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BTEC NATIONAL ENGINEERING

UNIT 1: ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

Unit title Engineering Principles Key to learning opportunities

Guided learning AW Assignment RS Revision


120
hours writing session
Number of GS Guest speaker V Visit
60
lessons
Duration of 2 hours (unless otherwise IS Independent WE Work
lessons stated) study experience

Links to other units

This unit has links to all other units in the


qualification.
Lesson
Lesson Topic Suggested activities Classroom resources
type
Learning aim A: Algebraic and trigonometric mathematical methods
1 A1 Algebraic methods IS Lead in (15 min): introduction of the unit and topic to Scientific calculators
learners. Discuss prior knowledge of algebra.
Class discussion (20 min): discuss laws of indices,
exemplifying theory with a range of worked examples.
Paired activity (20 min): learners work in pairs to
apply the laws of indices to simplify expressions.
Class discussion (20 min): review understanding of
indices, explaining to learners the links between indices
and logarithms. Demonstrate to learners how the laws
of logarithms are applied.
Individual activity (30 min): learners work
individually to solve a range of logarithm and/or indices
based problems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss how the laws of logarithms
and indices are applied, address any common
misconceptions.

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2 A1 Algebraic methods IS Lead in (15 min): introduce the laws of logarithms. Scientific calculators
Tutor presentation (10 mins): Introduce learners to
natural logarithms (base e) and discuss relationship
with common logarithms (base 10). Demonstrate how
the laws of logarithms can be applied to solve problems.
Paired activity (75 min): learners work in pairs to
solve a range of problems involving exponential
growth/decay which relate to engineering applications.
Plenary (20 min): discuss results from problem-
solving activities. Discuss the usefulness of results
gained by using laws of logarithms.
3 A1 Algebraic methods IS Lead in (15 min): review prior learning with regards to Scientific calculators
linear equations. Question learners about their Drawing instruments
understanding of the relationship between straight line
graphs and linear equations. Graph paper

Tutor-led practical demonstration (20 min):


demonstrate how equations can be plotted as straight
line graphs, and how graphs can be interpreted to
determine the equation which they represent.
Individual activity (30 min): solve a range of
engineering based problems by either plotting straight
line graphs, or interpreting graphs to determine values.
Tutor-led practical demonstration (20 min):
demonstrate how pairs of simultaneous equations can
be solved, both graphically and through calculations.
Individual activity (20 min): solve a range of
problems which apply simultaneous equations to
engineering situations.
Plenary (15 min): discuss why it can be effective to
represent formulae in graphical form.

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4 A1 Algebraic methods IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of linear Scientific calculators
equations.
Tutor presentation (20 min): introduce learners to
methods of factorisation of expressions, considering
appropriate engineering applications.
Individual activity (80 min): learners work through a
series of engineering problems where factorisation of
equations is required. Peer assessment of solutions.
Plenary (15 min): discuss any difficulties which were
experienced, review understanding of the processes.
5 A1 Algebraic methods IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of the process Scientific calculators
of factorisation for linear equations.
Tutor presentation (20 min): introduce learners to
methods of solving quadratic equations, using both
factorisation and the quadratic formula.
Individual activity (80 min): learners work through a
series of engineering problems where solving quadratic
equations is required. Peer assessment of results.
Plenary (15 min): discuss any difficulties which were
experienced, review understanding of the processes.
6 A2 Trigonometric IS Lead in (15 min): tutor-led discussion to review the Scientific calculators
methods principles which apply to algebraic methods. Introduce Compasses
learners to circular measurements.
Tutor-led practical demonstration (30 min):
introduce learners to the use of radians for circular
measurement. Using appropriate examples, explain and
demonstrate the process of converting between degree
measurements and radian measurement.
Paired activity (60 min): carry out a range of
activities where measurements are converted between
radian and angular measure. Measurements should
relate to specific engineering situations.

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Plenary (15 min): discuss the reasons why radian


measure is often used in engineering. Address any
misconceptions/errors made.

7 A2 Trigonometric IS Lead in (15 min): tutor-led discussion to review Scientific calculators


methods understanding of conversion between angular and Compasses
radian measure.
Tutor-led discussion (10 min): discuss the concept
of angular rotation and the implications for engineering.
Small group activity (20 min): investigate the
application of angular rotation to a range of engineering
applications, carrying out appropriate calculations.
Tutor-led practical demonstration (20 min):
introduce learners to the procedures required in order
to use of angular measurement to determine areas and
arc lengths.
Paired activity (60 min): carry out a range of
activities where problems involving areas and angles
are solved using radians.
Plenary (15 min): discuss the outcomes from
activities. Target learners with directed questions
concerning application of radians.
8 A2 Trigonometric IS Lead in (15 min): review application of circular Scientific calculators
methods measurement. Graph paper
Tutor presentation (20 min): introduce learners to Drawing instruments
sine, cosine and tangents, and how each is determined.
Individual activity (30 min): solve a range of
engineering problems using trigonometric functions.
Tutor-led practical demonstration (15 mins):
demonstrate how to plot sine and cosine wave forms,

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along with a graph of tan between 0 and 360.


Individual activity (25 min): learners are to plot a
range of waveforms and graphs for trigonometric
functions.
Plenary (15 min): knowledge quiz to determine
understanding of trigonometric functions and the
relationship between them.
9 A2 Trigonometric IS Lead in (15 min): review trigonometric functions. Scientific calculators
methods Identification of functions from waveforms/graphs.
Tutor presentation (20 min): introduce learners to
the sine and cosine rules, demonstrating the application
of each to solve engineering problems.
Individual activity (60 min): carry out a range of
problem-solving exercises which involve application of
either the sine or cosine rule.
Small group activity (10 min): compare results from
investigations. Identify any common errors or strategies
employed.
Plenary (15 min): discussion of outcomes from group
activity. Discuss how both the sine and cosine rules are
applied in engineering.
10 A2 Trigonometric IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of the sine Scientific calculators
methods and cosine rules. Introduce learners to the concept of Graph paper
vectors.
Drawing instruments
Tutor presentation (20 min): demonstrate to
learners the methods of solving engineering problems
using vectors, including graphical representation of
vectors.
Individual activity (30 min): carry out problem-
solving activities using vectors.
Tutor presentation (20 min): demonstrate to
learners how vectors can be used for the resolution of

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forces/velocities and the phasor sum of alternating


currents.
Paired activity (20 min): in pairs solve a range of
engineering problems using vectors.
Plenary (15 min): draw together the theory of
vectors, discuss solutions to problems.
11 A1 Algebraic methods IS/RS Lead in (15 min): tutor recap of methods of Scientific calculators
A2 Trigonometric calculating surface area and volume of regular solids.
methods Tutor presentation (10 min): demonstrate
application of formulae to calculate surface area and
volume of regular solids.
Individual activity (30 min): carry out a range of
calculations to find the surface area and volume of solid
objects within an engineering context.
Tutor led discussion (10 mins): review application of
formulae for solid objects. Introduce learners to revision
activities for learning aim A.
Individual activity (45 min): solve a range of
engineering problems using the mathematical
techniques which have been studied in learning aim A.
Plenary (5 min): review revision activities and resolve
any issues which learners may have encountered.
Learning aim B: Static engineering systems
12 B1 Static engineering IS Lead in (15 min): introduction to learning aim B, Scientific calculators
systems followed by tutor-led review of mathematical methods, Graph paper
making reference to vectors.
Drawing instruments
Tutor presentation (20 min): demonstrate to
learners how forces can be represented using space and
free body diagrams.
Individual activity (30 min): from given information,
construct free body diagrams to represent forces and

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determine resultants.
Tutor led discussion (30 mins): review use of space
and free body diagrams. Introduce moments and
resolution of forces into horizontal and vertical
components.
Paired activity (40 min): complete a range of
exercises to find moments and also horizontal and
vertical components of resultant forces.
Plenary (15 min): discuss the effectiveness of space
and free body diagrams for determining resultant
forces.
13 B1 Static engineering IS Lead in (15 min): tutor review of space and free body Scientific calculators
systems diagrams. Graph paper
Tutor presentation (15 min): introduce learners to Drawing instruments
the conditions required for static equilibrium, reviewing
vector addition and how this applies to coplanar forces.
Individual activity (40 min): investigate a range of
force systems to determine the resultant, equilibrant
and line of action of forces.
Tutor led discussion (15 min): review resolution of
forces and the conditions for static equilibrium, based
on previous activities.
Paired activity (20 min): investigate force systems to
determine forces required to achieve static equilibrium
within a system.
Plenary (15 min): review outcomes from paired
activity. Recap static equilibrium.

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14 B1 Static engineering IS Lead in (15 min): tutor-led discussion of resolution of Scientific calculators
systems forces. Graph paper
Tutor presentation (30 min): introduce learners to Drawing instruments
the concepts which surround simply supported beams,
including loadings and reaction forces.
Individual activity (60 min): learners to apply
knowledge gained regarding simply supported beams to
solve a range of engineering related problems.
Plenary (15 min): review theory of simply supported
beams, directing questions with regards to the process
to follow when solving problems.
15 B2 Loaded IS Lead in (15 min): tutor-led discussion to review Scientific calculators
components understanding of static engineering systems. Graph paper
Tutor presentation (15 min): explain to learners Drawing instruments
what is meant by direct stress and direct strain and how
these are calculated.
Paired activity (20 min): analyse a number of
engineering systems to calculate the direct stresses and
strains present in structural members.
Tutor-led discussion (30 min): discuss the results
from analysis amongst the group, then introduce the
concepts of shear stress and shear strain.
Paired activity (20 min): analyse a number of
engineering systems to calculate the shear stresses and
strains present in structural members.
Plenary (20 min): consider a product/service as a
group, identify the product/service requirements.

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16 B2 Loaded IS Lead in (15 min): class discussion to recap direct and Scientific calculators
components shear stresses and strains. Data regarding systems
Tutor-led discussion (20 min): having considered
stresses and strains, discuss with learners how these
relate to tensile and shear strength.
Paired activity (40 min): investigate a range of
engineered structures to determine tensile and shear
strength requirements of the structural members.
Tutor-led discussion (20 min): having considered
both shear and tensile strength, introduce learners to
elastic constants, explaining the impact these have on
material selection.
Paired activity (15 min): determine the values for the
modulus of elasticity and rigidity for a range of
structural members.
Plenary (10 min): question learners with regards to
how to determine elastic constants.
17 B1 Static engineering IS Lead in (15 min): consider the relationship between Scientific calculators
systems static engineering systems and loaded components. Graph paper
B2 Loaded Tutor presentation (15 min): review the application Drawing instruments
components of theory to solve problems relating to a range of static
systems.
Individual activity (75 min): learners work
individually to put into practice the theory covered from
learning aim B. This should be in the form of extended
problems which include a range of factors related to
static engineering systems and loaded components.
Plenary (15 min): learners feed back on where they
had difficulties in application. Common errors
addressed.
Learning aim C: Dynamic engineering systems

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18 C1 Dynamic IS Lead in (15 min): introduce learners to learning aim Scientific calculators
engineering systems C. Explain how the theories of dynamics underpin
systems with moving parts.
Tutor-led discussion (15 min): discuss with learners
kinetic parameters, relating to prior learning and
experiences.
Paired activity (45 min): research kinetic parameters
and the links between displacement, velocity and
acceleration.
Tutor presentation (10 min) consider methods to
determine unknowns based on information available.
Introduce equations for linear motion and uniform
acceleration.
Individual activity (20 min): analyse given
information with regards to uniform acceleration to
determine unknown values and quantities.
Plenary (15 min): discuss why different formulae are
needed for linear motion, and methods to identify which
is most appropriate to use in a given situation.
19 C1 Dynamic IS Lead in (15 min): review linear motion and the Scientific calculators
engineering systems various parameters involved. Explain how these link ICT facilities
with dynamic parameters.
Internet access
Tutor-led discussion (15 min): discuss with learners
dynamic parameters, introducing the concepts of force,
inertia, torque along with mechanical work, power and
efficiency.
Paired activity (60 min): investigate the
aforementioned dynamic parameters. Produce a
presentation which defines each and explains how the
parameters relate to each other.
Plenary (30 min): pairs present aspects of their
presentation, answering questions from other members
of the group.

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20 C1 Dynamic IS Lead in (15 min): review dynamic parameters Scientific calculators


engineering systems researched in the previous session.
Tutor presentation (15 min): introduce learners to
kinetic and potential energy, including methods to
calculate.
Small group activity (40 min): explore a number of
engineering problems which involve energy (kinetic
and/or potential) to determine values.
Tutor-led discussion (15 min): discuss with learners
the principles of conservation of energy.
Individual activity (20 min): apply the principle of
conservation of energy in order to solve to a range of
engineering problems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss how conservation of energy
can be used in the description of engineering systems.
21 C1 Dynamic IS Lead in (15 min): introduce learners to the link Scientific calculators
engineering systems between energy, momentum and Newtons Laws of ICT facilities
Motion.
Internet access
Tutor presentation (15 min): explain the principles
of conservation of momentum, including Newtons Laws
of Motion.
Paired activity (75 min): investigate and solve a
range of engineering problems which include either the
conservation of energy, or conservation of momentum.
Use appropriate theories and principles to support
findings.
Plenary (15 min): learners discuss as a group how
they solved problems and applied dynamic principles.

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22 C1 Dynamic IS Lead in (15 min): recap with principles of linear Examples of products
engineering systems motion, introducing the concept of angular motion. PDS for given product
Class discussion (30 min): discuss the differences Internet access
between linear and angular motion. Consider why there
could be differences in how principles are applied. Case studies

Individual activity (40 min): learners research ICT facilities


angular velocity, centripetal acceleration and uniform Scientific calculators
circular motion. Produce a short report to explain the
principles of each and how they apply in an engineering
context.
Class discussion (20 min): discuss the principle of
rotational kinetic energy, including similarities between
linear kinetic energy. As a group, work through
examples of application.
Plenary (15 min): discuss similarities and differences
between angular parameters and linear parameters.
23 C1 Dynamic IS Lead in (15 min): review discussions from the Scientific calculators
engineering systems previous session with regards to angular parameters. ICT facilities
Tutor-led discussion (30 min): discuss methods Internet access
where loads can be raised using a range of lifting
machines.
Individual activity (60 min): investigate a range of
lifting machines, and carry out appropriate calculations
to determine factors such as power, force in addition to
velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and the effects of
friction.
Plenary (15 min): discuss products which meet their
given claims and those which do not, suggesting
reasons for both.

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24 C1 Dynamic RS/IS Lead in (15 min): recap the various aspects of Scientific calculators
engineering systems dynamic systems and lifting machines. Case studies of
Tutor presentation (15 min): review how to engineering systems
determine factors such as velocity ratio as covered in
previous sessions.
Individual activity (75 min): investigate a range of
engineering problems which include dynamic systems.
Apply theories learnt to solve problems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss results of investigations.
Address any common misconceptions.

Learning aim D: Fluid and thermodynamic engineering systems

25 D1 Fluid systems IS Lead in (15 min): introduce learners to the topics Scientific calculators
which will be covered in learning aim D.
Tutor-led practical demonstration (20 min):
demonstrate to learners the methods which should be
employed to determine the hydrostatic pressure on
surfaces, along with the centre of pressure.
Paired activity (70 min): carry out a range of
activities to determine the hydrostatic pressure and
hydrostatic thrust on immersed planes. Where
appropriate, determine the centre of pressure.
Plenary (15 min): discuss results from investigations.
Address any misconceptions.
26 D1 Fluid systems RS/IS Lead in (15 min): review with learners the theories Scientific calculators
associated with submerged surfaces. Equipment for carrying
Tutor-led practical activity (20 min): introduce out practical
learners to the Archimedes principle and the flotation demonstrations of
method to determine density. principles
Small group activity (40 min): carry out appropriate
practical investigations using the Archimedes principle

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and the flotation method to determine density.


Tutor-led discussion (10 min): discuss, and show
methods of determining, relative density.
Individual activity (20 min): individuals calculate
relative densities for a range of materials from given
data.
Plenary (15 min): discuss common misconceptions.
Consider why relative density needs to be known.
27 D1 Fluid systems RS/IS Lead in (15 min): review learners understanding of
theories relating to submerged surfaces and immersed
bodies.
Tutor-led discussion (30 min): consider fluid flow in
a gradually tapering pipe. Introduce learners to flow
rates and flow velocities, demonstrating how to carry
out calculations with factors such as input and output
pipe diameters. Explain concepts of incompressible flow.
Paired activity (60 min): analyse and solve a range
of problems relating to gradually tapering pipes.
Plenary (15 min): pairs feed back to the group with
their results. Discuss errors, address
misconceptions/common mistakes.
28 D2 Thermodynamic IS Lead in (15 min): review prior understanding of heat Scientific calculators
systems transfer. ICT facilities
Tutor-led discussion (30 min): review understanding Internet access
of heat transfer processes and phases of linear
expansivity. Introduce learners to heat transfer
parameters.
Individual activity (60 min): research a range of
heat transfer parameters to produce a glossary of
terms, with a short report that explains how each
relates to each other. To accompany this, a short
presentation to explain the phases of linear expansivity.

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Plenary (15 min): individuals give their definitions of


various heat transfer parameters.
29 D2 Thermodynamic IS Lead in (10 min): review heat transfer parameters Scientific calculators
systems and introduce heat transfer principles. ICT facilities
Tutor-led discussion (30 min): discuss heat transfer Internet access
principles, considering also thermal efficiency of heat
transfer.
Individual activity (30 min): investigate a range of
heat engines to determine thermal efficiency. Also,
complete exercises relating to heat transfer principles.
Tutor-led discussion (15 min) introduce learners to
the concepts of entropy and enthalpy. Discuss how
these relate to thermodynamic systems.
Paired activity (25 min): analyse thermodynamic
systems to calculate entropy and to determine changes
in enthalpy.
Plenary (10 min): directed questions to determine
understanding of the theory and its application.
30 D2 Thermodynamic IS Lead in (15 min): review prior understanding of heat Scientific calculators
systems transfer principles. ICT facilities
Tutor-led discussion (20 min): review understanding Internet access
of heat transfer. Introduce learners to thermodynamic
process equations.
Individual activity (60 min): research a range of
thermodynamic process parameters to produce a
glossary of terms, with a short report that explains how
each relates to each other. To accompany this, a short
presentation which considers the Gas Laws and how
these relate to the process parameters.
Tutor-led discussion (10 min): review understanding
of the Gas Laws. As a group work through a number of
calculations as exemplars.

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Plenary (15 min): individuals give their definitions of


process parameters and solve problems using Gas
Laws.
31 D1 Fluid systems RS/IS Lead in (15 min): recap the various aspects of fluid Scientific calculators
D2 Thermodynamic systems and thermodynamic systems. Revision notes
systems Tutor presentation (15 min): demonstrate exemplar
solutions to problems where learners have previously
held misconceptions.
Individual activity (75 min): investigate a range of
engineering problems which include fluid and
thermodynamic systems. Apply theories learnt to solve
problems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss results of investigations.
Address any common misconceptions.
Learning Aim E: Static and direct current electricity and circuits
32 E1 Static and direct IS Lead in (15 min): review prior knowledge relating to Scientific calculators
current electricity static and direct current. ICT facilities
Tutor-led discussion (15 min): introduce learners to Internet access
concepts of conductance, conventional current flow and
voltage.
Small group activity (30 min): based on the
feedback from the discussion, investigate the concepts
covered, producing a definition for each and relating
these to engineering applications.
Tutor presentation (20 min): explain, using
examples, charge flow and Coulombs law.
Individual activity (30 min): perform a range of
procedures to analyse systems and circuits, applying
Coulombs law where appropriate.
Plenary (10 min): work through one scenario,
learners giving guidance as to the process to follow.

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33 E1 Static and direct IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of static and Scientific calculators
current electricity direct current concepts. ICT facilities
Group discussion (15 min): consider factors which Internet access
influence resistance, introducing temperature coefficient
of resistance. Also, introduce different types of resistor,
their function and values.
Paired activity (80 min): investigate the factors
which affect resistance. Produce a short report to
highlight the importance of each. Research different
types of resistor, their functions within circuits and
typical values.
Plenary (10 min): group feedback to class in response
to factors related to resistors.
34 E1 Static and direct IS Lead in (15 min): review factors which affect Scientific calculators
current electricity resistance. ICT facilities
Tutor-led discussion (30 min): introduce learners to Internet access
electrical field strength. Demonstrate calculations which
are to be performed.
Paired activity (60 min): produce a short fact sheet
to explain electrical field strength. Use worked examples
to exemplify theory.
Plenary (15 min): discuss electrical field strength. Use
directed questions to gauge understanding of concepts.
35 E1 Static and direct IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of resistance Scientific calculators
current electricity and electrical field strengths. ICT facilities
Group discussion (15 min): consider factors which Internet access
influence capacitance. Also, introduce different types of
capacitor, their function and values.
Paired activity (80 min): investigate the factors
which affect capacitance. Produce a short report to
highlight the importance of each. Research different
types of capacitor, their functions within circuits and

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typical values.
Plenary (10 min): group feedback to class in response
to factors related to capacitors.
36 E2 Direct current IS Lead in (15 min): review concepts related to direct Scientific calculators
circuit theory current theory. Data to use for
Paired activity (15 min): discuss and record prior calculations
understanding of Ohms Law, power and efficiency. ICT facilities
Tutor-led discussion (25 min): review outcomes of Internet access
paired discussion. Reinforce theory related to each, with
worked examples of calculations.
Individual activity (50 min): produce a report, with
appropriate calculations, to explain Ohms Law, power
and efficiency.
Plenary (15 min): directed questions to gauge
understanding of the topic.
37 E2 Direct current IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of voltage, Scientific calculators
circuit theory current and capacitance.
Paired activity (20 min): carry out calculations to find
unknown values based on existing knowledge.
Tutor-led discussion (20 min): introduce Kirchhoffs
voltage and current laws using examples. Demonstrate
calculations which relate to capacitors.
Individual activity (50 min): perform calculations
using Kirchhoffs laws to determine total voltages and
currents. Use formulae to determine unknown values
with regards to capacitors.
Plenary (15 min): as a group solve problems which
relate to capacitors. Discuss the approach to take.
38 E2 Direct current IS Lead in (15 min): review direct electrical current Scientific calculators
circuit theory theory covered, including resistance and capacitance. Graph paper
Small group activity (30 min): research RC

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transients, produce a short guide as to how to Drawing equipment


determine and apply theory to DC circuits.
Individual activity (60 min): carry out calculations to
determine charge and discharge rates. Plot graphs as
appropriate, making reference to exponential growth
rates. Use data to determine time constants.
Plenary (15 min): discuss procedures which need to
be applied when working with RC transients, relate to
topic A1.
39 E2 Direct current IS Lead in (15 min): discuss prior understanding of Scientific calculators
circuit theory diodes. ICT facilities
Paired activity (60 min): research theory and Internet access
application of diodes in both forward and reverse mode
applications. Produce a short presentation to explain
how/why diodes are used.
Individual activity (30 min): identify required diodes
for given engineering situations, explaining reasons for
selection.
Plenary (15 min): discuss the importance of
forward/reverse mode diodes.
40 E3 Direct current IS Lead in (15 min): review the theories and components Scientific calculators
networks which have been covered in topics E1 and E2. ICT facilities
Individual activity (90 min): carry out individual Internet access
research into DC power sources, consider how each
gives energy and typical applications for each,
presenting findings in an appropriate style.
Plenary (15 min): peer review of research, directed
questions regarding power.
41 E3 Direct current IS Lead in (20 min): consider resistance and networks of Scientific calculators
networks resistors. Explain how to calculate total resistance in
such networks.

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Individual activity (80 min): carry out calculations to


determine total resistance in resistor networks, which
have a combination of series and parallel components.
Plenary (20 min): learners walk through the
processes they followed to determine total resistance.
42 E1 Static and direct RS/IS Lead in (15 min): recap the various aspects of direct Scientific calculators
current electricity current.
E2 Direct current Tutor presentation (15 min): demonstrate exemplar
circuit theory solutions to problems where learners have previously
E3 Direct current held misconceptions.
networks Individual activity (75 min): investigate a range of
engineering problems which include direct current.
Apply theories learnt to solve problems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss results of investigations.
Address any common misconceptions.
Learning Aim F: Magnetism and electromagnetic induction
43 F1 Magnetism IS Lead in (15 min): introduce learners to learning aim F. Scientific calculators
Discuss with learners their understanding of
magnetism.
Paired activity (20 min): identify a range of materials
which are ferromagnetic.
Tutor-led discussion (20 min): introduce learners to
flux density, magnetomotive force and magnetic field
strength. Demonstrate how to use calculations
correctly.
Individual activity (50 min): analyse information in
order to determine flux density and other variables for
systems.
Plenary (15 min): review learning. Learners explain
their understanding of flux density, magnetomotive
force and magnetic field strength.

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45 F1 Magnetism IS Lead in (15 min): consider aspects of magnetic theory Scientific calculators
already covered, use this as a foundation for further ICT facilities
concepts.
Internet access
Tutor-led practical demonstration (20 min):
demonstrate how to determine permeability and
reluctance. Explain to learners the relevance of each in
engineering systems.
Individual activity (20 min): use given data to
determine permeability and reluctance for systems
involving magnetism.
Tutor presentation (20 min): give learners a brief
overview of magnetic screening and hysteresis in order
to give a starting point for individual research.
Individual activity (30 min): research magnetic
screening and hysteresis. Define and describe each,
then explain the importance of each in systems
involving magnetism.
Plenary (15 min): peer review of ideas generated thus
far. Consider the feasibility of each.
45 F1 Magnetism RS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of magnetic Scientific calculators
parameters. ICT facilities
Tutor presentation (30 min): describe the meaning Internet access
of induced electromotive force. Explain and demonstrate
the principles which link induced emf and other factors.
Paired activity (60 min): produce an information
sheet which could be used to inform peers (or others)
about the how induced emf is influence by a range of
factors.
Plenary (15 min): pairs summarise their findings,
answering questions from peers.
46 F1 Magnetism IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of induced Scientific calculators
emf.

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Tutor presentation (20 min): describe the ICT facilities


relationship between number of turns, magnetic length, Internet access
permeability and inductance. Introduce learners to eddy
currents.
Paired activity (80 min): learners complete their
information sheet, taking into account the factors
above. Learners should also explain in detail eddy
currents.
Plenary (15 min): pairs summarise their findings,
answering questions from peers.
47 F1 Magnetism IS Lead in (15 min): review understanding of Scientific calculators
electromagnetic inductance. ICT facilities
Tutor presentation (20 min): demonstrate the Internet access
operation of electric motors and generators. Introduce
notion of self-induction.
Paired activity (20 min): identify the key features of
electric motors and inductors. Describe the principles of
operation of each.
Individual activity (50 min): complete a research
based activity to describe the operation of an electric
motor or generator. Include calculations to support
descriptions.
Plenary (15 min): discuss the operation of electric
motors and generators. Consider theory of self-
inductance.
48 F1 Magnetism IS Lead in (15 min): recap self-inductance. Introduce the Scientific calculators
concept of mutual-inductance.
Tutor presentation (20 min): explain and
demonstrate the operation of transformers, using
calculations to exemplify theory.
Paired activity (20 min): apply appropriate formulae
to determine unknowns when considering step up/down

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UNIT 1: ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

transformers.
Tutor presentation (20 min): introduce Faraday and
Lenzs laws. Explain the importance of these with
regards to electromotive induction.
Individual activity (50 min): complete exercise which
relate to both Faradays Law and Lenzs Law. Use
calculations to support findings.
Plenary (15 min): discuss understanding of mutual
inductance.
49 F1 Magnetism RS/IS Lead in (15 min): recap the various aspects of Scientific calculators
magnetism and electromagnetic induction.
Tutor presentation (15 min): demonstrate exemplar
solutions to problems where learners have previously
held misconceptions.
Individual activity (75 min): investigate a range of
engineering problems which include magnetism and
electromagnetic induction. Apply theories learnt to solve
problems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss results of investigations.
Address any common misconceptions.

Learning Aim G: Single-phase alternating current


50 G1 Single phase IS Lead in (15 min): introduce learners to learning aim Scientific calculators
alternating current G. Discuss any prior understanding of single phase AC ICT facilities
theory theory.
Internet access
Tutor presentation (30 min): present waveforms to
learners, noting key features along with instantaneous Graph paper
and average values. Drawing instruments
Individual activity (30 min): plot a range of
sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal waveforms. On plots
identify key features and include calculations for

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BTEC NATIONAL ENGINEERING
UNIT 1: ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

instantaneous and average values.


Tutor presentation (15 min): explain form factor and
how this is calculated.
Paired activity (15 min): use given data to determine
the form function for a range of waveforms.
Plenary (15 min): discuss waveform characteristics
and the information which can be obtained from plots of
waveforms.
51 G1 Single phase IS Lead in (15 min): review theory of vectors from topic Scientific calculators
alternating current A. ICT facilities
theory Group discussion (15 min): consider why it can be Internet access
helpful to represent the sums of sinusoidal waveforms
graphically. Graph paper

Tutor-led practical activity (30 min): demonstrate Drawing instruments


the use of phasor and trigonometric to determine values
of alternating currents.
Individual activity (50 min): analyse data from given
waveforms to determine, both graphically and using
phasor addition, the sums of pairs of sinusoidal
currents.
Plenary (10 min): learners discuss methods of adding
waveforms. Consider which is best suited in different
situations.
52 G1 Single phase IS Lead in (15 min): review resistance and capacitance Scientific calculators
alternating current for DC circuits.
theory Tutor presentation (30 min): discuss with learners
reactance, impedance and capacitance. Demonstrate
how to calculate total reactance, impedance and
capacitance from given values.
Individual activity (60 min): use given data to
determine total reactance, impedance and capacitance

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BTEC NATIONAL ENGINEERING
UNIT 1: ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

for AC systems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss how data can influence the
selection of components.
53 G1 Single phase IS Lead in (15 min): reflect on the use of AC systems in Scientific calculators
alternating current engineering and consider the need for rectification of Graph paper
theory supply for DC applications.
Drawing instruments
Tutor demonstration (30 min): demonstrate how to
apply half and full wave rectification to sinusoidal wave
forms.
Individual activity (60 min): represent rectified
waveforms graphically. Use appropriate calculations to
determine values for both half wave and full wave
rectification.
Plenary (15 min): learners present rectified
waveforms to the group.
54 G1 Single phase RS Lead in (15 min): recap the various aspects of AC Scientific calculators
alternating current theory. Graph paper
theory Tutor presentation (15 min): demonstrate exemplar Drawing instruments
solutions to problems where learners have previously
held misconceptions.
Individual activity (75 min): investigate a range of
engineering problems which include single phase
alternating current theory. Apply theories learnt to solve
problems.
Plenary (15 min): discuss results of investigations.
Address any common misconceptions.
Preparation for External Assessment
55 Learning aim A RS Lead in (15 min): recap content of topics in Scientific calculators
preparation for practice exam questions. Graph paper
Individual activity (90 min): work through practice Drawing instruments
exam questions based around learning aim A.

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BTEC NATIONAL ENGINEERING
UNIT 1: ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

Plenary (15 min): review questions. Discuss questions


which learners considered to be challenging.
56 Learning aim B RS Lead in (15 min): recap content of topics in Scientific calculators
preparation for practice exam questions. Graph paper
Individual activity (90 min): work through practice Drawing instruments
exam questions based around learning aim B.
Plenary (15 min): review questions. Discuss questions
which learners considered to be challenging.
57 Learning aim C RS Lead in (15 min): recap content of topics in Scientific calculators
preparation for practice exam questions. Graph paper
Individual activity (90 min): work through practice Drawing instruments
exam questions based around learning aim C.
Plenary (15 min): review questions. Discuss questions
which learners considered to be challenging.
58 Learning aim D RS Lead in (15 min): recap content of topics in Scientific calculators
preparation for practice exam questions. Graph paper
Individual activity (90 min): work through practice Drawing instruments
exam questions based around learning aim D.
Plenary (15 min): review questions. Discuss questions
which learners considered to be challenging.
59 Learning aim E RS Lead in (15 min): recap content of topics in Scientific calculators
preparation for practice exam questions. Graph paper
Individual activity (90 min): work through practice Drawing instruments
exam questions based around learning aim E.
Plenary (15 min): review questions. Discuss questions
which learners considered to be challenging.
60 Learning aims F & G RS Lead in (15 min): recap content of topics in Scientific calculators
preparation for practice exam questions. Graph paper
Individual activity (90 min): work through practice Drawing instruments

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BTEC NATIONAL ENGINEERING
UNIT 1: ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

exam questions based around learning aims F & G.


Plenary (15 min): review questions. Discuss questions
which learners considered to be challenging.

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