilahle) .
A 155 mm. semi-steel shell has also been developed which dif-
rers from tne steel sbell <>nly in reduced c:tp:tcit~,.
Gas ~fanual-Pa:rl 11

93. FRENCl:l 156 MM. SEMI-STEEL SRET L.


lifODBL 1915, FOU HO\VITZEB..
(Fig. 15.}
The following 1tre the 156 :m.rn. howi.w.er French c.hemic:i I
shell in common use:
f'D..LING u. s.
snmor..
I MAilKlNG APPJ.l~-
T.lle Shell le Palntecl Green , with WT. OJ
NQ. I Nlllue f lbt! F11lJl)wlhg ])istingnlBlDg l.{arks, OAS. LBS.
'l'y_pe
Nund lnccnaJ,us lneendln17 nca ~gtve-1 blJl<!k r ing ......... ..
ll Oollooglte O.G. l White balld no,md bo<fy-
~o. $ Ull ogfvc . , .. 9.0
i,;.o. l Ornngi:, Yellow l)ano nroond
'1 AqufuJte
bod,f-No. 'i" oo oglvi, . ..... l0.7
9 Martonlt~ 13.A. 1 Oro.llge Yelluw band ncouna
bodJ'-?\o. 9 Qn ogive .. . ... .. 7.46
:?O Y_pertta H.$. t Orani;e Y-eUow banas-
No. 20 o.n ogt,e... , ....... 7 .ll
Z\I Olnnlt., O.A. 1 Orro,ge Tello~ baod-
No. 21 OJl <:>S"l vo-.. .... . 8.83

On the ogive, immediately below the numlier of the n1ixture


are lettei,s indicatiog the nt1ture of Uie m.L~ture. ,vitb No. 20,
"Yt" indicales Yperite dissolved iJ1 .c:Arbontetrachloride, ao.d
"Ye" i.dicatcs Y_perile dissolved in mooochlorbenor.ent".
lmmed.iately below these letters are indicated the date and
place of filling: "Aub'' for Auberviliiers, ''Vis" fo1 Vincennes.
and "P.Cx" for Pont-de-Clai:x.
Will1 Lhe except,ion of No. 2-0 n.nd No~ 21, the above mixtures
conlain a pe.rcenta_g-e of Opac.ite (stannic chtoride) added t"
produce smoke.
The No. ~ (Vicenuite) and No. ~B a1c n-et a-ulhorlzed for use.
The -weighl classification "llll.d weight markh1gs or this shen
are the sanie as for t.lte U. S. 155 Dim. l1owitzer sllell.
A limited n11mher of the Model 1914 steel shell are filled with
No. 4 and No. 5 mi~'twes. The steel shell ha:s a greater c~pacity
than the semi--steel aod the markings of the two are similar.
u 11 e <>1 Glls by A.rtilTerg

164 ClJ.. /N rlG. /5


lf5flESTC5
Ltl/0 11Slll!H

fl
PCX.~-5-18

'
~
ILL/Nii ~

J:.RENCH
l55"Ym 5EMI ::JTEEL 5HELL MODEL 19/5 FOR HOWITZER
Gas !tfaruml-Pa:rt U
56

NET CAPACrr~ 238 CU. IN. f!G./6.


AilA t)Tf,'l AND I l I I
I
QOO~T ER '
CAS/Nri l'MRK'll
~ PIP! Tl(li'fl/IJ


\' I; _ ,J

o/ ;;::,
,..,
.Iv~
/.

' .

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l:55~.! COMMON 5TEEL SHELL MARK Yll FOR GI/N.


1/lARKING TVPICAl FOR P5.
._______ _ orF<11sc DJ1i51,;"' Efl(S a,;cCW.,l s.5;:7


(jse 1>/ Gu.s b11 A rlilforg li7

94. :AMERICAN 155 MM. COMMON STEEL SHELL MARR VU.


FOR GUN,
(Fig. l~)
This shell is the Mark II hqwitzer shell, modified for use in
Ule 156 mm. gun. ll has two chi,i,og hands.
lSEIELL IS Pal.U(TED st.AT.El ruu. r
AND FOLLOW- A l'PROXL\l,1!.l:Ii:
GASlllS USJ,JD \ViTH TEilil Ji'VL-
4'<G WORD$ WlilIGH'l' O Ii'
LOWING 1/Z'' J3aNDl:; <:JaBNS, LBS.
M<OU!ID BODY LElli 0'.VllW'l,'3
ON-BODY

0.$. . a Red. Svoolal G<la 11.80


0.A. ~ Reel S~Clal Ga,i 12.l.Jl
U.A,. 1 .Red Sp~>clal Gas 1\\.4~
t>.li. 1 Il-Od-1 White Spec!nl Gns l~.6G
~.o. 1 Red-1 Whlte-1 Yelli)\V Sl)e~lal Gn,; 14.60
0.U. 2 White Spt!ctal Gall 11.00
F.M. 2 YeJJow Special Smoke ,-4 .30
w.1,. 1 -Y11l)(iw S~clo.J Smoke l~.$5

TlJ'e weigh.l~ Of the shell :.:e the same ns fo1 lf, E. and the
shells are marked as follo,;v.s:

LIJs.
FROM O,.
,, I
-
Lbs. o:t. I
WEIGa; M.ABKS.
ON OGIVlll
I mr.WE).GJ:1'.L'.S
_LlllD JIJS'.11Si'IilN
PlUVWO:BAND
a:BOVJt

9]. .
,> 02 .,
DO UK 700
02 r, 03 u OW 42 K 200
93 $ 94 s ODDO ~K 700
n1-
OS
8
16
95
811
10
l:.!
mooo i3 K 200
000000 -:13 K 700

The weighl marks on the ogive are 'k" squiu-es wilh a center-
punch n1ark in the center of each squru!e.
Just helow Lhe weight ruanks the a.nunu.nition lot number is
stencilled iD leltei:s l" b igh.
Tbe weight stencils, _just above Lile driving hand, are in 1"
letter~, and just above"lhem are the letters 155 0.
The following :f\t!l'es ave aotho1ized for use with this shell:
U. S. Mark ill.
li"reuch L A. L. Model 1916.
Ereoch L A. .Model 1915.
These three fuses are similar in_ general construction and
action, and 11.l'e here liste'd in_ order of preference.
l\fodified Btilish :-lo. 106 (when issued) .
.F_rench R. Y. (This fuse is to be used only ill case others
are. not nvnilllble).
A 156 mm. semi-steel shell has aTso been developed which dif-
i"<>l's frqu, the steel shell only in reduced capacity.
Gai; Manila/ ..Part U

9&. .tfR BNCH 1&. MM. SBMI..STEEL SH.ELL MODEL 1917.


FOR GUN.
(Fig. 17 .)
This shell is the model 1915 howitzer shell modified !or use
in tlle 155 uun. gun. ILllastwo d;riving bands.
The following ~re te 165 mm. howitze.r French chemical
shell in common use:
FlLLTNQ
ll. s.
S YMBO'L
M 1.:mrrNG
The Sbell Is Painted Grc,eo with
tbe Following Dlis-1:lDgnllllhg Mn1'-k&,
I
A:l'PROX-
~
GAS.' l.BS ,
_No. I Name
l White bantl a1'01tlld bod.Y-
9.0
li Collon_gl t~ o.~. No. 5 on oglve ......... .
J Ol'tlllge 7ell<JW b_aud aro:tJII11
body-No. 'f on ogive .... . ... 10.1
7 .Aqullifte :s.o.

On the ogive, immediately below the numb~r of the mixture


01e lelters indicaflncg the nature of the mixture.
Irnmed.i'ately .below these letters are indicated the dale and
place of ft.lling "Aub'' for Aubervilliers, "Vis" for Vincennes, and
''P.Cx" for Pont-de-Claix.
On the body are the letters G.P. in white, .indicating that ft
is a. gun. shelL
The above mixtures contain a percentage of Opaeite (stannic
chloride) add!!d to produce smoke.
The No. 4 mixture (Vinceonite) and No. 413 a:ra not o.uthodzed
for use.
The weight classlflc:3tions iid welght markings ot this shell
are Q1e same-as for the CJ. S. 156 mm. gun shell.
The same fuses are to be used wilh this shell ;1s w.ith the
U. S. 166 mm. gun shell.
A. 1.lmited -:number of the ?liode). 1916 sleel shell are .filled
with No. ,! and No. 6 m.i,-'tnl'es. TI1~ steel shell has a g_reater
capacity tha.11 the semi-steel shelL The markings of tbe two
are simllar.
Use of Ga:: b,g A riiller y

N1s- o-z-1,

I.
FRENCH
155 M/M :JEMI .5TEL 5HELL MODEL 19(7 FOR G UN.
MARKING 7YPIC!lJ. FOR /ii~ 7 MIYTIJRF. { N.C.l
---------
' (), FE,rJt, DIVIN<>N, /; ,~. J.ec. C. W..t
Gas Manual- Part II
60
96. AME~lCAN 8-h'iCH QOM.MON STEEL SHELL MARI{ 111.
(Fig. 18.)
The same shell is u.sed ifil' both howitzer and gun.
Fillings for Howitzer S1,tell.
SRm,IiL IS -e..AINTED SLAT!il ORA-Y
APPR0xn!ATJD
Am> FOLT.OW WEJGJ:I.T 0F
~.A.SES USJi)O WITB '.l:Ellll FOL- TN0WOIID$ (}ASES. LBS.
I,QN''<G 1/2" BANI>.S llWGTOW1.Sll:
Q'UND BODY ONJ30DY

S.P~ G~ij Z2Afi V


ELS. 3 Ri?<I
~ llcil Spe'e1al Gli..-. 24.2rt
O.A. $ peel aI Gw;- a2_.or,
J;I. ,\. I Reil
1 l{e,1-l, White <{peclA I Gtt< 21.20
P.S. Sp~lal Go~ 28.90
N.O. 1 l{C)d-1 'Vltlt~l Yelln,v
2 Wblte S_pe-ctn T {1'),>; 22:0ll
O.Q.
F ...M. 2 Tullow ~PP<'lai :=:tn0ki> 2l3.~ /
1 Yelli;,w- _~p1,rtnl Sml, Ire Sl.5
W.P. -
Pill'iil!JS fq r Grm Sbell.
Only theH.S. and1'',M. filliugs will be used in tlre gun.
The weight!! ,~i LlH, shel l ,trl! llw sin11e as f<ir R. E. and I he
sheli~ are rual'ked ns follo ws :
w'.lilIG-W.l"S $1.'EN-
l"R0M '1'0 ~mrGEI.T MARKS OJl;I.lilD ON OGJVE
n>$T nm,ow
ON OGIV1~
T..hs. o,,. 1Tobe. ()z. WT011H:l!l' ~illtKS

10-2 11 11\5 n f] II 10~.58


197.88
19'(1 6 t9S 11 00 201,:!0
11)8 ll 2();2 n o:JD I
The ~eight m:nki; on the ,,give It.re cth" squares with a pricl,
pa1:1cb marl, in I.he center of eul:b square .
Ti.1st below the weight marks a.re the 'Wei!}ht stencils in letters
l" high .
.Jusl below the weignt stencils tl1e mnmuniLien lot number js
stencilled in letters 1" high.
Imrocdfately above the ilvivmg band arc the lette1:s "8-GH"
indicating Urnt the snell may be used in either the 8" gun or the
8" howitzer.
The following fu.sl!s 8.l"e au thorized for use with this shell:
U. S. Mark UI.
French r. A. L. Mode1 1916.
French I, A. Model 1916.
TI,-es.e three fuses are similar in general const1uel;on und
action, and are lleie listed in order of -preference.
Modified 13rHisll No. 106 (when issued).
Frt>ncb R. Y. (Thts fuse ls lo he used uuJy in case other:;
are not available) .
An 8" semi-steel shell h1t11 also be.en aevelo_ped which differs
[rc>111 lli<' steel shell in tecluced capacity only.
(1se of G-as by Artillery 61

ALLIN$

1
8 IN. CtJMM()N 5TEEL 5HELL MARK m
M/lR!(l!VG Tt'?!Ct'JL r7)f? OA.
0FFrl-'E _D1v/-'/Ort, [N<;. JEr. C )tJ. .!i51!9
Gaa llanual,-Pal't 11

97. 9,2 JNCH QHEMICAL SHELL,


Full da:ta concerning the t .:.i inch cberoieal shell are not
yet a-vaila.ble. It ts probable that there will he both steel and
eemi-stccl shell,
The following filling& will .be used with tllis caliber:
'.J.'Blil SEIBLL IS PAn.'l'ED SLATE GRAY
,,u'fll
~ FOLLOWING
G-ASES USJ!lD WITa TRB FOLt.OWlNG j/2"1
BA.1(D$ -AllOtrND TB11J BODY
WO'RDS lJENGTB:WISE
ON TBEBODY

H.S. 8 Red ~eta\ Go


0,A. 2 Bell Sepclal Gas
B.A. 1 Red Sp1.'Clal Gas
P.S. l lted-l White Speclal Gas
N.O. 1 .Rllil-1 WJIIte--1 Yem, w S_peclal Gill
O.G. 2 WhJto Spetlal Glis
F.M.. 2c Yellow Special Smolre
W.P. L lfellow Sp~!A.l Smoke

T.lie same fuses will be used as wl Lb oLher calibeis.


The British are also developing 9.2 inch chemical sl1ell.

91!. 240 mm. CHEllfICAL SFJETJ,,


Full aata concei'Dlllg tlre 240 mm. ehemicaJ shell are not
yet available. lt is probable that there will be both steel and
seini-steel shell.
The following filling!! w.ill be used with this caliber:
THE SBJllT,L TS PAINTED STEEL GR.!..Y
AND THE FOt.L(HVtNG-
:wJTE 'l.'.BE FOul.OWlNG 1/2"1 WOliD$ CENGTIIWlSE
BA!l."IlS MOUND Tlm BODY! ON TIIE) BODY

l'f.S. a lled sJl4lclal Ou


O.A. 2 Red \lJ)e<'lal O
B.A, l Red &J)tlclal Gill
P.S. J. nea-.1 Whlte ~~lal Gas
.N.O. I llei)-1 Wblte--1 Yellow Spec!!\! Gas
Q.G. 2 'Wllltc $pecl1LI Gl!B
F.M. 2 Yellow Speclul Smoke
W,P. 1 :Y~Uow Speclul Smoke

Th.e same fuse_s wIU be "Used as with other calibers.


Th,e B.ritisl1 are a)so aeveloping 9.2 inch chemical shell.
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