and
HADRONIC PRESS
c 1998 by Sergiu Ion Vacaru
Copyright
U. S. Library of Congress
Cataloging in Publication Data:
Bibliography
ISBN 1–57485–032–6
1
ABOUT THE BOOK
2

3
Contents
0.1 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
0.2 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 HA–Supergravity 61
2.1 N–connection Superspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4
2.1.1 Supervielbeins in N–connection s–spaces . . . . . . . 62
2.1.2 Locally anisotropic superfields . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.1.3 Differential forms in N–connection spaces . . . . . . . 65
2.2 HA–Gauge S–Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.2.1 Gauge transforms in osculator s–bundles . . . . . . . 66
2.2.2 Abelian locally anisotropic s–fields . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.2.3 Nonabelian locally anisotropic gauge s–fields . . . . . 69
2.3 Supergravity in Osculator S–Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.4 Bianchi Identities: Osculator S–Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.4.1 Distinguiched Bianchi identities . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.4.2 Solution of distinguished Bianchi identities . . . . . . 77
2.5 Einstein–Cartan D–Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.6 Gauge Like Locally Anisotropic Supergravity . . . . . . . . . 84
3 Supersymmetric NA–Maps 89
3.1 NA–Maps of DVS–Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.2 Classification of Na–Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.3 Na–Maps and Tensor–Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.4 Ds–Tensor Integral Conservation Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.4.1 Divergence of energy–momentum ds–tensor . . . . . . 112
3.4.2 D–conservation laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.5 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4 HA–Superstrings 116
4.1 Superstrings in HA–Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.1.1 Two dimensional ha–sigma s–models . . . . . . . . . 118
4.1.2 Locally anisotropic heterotic strings . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.2 Background D–Field Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.3 Green–Schwarz DVS–Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.4 Fermi Strings in HA–Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.5 Anomalies in LAS–Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.5.1 One–loop calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.5.2 Two–loop calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
5
5 Stochastics in LAS–Spaces 155
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.2 Fermionic Brownian LA–Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.3 Stochastic D–Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
5.4 Supersymmetric Itô D–Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
5.5 Feynman–Kac D–Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
5.6 S–Differential D–Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
5.7 Locally Anisotropic Brownian S–Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
5.8 Atiyah–Singer D–Index Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
6
6.7.6 D–spinor Einstein–Cartan equations . . . . . . . . . 257
6.8 Outlook on Ha–Spinors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
9 HA–Strings 318
9.1 HA–σ–Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
9.1.1 Action of nonlinear σ–model and torsion of ha–space 319
9.1.2 The d–covariant method for ha–background fields . . 321
9.2 Regularization and β–Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
9.2.1 Renormalization group beta functions . . . . . . . . . 326
9.2.2 1–loop divergences and ha–renorm group equations . 328
9.2.3 Twoloop βfunctions for the HASmodel . . . . . . . 330
9.2.4 Low–energy effective action for la–strings . . . . . . . 334
9.3 Scattering of Ha–Gravitons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
7
9.3.1 Ha–string amplitudes for hagravitons scattering . . . 337
9.3.2 Duality of Ha–σ–models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
9.4 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
8
13 The Isogeometry of Tangent Isobundles 418
13.1 Notions of Isotopies of Generalized Lagrange and Finsler
Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
13.2 The Isotopic Almost Hermitian Model of GIL–Spaces . . . . 421
9
0.1 Preface
This monograph gives a general geometric background of the theory of
field interactions, strings and diffusion processes on spaces, superspaces and
isospaces with higher order anisotropy and inhomogenity. The last fifteen
years have been attempted a number of extensions of Finsler geometry with
applications in theoretical and mathematical physics and biology which go
far beyond the original scope. Our approach proceeds by developing the
concept of higher order anisotropic superspace which unify the logical and
mathematical aspects of modern Kaluza–Klein theories and generalized La
grange and Finsler geometry and leads to modelling of physical processes
on higher order fiber bundles provided with nonlinear and distingushed
connections and metric structures. The view adopted here is that a gen
eral field theory should incorporate all possible anisotropic and stochastic
manifestations of classical and quantum interactions and, in consequence, a
corresponding modification of basic principles and mathematical methods
in formulation of physical theories. This monograph can be also considered
as a pedagogical survey on the mentioned subjects.
There are established three approaches for modeling field interactions
and spaces anisotropies. The first one is to deal with a usual locally
isotropic physical theory and to consider anisotropies as a consequence
of the anisotropic structure of sources in field equations (for instance, a
number of cosmological models are proposed in the framework of the Ein
stein theory with the energy–momentum generated by anisotropic matter,
as a general reference see [165]). The second approach to anisotropies
originates from the Finsler geometry [78,55,213,159] and its generalizations
[17,18,19,160,161,13,29, 256, 255, 264, 272] with a general imbedding into
Kaluza–Klein (super) gravity and string theories [269,270,260,265,266,267],
and speculates a generic anisotropy of the space–time structure and of fun
damental field of interactions. The Santilli’s approach [217,219,220,218,221,
222,223,224] is more radical by proposing a generalization of Lie theory
and introducing isofields, isodualities and related mathematical structures.
Roughly speaking, by using corresponding partitions of the unit we can
model possible metric anisotropies as in Finsler or generalized Lagrange ge
ometry but the problem is also to take into account classes of anisotropies
generated by nonlinear and distinguished connections.
10
In its present version this book addresses itself both to mathematicians
and physicists, to researches and graduate students which are interested
in geometrical aspects of fields theories, extended (super)gravity and (su
per)strings and supersymmetric diffusion. It presupposes a general back
ground in the mentioned divisions of modern theoretical physics and as
sumes some familiarity with differential geometry, group theory, complex
analysis and stochastic calculus.
The monograph is divided into three parts:
The first five Chapters cover the higher order anisotropic supersymmet
ric theories: Chapter 1 is devoted to the geometry of higher order anisotropic
supersaces with an extension to supergravity models in Chapter 2. The su
persymmetric nearly autoparallel maps of superbundles and higher order
anisotropic conservation laws are considered in Chapter 3. Higher order
anisotropic superstrings and anomalies are studied in Chapter 4. Chap
ter 5 contains an introduction into the theory of supersymmetric locally
anisotropic stochastic processes.
The next five Chapters are devoted to the (non supersymmetric) theory
of higher order anisotropic interactions and stochastic processes. Chapter 6
concerns the spinor formulation of field theories with locally anisotropic in
teractions and Chapter 7 considers anisotropic gauge field and gauge gravity
models. Defining nearly autoparallel maps as generalizations of conformal
transforms we analyze the problem of formulation of conservation laws in
higher order anisotropic spaces in Chapter 8. Nonlinear sigma models and
strings in locally anisotropic backgrounds are studied in Chapter 9. Chap
ter 10 is devoted to the theory of stochastic differential equations for locally
anisotropic diffusion processes.
The rest four Chapters presents a study on Santilli’s locally anisotropic
and inhomogeneous isogeometries, namely, an introduction into the theory
of isobuncles and generalized isofinsler gravity. Chapter 11 is devoted to
basic notations and definitions on Santilli and coauthors isotheory. We in
troduce the bundle isospaces in Chapter 12 where some necessary properties
of Lie–Santilli isoalgebras and isogroups and corresponding isotopic exten
sions of manifolds are applied in order to define fiber isospaces and consider
their such (being very important for modeling of isofield interactions) classes
of principal isobundles and vector isobundles. In that Chapter there are
also studied the isogeometry of nonlinear isoconnections in vector isobun
11
dles, the isotopic distinguishing of geometric objects, the isocurvatures and
isotorsions of nonlinear and distinguished isoconnections and the structure
equations and invariant conditions. The next Chapter 13 is devoted to
the isotopic extensions of generalized Lagrange and Finsler geometries. In
Chapter 14 the isofield equations of locally anisotropic and inhomogeneous
interactions will be analyzed and an outlook and conclusions will be pre
sented.
We have not attempted to give many details on previous knowledge
of the subjects or complete list of references. Each Chapter contains a
brief introduction, the first section reviews the basic results, original papers
and monographs. If it is considered necessary, outlook and discussion are
presented at the end of the Chapter.
We hope that the reader will not suffer too much from our insufficient
mastery of the English language.
Acknowledgments.
It is a pleasure for the author to give many thanks especially to Pro
fessors R. Miron, M.Anastasiei, R. M. Santilli and A. Bejancu for valuable
discussions, collaboration and necessary offprints.
The warmest thanks are extended to Drs E. Seleznev and L. Konopko
for their help and support.
The author wish to express generic thanks to the referees for a detailed
control and numerous constructive suggestions as well he should like to
express his deep gratitude to the publishers for their unfailing support.
12
0.2 Notation
(1) Indices. Unfortunately it is impossible to elaborate a general system of
labels of geometrical objects and coordinates when we a dealing with geo
metrical constructions in Finsler spaces and theirs higher order anisotropic,
inhomogeneous and isotopic extensions. A number of various superspace,
spinor, gauge field and another indices add complexity to this problem. The
reader will have to consult the first sections in every Chapter in order to un
derstand the meaning of various types of boldface and/or underlined Greek
or Latin letters for operators, distinguished spinors and tensors. Here we
present only the most important denotations for local parametizations of
spaces, superspaces and isospaces which are used in our book.
The first Part of this monograph is devoted to higher order anisotropic
superspaces (s–space). The base G∞ –supermanifold M f of s–spaces is lo
cally parametrized by coordinates x = (xb, θ) = {xI = (xbi , θbi )}, with a cor
responding splitting of indices of type I = (i, bi), J j, bj , ..., where i, j, ... =
1, 2, ..., n, θbi are anticommuting coordinates and bi = 1, 2, ..., k ((n, k) is the
(even,odd) dimension of s–space.
For typical vector superspaces (vs–spaces) F of dimension (m, l) we
shall use local coordinates y = (yb, ζ) = {y A = (yba, ζ ba )}, with splitting
of indices of type A = (a, ab), B = (b, bb), where a, b, ... = 1, 2, ..., m and
ab, bb, ... = 1, 2, ..., l, ζ ba are anticommuting coordinates. There are also used
sets of vs–spaces
F1 , F2 , ..., Fp , ..., Fz (p = 1, 2, ..., z)
prametrized correspondingly by coordinates
A
{..., y(p) , ...} = {..., (yb(p) , ζ(p) ), ...} = {..., y(p) a
= (yb(p) ba ), ...}
, ζ(p)
with splitting of indices of type
{..., Ap , ...} = {..., (ap , abp ), ...}, {..., Bp , ...} = {..., (bp , bbp ), ...},
where ap , bp , ... = 1, 2, ..., mp and abp , bbp , ... = 1, 2, ..., lp for every value of p.
Distinguished vector superspaces (dvs–spaces) Ee<z> are parametrized
by local coordinates
u = x = y(0) , y(1) , y(2) , ..., y(p), ..., y(z) = u(p) , yb(p+1) , ζ(p+1),...,yb(z) , ζ(z) =
13
xbi , xbi , yb<a> , y <ba> = xI = y A0 , y A1 , ..., y Ap , ..., y Az = xI , y <A> = u<α>
b
= u<αp > , y Ap+1 , ..., y Az = xbi = yba0 , θi = ζ ba0 , yba1 , ζ ba1 , ..., ybaz , ζ baz
14
with a corresponding splitting of indices < α >= (I = A0 , A1 , ..., Ap , ..., Az ).
Different types of underlined indices for Maiorana, or Dirac spinors and ob
jects of higher order anisotropic Clifford and (super)vector fibrations (de
fined for corresponding locally adapted spinor or s–vector bases) will be also
considered.
We shall use such type of spinor parametrizations of anticommuting
variables in higher order anisotropic supergravity:
i ai a a a
θi = ζ a0 = (θ←− = ζ ←−0 , θ−→ = ζ −→0 ), ζ a1 = (ζ ←−1 , ζ −→1 ), ...,
ap ap a a
ζ ap = (ζ ←−, ζ −→ ), ..., ζ az = (ζ ←−z , ζ −→z ).
The two dimensional world sheets used in the theory of higher order
anisotropic (super)strings are provided with local coordinates z = z ü , two–
ë
metric γäë and zweibein eë , where ü, ë, ä, ... = 1, 2. The Dirac matrices on the
worlds sheets are denoted γë ; we shall also use matrix γ5 with the property
(γ5 )2 = −1 (to follow usual denotations we use γindex 5 as well for two
dimensions). Maiorana spinors are denoted as θã , χñ .
On (1,0)–superspaces we shall use two Bose coordinates (z ± , z = ) and
one Fermi coordinate θ+ , ü = (z ± , z = , θ+ ), (see details in subsection 4.1,2);
standard derivatives on (1,0) locally anisotropic superspaces are denoted
Ü
DÄ = (D+ , ∂‡ , ∂= ), where index Ä = (+, ‡, =); s–vielbeins are written EÄ .
As ΨI , with indices of type I, J, ..., we shall denote heterotic Maiorana–
Weyl fermions (see section 4).
The Santilli’s isotheory considered in the Part III of that monograph
is based on the concept of fundamental isotopy which is the lifting I → Ib
of the n–dimensional unit I = diag (1, 1, ..., 1) of the Lie’s theory into an
n × n–dimensional matrix
Ib = Iji = Ib t, x, ẋ, ẍ, ψ, ψ + , ∂ψ, ∂ψ + , ∂∂ψ, ∂∂ψ + , ...
called the isounit. ”Hats” on symbols in the third part will be used for
distinguishing the isotopic objects from usual ones (non isotopic).
(2)Equations. For instance, equation (4.6) is the 6th equation in Chapter
4, so the first number of an equation points to the Chapter where that
equation is introduced and the second numbers enumerates the equation
into consideration with respect to that Chapter. The same holds true for
theorems, definitions and so on (for example, Theorem 3.1; Definition 4.5).
15
(3) Differentiation. Ordinary partial differentiation with respect to a
coordinate xi will either be denoted by the operator ∂i or by subscript
i
i following a comma, for instance, ∂A ∂xj
≡ ∂j Ai ≡ Ai ,j . We shall use the
i
denotation δAδxj
≡ δj Ai for partial derivations locally adapted to a nonlinear
connection structure.
(4) Summation convention. We shall follow the Einstein summation rule
for spinor and tensor indices.
(5) References. In the bibliography we cite the scientific journals in
a generally accepted abbreviated form, give the volume, the year and the
first page of the authors’ articles; the monographs and collections of works
are cited completely. For the author’s works and communications, a part
of them been published in journals and collection of papers from Coun
tries of Easten Europe, the extended form (with the titles of articles and
communications) is presented.
(6) Introductions and Conclusions. As a rule every Chapter starts with
an introduction into the subject and ends, if it is necessary, with concluding
remarks.
(7) Terminology ambiguities. We emphasize that the term ”higher or
der” is used as a general one for higher order tangent bundles [295], or higher
order extensions of vector superbundles [270,260,265,266,267], in a number
of lines alternative to jet bundles [226,225], and only under corresponding
constraints one obtains the geometry of higher order Lagrangians [162]).
(8) The end of Proofs are denoted by 2.
16
Part I
17
Chapter 1
HA–Superspaces
The differential supergeometry have been formulated with the aim of get
ting a geometric framework for the supersymmetric field theories (see the
theory of graded manifolds [37,146,147,144], the theory of supermanifolds
[290,203,27,127] and, for detailed considerations of geometric and topologi
cal aspects of supermanifolds and formulation of superanalysis, [63,49,157,
114,281,283]). In this Chapter we apply the supergeometric formalism for
a study of a new class of (higher order anisotropic) superspaces.
The concept of local anisotropy is largely used in some divisions of the
oretical and mathematical physics [282,119,122,163] (see also possible ap
plications in physics and biology in [14,13]). The first models of locally
anisotropic (la) spaces (la–spaces) have been proposed by P.Finsler [78] and
E.Cartan [55] (early approaches and modern treatments of Finsler geom
etry and its extensions can be found, for instance, in [213,17,18,159]). In
our works [256,255,258,259,260,264,272,279,276] we try to formulate the ge
ometry of la–spaces in a manner as to include both variants of Finsler and
Lagrange, in general supersymmetric, extensions and higher dimensional
Kaluza–Klein (super)spaces as well to propose general principles and meth
ods of construction of models of classical and quantum field interactions
and stochastic processes on spaces with generic anisotropy.
We cite here the works [31,33] by A. Bejancu where a new viewpoint
on differential geometry of supermanifolds is considered. The author in
troduced the nonlinear connection (N–connection) structure and developed
a corresponding distinguished by N–connection supertensor covariant dif
18
ferential calculus in the frame of De Witt [290] approach to supermani
folds in the framework of the geometry of superbundles with typical fibres
parametrized by noncommutative coordinates. This was the first example
of superspace with local anisotropy. In our turn we have given a general def
inition of locally anisotropic superspaces (la–superspaces) [260]. It should
be noted here that in our supersymmetric generalizations we were inspired
by the R. Miron, M. Anastasiei and Gh. Atanasiu works on the geometry of
nonlinear connections in vector bundles and higher order Lagrange spaces
[160,161,162]. In this Chapter we shall formulate the theory of higher order
vector and tangent superbundles provided with nonlinear and distinguished
connections and metric structures (a generalized model of la–superspaces).
Such superbundles contain as particular cases the supersymmetric exten
sions and various higher order prolongations of Riemann, Finsler and La
grange spaces. We shall use instead the terms distinguished superbundles,
distinguished geometric objects and so on (geometrical constructions distin
guished by a N–connection structure) theirs corresponding brief denotations
(d–superbundles, d–objects and so on).
The Chapter is organized as follows: Section 1.1 contains a brief review
on supermanifolds and superbundles and an introduction into the geometry
of higher order distinguished vector superbundles. Section 1.2 deals with
the geometry of nonlinear and linear distinguished connections in vector
superbundles and distinguished vector superbundles. The geometry of the
total space of distinguished vector superbundles is studied in section 1.3;
distinguished connection and metric structures, their torsions, curvatures
and structure equations are considered. Generalized Lagrange and Finsler
superspaces there higher order prolongations are defined in section 1.4 .
Concluding remarks on Chapter 1 are contained in section 1.5.
19
shall restrict our study only with geometric constructions on locally trivial
superspaces.
20
values in Grassmann algebra can be considered as mappings of the space
(L̂−1) )(n+k)
R(2 into the space R2L̂ . Functions differentiable on Grassmann co
ordinates can be rewritten via derivatives on real coordinates, which obey
a generalized form of CauchyRiemann conditions.
A (n, k)dimensional s–manifold M̃ can be defined as a Banach man
ifold (see, for example, [148]) modeled on Λn,k endowed with an atlas
ψ = {U(i) , ψ(i) : U(i) → Λn,k , (i) ∈ J} whose transition functions ψ(i) are
supersmooth [203,127]. Instead of supersmooth functions we can use G∞ 
functions [203] and introduce G∞ supermanifolds (G∞ denotes the class of
superdifferentiable functions). The local structure of a G∞ –supermanifold
is built very much as on a C ∞ –manifold. Just as a vector field on a n
dimensional C ∞ manifold written locally as
n−1 ∂
Σi=0 fi (xj ) ,
∂xi
where fi are C ∞ functions, a vector field on an (n, k)–dimensional G∞ –su
permanifold M̃ can be expressed locally on an open region U⊂M̃ as
n−1+k ∂ ∂ ∂
ΣI=0 fI (xJ ) n−1
= Σi=0 fi (xj , θĵ ) + Σkî=1 fî (xj , θĵ ) ,
∂xI ∂xi ∂θî
where x = (x̂, θ) = {xI = (x̂i , θî )} are local (even, odd) coordinates. We
shall use indices I = (i, î), J = (j, ĵ), K = (k, k̂), ... for geometric objects on
M̃ . A vector field on U is an element X⊂End[G∞ (U)] (we can also consider
supersmooth functions instead of G∞ functions) such that
where X and a denote correspondingly the parity (= 0, 1) of values X and
a and for simplicity in this work we shall write (−)f X instead of (−1)f X .
A super Lie group (sl–group) [204] is both an abstract group and a s–
manifold, provided that the group composition law fulfills a suitable smooth
ness condition (i.e. to be superanalytic, for short, sa [127]).
21
In our further considerations we shall use the group of automorphisms
of Λ(n,k) , denoted as GL(n, k, Λ), which can be parametrized as the super
Lie group of invertible matrices
!
A B
Q= ,
C D
22
taking as the typical fibre the superspace Λn,k and as the structure group
the group of automorphisms, i.e. the slgroup GL(n, k, Λ).
Let us denote by F a vector superspace ( vs–space ) of dimension (m, l)
(with respect to a chosen base we parametrize an element y ∈ E as y =
(ŷ, ζ) = {y A = (yˆa , ζ â)}, where a = 1, 2, ..., m and â = 1, 2, ..., l). We shall
use indices A = (a, â), B = (b, b̂), ... for objects on vs–spaces. A vector
superbundle (vs–bundle) E˜ over base M̃ with total superspace Ẽ, standard
fibre F̂ and surjective projection πE : Ẽ→M̃ is defined (see details and
variants in [49,283]) as in the case of ordinary manifolds (see, for instance,
[148,160,161]). A section of Ẽ is a supersmooth map s : U→Ẽ such that
πE ·s = idU .
A subbundle of Ẽ is a triple (B̃, f, f ′ ), where B̃ is a vs–bundle on M̃ ,
maps f : B̃→E˜ and f ′ : M̃ →M̃ are supersmooth, and (i) πE ◦f = f ′ ◦πB ;
(ii) f : πB−1 (x)→πE−1 ◦f ′ (x) is a vs–space homomorphism. We denote by
u = (x, y) = (x̂, θ, ŷ, ζ) = {uα = (xI , y I ) = (x̂i , θî , ŷ i, ζ î ) = (x̂i , xî , ŷ i, y î)}.
We shall use Greek indices for marking local coordinates on both s–vector
and usual vector bundles (see the second part of the monograph).
23
and Gh. Atanasiu [162] introduced the concept of k–osculator bundle for
which a fiber of kjets is changed into a k–osculator fiber representing an
element of k–order curve. Such considerations are connected with geomet
ric constructions on tangent bundles of higher order. On the other hand
for developments in modern supersymmetric Kaluza–Klein theories (see, for
instance, [215]) a substantial interest would present a variant of ”osculator”
space for which the higher order tangent s–space distributions are of differ
ent dimensions. The second part of this section is devoted to the definition
of such type distinguished vector superbundle spaces.
A vector superspace F <z> of dimension (m, l) is a distinguished vector
superspace ( dvs–space ) if it is decomposed into an invariant oriented direct
sum F <z> = F(1) ⊕ F(2) ⊕ ... ⊕ F(z) of vs–spaces F(p) , dim F(p) = (m(p) , l(p) ),
P Pp=z
where (p) = (1), (2), ..., (z), p=z
p=1 m(p) = m, p=1 l(p) = l.
<p>
Coordinates on F will be parametrized as
y <p> = (y(1) , y(2) , ..., y(p) ) = (ŷ(1) , ζ(1) , ŷ(2) , ζ(2) , ..., ŷ(p) , ζ(p)) =
24
(x̂, θ, ŷ<p> , ζ<p>) = (x̂, θ, ŷ(1) , ζ(1) , ŷ(2) , ζ(2) , ..., ŷ(p) , ζ(p) ) =
{u<α> = (xI , y <A> ) = (x̂i , θî , ŷ <a> , ζ <â> ) = (x̂i , xî , ŷ <a> , y <â> ) =
(xI = y A0 , y A1 , ..., y Ap , ..., y Az )}
(in our further considerations we shall consider different variants of splitting
of indices of geometric objects).
Instead of (1.1) the coordinate transforms for dvs–bundles
<α> ′ ′ ′
{u = (xI , y <A> )} → {u<α > = (xI , y <A > )} are given by recurrent maps:
′
I′ I′ I ∂xI
x = x (x ), srank( I ) = (n, k), (1.3)
∂x
A′ A′
A1 A′
y(1)1 = KA11 (x)y(1) , KA11 (x)∈G(m(1) , l(1) , Λ),
..................................................
A′p A′ A A′
y(p) = KApp (u(p−1) )y(p)p , KApp (u(p−1) )∈G(m(p) , l(p) , Λ),
.................................................
A′ A′ Az A′
y(z)z = KAzz (u(z−1) )y(z) , KAzz (u(z−1) )∈G(m(z) , l(z) , Λ).
In brief we write transforms (1.3) as
′ ′ ′ ′
xI = xI (xI ), y <A > = K<A>
<A > <A>
y .
<A > ′ ′ ′
<α >
More generally, we shall consider matrices K<α> = (KII , K<A> ), where
I ′ . ∂xI
′
KI = ∂xI .
In consequence the local coordinate bases of the module of ds–vector
fields Ξ(Ee<z> ),
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
<α>
= ( I , A1 , A2 , ..., Az ) (1.4)
∂u ∂x ∂y(1) ∂y(2) ∂y(z)
(the dual coordinate bases are denoted as
25
are transformed as
26
are characterized by matrices of type
∂ ∂
∂xI ∂xI ′
∂I ∂ ∂I ′ ∂
A′
A
∂y(1)1 ∂y(1)1
∂A1
∂A′1
∂ ′ ∂
∂ =∂<α> = ∂A2 = A , ∂ =∂<α′ > = ∂A′2 = A′
∂y(2)2 ∂y(2)2
... ... ... ...
∂Az
∂
Az
∂A′z ∂
∂y(z) A′
∂y(z)z
and
′ A′ A′ A′
KII Y(1,0)I
1
Y(2,0)I
2
... Y(z,0)I
z
A′ A′ Az ′
0 KA11 Y(2,1)A
2
1
... Y(z,1)A
1
′
c Yb <α > =
Y= A′ A′ .
<α>
0 0 KA22 ... Y(z,2)A
z
2
... ... ... ... ...
A′
0 0 0 ... KAzz
We note that we obtain a supersimmetric
generalization
of the Miron–
z
Atanasiu [162] osculator bundle Osc M̃ , π, M̃ if the fiber space in Def
inition 1.2 is taken to be a direct sum of z vector sspaces of the same
dimension dim F = dim M f , i.e. F <d> = F ⊕ F ⊕ ... ⊕ F . In this case the
K and Y matrices from (1.3) and (1.6) satisfy identities:
A′ A′ A′
KA11 = KA22 = ... = KAzz ,
A ′ A ′ A ′
Y(1,0)A = Y(2,1)A = ... = Y(z,z−1)A ,
.............................
A′ A′ A ′
Y(p,0)A = Y(p+1,1)A = ... = Y(z,z−1)A , (p = 2, ..., z − 1).
For s = 1 the Osc1 M f is the ts–bundle T M
f.
z .
Introducing projection π0 = π <z>
: Ee<z> → M f we can also consider
projections πpp21 : Ee<p1 > → Ee<p2> (p2 < p1 ) defined as
27
dvsbundle T (Ee<z>) ( the dvsspace V1 = V is the vertical dvssubbundle
on Ee<z> . The local fibres of dvssubbundles Vh determines this regular s
distribution Vh+1 : u ∈ Ee<z> → Vh+1 (u) ⊂ T (Ee<z> ) for which one holds
inclusions Vz ⊂ Vz−1 ⊂ ... ⊂ V1 . The enumerated properties of vertical
dvs–subbundles are explicitly illustrated by transformation laws (1.6) for
distinguished local bases.
28
vsbundle morphism being a subbundle of (T Ẽ, τE , Ẽ) is called the vertical
subbundle over Ẽ and denoted by V E˜ = (V Ẽ, τV , Ẽ). Its total space is
S
V E˜ = u∈Ẽ Vu , where Vu = kerπ T , u∈Ẽ. A vector
∂ I ∂ A ∂ i ∂ î ∂ a ∂ â ∂
Y =Yα = Y + Y = Y + Y + Y + Y
∂uα ∂xI ∂y A ∂xi ∂θî ∂y a ∂ζ â
tangent to E˜ in the point u ∈ Ẽ is locally represented as
(u, Y ) = (uα , Y α ) = (xI , y A , Y I , Y A ) = (x̂i , θî , ŷ a, ζ â , Ŷ i , Y î , Ŷ a , Y â ).
A nonlinear connection, N–connection, in vs–bundle E˜ is a splitting on
the left of the exact sequence
i
07−→V Ẽ 7−→ T Ẽ7−→T Ẽ/V E7˜−→0, (1.7)
i.e. a morphism of vsbundles N : T Ẽ ∈ V Ẽ such that N◦i is the identity
on V Ẽ.
The kernel of the morphism N is called the horizontal subbundle and
denoted by
(H Ẽ, τE , Ẽ).
From the exact sequence (1.7) one follows that N–connection structure can
be equivalently defined as a distribution {Ẽu → Hu Ẽ, Tu Ẽ = Hu Ẽ⊕Vu Ẽ}
on Ẽ defining a global decomposition, as a Whitney sum,
˜
T Ẽ = H Ẽ + V E. (1.8)
To a given Nconnection we can associate a covariant sderivation on
M̃ :
∂Y A
▽X Y = X { I + NIA (x, Y )}sA ,
I
(1.9)
∂x
where sA are local independent sections of E, ˜ Y = Y A sA and X = X I sI .
S–differentiable functions NI from (1.3) written as functions on xI and
A
y A,
NIA (x, y), are called the coefficients of the N–connection and satisfy these
transformation laws under coordinate transforms (1.1) in E:
I′ ′
A′ ∂x ′ ∂MAA (x) A
NI ′ I
= MAA NIA − y .
∂x ∂xI
29
If coefficients of a given Nconnection are s–differentiable with respect
to coordinates y A we can introduce (additionally to covariant nonlinear s
derivation (1.9)) a linear covariant sderivation D̂ (which is a generalization
for vs–bundles of the Berwald connection [39]) given as follows:
∂ B ∂ ∂
D̂( ∂
)( A
) = N̂AI ( B ), D̂( ∂
) ( ) = 0,
∂xI ∂y ∂y ∂y A ∂y B
where
A ∂N A I (x, y)
N̂BI (x, y) = (1.10)
∂y B
and
A
N̂BC (x, y) = 0.
For a vector field on Ẽ Z = Z I ∂x∂ I + Y A ∂y∂A and B = B A (y) ∂y∂A being
a section in the vertical s–bundle (V Ẽ, τV , Ẽ) the linear connection (1.10)
defines s–derivation (compare with (1.9)):
∂B A B ∂B
A
∂
D̂Z B = [Z I ( I
+ N̂ A
BI B B
) + Y B
] A.
∂x ∂y ∂y
Another important characteristic of a N–connection is its curvature
( N–connection curvature ):
1 ∂
Ω = ΩA I J
IJ dx ∧ dx ⊗
2 ∂y A
with local coefficients
∂NIA IJ ∂NJ
A
ΩA
IJ = J
− (−) I
+ NIB N̂BJ
A
− (−)IJ NJB N̂BI
A
, (1.11)
∂x ∂x
30
1.2.2 N–connections in dvs–bundles
In order to define
aN–connection into dvs–bundle
Ee<z> we consider a s–
subbundle N Ee<z> of the tsbundle T Ee<z> for which one holds (see
[226] and [162] respectively for jet and osculator bundles) the Whitney sum
(compare with (1.8))
T Ee<z> = N Ee<z> ⊕ V Ee<z> .
N Ee<z> can be also interpreted as a regular s–distribution (horizontal
distribution being supplementary to the vertical sdistribution V Ee<z> )
determined by maps N : u ∈ Ee<z> → N(u) ⊂ Tu Ee<z> .
The condition of existence of a N–connection in a dvs–bundle Ee<z> can
be proved as in [160,161,162]: It is required that Ee<z> is a paracompact
s–differentiable (in our case) manifold.
Locally a N–connection in Ee<z> is given by its coefficients
A1 A2 A2 p A p A p A
N(01)I (u), (N(02)I (u), N(12)A 1
(u)), ...(N(0p)I (u), N(1p)A 1
(u), ...N(p−1p)A p−1
(u)),
Az Az Az Az
..., (N(0z)I (u), N(1z)A 1
(u), ..., N(pz)A p
(u), ..., N(z−1z)A z−1
(u)),
where, for instance,
A
p p A p A
(N(0p)I (u), N(1p)A 1
(u), ..., N(p−1p)A p−1
(u))
δ δ δ δ δ
=( , A1 , A2 , ..., Az ) (1.12)
∂u<α> I
∂x ∂y(1) ∂y(2) ∂y(z)
(the dual la–bases are denoted as
31
δu<α> = (δxI , δy (A1) , δy (A2 ) , ..., δy (Az ) ) ) (1.13)
with components parametrized as
Az−1
δI = ∂I − NIA1 ∂A1 − NIA2 ∂A2 − ... − NI ∂Az−1 − NIAz ∂Az , (1.14)
A
δA1 = ∂A1 − NAA12 ∂A2 − NAA13 ∂A3 − ... − NA1z−1 ∂Az−1 − NAA1z ∂Az ,
A
δA2 = ∂A2 − NAA23 ∂A3 − NAA24 ∂A4 − ... − NA2z−1 ∂Az−1 − NAA2z ∂Az ,
..............................................................
δAz−1 = ∂Az−1 − NAAz−1
z
∂Az ,
δAz = ∂Az ,
or, in matrix form, as
c
δ • =N(u) × ∂• ,
where
δ ∂
∂xI ∂xI
δI
δ
∂I
∂
A
∂y(1)1 A
∂y(1)1
δA1
∂A1
δ ∂
δ • =δ<α> = δA2 = A
∂y(2)2 , ∂• =∂<α> = ∂A2 = A
∂y(2)2 .
... ...
... ...
δAz δ ∂Az ∂
Az Az
∂y(z) ∂y(z)
and
1 −NIA1 −NIA2 ... −NIAz
0 1 −NAA12 ... −NAA1z
c
N= 0 0 1 ... −NAA2z
... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 1
In generalized index form we write the matrix (1.6) as N c<α> , where, for
<β>
instance, N cI = δ I , N
cA1 = δ A1 , ..., N
cA1 = −N A1 , ..., N cAz =
cAz = −N Az , N
J J B1 B1 I I A1 A1 A2
−NAA2z , ... .
So in every point u ∈ Ee<z> we have this invariant decomposition:
Tu Ee<d> = N0 (u) ⊕ N1 (u) ⊕ ... ⊕ Nz−1 (u) ⊕ Vz (u), (1.15)
32
where δI ∈ N0 , δA1 ∈ N1 , ..., δAz−1 ∈ Nz−1 , ∂Az ∈Vz .
We note that for the osculator s–bundle Oscz M̃ , π, M̃ there is an
additional (we consider the N–adapted variant) s–tangent structure
J : χ Oscz M̃ → χ Oscz M̃
defined as
!
δ δ δ δ ∂ δ
I
=J , ..., I
=J I ,
I
=J I (1.16)
∂y(1) ∂xI ∂y(z−1) ∂y(z−2) ∂y(z) ∂y(z−1)
(in this case I and A–indices take the same values and we can not distin
guish them), by considering vertical J–distributions
33
and ′
∂xI I
I′ (A′p ) A′p (A′ )
X = X , X = K A X p , ∀p = 1, 2, ...z.
∂xI p
(we can obtain these relations by putting (1.19) and (1.6) into (1.14) where
c<β′′ > satisfy δ ′ = N
N c<β′′ > ∂ ′ ).
<α > <α > <α > <β >
For dual labases (1.13) we have these N–connection ”prolongations of
differentials”:
δxI = dxI ,
A1 A1
δy A1 = dy(1) + M(1)I dxI , (1.20)
A2 A2 A1 A2
δy A2 = dy(2) + M(2)A 1
dy(1) + M(2)I dxI ,
................................
As A1 A2 Az
δy As = dy(s) As
+ M(s)A 1
dy(1) As
+ M(s)A 2
dy(2) + ... + M(z)I dxI ,
•
where M(•)• are the dual coefficients of the Nconnection which can be
expressed explicitly by recurrent formulas through the components of N–
<I>
connection N<A> . To do this we shall rewrite formulas (1.20) in matrix
form:
δ • = d• × M(u),
where
A1 A2 As
δ• = δxI δy A1 δy A2 ... δy As , d• = dxI dy(1) δy(2) ... δy(s)
and
A1 A2 Az
1 M(1)I M(2)I ... M(z)I
A2 Az
0 1 M(2)A ... M(z)A
1 1
Az
M =
0 0 1 ... M(z)A 2
,
... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 1
and then, taking into consideration that bases ∂• (δ • ) and d• (δ • ) are mu
tually dual, to compute the components of matrix M being s–inverse to
34
matrix N (see (1.17 )). We omit these simple but tedious calculus for
general dvsbundlesand, for simplicity,
we present the basic formulas for
z
osculator s–bundle Osc M̃ , π, M̃ when J–distribution properties (1.16)
and (1.17) alleviates the problem. For common type of indices on M̃ and
higher order extensions on Oscz M̃ the dual la–base is expressed as
δxI = dxI ,
I I I
δy(1) = dy(1) + M(1)J dxJ ,
I I I J I
δy(2) = dy(2) + M(1)J dy(1) + M(2)J dxJ ,
................................
I I I J I J I
δy(z) = dy(z) + M(1)J dy(s−1) + M(2)J dy(z−2) + ... + M(z)J dxJ ,
with M–coefficients computed by recurrent formulas:
I I
M(1)J = N(1)J , (1.21)
I I I K
M(2)J = N(2)J + N(1)K M(1)J ,
..............
I I I K I K I K
M(s)J = N(s)J + N(s−1)K M(1)J + ... + N(2)K M(z−2)J + N(1)K M(z−1)J .
One holds these transformation law for dual coefficients (1.21) with respect
to coordinate transforms (1.3) :
K I ′ I K ′ I ′ ′
M(1)J Y(0,0)K = M(1)K ′ Y(0,0)J + Y(1,0)J ,
K I ′ I K ′ I ′ K I ′ ′ ′
M(2)J Y(0,0)K = M(2)K ′ Y(0,0)J + M(1)K ′ Y(1,0)J + Y(2,0)J ,
................................
K I′ I′ K′ I ′ K ′ I K ′ I′ ′
M(z)J Y(0,0)K = M(z)K ′ Y(0,0)J + M(z−1)K ′ Y(1,0)J + ... + M(1)K ′ Y(z−1,0)J + Y(z,0)J .
35
with local coefficients
A
Ap
p
δNβp−1 δNγAp−1
p
D A A
p
Nβp−1 N̂Dppγp−1 − (−)βp−1 γp−1  NγDp−1
p
N̂Dppβp−1 ,
p A
A δNγp−1
where N̂Dppγp−1 = D (we consider y A0 ≃ xI ).
∂y(p)p
36
By a linear connection of a s–manifold we understand a linear connection
in its tangent bundle.
Let denote by Ξ(M̃ ) and Ξ(Ẽ <p> ), respectively, the modules of vector
<p>
fields on smanifold M̃ and vsbundle Ẽ <p> and by F (M̃) and F (Ẽ ),
<p>
respectively, the smodules of functions on M̃ and on Ẽ .
It is clear that for a given global splitting into horizontal and verticals
s–subbundles (1.15) we can associate operators of horizontal and vertical
covariant derivations (h and v–derivations, denoted respectively as D (h)
and D (v1 v2 ...vz ) ) with properties:
where
(h) (h)
DX Y = DhX Y, DX f = (hX)f
and
(v ) (v )
DX p Y = Dvp X Y, DX p f = (vp X)f, (p = 1, ..., z)
for every f ∈ F (M̃) with decomposition of vectors X, Y ∈ Ξ(Ẽ <z> ) into
horizontal and vertical parts,
(h) δq
D( δ q= ,
δxk
) δxK
and p–vertical local coefficients
I
(CJ<C> <A>
, C<B><C> I
) = (CJCp
(u), CBA11Cp (u), CBA22Cp (u), ..., CBAzzCp (u))
37
(p = 1, ..., z) such that
with components
δQIA r
JBr
QIA
JBr K =
r
+ LI HK QHA r Ar ICr H IAr Cr IAr
JBR + LCi K QJBi − L JK QHBr − LBr K QJCr ,
∂xK
and vp covariant derivatives defined as
(v )
DX p Q = X Cp QIA I Br
JBr ⊥Cp δI ⊗∂Ar ⊗d ⊗δ ,
r
with components
δQIA
JBR
r
QIA
JBr ⊥Cp =
r
+ C I HCp QHA r Ar IFr H IAr Fr IAr
JBR + CFr Cp QJBR − CJCp QHFR − CBr Cp QJFR ..
∂y Cp
The above presented formulas show that
are the local coefficients of the dconnection D with respect to the local
frame ( δxδ I , ∂y∂ a ). If a change (1.3) of local coordinates on Ẽ <z> is performed,
38
by using the law of transformation of local frames (1.19),we obtain the
following transformation laws of the local coefficients of a d–connection:
′ ′
I′ ∂xI ∂xJ ∂xM I ∂xI ∂ 2 xM
L J ′M ′ = L JM + , (1.23)
∂xI ∂xJ ′ ∂xM ′ ∂xM ∂xJ ′ ∂xM ′
Cf
A′f ∂KBf′
A
A′ A′ B ∂xM f
As in the usual case of tensor calculus on locally isotropic spaces the trans
formation laws (1.23) for d–connections differ from those for dstensors,
which are written (for instance, we consider transformation laws for ds–
tensor (1.22)) as
I ′ 1 ...I ′ p A′ 1 ...A′ E ′ ...E ′ ...D ′ ....D ′
QJ ′ 1 ...J ′ q B′ 1 ...Bpq′1 C1′ ...Cpq′2 ...F 1′ ...Fq′ ps =
1 1 2 1 s
I1′
∂x ∂xJ1 A′1 B1 Dp′ s F I ...Ip A ...Ap E ...Ep ...D ....Dp
I J ′ . . .K A K B ′ . . . K D KFpp′ s QJ11 ...Jq B11 ...Bq11 C11 ...Cq22 ...F11...Fqs s .
∂x ∂x 1
1 1 1 ps s
39
+T (vp−1X, vp−1 Y ) + T (vp−1X, vp Y ) + T (vp X, vp−1 X) + T (vp X, vp Y ) + ...
+T (vz−1 X, vz−1 Y ) + T (vz−1X, vz Y ) + T (vz X, vz−1 X) + T (vz X, vz Y ).
Taking into account the skewsupersymmetry of T and the equations
δ δ <A> δ δ δ δNJ<A> δ
[ , } = RJK , [ , } = ,
∂xJ ∂xK ∂y <A> ∂xJ ∂y <B> ∂y <B> ∂y <A>
where
<A> δNJ<A> <A>
KJ δNK
RJK = − (−) ,
∂xK ∂xJ
40
and introduce notations
δ δ δ
hT ( K
, J ) = T I JK I , (1.24)
δx δx δx
δ δ A1 δ
v1 T ( K
, J ) = T̃KJ ,
δx δx ∂y A1
δ δ I δ
hT ( , ) = P̃J<A> , ...,
∂y <A> ∂x J δxI
δ δ <A> δ
vp T ( B
, J ) = PJB <A>
, ...,
∂y p δx p
∂y
δ δ <A> δ
vp T ( , B
) = S B C .
∂y Cp ∂y f f p
∂y <A>
Now we can compute the local components of the torsions, introduced
in (1.24), with respect to a la–frame of a d–connection
DΓ = (L, ..., L(p) , ..., C, ..., C(p), ...) :
T I JK = LI JK − (−)JK LI KJ , (1.25)
<A>
T̃JK = R<A> JK , P̃J<B>
I
= C I J<B> ,
δNJ<A>
P <A> J<B> = − L<A> <B>J ,
∂y <B>
S <A> <B><C> = C <A> <B><C> − (−)<B><C> C <A> <C><B> .
The even and odd components of torsions (1.25) can be specified in ex
plicit form by using decompositions of indices into even and odd parts
(I = (i, î), J = (j, ĵ), ..), for instance,
T i jk = Li jk − Li kj , T i j k̂ = Li j k̂ + Li k̂j ,
T î jk = Lî jk − Lî kj , . . .,
and so on (see [160,161] and the second Part of this monograph for explicit
formulas (6.24),(6.25) on torsions on a ha–space E <z> , we shall omit ”tilde”
for usual manifolds and bundles).
41
Another important characteristic of a d–connection DΓ is its curvature:
and
where X, Y, Z ∈ Ξ(Ẽ <z> ). Taking into account properties (1.26) and the
equations
R(X, Y ) = −(−)XY  R(Y, X)
we prove that the curvature of a dconnection D in the total space of a
vsbundle Ẽ <z> is completely determined by the following dstensor fields:
(h) (h) (h)
R(hX, hY )hZ = (D[X DY } − D[hX,hY } (1.27)
(v )
1 (v
z−1 z ) (v )
−D[hX,hY } − ...D[hX,hY } − D[hX,hY } )hZ,
(v ) (h) (h)
R(vf X, hY )vp Z = (D[Xf DY } − D[vf X,hY } −
(v ) (v ) (v )
D[vf1X,hY } )v1 Z − ... − D[vfp−1 p
X,hY } )vp−1 Z − D[vf X,hY } )vp Z,
(v ) (v ) (v )
R(vf X, vp Y )hZ = (D[Xf DY }p − D[vf1X,vp Y } )hZ − ...
(v ) z (v )
−D[vfz−1
X,vp Y } − D[vf X,vp Y } )hZ,
42
(v ) (v ) (v )
R(vf X, vq Y )vp Z = (D[Xf DY }q − D[vf1X,vq Y } )v1 Z − ...
(v ) (v )
−D[vfp−1 p
X,vq Y } )vp−1 Z − D[vf X,vq Y } )vp Z,
where
(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)
D[X DY } = DX DY − (−)XY  DY DX ,
(h) (v ) (h) (v ) (v ) (h)
D[X DY }p = DX DY p − (−)Xvp Y  DY p DX ,
(v ) (h) (v ) (h) (h) (v )
D[Xp DY } = DX p DY − (−)vp XY  DY DX p ,
(v ) (v ) (v ) (v ) (v ) (v )
D[Xf DY }p = DX f DY p − (−)vf Xvp Y  DY p DX f .
The local components of the ds–tensor fields (1.27) are introduced as follows:
RH I JK = δK LI HJ − (−)KJδJ LI HK +
43
·I
SJ·<B><C> = δ<C> C I J<B> − (−)<B><C> δ<B> C I J<C> +
C <H> J<B> C I <H><C> − (−)<B><C> C <H> J<C> C I <H><B> ,
S<B> <A> <C><D> = δ<D> C <A> <B><C> − (−)<C><D>δ<C> C <A> <B><D> +
C <E> <B><C> C <A> <E><D> − (−)<C><D>C <E> <B><D> C <A> <E><C> .
Even and odd components of curvatures (1.29) can be written out by split
ting indices into even and odd parts, for instance,
Rh i jk = δk Li hj − δj Li hk + Lm hj Li mk − Lm hk Li mj + C i h<a> R<a> jk ,
X
[(DX R)(U, Y, Z) + R(T (X, Y )Z)U] = 0, (1.30)
SC
P
where SC means the respective supersymmretric cyclic sum over X, Y, Z
and U. If D is a d–connection, then by using (1.26) and
44
X
[vf (DX T )(Y, Z) − vf R(X, Y )Z+
SC
X
vf T (hT (X, Y ), Z)+ vf T (vp T (X, Y ), Z)] = 0,
p≥f
X
[h(DX R)(U, Y, Z) + hR(hT (X, Y ), Z)U+
SC
X
[R<A> JKH + T M JK R<A> HM + R<B> JK P <A> H<B> ] = 0,
SC[L,K,J}
45
S <A> <B><C>J + C M J<C> P <A> M <B> −
(−)<B><C> C M J<B> P <A> M <C> + P <D> J<B> S <A> <C><D> −
(−)<C><B> P <D> J<C> S <A> <B><D> + S <D> <B><C> P <A> J<D> +
P<B> <A> J<C> − (−)<C><B> P<C> <A> J<B> = 0,
X
[S <A> <B><C>⊥<D> +
SC[<B>,<C>,<D>}
·I
PK·J<D>L − (−)LJ PK·L<D>J
·I
+ RK I LJ⊥<D> + C M L<D> RK I JM −
46
P <F > J<C> S<B> <A> <D><F > − (−)<C><D> P <F > J<D> S<B> <A> <C><F > +
S <F > <C><D> P<B> <A> J<F > = 0,
X
.I <A> .I
[SK.<B><C>⊥<D> − S.<B><C> SK.<D><A> ] = 0,
SC[<B>,<C>,<D>}
X
.<A> <E> .<A>
[S<F >.<B><C>⊥<D> − S.<B><C> S<F >.<E><A> ] = 0,
SC[<B>,<C>,<D>}
P
where is the supersymmetric cyclic sum over indices < B >
SC[<B>,<C>,<D>}
, < C >, < D > .
As a consequence of a corresponding arrangement of (1.27) we obtain the
Ricci identities (for simplicity we establish them only for ds–vector fields,
although they may be written for every dstensor field):
z
X
(h) (h) (h) (v )
f
D[X DY } hZ = R(hX, hY )hZ + D[hX,hY } hZ + D[hX,hY } hZ, (1.32)
f =1
z
X
(v ) (h) (h) (v )
D[Xp DY } hZ = R(vp X, hY )hZ + D[vp X,hY } hZ + D[vpfX,hY } hZ,
f =1
z
X
(v ) (v ) (v )
D[Xp DY }P = R(vp X, vp Y )hZ + D[vpfX,vp Y } hZ
f =1
and
z
X
(h) (h) (h) f(v )
D[X DY } vp Z = R(hX, hY )vp Z + D[hX,hY } vp Z + D[hX,hY } vp Z, (1.33)
f =1
z
X z
X
(v ) (h) (v ) (v )
D[Xf DY } vp Z = R(vf X, hY )vp Z + D[vfqX,hY } vp Z + D[vfqX,hY } vp Z,
q=1 q=1
z
X
(v ) (v ) (v )
D[Xq DY }f vp Z = R(vq X, vf Y )vp Z + D[vfsX,vf Y } vp Z.
s=1
47
R<B> <A> KL X <B> − T H KLX <A> H − R<B> KLX <A> ⊥<B> ,
X I K⊥<D> − (−)K<D>X I ⊥<D>K =
·I
PH·K<D> X H − C H K<D> X I H − P <A> K<D> X I ⊥<A> ,
X I ⊥<B>⊥<C> − (−)<B><C> X I ⊥<C>⊥<B> =
·I
SH·<B><C> X H − S <A> <B><C> X I ⊥<A>
and
X <A> KL − (−)KL X <A> LK =
R<B> <A> KL X <B> − T H KLX <A> H − R<B> KLX <A> ⊥<B> ,
X <A> K⊥<B> − (−)<B>K X <A> ⊥<B>K =
P<B> <A> KC X C − C H K<B> X <A> H − P <D> K<B> X <A> ⊥<D> ,
X <A> ⊥<B>⊥<C> − (−)<C><B> X <A> ⊥<C>⊥<B> =
S<D> <A> <B><C> X <D> − S <D> <B><C> X <A> ⊥<D> .
We note that the above presented formulas [265] generalize for higher order
anisotropy the similar ones for locally anisotropic superspaces [260].
t = tI<A> δI ⊗δ <A> .
<A>
The dconnection 1forms ωJI and ω̃<B> are introduced as
with
d(dI ) − dH ∧ ωH
I
= −Ω, d(δ <A> ) − δ <B> ∧ ω̃<B>
<A>
= −Ω̃<A> ,
48
dωJI − ωJH ∧ ωH
I
= −ΩIJ , dω̃<B>
<A> <C>
− ω̃<B> <A>
∧ ω̃<C> = −Ω̃<A>
<B> ,
in which the torsion 2forms ΩI and Ω̃<A> are given respectively by formulas:
1 1
ΩI = T I JK dJ ∧ dK + C I J<C> dJ ∧ δ <C> ,
2 2
1
Ω̃<A> = R<A> JK dJ ∧ dK +
2
1 <A> J <C> 1
P J<C> d ∧ δ + S <A> <B><C> δ <B> ∧ δ <C> ,
2 2
and
1 1 1
ΩIJ = RJ I KH dK ∧ dH + P ·I K
J·K<C> d ∧ δ
<C>
+ S ·I δ <B> ∧ δ <C> ,
2 2 2 J·K<C>
1 ·<A>
Ω̃<A> K
<B> = R<B>·KH d ∧ d +
H
2
1 1
P<B> <A> K<C> dK ∧ δ <C> + S<B> <A> <C><D> δ <C> ∧ δ <D> .
2 2
We have defined the exterior product on s–space to satisfy the property
49
or, in consequence,
B
GI<A> − NI<B> h<A><B> = 0, GAf Ap − NAfp hAp Bp = 0, (1.34)
where
GI<A> = G(∂I , ∂<A> ), GAf Ap = G(∂Af , ∂Ap ).
From (1.34) one follows
A
NI<B> = h<B><A> GI<A> , NAfp = hAp Bp GAf Bp , ...,
for every , f, p = 1, 2, ..., z, and X ∈ Ξ(Ẽ <z> ). Conditions (1.36) are written
in locally adapted form as
50
In every dvs–bundle provided with compatible N–connection and met
ric structures one exists a metric dconnection (called the canonical d–
connection associated to G) depending only on components of Gmetric and
N–connection . Its local coefficients CΓ = (L̀IJK , L̀<A> I <A>
<B>K , C̀J<C> , C̀<B><C> )
are as follows:
1
L̀IJK = g IH (δK gHJ + δJ gHK − δH gJK ), (1.37)
2
1
L̀<A>
<B>K = δ<B> NK
<A>
+ h<A><C> ×
2
[δ<K> h<B><C> − (δ <B> NK )h<Ḋ><C> −(δ <C> NK<D> )h<Ḋ><B> ],
<D>
I 1
C̀J<C> = g IK δ <C> gJK ,
2
<A> 1
C̀<B><C> = h<A><D> (δ <C> h<D><B> +
2
δ<B> h<D><C> − δ<D> h<B><C> .
We emphasize that, in general, the torsion of CΓ–connection (1.37) does
not vanish.
It should be noted here that on dvsbundles provided with Nconnection
and dconnection and metric really it is defined a multiconnection ds–struc
ture, i.e. we can use in an equivalent geometric manner different types of
d connections with various properties. For example, for modeling of some
physical processes we can use an extension of the Berwald d–connection
BΓ = (LI JK , δ<B> NK<A> , 0, C<B><C>
<A>
), (1.38)
<A>
where LI JK = L̀IJK and C <A> <B><C> = C̀<B><C> , which is hvmetric, i.e.
satisfies conditions:
(h) (v ) (v )
DX hG = 0, ..., DX p vp G = 0, ..., DX z vz G = 0
for every X ∈ Ξ(Ẽ <z> ), or in locally adapted coordinates,
gIJK = 0, h<A><B>⊥<C> = 0.
As well we can introduce the Levi–Civita connection
<α>
{ }=
< β ><γ >
51
1 <α><β>
G (∂<β> G<τ ><γ> + ∂<γ> G<τ ><β> − ∂<τ > G<β><γ> ),
2
constructed as in the Riemann geometry from components of metric
G<α><β> by using partial derivations
∂ ∂ ∂
∂<α> = <α>
= ( I , <A> ),
∂u ∂x ∂y
which is metric but not a dconnection.
In our further considerations we shall largely use the Christoffel d–
symbols defined similarly as components of Levi–Civita connection but by
using la–partial derivations,
1 <α><τ >
Γ̃<α>
<β><γ> = G (δ<β> G<τ ><γ> + δ<γ> G<τ ><β> − δ<τ > G<β><γ> ),
2
(1.39)
having components
C Γ̃ = (LI JK , 0, 0, C <A> <B><C> ),
where coefficients LI JK and C <A> <B><C> must be computed as in formulas
(1.38).
We can express arbitrary d–connection as a deformation of the back
ground d–connection (1.38):
52
<α> <β><γ> <α>
T̈<β><γ> = Γ̈<α>
<β><γ> − (−) Γ̈<γ><β> ,
and
·<α> <γ><δ>
R̃<β>·<γ><δ> = δ<δ> Γ̃<α>
<β><γ> − (−) δ<γ> Γ̃<α>
<β><δ> +
<γ><δ> <ϕ>
Γ̃<ϕ> <α>
<β><γ> Γ̃<ϕ><δ> − (−) Γ̃<β><δ> Γ̃<α> <α>
<ϕ><γ> + Γ̃<β><ϕ> w
<ϕ>
<γ><δ> ,
·<α>
R̈<β>·<γ><δ> = D̃<δ> P <α> <β><γ> − (−)<γ><δ> D̃<γ> P <α> <β><δ> +
P <ϕ> <β><γ> P <α> <ϕ><δ> − (−)<γ><δ> P <ϕ> <β><δ> P <α> <ϕ><γ>
+P <α> <β><ϕ> w <ϕ> <γ><δ> ,
the nonholonomy coefficients w <α> <β><γ> are defined as
[δ<α> , δ<β> } = δ<α> δ<β> − (−)<α><β> δ<β> δ<α> = w <τ > <α><β> δ<τ > .
53
I
(f = 0, 1, ..., z; p = 1, ..., z, and y(0) = xI ).
A metric structure on Oscz M̃ is ds–tensor s–symmetric field gIJ (u(z) ) =
gIJ (x, y(1) , y(2) , ..., y(z) ) of type (0, 2), srankgij  = (n, m). The N–lift of
Sasaki type of gIJ is given by (see (1.35)) defines a global Riemannian
s–structure (if M f is a s–differentiable, paracompact smanifold):
X = X(u)I δI + Y (u)I ∂I ,
54
which does not depend on Nconnection structure:
δ ∂ ∂
J( I
) = I and J( I ) = 0.
δx ∂y ∂y
55
I 1
C̄·JK = C I JK − g IH (gJR S R HK + gKRS R HJ − gHR S R KJ ),
2
I I
where L JK and C JK are the same as for the CΓ(N)–connection (1.41).
The Lagrange spaces were introduced [136] in order to geometrize the
concept of Lagrangian in mechanics (the Lagrange geometry is studied in
details in [160,161]). For sspaces we present this generalization:
A Lagrange s–space, LS–space, Ln,m = (M̃ , gIJ ), is defined as a partic
ular case of GLSspace when the ds–metric on M̃ can be expressed as
1 ∂2L
gIJ (u) = , (1.43)
2 ∂y I ∂y J
where L : T M̃ → Λ, is a sdifferentiable function called a sLagrangian on
M̃ .
Now we consider the supersymmetric extension of Finsler space: A
Finsler s–metric on M̃ is a function FS : T M̃ → Λ having the properties:
1. The restriction of FS to T ˜M̃ = T M̃ \ {0} is of the class G∞ and F
is only supersmooth on the image of the null cross–section in the tsbundle
to M̃ .
2. The restriction of F to T ˜M̃ is positively homogeneous of degree 1
with respect to (y I ), i.e. F (x, λy) = λF (x, y), where λ is a real positive
number.
3. The restriction of F to the even subspace of T ˜M̃ is a positive function.
4. The quadratic form on Λn,m with the coefficients
1 ∂2F 2
gIJ (u) =
2 ∂y I ∂y J
defined on T ˜M̃ is nondegenerate.
A pair F n,m = (M̃, F ) which consists from a supersmooth smanifold M̃
and a Finsler s–metric is called a Finsler superspace, FS–space.
It’s obvious that FS–spaces form a particular class of LS–spaces with
sLagrangian L = F 2 and a particular class of GLS–spaces with metrics of
type (1.58).
For a FS–space we can introduce the supersymmetric variant of nonlinear
Cartan connection [56,213]:
∂ ∗I
NJI (x, y) = G ,
∂y J
56
where
1 ∂2ε ∂ε
G∗I = g ∗IJ ( I K y K − J ), ε(u) = gIJ (u)y I y J ,
4 ∂y ∂x ∂x
2
and g ∗IJ is inverse to gIJ
∗
(u) = 21 ∂y∂I ∂y
ε
J . In this case the coefficients of
1 ∂2F 2
gIJ (u(1) ) = I J
,
2 ∂y(1) ∂y(1)
for which
(gIJ ◦ π1z )(u(z) ) = gIJ (u(1) ).
So, gIJ (u(1) ) is a ds–tensor on
57
The Christoffel d–symbols
The dual coefficients for the Nconnection (1.21) are recurrently computed
by using (1.44) and operator
I ∂ I ∂ I ∂
Γ = y(1) I
+ 2 y(2) I
+ ... + z y(z) I
,
∂x ∂y(1) ∂y(z−1)
I
M(1)J = GI(N )J ,
I 1
M(2)J = [ΓGI(N )J + GI(N )K M(1)JK
],
2
..............
I 1 I
M(z)J = [ΓM(z−1)J + GI(N )K M(z−1)J
K
].
z
The prolongations of FS–spaces can be generalized for Lagrange s–spaces
(on Lagrange spaces and theirs higher order extensions see [160,161,162] and
on supersymmetric extensions of Finsler geometry see [260]). Let Ln,m =
(M̃ , gIJ ) be a Lagrange s–space. The Lagrangian L : T M f → Λ can be
extended
on Osc M̃ by using maps of the Lagrangian, (L ◦ π1z )(u(z) ) =
z
58
connected with the problem of elaboration of the so–called higher order
analytic mechanics (see, for instance, [64,150,149,226]).
A Lagrangian s–differentiable of order z (z = 1, 2, 3, ...) on sdifferenti
able s–manifold M f → Λ, s–differentiable on
f is an application L(z) : Oscz M
g f and smooth in the points of Oscz M f where y I = 0.
Osk z M (1)
It is obvious that
1 ∂ 2 L(z)
gIJ (x, y(1) , ..., y(z) ) = I J
2 ∂y(z) ∂y(z)
1.5 Discussion
We have explicitly constructed a new class of superspaces with higher order
anisotropy. The status of the results in this Chapter and the relevant open
questions are discussed as follows.
From the generally mathematical point of view it is possible a definition
of a supersymmetric differential geometric structure imbedding both type
of supersymmetric extensions of Finsler and Lagrange geometry as well var
ious Kaluza–Klein superspaces. The first type of superspaces, considered
as locally anisotropic, are characterized by nontrivial nonlinear connection
structures and corresponding distinguishing of geometric objects and basic
structure equations. The second type as a role is associated to trivial non
linear connections and higher order dimensions. A substantial interest for
further considerations presents the investigations of physical consequences
of models of field interactions on higher and/or lower dimensional super
spaces provided with N–connection structure.
59
It worth noticing that higher order derivative theories are one of cur
rently central division in modern theoretical and mathematical physics. It
is necessary a rigorous formulation of the geometric background for devel
oping of higher order analytic mechanics and corresponding extensions to
classical quantum field theories. Our results do not only contain a super
symmetric extension of higher order fiber bundle geometry, but also propose
a general approach to the ”physics” with local anisotropic interactions. The
elaborated in this Chapter formalism of distinguished vector superbundles
highlights a scheme by which supergravitational and superstring theories
with higher order anisotropy can be constructed.
60
Chapter 2
HA–Supergravity
61
ing coordinates) in a geometric manner, in some line following the geo
metric background for Einstein realtivity, but in our case on dvsbundels
provided with arbitrary N–connection and distinguished torsion and metric
structures. We can consider different models, for instance, with prescribed
N–connection and torsions, to develop a Einstein–Cartan like theory, or to
follow approaches from gauge gravity. In section 2.6 we propose a variant
of gauge like higher anisotropic supergravity being a generalization to dvs–
bundles of models of locally anisotropic gauge gravity [258,259,272] (see also
Chapter 7 in this monograph).
(xbi , θbi , yba1 , ζ ba1 , ..., ybap , ζ bap , ..., ybaz , ζ baz )
We shall use la–frame decompositions of metric on EeN<z> :
<α> <β>
G<α><β> (u) = l<α> (u)l<β> (u)G<α><β> . (2.1)
Indices of type < α >, < β >, ... are considered as abstract ones [180,181,
182] s–vielbein indices. On Nconnection s–spaces we can fix la–frames and
<α>
s–coordinates when s–vielbein components l<α> and d–metrics G<α><β>
and G<α><β> are constant.
We suppose that s–space EeN<z> is provided with a set of σ–matrices
i a0 i a0
σ←−
i i
−
→
= σ←
a0
−
a0
−
→
= li σ ii i = la0 σaa00 a0 ,
←
− −
→ ←
− −
→
62
a1 a1 ap ap az az
σ←
a1
−
a1
−
→
= la1 σaa11 a1 , ..., σ←
ap ap = lap σaapp ap , ..., σ←z az
a− −
→
= laz σaazz a→
z
←
− −
→ − −
→ − −
← → − −
←
63
bbp b
ap <α>
ε–objects of type ε−→−→ are spinor metrics. The inverse matrix l<α> satisfies
conditions
<α> <α> <α> <α> <α> <α>
l<α> l<β> = δ<β> , l<α> l<β> = δ<β>
and are parametrized as
b> =
<α
l<α>
i
δi 0 0 ... 0 0 0 ...
i i bi
←
−
−iσ←− ...
i θ δ← 0 ... 0 0 0
−
→
i −
→ i
−
j →
i i
i i
−iθ←− σ←− →− −δ −→ ...
j ε 0 bi ... 0 0 0
−
i
−
→ −
→
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
ap .
0 0 0 ... δap 0 0 ...
b
ap
ap ap
0 0 0 ... −iσap ap ζ −
→ δa←−p 0 ...
←− −
→ ←
−
ap ap bp ap ap
0 0 0 ... −iζ ←− σap bp ε−→−→ 0 −δba−→p ...
←− −
→ −→
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
<α> <α>
We call l<α> l<α> generalized supervielbien, s–vielbein, (inverse s–vielbe
in) of N–connection s–space. Additionally to (2.2) we shall use differential
operators:
δ δ ap ap δ δ ap ap δ
Pap = b
, Q ap = ap − iσap ap ζ
−
→ , Q ap = − ap + iζ ←−σ
ap ap .
∂y ap ← − ∂θ ←− ←− −
→ ∂y ap −→ ∂θ ←− ← − → ∂y ap
−
(2.3)
For a trivial N–connection operators (2.2) and (2.3) are transformed re
spectively into ”covariant” and infinitesimal generators on flat s–spaces
[286,170,215].
64
where by ”+” is denoted the Hermitian conjugation. Every s–field is a poly
nomial decomposition on variables (θi , ..., ζ ap , ...) . For instance, with respect
a a
to (ζ ←−z , ζ −→z ) = (ζ(z) , ζ(z) ) we have a such type polynom (for simplicity, here
←− −→
we omit spinor indices):
a a
V (u(z−1) , y(z) , ζ ←−z , ζ −→z ) = C(u(z−1) , y(z))+
For every integer q we introduce the linear space generated by basis elements
δu<α1 > , δu<α2 > , ..., δu<αq > where every multiple satisfies the above presented
s–commutation rules. So, a function Φ(u) on EeN<z> is a 0–form, δu<α> Φ<α>
is a 1–form, δu<α> Λδu<β> Φ<α><β> is a 2–form and so on. Forms can be
multiplied by taking into account that u<α> δu<β> = (−)αβ u<β> δu<α> .
Let
̟ = δu<α1 > Λδu<α2 > Λ...Λδu<αq >
65
be a q–form. The N–connection adapted differntial
δ̟
δ̟ = δu<α1 > Λδu<α2 > Λ...Λδu<αq > Λδu<αq+1 >
∂u<αq+1 >
is a (q+1)–form. One holds the Poincare lemma: δδ = 0. Under some
topological restrictions [203,63,147] the inverse Poincare lemma also holds:
from δρ = 0 one follos that ρ = δ̟ (it should be noted here that on
dvs–bundles we must take into account the condition of existence of a N–
connection structure).
An arbitrary locally adapted basis l<αb> in the space of 1–forms can be
described by its s–vielbein matrix (generally being different from the (2.3)):
<α>
δu<α> l<α> (u(z) ) = l<α> .
<α>
The inverse matrix l<α> (u(z) ) is defined in a usual manner.
ς ′ = ςU.
66
takes values in Lie algebra, i.e.
X
ϕbe<α> (u(z−1) , y(z) , ζ ←−z , ζ −→z )Tbe .
a a a a
ϕ<α> (u(z−1) , y(z) , ζ ←−z , ζ −→z ) =
b
e
ϕ′ = U −1 ϕU + U −1 δU,
where
K<β><α> = −(−)αβ K<α><β>
the formula:
67
Kap bp = δap ϕ bp − δ bp ϕap + [ϕap , ϕ←b− ] + wa<α>
p bp
ϕ<α> ,
←
− ←
− ←
− ←
−
where p = 0, 1, 2, ..., z.
In the next subsections we shall analyze constraints substantially de
creasing the number of independent fields containing components of s–field
ϕ<αb> without restrictions on theirs dependence on coordinates u<α> .
If (additionally) equations
ba
Kap bp = δap ϕ bp + δ bp ϕap + 2iσapp bp ϕb
ap + wa<α>
p bp
ϕ<α> = 0 (2.5)
− −
← → ←
− −
→ −
→ ←
− − −
← → − −
← →
68
are satisfied, the s–functions ϕbi , ..., ϕbap , ... can be expressed through A and
B; gauge transforms of these fields are parametrized as
1 cp dp 1 cp dp
Kap bp = σa−→p ←−
bp W cp , Kap bp
ε dp = − ε bp → ←
−
cp σap
−
Wdp ,
← − 8 − ←
← − − → −→ 8 −→ −
→ ←−
i cp dp
Kap bp = {(εσap σbp )←− ←− (δ d W c +
p p
64 ← − ← −
cp dp
δ cp Wdp ) + (εσap σbp )−→ → (δ c W d
−
p p + δdp W cp )} .
←
− ←
− −→ − → −
→ −
→
From definition of W←− i , ..., Wap , Wap , ... one follows that
i , W−
→ ←
− −
→
ap bp
δdp W cp = 0, δ cp Wdp = 0, δ ←− Wap − δ bp W −→ = 0.
−
→ ←
− ←
− −
→ ←
− −
→
69
From K←− i j = ... = K ap bp = ...0 and K−→
i j = ... = Kap bp = ...0 we
←− ← − ←− −
→ → −
− →
respectively obtain
ϕap = −e−A δap eA (2.7)
←
− ←
−
and
ϕap = −e−A δap eA .
−
→ −
→
Considering transforms
+
eA → eS eA eκ and e−U → e−T e−A eκ , (2.8)
i ap
δ−→
i T r(W ←
− i ) = ... = δap T r(W ←
W←− − Wa ) = ... = 0.
p
−
→ ←
−
So, we can use these traces and theirs complex conjugations in order to
define Lagrangians of type (2.6) for nonabelian gauge theories. Reality
conditions and gauge transforms can be considered as in the Abelian case
but by taking into account changings (2.7) and (2.8).
70
bundle Oscz M f with base M f being of dimension ((3, 1), 1) where (3, 1) de
notes respectively the dimension and signature of the even subspace and 1 is
the dimention of the odd subspace. Our aim is to find respectively a higher
order extension of d–covarant equations for the field of spin 2 and spin 3/2.
As a posible structural group we choose, for instance, the Lorentz subgroup
(locally the action of this group is split according to the fixed N–connection
structure). With respect to coordinate d–transforms
<µ′ >
<µ′ > <ν> δu
δu = δu
∂u<ν>
one holds the transformation laws
<α> <α> δu<α> <α> δu<ν> <α>
E<α′ > = E<α> and Φ ′ = Φ .
∂u<α′ > <β><µ >
∂u<µ′ > <β><ν>
Let introduce 1–forms
<α> <α> <α>
E <α> = E<µ> δu<µ> and Φ<β> = Φ<β><µ> δu<µ>
The torsion and curvature are defined respectively by the first and second
structure equations
<α>
Ω<α> = δE <α> − E <β> Φ<β> ,
and
<β> <β> <γ> <β>
R<α> = δΦ<α> − Φ<α> Φ<γ> .
The coefficients with values in Lie algebra are written in this form:
<α> <α>
Ω<β><γ> = (−)<β>(<γ>+<µ>) E<γ>
<µ> <ν>
E<β> δ<ν> E<µ> −
<µ> <ν> <α> <α> <α>
(−)<γ><µ>) E<β> E<γ> δ<ν> E<µ> − Φ<γ><β> + (−)<β><γ> Φ<β><γ> (2.9)
and
<β> <β>
R<δ><ε><α> = (−)<δ>(<ε>+<µ>) E<ε>
<µ> <ν>
E<δ> δ<ν> Φ<α><µ> −
71
<µ> <ν> <β>
(−)<ε><µ> E<δ> E<ε> δ<ν> Φ<α><µ> −
<γ> <β>
(−)<δ>(<ε>+<α>+<γ>) Φ<α><ε> Φ<γ><δ> +
<γ> <β>
(−)<ε>(<α>+<γ>) Φ<α><δ> Φ<γ><ε> .
<α> <α>
Putting E <α> = l<α> , with l<α> from (2.3), Φ<β><γ> = 0 in (2.9) and
for a vanishing N–connection we obtain that torsion for a trivial osculator
s–space has components:
(0)ap (0)ap ap
Ω bp cp = Ω bp cp = 2iσ bp cp = 0, (2.10)
←− −→ → ←
− − − −
← →
one follows only algebraic relations. In this case on the base s–space of the
osculator s–bundle we obtain exactly a dynamical system of equations for
spin 2 and spin 3/2 fields (for usual supergravity see [70,81,93,47,288,215]).
We can also solve nonlinear equations. It is convenient to introduce the
special gauge when for ← θ− = − θ = ... = ζ(p) = ζ(p) = ... = 0 the s–vielbein
→ ←− −→
and ds–connection are prametrized
ap ap bi bi b
ap b
ap
i i ←
− ←− ←− ←−
Ei = li (u) , ..., Eap = lap u(p−1) , x(p) , ..., E← i = δ←
− −i , ..., E←ap = δap , ..., ...
− ←−
(2.11)
i 1 i ap 1 ap
Ei←− = ψi←− (x), ..., Ea←−p = ψa←−p (u(p−1) , y(p) ), ...,
2 2
1 1
Ei−→i = ψi j (u(p−1) , x(p) ), ..., Eap ap = ψap ap (u(p−1) , y(p) ), ...,
2 −
→ −
→ 2 −→
the rest of components of the s–vielbein are zero, and
i i ap ap
Φ←j− k = ϕ←j− k (x), ..., Φ←−
bp cp = ϕ←−
bp cp (u(p−1) , y(p) ), ..., (2.12)
←
− ←
− ←
− ←
−
72
the rest of components of ds–connection
are zero.
i ap i ap
Fields li (u) , ..., lap u(p−1) , ..., ψi (x), ..., ψa←−p (u(p−1) , y(p) ), ... and
←−
i ap
ϕ←j− k (x), ...ϕ←−
bp cp (u(p−1) , y(p) ), ... from (2.11) and (2.12) are corresponding
←
− ←
−
extensions of the tetrad, Rarita–Schwinger and connectiom fields on oscu
lator bundle [162].
We note that equations
ap ap
j j
Ω−→
i k = Ω−→
i k =0 ..., Ω−b→p cp = Ω−b→p cp = 0, ...
←− ←− ← − ← −
defines the dynamics in x–space ( in u(p−1) , x(p) –space).The rest of nonva
nishing components of torsion are computed by putting components (2.11)
and (2.12) into (2.9) :
b b i b b
Ωkij θ = θ =0 = Tijk = (ψi σ k ψ j − ψj σ k ψ i ), ...,
←− −→ 2
b
a b
a i b b
Ωbppcp ζ(p) =ζ(p) =0 = Tbppcp = (ψbp σ k ψ cp − ψcp σ k ψ bp ), ...,
←− −→ 2
which shows that torsion in dvs–bundles can be generated by a correspond
ing distribution of spin density, and
i i 1 i i
Ω←−
ij←
←− ←− ←−
θ =0 = Tij = (Di ψj − Dj ψi ), ...,
θ−=−
→ 2
ap ap 1 ap i
Ω←−
bp cp ζ(p) =ζ(p) =0 = T ←−
bp cp = (D bp ψc
←− ←−
p − Dcp ψbp ), ...,
←− −→ 2
where Di , ..., Dbp , ... are usual d–covariant derivatives on the base of oscula
tor space.
We note that in this and next sections we shall omit tedious calcula
tions being similar to those from [288]; we shall present the final results
and emphasize that we can verify them straightforward manner by tak
ing into account the distinguished character of geometical objects and the
interactions with the N–connection fields).
The Bianchi identities in osculator s–bundle are written as
<α> <α>
δΩ<α> + Ω<β> Φ<β> − E <β> R <β> = 0,
73
<β> <γ> <β> <γ> <β>
δR <α> +R <α> R <γ> − Φ<α> Φ<γ> = 0,
or, in coefficient form, as
<δ>
E <γ> E <β> E <α> (E<α>
<µ>
D<µ> Ω<β><γ> +
and
<β>
D<µ> X<α> = δ<µ> X<α> − Φ<α><µ> X<β> .
Introducing parametrizations (2.11) (the special gauge) in (2.13) we find
equations:
ap cp cp
dp ep −
→ −
→
σ bp cp lap lep Ddp ψ ep − Dep ψ dp =0 (2.14)
− −
← →
fp fp tp sp
i(ldp ψ cp sp − lcp ψ dp sp )σf←−p −
→
Ωap bp tp ζ(p) =ζ(p) =0 ,
−
→ −
→ ←− ←− −→
ap cp dp ap sp dp ap
Rbp cp dp = Ecp Edp Rbp cp dp + Ec←−
p Edp Rbp sp dp +
←
−
74
cp sp ap dp ap . tp cp ap .. tp
Ecp Ed←−p Rbp sp cp + Ecp tp Edp R.bp .d−→p + Ecp Edp tp Rbp cp−→ =
←
− −
→ −
→
ap ap fp ap fp ap e ap
δdp Φbp cp − δcp Φbp dp + Φbp dp Φfp cp − Φbp cp Φfp dp + wcppdp Φep bp .
Finally, in this section, we note that for trivial N–connection sructures
and on vector superbundles the equations (2.14) and (2.15) are transformed
into dynamical field equations for the model of supergravity developed by
S. Deser and B. Zumino [70].
e e
Rap bp cp dp + R bp cp ap dp + 2iσ cpp bp Ωap ep dp + 2iσapp bp Ω cp ep dp = 0, (2.17)
−−
← −←
→← − →←
− −←
−← − −−
← → ←
− ←
− −−
← → ←
− ←
−
e
Rap bp cp dp = −2iσ bpp cp Ωap ep dp − 2iσaepp cp Ω bp ep dp , (2.18)
−←
← →−
−− → −−
← → ←
− −
→ −−
← → ←
− −
→
75
sp sp
Rap bp cp dp = −2iσdp sp bp Ω←− ← −
ap cp − 2iσdp sp ap Ω bp cp , (2.19)
→−
− → −−
← → −
→ −−
← → −
→
sp sp
Rap bp cp dp = −2iσdp sp bp Ω←− ← −
ap cp − 2iσdp sp ap Ω bp cp , (2.20)
−−
← → −−
← → ←
− −←
← − −
→
m
Rap bp cp dp = D bp Ω cp ap dp + D cp Ω bp ap dp + 2iσ bppcp Ωmp ap dp , (2.23)
−−
← →−
→ ←
− −
→ −
→ −
→ ←
− −
→ −−
← → −
→
D−→
k Ω j i−
→l + D j Ω−
k i−
→ →l = 0, (2.24)
−
→ −
→
mp mp
Dap Ωbp cp dp +Dbp Ωcp ap dp +Dcp Ωap bp dp +Ω←− −→
ap bp Ωmp cp dp +Ωap bp Ωmp cp dp + (2.27)
←
− ←
− ←
− ←− ←
− −→ ←
−
mp mp mp mp
Ω←− −→ ←− −→
bp cp Ωmp ap dp + Ωbp cp Ωmp ap dp + Ωcp ap Ωmp bp dp + Ωcp ap Ωmp bp dp , ...
←− ←
− −→ ←
− ←− ←
− −→ ←
−
(nonlinear identities).
f =M
For a trivial osculator s–bundle Osc0 M f , dim Mf = (4, 1), M
f being
a s–simmetric extension of the Lorentz bundle formulas (2.16)–(2.27) are
transformed into the Bianchi identities for the locally isotropic s–gravity
model considered by [95].
76
2.4.2 Solution of distinguished Bianchi identities
It is convinient to use spinor decompositions of curvatures and torsions (see,
for instance, [180,181,182])
d f e
Rap bp cp dp ep fp = σ cpp dp σ epp fp Rap bp dp fp , Ωap bp cp dp = σ bpp cp Ωap ep dp
→−
− −−
→← −−
→← → −−
← −−
→ ← → →−
− → →←
− →←
−− − −−
← → −
→ ←
−
and
Rap bp cp dp ep fp = −2ε cp ep Rap bp dp fp + 2ε dp fp Rap bp cp ep , ... .
→−
− −−
→← −−
→← → −←
← − →−
− →−
→− → →−
− → →−
− −←
→← −
Ω−→
i j−
k←
→ l = −2iε−
− →i −
→ l R(0) , ..., Ωap bp cp dp = −2iε ap cp ε bp dp R(p) , ... (2.28)
kεj ←
−
←
− ←
− →←
− →←
−− − →−
− −←
→ ← −
and
R−→
i j−
k−
→ l = 4 ε−
→ i −
→ →l εj−
k +εj−
→ →l ε−
i −
→ k
→
R(0) , ...,
−
→ −
→ −
→
Rap bp cp dp = 4 εap dp ε bp cp + ε bp dp εap cp R(p) , ...,
→−
− →−
→− → →−
− →−
→ − → →−
− →−
→ − →
where
b
R(0) = g kl Rkli
i
, ..., R(p) = g ap cp Rapp cp bp , ...,
satisfy correspondingly identities (2.18) and (2.19).
Similarly we can check that spinor decompositions
i
Ωap bp cp dp = ε b d Qa c − 3εap bp Qdp cp − 3εap dp Q bp cp ,
−←
← →←
−− − 4 ←−p ←−p ←−p −→p −←
← − ← −−→ ←−← − ← −−→
Q∗ap bp = Qap bp
← −−→ −−
← →
77
Now we consider these spinor decompositions of curvatures:
The next step is the solution of linear identities (2.22),(2.23) and (2.24)
containing derivatives. Putting (2.28) into (2.24) we find
Dap R(p) = 0.
−
→
The d–spinor
ap bp
Ω ep ap bp cp dp = σap bp σ cp dp Ω ep ap bp
→←
− →←
−− −−
→ −−
← → ←
−−→ −
→
1 fp fp
εap cp (ε ep dp D ←− Q fp bp + ε ep bp D ←− Q fp dp ),
2 ←−←− −→−→ ← −−→ −→− → ← −−→
i
Rap bp cp dp ep = (εap bp D dp Q ep cp + εap dp D bp Q ep cp +
←−← −−→← −← − 2 ←−←− ←− ←−−→ ←−← − ← − ← −−
→
fp
εap bp D ep Qdp cp + εap dp D ep Q bp cp ) + i(ε dp ap ε bp ep + ε ep ap ε bp dp )D ←− Q fp cp ,
−←
← − ←
− −−
← → −←
← − ←
− −−
← → −←
← −←
− ← − −←
← −←
− ← − −−
← →
i
Rap bp cp dp ep = 2iεap bp Wdp ep cp + (ε cp dp Dap Q bp ep + ε cp ep Dap Q bp dp ).
←−← −−→− →− → ←−← − −→− →− → 2 −→−→ ←− ←−−→ −→− → ← − ← −−→
78
This solution is compatible with (2.23) if
∗
D cp Q cp ep = D ep R(p) .
−−
← → ←
−
(εap dp ε cp bp + ε bp dp ε cp ap )×
→−
− →−
→ − → →−
− →−
→ − →
1 ep ∗ ep 1 ep ep
[ (D ep D−→ R(p) + D ←− D ep R(p) ) + Q ep ep Q←−−→ − 2RR∗ ]
16 −→ ← − 8 ← − −
→
and
1
ϕap bp cp dp = ϕ cp dp ap bp = (Qap dp Q bp cp + Q bp dp Qap cp )+
←−← −−→− → −→− →← −← − 4 ←−−→ ←−−→ ← −−→ ← −−→
i
(D b c Qa d + Dap cp Q bp dp + D bp dp Qap cp + Dap dp Q bp cp +
8 ←−p −→p ←−p −→p ← → ←
−− −−→ ← → ←
−− −−
→ ←−−→ ← −−
→
Dap W bp cp dp = 0
−
→ →−
− →−
→
79
approach [260] we used algebraic equations for torsion and its source in or
der to close the system of field equations). There are two ways in developing
supergravitational models. We can try to maintain similarity to Einstein’s
general relativity (see in [16,172] an example of such type locally isotropic
supergravity) and to formulate a variant of Einstein–Cartan theory on dvs–
bundles, this will be the aim of this section, or to introduce into considera
tion generalized supervielbein variables and to formulate a supersymmetric
gauge like model of la–supergravity (this approach is more accepted in the
usual locally isotropic supergravity, see as reviews [215,288,170]). The sec
ond variant will be analysed in the next section by using the sbundle of
supersymmetric affine adapted frames on lasuperspaces.
Let consider a dvs–bundle E <z> provided with some compatible nonlin
ear connection N, d–connection D and metric G structures (see detailes and
conventions in section 1.3). For a locally Nadapted frame we write
δ δ
D( δ
) = Γ<α>
<β><γ> ,
δu<γ> δu<β> δu<α>
where the d–connection D has the following coefficients:
∂NIB
w <B> <A>I = −(−)I<A> ,
∂y <A>
∂NI<B> <C>
w <B> I<A> = ,w <A><B> = 0.
∂y <A>
By straightforward calculations we obtain respectively these components of
torsion,
<α>
T (δ<γ> , δ<β> ) = T·<β><γ> δ<α> ,
80
and curvature,
ds–tensors:
I
T·JK = T I JK , T·J<A>
I
= C I J<A> , T·J<A>
I
= −C I J<A> , T·<A><B>
I
= 0,
<A>
T·IJ = R<A> IJ , T·I<B>
<A>
= −P <A> <B>I , T·<B>I
<A>
= P <A> <B>I ,
<A>
T·<B><C> = S <A> <B><C>
and
RJ·IKL = RIKL
J
, RJ·BKL = 0, R<A> <A> <A>
·JKL = 0, R·<B>KL = R·<B>KL ,
Sc(D) = R + S,
81
and
<α>
T<β><γ> + G<β> <α> T <τ > <γ><τ > −
(−)<β><γ> G<γ> <α> T <τ > <β><τ > = κ2 Q<α> <β><γ> , (2.31)
where
J<α><β> and Q<α>
<β><γ>
82
(
[RJ I − 12 (R + S − 2λ)δJ I ]I + (1) P <A> I⊥<A> = 0,
[S<B> <A> − 21 (R + S − 2λ)δ<B> <A> ]⊥<A> − (2) P I <B>I = 0,
where
(1)
P <A> J = (1) P<B>J g <A><B> , (2) P I <B> = (2) PJ<B> g IJ ,
and
1
U<α> = (G<β><δ> R<γ> <ϕ>
<δ><ϕ><β> T·<α><γ> − (2.34)
2
(−)<α><β> G<β><δ> R<γ> <ϕ> <β> <ϕ>
<δ><ϕ><α> T·<β><γ> + R·<ϕ> T·<β><α> ).
83
solved in the frame of the theory of nearly autoparallel maps of dvsbundles
(with specific deformations of dconnections (1.40) and in consequence of
torsion and curvature), which have to generalize our constructions from
[249,250,251,263,278,279], see section 3.4 and Chapter 8)
We end this section with the remark that field equations of type (2.30),
equivalently (2.32), for higher order supergravity can be similarly introduced
for the particular cases of higher order anisotropic s–spaces provided with
metric structure of type (1.35) with coefficients parametrized as for higher
order prolongations of the Lagrange, or Finsler, s–spaces (subsection 1.4.2).
84
for which
δ
= l<α> <α> (u)l<α> (u),
δu<α>
or, equivalently, δ
∂xI
= lI I (u)lI (u) and δ
∂y <C>
= l<C> <C> l<C> (u), and
where
δ <α>
Γ<α> <β><γ> (u) = l<α> <α> l<β> <β> Γ<α> <β><γ> + l<α> l <β> (u),
∂uγ
Γ<α> <β><γ> are the components of the metric d–connection, smatrix
<α>
l<β> <β> is inverse to the svielbein matrix l<β> <β> , and I<β> =
<α> <m,l>
δ<β> is the standard distinguished basis in SL–algebra Gn,k .
The curvature B of the connection (2.35),
<β> <α>
B = dΓ + Γ ∧ Γ = R<α><γ><δ> I<β> δu<γ> ∧ δu<δ>
85
has coefficients
<β>
R<α><γ><δ> = l<α> <α> (u)l<β> <β> (u)R<β>
<α><γ><δ> ,
where χ = e<α> ⊗ l<α> <α> du<α> , e<α> is the standard basis in Λn,k ⊕
Λ<m,l> and torsion T is introduced as
<α>
T = dχ + [Γ ∧ χ} = T·<β><γ> e<α> du<β> ∧ du<γ> ,
<α>
T·<β><γ> = l<α> <α> T <α> ·<β><γ> are defined by the components of the
torsion ds–tensor (1.25).
By using metric G (1.35) on dvs–bundle E <z> we can define the dual (
q,s n−q,k−s
Hodge ) operator ∗G : Λ (E <z> ) → Λ (E <z> ) for forms with values in
<z> q,s
LS–algebras on E (see details, for instance, in [288]), where Λ (E <z> )
denotes the s–algebra of exterior (q,s)–forms on E <z> .
86
Let operator ∗−1 G be the inverse to operator ∗ and δ̂G be the adjoint
to the absolute derivation d (associated to the scalar product for s–forms)
specified for (r,s)–forms as
δG = (−1)r+s ∗−1
G ◦ d ◦ ∗G .
∆B = (∆B, Rτ + Ri),
where Rτ = δG J + ∗−1
G [Γ, ∗J } and
87
are equivalent to the geometric form of Yang–Mills equations for the connec
tion Γ (see (2.36)). D.A. Popov and L.I. Dikhin proved 196,197] that such
gauge equations coincide with the vacuum Einstein equations if as com
ponents of connection form (2.35) the usual Christoffel symbols are used.
For spaces with local anisotropy the torsion of a metric d–connection in
general is not vanishing and we have to introduce the source 1–form in the
right part of (2.38) even gravitational interactions with matter fields are not
considered [272,258,259].
Let us consider the locally anisotropic supersymmetric matter source
J constructed by using the same formulas as for ∆B when instead of
R<α><β> from (2.37) is taken κ1 (J<α><β> − 12 G<α><β> J ) − λ(G<α><β> −
1
G G·<τ > ). By straightforward calculations we can verify that Yang–
2 <α><β> <τ >
Mills equations
∆B = J (2.40)
for torsionless connection Γ = (Γ, χ) in sbundle AN(E <z> ) are equivalent
to Einstein equations (2.30) on dvs–bundle E <z> . But such types of gauge
like lasupergravitational equations, completed with algebraic equations for
torsion and s–spin source, are not variational in the total space of the s–
bundle AL(E <z> ). This is a consequence of the mentioned degeneration of
the Killing form for the affine structural group [40,195,196] which also holds
for our lasupersymmetric generalization. We point out that we have intro
duced equations (2.39) in a ”pure” geometric manner by using operators
∗, δ and horizontal projection Ĥ.
We end this section by emphasizing that to construct a variational gauge
like supersymmetric la–gravitational model is possible, for instance, by con
m,l
sidering a minimal extension of the gauge s–group AFn,k (Λ) to the de Sitter
m,l m,l m,l
s–group Sn,k (Λ) = SOn,k (Λ), acting on space Λn,k ⊕ R, and formulating a
nonlinear version of de Sitter gauge s–gravity (see: [240,194] for locally
isotropic gauge gravity, [272] for a locally anisotropic variant and Chapter
7 in this monograph for higher order anisotropic generalizations of gauge
gravity).
88
Chapter 3
Supersymmetric NA–Maps
The study of models of classical and quantum field interactions in higher di
mension superspaces with, or not, local anisotropy is in order of the day. The
development of this direction entails great difficulties because of problem
atical character of the possibility and manner of definition of conservation
laws on la–spaces. It will be recalled that conservation laws of energy–
momentum type are a consequence of existence of a global group of auto
morphisms of the fundamental Mikowski spaces. As a rule one considers
the tangent space’s automorphisms or symmetries conditioned by the exis
tence of Killing vectors on curved (pseudo)Riemannian spaces. There are
not any global or local automorphisms on generic la–spaces and in result
of this fact, at first glance, there are a lot of substantial difficulties with
formulation of conservation laws and, in general, of physical consistent field
theories with local anisotropy. R. Miron and M. Anastasiei investigated the
nonzero divergence of the matter energy–momentum d–tensor, the source
in Einstein equations on la–spaces, and considered an original approach to
the geometry of time–dependent Lagrangians [12,160,161]. In a series of
papers [249,276,263,273,274,278,279,252,275,277] we attempt to solve the
problem of definition of energymomentum values for locally isotropic and
anisotropic gravitational and matter fields interactions and of conservation
laws for basic physical values on spaces with local anisotropy in the frame
work of the theory of nearly geodesic and nearly autoparallel maps.
In this Chapter a necessary geometric background (the theory of nearly
autoparallel maps, in brief namaps, and tensor integral formalism) for for
89
mulation and investigation of conservation laws on higher order isotropic
and anisotropic superspaces is developed. The class of na–maps contains
as a particular case the conformal transforms and is characterized by corre
sponding invariant conditions for generalized Weyl tensors and Thomas pa
rameters [227,230]. We can connect the na–map theory with the formalism
of tensor integral and multitensors on distinguished vector superbundles.
This approaches based on generalized conformal transforms of superspaces
with or not different types of higher order anisotropy consist a new division
of differential supergeometry with applications in modern theoretical and
mathematical physics.
We note that in most cases proofs of our theorems are mechanical but
rather tedious calculations similar to those presented in [230,252,263]. Some
of them will be given in detail, the rest will be sketched. We shall omit split
ting of formulas into even and odd components (see Chapter 8 on nearly
autoparallel maps and conservation laws for higher order (non supersym
metric) anisotropic spaces).
Section 3.1 is devoted to the formulation of the theory of nearly autopar
allel maps of dvs–bundles. The classification of na–maps and formulation
of their invariant conditions are given in section 3.2. In section 3.3 we
define the nearly autoparallel tensor–integral on locally anisotropic multi
spaces. The problem of formulation of conservation laws on spaces with
local anisotropy is studied in section 3.4. Some conclusions are presented
in section 3.5.
90
dinate system if this map is realized on the principle of coordinate equality
q(uα )→q(uα ) for every point q∈U and its f–image q∈U . We note that all
calculations included in this work will be local in nature and taken to refer
to open subsets of mappings of type ξ⊃U−→U⊂ξ. For simplicity, we sup
pose that in a fixed common coordinate system for U and U spaces E <z>
and E <z> are characterized by a common N–connection structure (in con
sequence of (1.34) by a corresponding concordance of d–metric structure),
i.e.
A A A
NApf (u) = N Afp (u) = N Afp (u),
which leads to the possibility to establish common local bases, adapted to
a given N–connection, on both regions U and U . Let denote by Γ<α> .<β><γ>
a compatible with metric structure d–connection on the dvs–bundle E <z> .
The linear d–connection on the dvs–bundle E <z> is considered to be a gen
eral one with torsion
T <α> <α> <α> <α>
.<β><γ> = Γ.<β><γ> − Γ.<γ><β> + w.<β><γ> .
and nonmetricity
K <α><β><γ> = D <α> G<β><γ> . (3.1)
Geometrical objects on E <z> are parametrized by underlined symbols,
for example, A<α> , B <α><β> , or underlined indices, for example, Aa , B ab
(in this Chapter we shall not underline indices for s–vielbein decompositions
as in Chapters 1 and 2).
It is convenient to use auxiliary s–symmetric d–connections,
<α>
γ.<β><γ> = (−)<β><γ> γ.<γ><β>
<α>
on E <z>
and
γ <α>
.<β><γ>
= (−)<β><γ> γ <α>
.<γ><β>
on E <z>
defined respectively as
Γ<α> <α> <α>
.<β><γ> = γ.<β><γ> + T.<β><γ> and Γ<α> <α> <α>
.<β><γ> = γ .<β><γ> + T .<β><γ> .
91
deformations:
γ <α>
.<β><γ>
<α>
= γ.<β><γ> <α>
+ P.<β><γ> (3.2)
and
T <α> <α> <α>
.<β><γ> = T.<β><γ> + Q.<β><γ> . (3.3)
The auxiliary linear covariant derivations induced by
<α>
γ.<β><γ> and γ <α>
.<β><γ>
92
We can define nearly autoparallel maps of la–spaces as an anisotropic
generalization (see [279,276], for ng– [230] and na–maps [249,273,
278,274,247]):
E <z> → E <z> ,
Let formulate the general conditions when deformations (3.2) and (3.3)
characterize namaps : An a–parallel l⊂U is given by functions
<α>
u<α> = u<α> (η), v <α> = dudη , η1 < η < η2 , satisfying equations (3.4). We
consider that to this a–parallel corresponds a na–parallel l ⊂ U given by
the same parameterization in a common for a chosen na–map coordinate
system on U and U . This condition holds for vectors v <α>
(1) = vDv
<α>
and
<α> <α>
v (2) = vDv(1) satisfying equality
v <α>
(2) = a(η)v
<α>
+ b(η)v <α>
(1) (3.5)
for some scalar s–functions a(η) and b(η), see definitions 3.4 and 3.5. In
troducing (3.2) and (3.3) into expressions for v <α>
(1) and v <α>
(2) in (3.5) we
obtain:
93
( or metricity conditions if d–connection Dα on E <z> is required to be met
ric) :
<δ>
D<α> G<β><γ> −P.<α>(<β> G<γ>}<δ> −K <α><β><γ> = Q<δ>.<α>(<β> G<γ>}<δ> ,
(3.8)
where { ] denotes the s–symmetric alternation satisfying, for instance,
conditions
<β><γ> <δ>
Q<δ> <δ>
.<α>(<β> G<γ>}<δ> = Q.<α><β> G<γ><δ> + (−) Q.<α><γ> G<β><δ> ;
Γ<α>
.<β><γ> on E
<z>
and Γα.βγ on E <z> ,
are locally parametrized by the solutions of equations (3.6) and (3.8) for
every point u<α> and direction v <α> on U⊂ E <z> .
We call (3.6) and (3.8) the basic equations for na–maps of higher or
der anisotropic s–spaces. They are a generalization for such s–spaces of
corresponding Sinyukov’s equations [230] for isotropic spaces provided with
symmetric affine connection structure.
94
Theorem 3.2 There are four classes of na–maps characterized by cor
responding deformation parameters and deformation ds–tensors and basic
equations:
<δ> <δ>
b(<α> P.<β><γ>} + a(<α><β> δ<γ>} ;
95
4. for na(3) –maps
We point out that for π(0) maps we have not differential equations on
<α>
P.<β><γ> (in the isotropic case one considers a first order system of differ
ential equations on metric [230]; we omit constructions with deformation of
metric in this section).
96
To formulate invariant conditions for reciprocal na–maps (when every
aparallel on E <z> is also transformed into na–parallel on E <z> ) we intro
duce into consideration the curvature and Ricci tensors defined for auxiliary
<α>
connection γ.<β><γ> :
<δ> <δ>
r<α><β><τ > = δ[<β> γ.<τ >}<α> +
97
<α>
(δ<γ> − ǫϕ<α> q<γ> )p<β><δ> − (δ<β>
<α>
− ǫϕ<α> q<β> )p[<γ><δ>} ,
1 .<τ >
(nE −2)p<α><β> = −ρ<α><β> −ǫq<τ > ϕ<γ> ρ.<τ >
<α>.<β><γ> + [ρ +
nE <τ >.<β><α>
ǫq<β> ϕ<τ > ρ<α><τ > − ǫq<τ > ϕ<γ> ρ.<τ >
<γ>.<β><α> +
1 <α>
(ψ(<β> δ<ϕ>} + σ<β><ϕ> ϕ<τ > )w <ϕ> <γ><δ>
2
( we write
·<α> 1
ρ<α> <α>
·<β><γ><δ> = r <β>·<γ><δ> − (ψ(<β> δ<ϕ>} − σ<β><ϕ> ϕ
<τ >
)w <ϕ> <γ><δ>
2
for a corresponding value on E <z> ) and ρ<α><β> = ρ<τ >
·<α><β><τ > .
Similar values,
(0)
T <α>
.<β><γ> ,
(0)
W <ν> <α> <α>
.<α><β><γ> , T̂.<β><γ> , Ť.<β><τ > ,
<δ> <δ>
Ŵ.<α><β><γ> , W̌.<α><β><γ> ,(3) T <δ>
.<α><β> ,
(3)
W <α>
.<β><γ><δ> ,
98
<µ>
1. for a–maps (0)
T.<α><β> =(0) T <µ>
.<α><β> ,
(0) <δ>
W.<α><β><γ> =(0) W <δ>
.<α><β><γ> ; (3.12)
.<δ>
r(<α>.<β>}<λ> − r .<δ> <δ> <τ >
(<α>.<β>}<λ> + [T.<τ >(<α> P.<β><λ>} +
<α> <α>
3. for na(2) –maps T̂.<β><τ > = ⋆T .<β><τ > ,
<δ>
Ŵ.<α><β><γ> = ⋆W <δ>
.<α><β><γ> ;
(3) <α>
W.<β><γ><δ> =(3) W <α>
.<β><γ><δ> . (3.13)
Proof.
define a–maps. Contracting indices < µ > and < β > we can write
1 <β>
ψ<α> = (γ <α><β>
− γ <β> <α><β> ). (3.15)
nE
Introducing d–vector ψ<α> into previous relation and expressing
and similarly for underlined values we obtain the first invariant con
ditions from (3.12).
99
Putting deformation (3.14) into the formula for
r ·<τ >
<α>·<β><γ> and r <α><β> = r ·<τ >
<α><β><τ >
1 2
ψ[αβ} = [r [<α><β>} + γ <τ > w <ϕ> [<α><β>} − (3.17)
nE + 1 nE + 1 ·<ϕ><τ >
1 1
γ <τ >
w <ϕ>
<β>}<ϕ> ] − [r[<α><β>} +
nE + 1 ·<τ >[<α> nE + 1
2
γ <τ > <ϕ><τ > w <ϕ> [<α><β>} −
nE + 1
1
γ <τ > <τ >[<α> w <ϕ> <β>}<ϕ> ].
nE + 1
To simplify our consideration we can choose an a–transform, paramet
rized by corresponding ψ–vector from (3.14), (or fix a local coordinate
cart) the antisymmetrized relations (3.17) to be satisfied by the ds–
tensor
1 2
ψ<α><β> = [r<α><β> + γ <τ > w <ϕ> <α><β> −
nE + 1 nE + 1 ·<ϕ><τ >
1
γ <τ >
·<α><τ >
w <ϕ> <β><ϕ> − r<α><β> −
nE + 1
100
2 1
γ <τ > <ϕ><τ > w <ϕ> <α><β> + γ <τ > <α><τ > w <ϕ> <β><ϕ> ]
nE + 1 nE + 1
(3.18)
Introducing expressions (3.14),(3.17) and (3.18) into deformation of
curvature (3.15) we obtain the second conditions (3.12) of amap in
variance:
(0) ·<δ>
W<α>·<β><γ> = (0) W ·<δ>
<α>·<β><γ> ,
where the Weyl d–tensor on E <z> (the extension of the usual one for
geodesic maps on (pseudo)–Riemannian spaces to the case of dvs—
bundles provided with N–connection structure) is defined as
1 <τ >
(0)
W ·<τ > ·<τ >
<α>·<β><γ> = r <α>·<β><γ> + [γ δ <τ > w <ϕ> <β>}<γ> −
nE ·<ϕ><τ > (<α>
<τ > <τ > <τ >
(δ<α> r [<γ><β>} + δ<γ> r [<α><β>} − δ<β> r [<α><γ>} )]−
1
[δ <τ > (2γ <τ > w <ϕ> [<γ><β>} − γ <τ >
w <ϕ> <β>}<ψ> )+
(nE )2 <α> ·<ϕ><τ > ·<τ >[<γ>
<τ >
δ<γ> (2γ <τ >
·<ϕ><τ >
w <ϕ> <α><β> − γ <τ >
·<α><τ >
w <ϕ> <β><ϕ> )−
<τ >
δ<β> (2γ <τ >
·<ϕ><τ >
w <ϕ> <α><γ> − γ <τ >
·<α><τ >
w <ϕ> <γ><ϕ> )]
·<τ >
The formula for (0) W<α>·<β><γ> written similarly with respect to non–
underlined values is presented in section 1.2.
2. To obtain na(1) –invariant conditions we rewrite na(1) –equations (3.9)
as to consider in explicit form covariant derivation (γ) D and deforma
tions (3.2) and (3.3):
2((γ) D<α> P <δ> <β><γ> + (γ) D<β> P <δ> <α><γ> + (γ) D<γ> P <δ> <α><β> +
P <δ> <τ ><α> P <τ > <β><γ> + P <δ> <τ ><β> P <τ > <α><γ> +
P <δ> <τ ><γ> P <τ > <α><β> ) = T <δ> <τ >(<α> P <τ > <β><γ>} +
H <δ> <τ >(<α> P <τ > <β><γ>} +
b(<α> P <δ> <β><γ>} + a(<α><β> δ<γ>}
<δ>
. (3.19)
Alternating the first two indices in (3.19) we have
101
(γ)
D<β> P <δ> <α><γ> − 2(γ) D<γ> P <δ> <α><β> +
P <δ> <τ ><α> P <τ > <β><γ> +
P <δ> <τ ><β> P <τ > <α><γ> − 2P <δ> <τ ><γ> P <τ > <α><β> ).
Substituting the last expression from (3.19) and rescalling the defor
mation parameters and d–tensors we obtain the conditions (3.9).
and
<α> <α> <α> <τ >
γ̌·<β><λ> = γ̃·<β><λ> + ǫF<τ > D̃(<β> F<λ>}
Now it’s obvious that na(2) –invariant conditions (3.21) are equivalent
with a–invariant conditions (3.12) written for d–connection (3.21).
102
4. Finally, we prove the last statement, for na(3) –maps, of the theorem
3.3. Let
q<α> ϕ<α> = e = ±1, (3.22)
where ϕ<α> is contained in
γ <α>
·<β><γ>
= γ <α> <β><γ> + ψ(<β> δ<γ>}
<α>
+ σ<β><γ> ϕ<α> . (3.23)
(γ)
Acting with operator D <β> on (3.23) we write
(γ)
D <β> q<α> = (γ) D<β> q<α> − ψ(<α> q<β>} − eσ<α><β> . (3.24)
eϕ<α> σ<α><β> =
ϕ<α> ((γ) D<β> q<α> − (γ) D <β> q<α> ) − ϕ<α> q <α> q<β> − eψ<β> .
Introducing the last formula in (3.23), contracted on indices < α >
and < γ >, we obtain
nE ψ<β> = γ <α>
·<α><β>
− γ <α> <α><β> + eψ<α> ϕ<α> q<β> +
Using the equalities and identities (3.24) and (3.25) we can express
deformations (3.23) as the first na(3) –invariant conditions from (3.13).
To prove the second class of na(3) –invariant conditions we introduce
two additional ds–tensors:
·<α>
ρ<α> <β><γ><δ> = r<β>·<γ><δ> +
1 <α>
(ψ(<β> δ<ϕ>} + σ<β><ϕ> ϕ<τ > )w <ϕ> <γ><δ>
2
103
and
ρ<α>
·<β><γ><δ>
= r ·<α>
<β><γ><δ> −
1 <α>
(ψ(<β> δ<ϕ>} − σ<β><ϕ> ϕ<τ > )w <ϕ> <γ><δ> . (3.26)
2
Considering deformation (3.23) and (3.26) we write relation
<α>
σ̃·<β><γ><δ> = ρ<α>
·<β><γ><δ>
− ρ<α>
·<β><γ><δ> = (3.27)
<α> <α>
ψ<β>[<δ> δ<γ>} − ψ[<γ><δ>} δ<β> − σ<β><γ><δ> ϕ<α> ,
where
ψ<α><β> = (γ) D<β> ψ<α> + ψ<α> ψ<β> − (ν + ϕ<τ > ψ<τ > )σ<α><β> ,
and
σ<α><β><γ> = (γ) D[<γ> σ<β>}<α> +
µ[<γ> σ<β>}<α> − σ<α>[<γ> σ<β>}<τ > ϕ<τ > .
Multiplying (3.27) on q<α> we can write (taking into account relations
(3.22)) the relation
<τ >
eσ<α><β><γ> = −q<τ > σ̃·<α><β><δ> +ψ<α>[<β> q<γ>} −ψ[<β><γ>} q<α> .
(3.28)
The next step is to express ψ<α><β> in terms of ds–objects on E <z> .
To do this we contract indices < α > and < β > in (3.27) and obtain
<τ >
nE ψ[<α><β>} = −σ·<τ ><α><β> +
104
eq<τ > ϕ<λ> ϕ<δ> σ<λ><α><δ>
<τ >
− eq<α> ,
<α>
and, in consequence of σ<β>(<γ><δ>} = 0, we have
Finally, putting the last formula and (3.28) into (3.27) and after a
rearrangement of terms we obtain the second group of na(3) –invariant
conditions (3.13). If necessary we can rewrite these conditions in
terms of geometrical objects on E <z> and E <z> . To do this we mast
introduce splittings (3.26) into (3.13). 2
105
For the particular case of na(3) –maps when
δ
ψ<α> = 0, ϕ<α> = g<α><β> ϕ<β> = (ln Ω), Ω(u) > 0
δu<α>
and
σ<α><β> = g<α><β>
we define a subclass of conformal transforms g <α><β> (u) = Ω2 (u)g<α><β>
which, in consequence of the fact that d–vector ϕ<α> must satisfy equations
(3.11), generalizes the class of concircular transforms (see [230] for references
and details on concircular mappings of Riemannaian spaces).
The basic na–equations (3.9)–(3.11) are systems of first order partial
differential equations. The study [278] of their geometrical properties and
definition of integral varieties, general and particular solutions are possible
by using the formalism of Pffaf systems [57]. We point out that by using
algebraic methods we can always verify if systems of na–equations of type
(3.9)–(3.11) are, or not, involute, even to find their explicit solutions it is
a difficult task (see more detailed considerations for isotropic ng–maps in
[230] and, on language of Pffaf systems for na–maps, in [247]). We can
also formulate the Cauchy problem for na–equations on E <z> and choose
deformation parameters (3.7) as to make involute mentioned equations for
the case of maps to a given background space E <z> . If a solution, for
example, of na(1) –map equations exists, we say that space E <z> is na(1) –
projective to space E <z> . In general, we have to introduce chains of na–maps
in order to obtain involute systems of equations for maps (superpositions of
namaps) from E <z> to E <z> :
ng<i1 > ng<i2 > ng<ik−1 > ng<i >
U −→ U1 −→ · · · −→ Uk−1 −→k U
<z>
where U ⊂ E <z> , U1 ⊂ E1<z> , . . . , Uk−1 ⊂ Ek−1 , U ⊂ Ek<z> with correspond
ing splittings of auxiliary symmetric connections
γ <α>
.<β><γ>
<α>
=<i1 > P.<β><γ> <α>
+<i2 > P.<β><γ> <α>
+ · · · +<ik > P.<β><γ>
and torsion
T <α> <α> <α> <α> <α>
.<β><γ> = T.<β><γ> +<i1 > Q.<β><γ> +<i2 > Q.<β><γ> + · · · +<ik > Q.<β><γ>
106
Definition 3.4 A dvs–bundle E <z> is nearly conformally projective to dvs–
bundle E <z> ,
nc : E <z> →E <z> ,
if there is a finite chain of na–maps from E <z> to E <z> .
107
3.3 Na–Maps and Tensor–Integral
Our aim in this section is to define ds–tensor integration not only for ds–
bitensors, objects defined on the same dvs–bundle, but for dc–tensors, de
fined on two dvs–bundles, E <z> and E <z> , even it is necessary on higher
order anisotropic multispaces. A. Moór tensor–integral formalism having a
lot of applications in classical and quantum gravity [234,289,100] was ex
tended for locally isotropic multispaces in [278,273]. The unispacial locally
anisotropic version is given in [258,102].
Let Tu E <z> and Tu E <z> be tangent spaces in corresponding points
u∈U⊂ E <z> and u∈U ⊂ E <z> and, respectively, Tu∗ E <z> and Tu∗ E <z> be their
duals (in general, in this section we shall not consider that a common co
ordinatization is introduced for open regions U and U ). We call as the
dc–tensors on the pair of dvs–bundles (E <z> , E <z> ) the elements of distin
guished tensor algebra
(⊗α Tu E <z> )⊗(⊗β Tu∗ E <z> )⊗(⊗γ Tu E <z> )⊗(⊗δ Tu∗ E <z> )
defined over the dvs–bundle E <z> ⊗E <z> , for a given nc : E <z> → E <z> .
We admit the convention that underlined and non–underlined indices
refer, respectively, to the points u and u. Thus Q<β>.<α> , for instance, are the
<z> <z>
components of dc–tensor Q∈Tu E ⊗Tu E .
Let open regions U and U be homeomorphic to a superspace sphere R2nE
and introduce an isomorphism µu,u between Tu E <z> and Tu E <z> (given
by a map nc : U→U). We consider that for every ds–vector v α ∈Tu E <z>
corresponds the vector µu,u (v <α> ) = v <α> ∈Tu E <z> , with components v <α>
being linear functions of v <α> :
<α>
v <α> = h<α> (u, u)v <α> , v<α> = h<α>
<α> (u, u)v<α> ,
−1
where h<α>
<α> (u, u) are the components of dc–tensor associated with µu,u . In
a similar manner we have
<α>
v <α> = h<α>
<α> (u, u)v
<α>
, v<α> = h<α> (u, u)v<α> .
In order to reconcile just presented definitions and to assure the identity
for trivial maps E <z> →E <z> , u = u, the transport dc–tensors must satisfy
conditions :
<α> <α> <α>
h<α> (u, u)h<β> <β> <α>
<α> (u, u) = δ<α> , h<α> (u, u)h<β> (u, u) = δ<β>
108
and
<α> <α>
lim(u→u) h<α> (u, u) = δ<α> , lim(u→u) h<α> <α>
<α> (u, u) = δ<α> .
<z>
Let S p ⊂U ⊂E is a homeomorphic to pdimensional sphere and suggest
that chains of na–maps are used to connect regions:
nc(1) nc(2)
U −→ S p −→ U .
We note that in this work we a dealing only with locally trivial geometric
constructions so ambiguities connected with global definition of integration
and Stoke formulas on different types of s–superspaces [203,204] are avoided.
<α>
Let suppose that transport dc–tensors h<α> and h<α> <α> admit covariant
derivations of order two and postulate existence of deformation dc–tensor
..<γ>
B<α><β> (u, u) satisfying relations
<β> ..<γ> <β>
D<α> h<β> (u, u) = B<α><β> (u, u)h<γ> (u, u) (3.32)
<β>
and, taking into account that D<α> δ<γ> = 0,
By using formulas (1.25) and (1.29) for torsion and curvature of d–connec
tion Γ<α>
<β><γ> we calculate s–commutators:
<γ>
<λ> <τ > ..<λ> <γ>
D[<α> D<β>} h<γ> = −(R<γ><α><β> + T.<α><β> B<τ ><γ> )h<λ> . (3.33)
109
On the other hand from (3.32) one follows that
<γ> ..<λ> ..<λ> ..<τ > <γ>
D[<α> D<β>} h<γ> = (D[<α> B<β>}<γ> +B[<α><τ >. B<β>}<γ>. )h<λ> , (3.34)
where  <τ > denotes that index < τ > is excluded from the action of
s–antisymmetrization [ }. From (3.33) and (3.34) we obtain
..<λ> ..<λ>
D[<α> B<β>}<γ> + B[<β><γ> B<α>}<τ > =
We define the dual element of the hypersurfaces element dS <α1 >...<αp > as
1
dS<β1 >...<βq−p > = ǫ<β >...<βk−p ><α1 >...<αp > dS <α1 >...<αp > , (3.35)
p! 1
where ǫ<γ1 >...<γq > is completely s–antisymmetric on its indices and
q
ǫ12...(nE ) = G, G = s det G<α><β> ,
.<γ><κ>
G<α><β> is taken from (1.35). The dual of dc–tensor N<ϕ>.<τ >.<α1 >...<αp >
.<γ>.<κ><β 1 >...<β n >
E −p
is defined as the dc–tensor N<ϕ>.<τ > satisfying
(3.36)
110
Using (3.14), (3.35) and (3.36) we can write
.<γ>.<κ> <α1 >...<αp >
IS p N<ϕ>.<τ >.<α1 >...<αp > dS = (3.37)
Z
p .<γ>.<κ><β 1 >...<β n ><γ>
E −p−1
D <γ> N<ϕ>.<τ > dS<β 1 >...<β n >,
S p+1 E −p−1
where
p .<γ>.<κ><β 1 >...<β n ><γ>
E −p−1
D<γ> N<ϕ>.<τ > =
.<γ>.<κ><β 1 >...<β n ><γ>
E −p−1
D<γ> Nϕ.τ +
[<ǫ> .<γ>.<κ><β 1 >...<β n >}<γ>
(−1)(nE −p) (nE − p + 1)T.<γ><ǫ> N<ϕ>.<τ > E −p−1
−
..<ǫ> .<γ>.<κ><β 1 >...<β n ><γ>
E −p−1
B<γ><τ > N<ϕ>.<ǫ> +
..<κ> .<γ>.<ǫ><β 1 >...<β n ><γ>
E −p−1
B<γ><ǫ> N<ϕ>.<τ > .
The equivalence of (3.36) and (3.37) is a consequence of equalities
D<γ> ǫ<α1 >...<αk > = 0
and
ǫ<β1 >...<βnE −p ><α1 >...<αp > ǫ<β1 >...<βnE −p ><γ1 >...<γp > =
[<γ > <γ >}
p!(nE − p)!δ<α11> · · ·δ<αpp > .
The developed in this section tensor integration formalism will be used in
the next section for definition of a class of conservation laws on s–spaces
with higher order anisotropy.
111
3.4.1 Divergence of energy–momentum ds–tensor
R. Miron and M. Anastasiei [160,161] pointed to this specific form of con
servation laws of matter on la–spaces. Calculating the divergence of the
energy–momentum ds—tensor from equations (2.31) on dvs–bundle E <z>
we find
<α> 1
D<α> E<β> = U<β> , (3.38)
κ1
and concluded that ds–vector
1 <γ>
U<α> = (G<β><δ> R<δ><φ><β> T <φ>
·<α><γ> −
2
<γ>
G<β><δ> R<δ><φ><α> T <φ> <β> <φ>
·<β><γ> + R<φ> T ·<β><α> )
were, for simplicity, Γ<α> <β><γ> is chosen to be also metric and satisfy Ein
stein equations (2.31). We can consider deformation d–tensors P <α> <β><γ>
generated (or not) by deformations of type (3.9),(3.10) and (3.11) for na–
maps. In this case ds—vector U<α> can be interpreted as a generic source
of local anisotropy on E <z> satisfying generalized conservation laws (3.38).
112
3.4.2 D–conservation laws
From (3.31) we obtain a tensor integral on C(E <z> ) of a d–tensor :
.<κ> ..<κ> <τ > <κ> <α1 >...<αp >
N<τ > (u) = IS p N<τ >..<α1 >...<αp > (u)h<τ > (u, u)h<κ> (u, u)dS .
We note that tensor–integral can be defined not only for dc–tensors but
and for d–tensors on E <z> . Really, suppressing indices ϕ and γ in (3.36)
and (3.37), considering instead of a deformation dc–tensor a deformation
tensor
..<γ> ..<γ> <γ>
B<α><β> (u, u) = B<α><β> (u) = P.<α><β> (u) (3.40)
(we consider deformations induced by a nc–transform) and integration
ISp . . .dS <α1 >...<αp > in la–space E <z> we obtain from (3.31) a tensor–integral
on C(E <z> ) of a ds—tensor:
.<κ> .<κ> <τ > <κ> <α1 >...<αp >
N<τ > (u) = ISp N<τ >.<α1 >...<αp > (u)h<τ > (u, u)h<κ> (u, u)dS .
Taking into account (3.39) and using formulas (1.25),(1.29) and (3.3) we
can calculate that curvature
113
..<ǫ> .<β><τ > ..<β> .<ǫ><τ >
B<τ ><α> N<ǫ> + B<τ ><ǫ> N<α> . (3.42)
.<β>
Let consider physical values N<α> on E <z> defined on its density
.<β><γ>
Nα , i. e.
.<β> .<β><γ>
N<α> = IS q−1 N<α> dS<γ> (3.43)
with this conservation law (due to (3.41) and (3.42)):
q−1 .<β><γ>
D<γ> N<α> = 0. (3.44)
114
This class consists from nearly autoparallel maps transforming every au
toparallel on the first s–space into nearly autoparallel on the second s–
space. There are four types of na–maps characterized by corresponding
basic equations and invariant conditions (see Theorems 3.2 and 3.3). We
proved that by using chains of na–maps ( nearly conformal transforms )
every d–connection on a given dvs–bundle can be transformed into another
given d–connection on a second dvs–bundle. In consequence one follows that
we can equivalently modelate physical processes on all types of higher or
der anisotropic s–spaces being connected by chains of nonsingular na–maps.
This result can be applied for definition of conservation laws on s–spaces
where such laws and equations of motion takes a more simplified form.
The problem of formulation of conservation laws for supersymmertic in
teractions with higher order anisotropy have been also considered by using
the formalism of tensor integral. We introduced Stoke’s and Gauss type
formulas on distinguished vector s–bundles and found that tensor integral
conservation laws can be formulated for values on auxiliary s–spaces con
nected with the fundamental one with a chain of na–maps.
Finally, we note that Chapter 8 is devoted to a detailed investigation
of na–maps and conservation laws on (non supersymmetric) higher order
anisotropic spaces of energy–momentum type values for gravitational mod
els with local anisotropy.
115
Chapter 4
HA–Superstrings
The superstring theory holds the greatest promise as the unification the
ory of all fundamental interactions. The superstring models contains a lot
a characteristic features of Kaluza–Klein approaches, supersymmetry and
supergravity, local field theory and dual models. We note that in the string
theories the nonlocal one dimensional quantum objects (strings) mutually
interacting by linking and separating together are considered as fundamental
values. Perturbations of the quantized string are identified with quantum
particles. Symmetry and conservation laws in the string and superstring
theory can be considered as sweeping generalizations of gauge principles
which consists the basis of quantum field models. The new physical con
cepts are formulated in the framework a ”new” for physicists mathematical
formalism of the algebraic geometry and topology [106].
The relationship between two dimensional σmodels and strings has been
considered [153,80,53,229,7] in order to discuss the effective low energy field
equations for the massless models of strings. Nonlinear σmodels makes up a
class of quantum field systems for which the fields are also treated as coordi
nates of some manifolds. Interactions are introduced in a geometric manner
and admit a lot of applications and generalizations in classical and quantum
field and string theories. The geometric structure of nonlinear sigma models
manifests the existence of topological nontrivial configuration, admits a geo
metric interpretation of conterterms and points to a substantial interrelation
between extended supersymmetry and differential supergeometry. In con
nection to this a new approach based on nonlocal, in general, higher order
116
anisotropic constructions seem to be emerging [254,269,261]. We consider
the reader to be familiar with basic results from supergeometry (see, for
instance, [63,147,290,203]), supergravity theories [86,215,288,286,287] and
superstrings [115,289,139,140].
In this Chapter we shall present an introduction into the theory of
higher order anisotropic superstrings being a natural generalization to lo
cally anisotropic (la) backgrounds (we shall write in brief labackgrounds,
laspaces and lageometry) of the Polyakov’s covariant functionalintegral
approach to string theory [193]. Our aim is to show that a corresponding
lowenergy string dynamics contains the motion equations for field equa
tions on higher order anisotropic superspaces and to analyze the geometry
of the perturbation theory of the locally anisotropic supersymmetric sigma
models. We note that this Chapter is devoted to supersymmetric models
of locally anisotropic superstrings (details on the so called bosonic higher
order anisotropic strings are given in the Chapter 9).
The plan of presentation in the Chapter is as follows. Section 4.1 con
tains an introduction into the geometry of two dimensional higher order
anisotropic sigma models and an locally anisotropic approach to heterotic
strings. In section 4.2 the background field method for σmodels is gen
eralized for a distinguished calculus locally adapted to the N–connection
structure in higher order anisotropic superspaces. Section 4.3 is devoted
to a study of Green–Schwartz action in distinguished vector superbundles.
Fermi strings in higher order anisotropic spaces are considered in section
4.4. An example of one–loop and two–loop calculus for anomalies of locally
anisotropic strings is presented in section 4.5. Conclusions are drawn in
section 4.6.
117
4.1.1 Two dimensional ha–sigma s–models
Let Eb<z> be a higher order anisotropic space (not superspace) with coor
dinates ub<α> = ub(z) = (xbi = xb(z), yb<a> = yb(z)) = (xi , y a1 , ...., y ap , ..., y az ) ,
d–metric gb<α><β> ; we use denotation (N2 , γäë ) for a two dimensional world
sheet with metric γäë (z ü ) of signature (+,) and local coordinates z = z ü ,
where ä, ë, ü, ... = 1, 2.
The action of a bosonic string in a dv–bundle Eb<z> is postulated as
Z
1 1 √ äë
Iσ = 2 d2 z{ γγ ∂ä ub<α> (z)∂ë ub<β> (z)}, (4.1)
λ 2
which defines the so called two dimensional sigma model (σ–model) with
d–metric gb<α><β> in higher order anisotropic spaces (dv–bundles with N–
connection) and λ being constant. We shall give a detailed study of different
modifications of the model (4.1) in Chapter 9, see also [269,261]. Here we
shall consider a supersymmetric generalization of the string action by ap
plying the techniques of two dimensional (1,1)–supersymmetry by changing
of scalar fields u(z) into real N=1 s–fields (without constraints; for locally
isotropic constructions see [24,45,68,87,111,176]) ub(z, θ) which are polynoms
with respect to Maiorana anticommuting spinor coordinate θ :
1
ub<α> (z, θ) = ub<α> (z) + θλ<α> (z) + θθF <α> (z). (4.2)
2
We adopt next conventions and denotations with respect to 2–dimension
Dirac matrices γä and matrix of charge conjugation C :
118
satisfying algebra
b
{Dñ , Dõ } = 2i(∂C) ñõ ≡ 2i∂ñõ
b <β>
e
Γ <α><γ> are Christoffel d–symbols (1.39) on dv–bundle. In order to have
compatible with the N–connection structure motions of la–strings we con
sider [269,261] these relations between ds–tensor b<α><β> , strength
b
B b
<α><β><γ> = δ[<α> b<β><γ>}
and torsion
<β>
T<α><γ>
(see (1.29)):
δ<α>bb<β><γ> = gb<α><δ> Tb<β><γ>
<δ>
, (4.4)
119
with s–integrability conditions
Ωaafp as δaf bb<β><γ> = δ[ah Tbas }<β><γ> , (f < p, s; p, s = 0, 1, ..., z), (4.5)
a
where Ωafp as are the coefficients of the N–connection curvature (1.11). In
this case we can express B b b
<α><β><γ> = T[<α><β><γ>} . Conditions (4.4)
and (4.5) define a model of higher order anisotropic superstrings when
the σ–modes s–antisymmetric strength is introduced from the higher order
anisotropic background torsion. More general constructions are possible by
using normal coordinates locally adapted to both N–connection and torsion
structures on background s–spaces. For simplicity, we omit such considera
tions in this work.
Ds–tensor Rb
<α><β><γ><δ> from (4.3) denotes the curvature with torsion
B:
b (±) b (±) ] = R
e
R <β><α><γ><δ> [Γ <β><α><γ><δ> ∓
where Re
<β><α><γ><δ> is the curvature of the torsionless Christoffel d–
symbols (1.39),
b <α>(±) = g
Γ b (±)
b<α><τ > Γ b (±)
<β><γ> <τ ><β><γ> , Γ<τ ><β><γ> =
b
e (±)
Γ <τ ><β><γ> ± B<τ ><β><γ> ,
e 1
Γ <τ ><β><γ> = (δ<β> g e<τ ><γ> + δ<γ> g e<β><τ > − δ<τ > g
e<β><γ> ).
2
In order to define a locally supersymmetric generalization of the model
(4.3) we consider a supersymmetric calculus of the set of (1,1)–multiplets of
higher order anisotropic matter b <α> = λ<α> ) with the multiplet of
(ϕb<α> , λ
ë
(1,1)–supergravity eë , ψë in two dimensions (see [137,139,140] for locally
isotropic constructions).
The global supersymmetric variant of action (4.3), for 2πα′ = 1, is writ
ten as
Z
1
I0 [ϕ, λ] = d2 z[gb<α><β> ∂ ë ub<α> ∂ë ub<β> + bb<α><β> εë ä ∂ë ub<α> ∂ä ub<β> +
2
(4.6)
120
<α> ë <α>
igb<α><β> λ γ (Dë λ)<β> + iBb<α><β><γ> λ γ5 γ ë (∂ë ub<β> )λ<γ> +
1 be <α> <γ> <β> <δ>
R<β><α><γ><δ> (λ λ )(λ λ )−
6
1cf <α> <τ > <ε>
D <ε> B<α><β><τ > (λ γ5 λ<β> )(λ λ )−
4
1e e <τ > <α> <γ>
B<α><β><τ > B<γ><δ> (λ γ5 λ<β> )(λ γ5 λ<δ> )],
4
f c
where covariant derivation D <ε> is defined by torsionless Christoffel d–
symbols.
The action (4.6) is invariant under global s–transforms with Maiorana
spinor parameter ε :
△ϕb<α> = ε λ<α> ,
ε be <α> <β> <γ> <β>
△λ<α> = −i(∂bϕb<α> )ε + (Γ <β><γ> λ λ −Be <α>
<β><γ> λ γ5 λ<γ> ).
2
Defining Maiorana–Weyl spinors λ<α> ± (MW–spinors) instead of λ<α>
we can rewrite the action (4.6) in a more convenient form:
1Z 2
I0 [ϕ, λ± ] = d z[ge<α><β> ∂ ë ue<α> ∂ë ue<β> + bb<α><β> εë ä ∂ë ub<α> ∂ä ub<β> +
2
(4.6a)
<α> c+ <β> <α> c− <β>
igb<α><β> λ+ (D λ+ ) + igb<α><β> λ− (D λ− ) +
1 be + <α> <γ>
R<β><α><γ><δ> (λ γ5 λ<β> )(λ γ5 λ<δ> )],
4
with s–symmetric transformation law
b <α> )ε − Γ
e <α>(±)
<β>
△λ<α>
± = −i(∂u ∓ <β><γ> λ± △± ϕ<γ> .
For simplicity, in the rest of this Chapter we shall omit ”hats” on geo
metrical objects if ambiguities connected with indices for manifolds and
supermanifolds will not arise.
In string theories one considers variations of actions of type (4.6) with
respect to s–symmetric transformation laws and decompositions with re
spect to powers of λ. Coefficients proportional to λ5 vanishes because they
121
do not contain derivations of ε(z)–parameters. In order to compensate the
therms proportional to λ and λ3 one adds the so–called Nether term
Z
1 <β> ö ë
I (N ) = d2 z[2g<α><β> (∂ë ϕ<α> )(λ γ γ ψö )−
2
i <α> <γ>
B<α><β><γ> (λ γ5 γ ë λ<β> )(λ ψë )−
3
i <α> ë <β> <γ>
B<α><β><γ> (λ γ λ )(λ γ5 ψë ),
3
where ψë is the higher order anisotropic generalization of Maiorana gravitino
with s–symmetric transformation law
122
b <α> + {λ <α> <α> e<α>(±) <β>
△λ<α>
± = −i(∂u + ψä + λ− ψä }γ ä )ε∓ − Γ <β><γ> λ± △± ϕ<γ> .
Restricting our considerations in (4.7) and (4.8) only with λ<α>+ –spinors
<α>
and ε− –parameters, when ε+ , λ− = 0, we obtain the action for the het
erotic higher order anisotropic string
on background
(g<α><β> , b<α><β> )
with (1,0)–local supersymmetry ψä → ψä(−) . This action can be inter
preted as
the ”minimal”
interaction of the higher
order
anisotropic (1,0)–
<α> <α> ë
matter ϕ , λ+ with (1,0)–supergravity eë , ψë .
tor indices as (++, −−) ≡ (‡, =) taking into account that by (+, −) there
are denoted spirality ±1/2.
The standard derivations
∂
DÄ = {D+ , ∂‡ , ∂= }; D+ = + iθ+ ∂+ ,
∂θ+
in the flat (1,0)–superspace [214] satisfy algebra
and action Z Z
I= d3 üL = d2 z(D+ L)θ=0
with a charged Lagrangian, L = L− , in order to have the Lorentz invariance.
123
The (1,0)–multiplet of supergravity is described by a set of covariant
derivations
Ü (M )
▽Ä = EÄ DÜ + ωÄ ≡ EÄ + ΩÄ , (4.9)
Ü (M )
where EÄ is a s–vielbein and ωÄ is the Lorentz connection with L–
generator M :
1
[M, λ± ] = ± λ± .
2
The covariant constraints in s–space (for (1,0)–supergravity [46,85]) are
given by relations:
124
and to introduce the Lorentz–invariant scalar s–field S and Lorentz com
pensator L satisfying correspondingly conditions
E++ (E== )1/2 = e−S and E++ (E== )−1/2 = eL .
In a Lorentz invariant theory we can always choose the gauge L = 0; in
this gauge the s–conformal transforms are accompanied by a corresponding
compensating Lorentz transform with parameter
1 1
Λl = (E++ )−1 ∇+ K + − (E== )−1 ∇= K = = (∇‡ K ‡ − ∇= K = ) + ...
2 2
The solution of constraints (4.10) in the s–symmetric gauge E+‡ = L = 0
and in the linear approximation is [85]
S
∇+ = (1 − )D+ + H+= ∂= − (D+ S + ∂= H+= )M,
2
1
∇‡ = (1 − S)∂‡ + i[ (∂= H+= ) + (D+ S)]D+ −
2
i[D+ H+ ]∂= − (∂‡ S − iD+ ∂= H+= )M,
=
i
∇= = (1 − S)∂= − [(D+ H=‡ )]D+ + H=‡ ∂‡ + (∂= S + ∂‡ H=‡ )M,
2
i
Σ+ = [D+ (∂‡ H=‡ + 2∂= S) + ∂= 2
H+= ] + ...,
2
= ‡
where s–fields H+ , H= and S are prepotentials of the system. These s–
potentials have to be used in the quantum field theory.
Ü
The linearized expression for s–field density E −1 = Ber(EÄ ) is computed
as
Ü
E −1 = s det(EÄ ) = e3S/2 [1 + iH=‡ (D+ H+= + H+= ∂= H+= )]−1 .
The action for heterotic string in higher order anisotropic (1,0)–super
space accounting for the background of massless modes of locally anisotropic
graviton, antisymmetric d–tensor, dilaton and gauge bosons is introduced in
a manner similar to locally isotropic models [105,116,139,140] but with cor
responding extension to distinguished and locally adapted to N–connection
geometric objects:
Z
1
IHS = d3 ü− E −1 {i∇+ u<α> ∇= u<β> [g<α><β> (u) + b<α><β> (u)]+
4πα′
(4.11)
125
I ′J
Ψ(−) [δIJ∇+ + A+ +
IJ (u)]Ψ(−) + α Φ(u)Σ },
where A+
IJ (u) = AIJ<α> ∇+ u
<α>
is the gauge boson background, Φ(u)
I
is the dilaton field and Ψ(−) are hetrotic fermions, I, J, ... = 1, 2, ..., , N.
manner (not introducing into considerations ghosts) and note that by us
ing quantum scale transforms we can impose gauge S = 0 (also without
Faddeev–Popov ghosts). Finally, after a background–quantum decomposi
tion of superfields of (1.0) higher order anisotropic supergravity in the just
pointed out manner we can fix the quantum gauge invariance, putting zero
values for quantum fields (in absences of supergravitational and conformal
anomalies and for topological trivial background configurations). In this
case all (1,0) supergravity fields can be considered as background ones.
The fixing of gauge symmetry as a vanishing of quantum s–fields induces
the ghost action
Z
IF P = d3 z − E{b‡= ∇+ c= + b= ‡
+ ∇= c }. (4.12)
126
into a another similar one for a corresponding d–connection by using de
formations of connections (1.40) (or (3.2) and (3.3) if we are interested in
na–map deformations). Let
δX <α>
ζ <α> = s=0 ≡ ζ <α> (s) s=0 .
∂s
We shall use covariantized in a σ–model manner derivations in (1,0) higher
order anisotropic s–space
<α>
DÄ ≡ (D+ , D= ) = ∇Ä + ΓÄ , Γ<α>
Ä<β>
≡{ }∇Ä X <γ> ,
< γ >< β >
on properties of derivation ∇Ä see (4.3) and (4.4), into distinguished au
toparallel (in a σ–model manner) d–covariant derivation with properties
2iD‡ ≡ {D+ , D+ };
<β>
D+ ζ <β> = ∇+ ζ <β> + { }∇+ X <σ> ζ <τ > ,
< τ >< σ >
<β>
D= ζ <β> = ∇= ζ <β> + { }∇= X <σ> ζ <τ > ,
< τ >< σ >
i
D‡ ζ <β> = ∇cov
‡ ζ
<β>
− R<β> ∇+ X <σ> ∇+ X <ν> ζ <τ > ,
2 <τ ><σ><ν>
D(s)DÄ ζ <β> (s) = ζ <ν> (s)ζ <τ >(s)R<β>
<τ ><σ><ν> ∇Ä X
<σ>
,
127
where
<β>
∇cov
‡ ζ
<β>
= ∇‡ ζ <β> + { }∇‡ X <τ > ζ <σ> .
< τ >< σ >
For heterotic fermions the d–covariant and gauge–covariant formalism
of computation of quantum–background decomposition of action can be
performed by using the prescription
I I I I 2 I I I
Ψ(−) (s) : Ψ(−) (0) = Ψ(−) , Ψ(−) (s = 1) = Ψ(−) + ∆(−) , D(−) Ψ− (s) = 0,
I
where ∆− are quantum fluctuations with respect to background Ψ; func
I I I
tions Ψ(−) (s) interpolate in a gauge–covariant manner with Ψ(−) + ∆− be
cause of definition of the operator D(s) :
I
I IJ δ IJ δX
<α>
J δΨ(−) IJ J
D(s)Ψ(−) = [δ + A<α> ]Ψ(−) = + A<α> ζ <α> Ψ(−) .
∂s ∂s ∂s
As d–covariant and gauge–covariant quantum s–fields we use spinors
J J
χ(−) ≡ D(s)Ψ(−) (s) s=0
satisfying conditions
J
D(s)χ(−) (s) = 0.
We also define the next derivation in (1,0) higher order anisotropic s–
superspace
I I
(D+ Ψ(−) )I ≡ (δJ ∇+ + AJ<α> ∇+ X <α> )Ψ(−) J
I I
D(s)FJ<α><β> = ζ <γ> D<γ> FJ<α><β> ,
where D<γ> is both dcovariant and gauge invariant derivation and the
strength d–tensor of gauge fields is defined by using la–derivation operators,
I I I I K I K
FJ<α><β> = δ<α> AJ<β> −δ<β> AJ<α> +AK<α> AJ<β> −AK<β> AJ<α> .
128
The action (4.11) consist from four groups of terms of different nature:
where
1 db I (1)
(1)
Ib s=0 ; b = 0, 1, 2, ....
=
b! dsb
Thes terms are computed in a usual (but distinguished to the N–connection
structure) manner:
(1) i Z 3 −
I1 = − d z Eg<α><β> (D+ ζ <α> )∇= X <β> , (4.14)
2πα′
(1) i Z 3 −
I2 = − d z E{g<α><β> D+ ζ <α> D= ζ <β> +
4πα′
R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> ∇+ X <σ> ∇= X <ν> ζ <λ> ζ <τ > },
Z
(1) i 3 − 2
I3 = − d z E{ (R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> ∇+ X <σ> D= ζ <ν> +
4πα′ 3
R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> ∇= X <σ> D+ ζ <ν> )ζ <λ> ζ <τ > +
1
D<µ> R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> ∇+ X <σ> ∇= X <ν> ζ <µ> ζ <λ> ζ <τ > ,
3
Z
(1) i 3 − 1
I4 =− d z E{ (D<µ> R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> ∇+ X <σ> D= ζ <ν> +
4πα′ 4
D<µ> R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> ∇= X <σ> D+ ζ <ν> )ζ <µ> ζ <λ> ζ <τ > +
1
R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> ζ <λ> ζ <τ > D+ ζ <σ> D= ζ <ν> +
3
129
1
[ R<λ><σ><τ ><ν> R<δ><ε> <ν>
· <γ> +
3
1
D<δ> D<γ> R<λ><σ><ε><τ > ]∇+ X <σ> ∇= X <ε> ζ <λ> ζ <τ > ζ <δ> ζ <γ> ,
12
Z
(1) i
I5 = − d3 z − E×
4πα′
1
{ (D<µ> R<λ><σ><ν><τ > D+ ζ <σ> D= ζ <ν> ζ <µ> ζ <λ> ζ <τ > + ...},
6
Z
(1) i 1
I6 = − ′
d3 z − E{ D<α> D<µ> R<λ><σ><ν><τ > +
4πα 20
2
R<λ><γ><ν><τ > R<α><σ><γ> · <µ> D+ ζ
<σ>
D= ζ <ν> ζ <α> ζ <µ> ζ <λ> ζ <τ > + ...},
45
where by dots, in this section, are denoted those terms (containing multiples
(∇X)) which are not important for calculation of anomalies, see section 4.5.
The second term in (4.13)
i Z 3 −
I (2) = − d z Eb<α><β> (X)∇+ X <α> ∇= X <β>
4πα′
having the next background–quantum decomposition
(2) (2) (2)
I (2) [X + π(ζ)] = I0 + I1 + I2 + ...,
where
1 db I (2)
(2)
Ib = s=0 ; b = 0, 1, 2, ....
b! dsb
describes a Wess–Zumino–Witten like model of interactions (in a higher
order anisotropic variant). The diagram vertexes depends only on intensity
H of antisymmetric d–tensor b :
3
H<τ ><µ><ν> = δ[<τ > b<µ><ν>] =
2
1
(δ<τ > b<µ><ν> + δ<µ> b<ν><τ > − δ<ν> b<µ><τ > ).
2
By straightforward calculations we find the coefficients:
Z
(2) i
I1 =− d3 z − Eζ <τ > ∇+ X <α> ∇= X <β> H<τ ><α><β> ,
2πα′
130
Z
(2) i
I2 =− d3 z − E{ζ <τ > D+ ζ <α> ∇= X <β> H<τ ><α><β> +
4πα′
ζ <τ > ∇+ X <α> D= ζ <β> H<τ ><α><β> +
ζ <λ> ζ <τ > ∇+ X <α> ∇= X <β> D<λ> H<τ ><α><β> },
Z
(2) i 2
I3 = − d3 z − E{ ζ <τ > D+ ζ <µ> D= ζ <ν> H<τ ><µ><ν> +
4πα′ 3
2 <τ > <ρ> <γ> <µ>
ζ ζ ζ R ·<γ><ρ>[<δ> H<ν>]<τ ><µ> ∇+ X <δ> ∇= X <ν> +
3
2 <τ > <λ>
ζ ζ (D+ ζ <µ> ∇= X <ν> + D= ζ <ν> ∇+ X <µ> )D<λ> H<τ ><µ><ν> +
3
1 <σ> <λ> <τ >
ζ ζ ζ ∇+ X <α> ∇= X <β> D<σ> D<λ> H<τ ><α><β> },
3
Z
(2) i 1
I4 = − ′
d3 z − E{ ζ <τ > ζ <λ> D+ ζ <µ> D= ζ <ν> H<τ ><µ><ν> +
4πα 2
1 <λ> <τ > <ρ> <γ>
ζ ζ ζ ζ ∇+ X <δ> ∇= X <ν> D<λ> (R<µ>
·<γ><ρ>[<δ> H<ν>]<τ ><µ> )+
6
2 <τ > <ρ> <γ> <µ>
ζ ζ ζ R ·<γ><ρ>[<δ> H<ν>]<τ ><µ> × (∇+ X <δ> D= X <ν> +
3
D+ X <ν> ∇= X <δ> ) + ζ <λ> ζ <τ > ζ <α> ζ <β> ∇+ X <ν> ∇= X <ρ> ×
1 1
( D<λ> H<τ ><µ>[<ρ> R<ν><α><µ>
· <β> − D<α> D<β> D<γ> H<τ ><ν><ρ> )+
3 12
1 <τ > <λ> <γ>
ζ ζ ζ (D+ ζ <µ> ∇= X <ν> +
4
D= ζ <ν> ∇+ X <µ> )D<γ> D<λ> H<τ ><µ><ν> },
Z
(2) i 1
I5 = − d3 z − E{ ζ <τ > ζ <λ> ζ <γ> D+ ζ <µ> D= ζ <ν> ×
4πα′ 2
1 2
[ D<γ> D<λ> H<τ ><µ><ν> + R<ρ> H<ν>]<τ ><ρ> } + ...,
5 15 ·<γ><λ>[<µ>
Z
(2) i
I6 = − d3 z − Eζ <τ > ζ <λ> ζ <α> ζ <β> D+ ζ <ρ> D= ζ <ν> ×
4πα′
1 1
[ D<λ> H<τ ><µ>[<ρ> R<ν>]<α><µ>· <β> + D<λ> R<µ>·<γ><ρ>[<δ> H<ν>]<τ ><µ> +
9 18
131
1
D<α> D<β> D<λ> H<τ ><ρ><ν> ] + ...,
18
where by dots are denoted terms not being important for calculation of
anomalies and operations of symmetrization ( ) and antisymmetrization are
taken without coefficients.
The third term in (4.13)
(3) (3) (3)
I (3) = I0 + I1 + I2 + ... + Is(3) + ...
(3) 1 Z 3 − ′ +
I0 = − d z Eα Σ Φ,
4πα′
Z
(3) 1
I1 = − d3 z − Eα′ Σ+ ζ <α> δ<α> Φ,
4πα′
(3) 1 Z 3 − ′ + 1 <β> <α>
I2 = − d z Eα Σ ζ ζ D<α> D<β> Φ, ...,
4πα′ 2!
Z
1 1
(3)
Is = − ′
d3 z − Eα′ Σ+ ζ <α1 > ...ζ <αs> D<α1 > ...D<αs > Φ.
4πα s!
The forth term in (4.13)
1 Z 3 −
I (4) = − d z E Ψ(−) I D+ Ψ(−) I
4πα′
has the next background–quantum decomposition
(4) (4) (4)
I (4) [Ψ + ∆(χ), X + π(ζ)] = I0 + I1 + I2 + ...,
with coefficients
(4) 1 Z 3 −
I1 =− d z E {χ(−) I D+ χ(−) I + Ψ(−) I D+ Ψ(−) I + (4.15)
4πα′
Ψ(−) I FIJ<µ><ν>ζ <µ> ∇+ X <ν> Ψ(−) J },
Z
(4) 1
I2 =− d3 z − E {χ(−) I D+ χ(−) I +
4πα′
2χ(−) I FIJ<µ><ν> ζ <µ> ∇+ X <ν> Ψ(−) J −
132
1 <ν> <µ>
ζ ζ Ψ(−) I Ψ(−) J D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν>∇+ X <ν> −
2
1
Ψ(−) I Ψ(−) J FIJ<µ><ν> ζ <µ> D+ ζ <ν> },
2
(4) 1 Z 3 −
I3 =− ′
d z E {χ(−) I FIJ<µ><ν>ζ <µ> ∇+ X <ν> χ(−) J +
4πα
ζ <λ> ζ <µ> χ(−) I D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν>∇+ X <ν> Ψ(−) J +
χ(−) I FIJ<µ><ν> ζ <µ> D+ ζ <ν> Ψ(−) J −
1 <λ> <ν>
ζ ζ Ψ(−) I D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν>Ψ(−) J D+ ζ <µ> −
3
1 <λ> <τ > <µ>
ζ ζ ζ Ψ(−) I Ψ(−) J ∇+ X <ν> ×
6
(D<τ > D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν> − R<λ>]<ν><γ> · <τ > FIJ<µ><ν> ),
Z
(4) 1 1
I4 =− ′
d3 z − E { χ(−) I FIJ<µ><ν>χ(−) J ζ <ν> D+ ζ <µ> −
4πα 2
1 <λ> <µ>
ζ ζ χ(−) I (D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν>)χ(−) J ∇+ X <ν> +
2
2 <λ> <µ>
ζ ζ χ(−) I (D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν>)Ψ(−) J D+ ζ <ν> +
3
1 <γ> <λ> <µ>
ζ ζ ζ χ(−) I ×
3
(D<γ> D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν> + R<γ><ν><ρ>
· <λ> FIJ<µ><ρ> )∇+ X
<ν>
Ψ(−) J −
1 <λ> <µ> <γ>
ζ ζ ζ Ψ(−) I Ψ(−) J (3D<µ> D<λ> FIJ<γ><ν>+
24
1
R<λ><ν><ρ>
· <γ> FIJ<τ ><ρ> )D+ ζ
<ν>
− ζ <τ > ζ <λ> ζ <µ> ζ <γ> Ψ(−) I Ψ(−) J ×
24
[D<γ> D<τ > D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν> + (D<γ> R<λ><ν><ρ> · <µ> )FIJ<τ ><ρ> +
133
Z
(4) 1 1
I6 =− ′
d3 z − E {− ζ <γ> ζ <µ> ζ <λ> χ(−) I χ(−) J ×
4πα 24
(3D<γ> D<λ> FIJ<µ><ν> + FIJ<γ><ρ> R<λ><ν><ρ>· <µ> )D+ ζ
<ν>
} + ...
The kinetic terms for quantum fields ζ <µ> and χ(−) J in the decompo
sitions (2.14) and (2.15) define the propagators (2πα′ = 1)
D+ 3
< ζ <µ> (ü)ζ <ν> (ü′ ) >= g <µ><ν> δ (ü, ü′) =
2 (−)
Z
1 1 ′
g <µ><ν> dd2 p D+ [eip(z−z ) δ(−) (θ − θ′ )],
(2π)2 2
(−p )
∂= D+ 3
< χ(−) I (ü)χ(−) J (ü′ ) >= iδ IJ δ (ü, ü′) =
2 (−)
δ IJ Z d2 p= ′
2
d p 2 D+ [eip(z−z ) δ(−)
3
(ü, ü′ )].
(2π) p
Finally, we remark that background–quantum decompositions of the action
(4.11) for heterotic string define the Feynman rules (vertixes and propa
gators) for the corresponding generalization of the two–dimensional sigma
model which are basic for a perturbation quantum formalism in higher order
anisotropic spaces.
134
<α>
by using of the flat vielbein l<α> and 2–form
1
B = δu<α> Λδu<β> B<α><β>
2
in the flat d = 10 s–space with coordinates u<α> . An important role in
formulation of the GS–action plays the fact that 3–form H = dB is closed,
dH = 0. Because H is s–invariant the 2–form B changes on complete deriva
tion under s–transforms
δ ⋆ H = 0, δ ⋆ dB = dδ ⋆ B = 0, δ ⋆ B = dΛ,
<α> 1
E <α> = dub<β> E<β> (z), B = E <α> E <β> B<α><β> (z),
2
AIJ = AIJ<α> E <α> ,
where
<α> <α> <α> <α> ä
Eä ≡ ∂ä u<α> E<α> = (Ebä , Eä = Eä ).
S–fields AIJ belong to the adjoint representation of the interior symmetry
group Gr.
135
The action (4.17) is invariant
under transforms
<α> <α> <α>
△E ≡ △u E<α> :
<α> ö
△Eb <α> = 0, △E ë = 2(Γ<α> )ëö Ebë Vëë kö , (4.18)
IJ ë 1 ë
△ΨI = −(△E <α> )A<α> ΨJ , △Vë = − (γëı̈ + εëı̈ )M öı̈ kö ,
2
ë
where εëı̈ is defined as a two–dimensional tensor, parameter k<α> is anti–
self–dual as a two–vector, juggling of indices of d –dimensional Dirac matri
ces is realized by using the d–dimensional matrix of charge conjugation and
, for simplicity, we can consider matrices (Γ<α> )ëö as symmetric; we shall
define below the value M <α>ı̈ .
The variation of action (4.17) under transforms (4.18) can be written as
Z
1 <α> <β>
△I = d2 z [eP △(V γ ëı̈ )Ebë Ebı̈ η<α><β> + (4.19)
2
<α> <β> <α> <β>
△E ö (eP (V γ ëı̈ )Ebë Ebı̈ η<α><β> Dö P −2eP △(V γ ëı̈ )Eë Eı̈ T<α>ö<β> +
<α> <β> I <α>
εëı̈ Eë Eı̈ H<α><β>ö − V Ψ γ ë ΨJ Eë F<α>öIJ )+
I
△(V Vëë )Ψ γ ë (Dë Ψ)J ,
where Dë is the Gr–covariant derivation and the torsion 2–form T <α> , the
strength 3–form H and the supersymmetric Yang–Mills strength 2–form
F IJ are respectively defined by relations
<α> 1 <α>
T <α> = dE <α> + E <β> Ω<β> = E <β> E <γ> T<β><γ> ,
2
1
H = dB = E <γ> E <β> E <α> H<α><β><γ> ,
6
1 IJ
F IJ = dAIJ + AIK AKJ = E <β> E <γ> F<β><γ> .
2
The variation of action (4.19) under transforms (4.18) vanishes if and
only if there are satisfied the next conditions:
1) 3–form H is closed under condition
(Γ<α> )ëı̈ (Γ<α> )öü + (Γ<α> )ı̈ö (Γ<α> )ëü + (Γ<α> )öë (Γ<α> )ı̈ü = 0,
136
which holds for dimensions d = 3, 4, 6, 10;
2) there are imposed constraints
<α> b <γ> IJ
Tbëı̈ b <α> ) , ηb
= −i(Γ ëı̈ <γ>(<α> T<β>)ä = η
b<α><β> Bä , Fëı̈ = 0, (4.20)
IJ b ëIJ b
F<α>ı̈ = (Γ <α> )ëı̈ w , Hëı̈ö = 0, Hëı̈<α> = −ieP (Γ <α> )ëı̈ ,
c
H P ë ö
ü<α><β> = 2e (Γ<α> )ö (Γ<β> )ü Hë ;
where
Dü P + 2Hü − 2Bü = 0;
4) The last term in (4.19) vanishes because of conditions of chirality,
137
<β> <β> <γ> <β>
R<α> = δΩ<α> + Ω<α> Ω<γ> ,
F = δA, G = δB + AF − AF.
On the mass shell (on locally anisotropic spaces we shall consider dis
tinguished metrics) ds–tensors (4.21) are expressed in terms of one scalar
s–field V ∈ SU(1, 1) :
!
q s
V = , qq − ss = 1.
u v
Excluding a scalar by using the local U(1)–invariance we can use the first
components of complex s–fields (q, s) as physical scalar fields of the theory.
The constraints defining IIB supergravity in d = n + m = 10 higher
order anisotropic s–space contain equations (on every anisotropic ”shell”,
in locally adapted frames, they generalize constraints of IIB supergavity
[113]; see sections 2.2 and 2.3 for denotations on higher order anisotropic
s–spaces):
a a a a a a
T bppcp = T bppcp = 0, T bppcp = −iσ bpp cp , T bppcp = T bppcp = 0, (4.22)
−←
← − →−
− → −−
← → −−
← → ←
− −
→
where
dp dp dp
(σap σbp )−c→p = (σap bp )−c→p + ηap bp δ −
→
cp , (4.23)
−
→ −
→ −
→
138
the background of IIB–supergravity, with respect to usual isotropic string
model see [96]).
The action (4.16) can be generalized for N=2 higher order anisotropic
s–spaces in this manner:
Z
√ <α> <β> 1
IS = d2 z{ −γγ ı̈ü P (q, s)Ebı̈ Ebü ηb<α><β> + εı̈ü Eı̈<α> Eü<β> Be<α><β> ,
2
(4.24)
where P (q, s) is a function of scalar fields q and s, and
ap bp
<α> <α> <α>
Eı̈ ≡ ∂ı̈ u<α> E<α> = (Ebı̈ , ..., Eı̈←− , ..., E −→
ı̈ , ...).
√ δ τ
i[(−γ)−1/2 εı̈ü εëä (q − s) + −γγ ı̈ü γ ëä P ]Ebë<γ> Ebı̈<β> (σ<β> σ<γ> )←− ← −
τ− E ü kä←
← δ− +
α β
Ebı̈<γ> (Ebü<β> Ebë<α> ηb<β><α> )(σ<γ> )←−←− [εı̈ü γ ëä (q − s)Λ←
α
−
+
(−γ)−1/2 εı̈ü εëä (q − s)Λ←
α ]k } + h.c.)+
− ä β ←
−
1 √ 1√
△( −γγ ı̈ü )Ebı̈<γ> Ebü<β> ηb<γ><β> P + −γγ ı̈ü Ebı̈<γ> Ebü<β> ηb<γ><β> △P,
2 2
where h.c. denotes Hermitian conjugation.
Using relation (4.23) and fixing the U(1)–gauge as to have
α α
− Λ α − △E ←
P = q − s = q − s and △P = (q − s)(△E ← −Λ )
α
←− ←
−
139
we can obtain zero values of the coefficients before (σap bp )–terms. The rest of
√
terms in △L vanish for a corresponding fixing of the variation △( −γγ ı̈ü ).
So, in this section we have constructed a model of higher order anisotrop
ic IIB–superstring on the background of IIB supergravity with broken chiral
U(1)–subgroup of the supersymmetry SU(1, 1)–group of automorphisms of
N = 2, d = n + m = 10 supergravity. We omit in this Chapter calculus for
supersymmetric β–functions; we shall present similar details in sections 9.1
and 9.2 for higher order anisotropic nonsupersymmetric σ–models.
Z
1 1 q (e) äı̈
I= d2 z{ γ γ(e) ∂ä ub<α> ∂ı̈ ub<β> G<α><β> (u)+
2πα′ 2
εäı̈ ∂ä ub<α> ∂ı̈ ub<β> H<α><β> (u) + ...},
140
where dots are used instead of possible sources (with higher order deriva
tions), compatible with the reparametrization invariance, of another types
(e)
of perturbations and γëı̈ is the Euclid two dimensional metric. In (4.26)
we consider in explicit form the components of locally anisotropic graviton
and antisymmetric d–tensor and, for simplicity, omit the dilaton field and
topological considerations.
√ √ √
α′ S
αS ′
α′ S
σ σ σ σ
α′ R σ σ
d) e) √
α′ S f )
α′ R α′ R
σ σ σ σ σ σ
a) b) c)
Figure 4.1: The diagrams defining the conformal anomaly of a closed boson
string in a ha–space
The problem of calculation of Γ is split into two steps: the first is the
calculation of the effective action on an higher order anisotropic with fixed
Euler characteristic χ then the averaging on all metrics and topologies. In
order to solve the first task we shall compute
Z
exp{−W [G, H, g]} = [Dη] exp{−I[u + υ(z), g]}.
141
where the dimensional regularization (ε = 2 − d2 on world sheet), γ(e) is
the determinant of the two dimensional metric, R = Räı̈ äı̈ , one holds the
relation β(u) = 4γ(u) for dimensionless functions (we can computer them
as perturbations on α′ ) and note that the second term in (4.27) is the Weyl
anomaly which shall be computed by using normal locally adapted to N–
connection coordinates on higher order anisotropic space.
For a two–dimensional conformal flat two–dimensional, d2 = 2, metric
(e)
γëı̈ we find
(e) √
γëı̈ = e2σ δëı̈ , R (u) = −2e−2σ 2σ, γ(e)
äı̈
= e−2σ δ äı̈ , γ(e) = e2σ .
(e)
From decomposition γëı̈ = δëı̈ + hëı̈ with respect to first and second
order terms on h we have
q
äı̈ ε
γ (e) γ(e) = [1 + εσ(z) + (d − 4)σ 2 (z)]δ äı̈
2
when hëı̈ = 2σhëı̈ , h ≡ hää = 2σd(2) . We give similar formulas for the frame
decomposition of two metric
1 1
e1/2 eëë = (1 + εσ)δëë , e−1/2 eëë = (1 − εσ)δëë ,
2 2
which are necessary for dealing with spinors √ in curved spaces.
Transforming the quantum field ζ → 2πα′ ζ, where ζ is the tangent
d–vector in the point u ∈ E <z> of the higher order anisotropic space and
using the conformal–flat part of the two dimensional metric we obtain this
effective action necessary for further calculations
Z
ef f 1
Iint = d2 z[ (2πα′ )1/2 εëı̈ H<α><β><γ> (u)∂ë ζ <α> ∂ı̈ ζ <β> ζ <γ> + (4.28)
3
2πα′
εσ(z)R<α><β><γ><δ> (u)∂ë ζ <α> ∂ë ζ <δ> ζ <β> ζ <γ> +
6
1 2πα′
εσ(z)∂ë ζ <α> ∂ë ζ <α> + R<α><β><γ><δ> (u)∂ë ζ <α> ∂ë ζ <δ> ζ <β> ζ <γ> +
2 6
2πα′
D<α> H<α><β><γ> (u)εëı̈ ∂ë ζ <β> ∂ı̈ ζ <γ> ζ <α> ζ <δ> ,
4
142
where (u) higher order anisotropic space coordinates not depending on two
coordinates z. So, the anomaly in (4.27) takes the form
Z
4ϑ d2 z σ(z)2σ(z) (4.29)
(p · k − p2 )2 (q · k − q 2 ) + (p · k − p2 )2 (p · q)(q · k − q 2 )
,
p2 (k − p)2 q 2 (k − q)2
Z Z
πα′ε2 R (p · k − p2 )2
c) = G(0) d2 kσ(k)σ(−k) dd2 p ,
3(2π)4 p2 (k − p)2
Z Z
πα′ ε2 R (p · k − p2 )2
d) = − G(0) d2 kσ(k)σ(−k) dd2 p ,
3(2π)4 p2 (k − p)2
Z Z
2ε2 πα′ H<α><β><γ>
2
ëı̈ äü 2
e) + f ) = ε ε d kσ(k)σ(−k) dd2 pdd2 q×
(2π)6
1
×
p2 (k − p)2 q 2 (k − p − q)2
(k · p − p2 )(k · q − q 2 )pë (k − q)ı̈ (k − q)ä qü
{ +
(k − q)2
143
(k · p − p2 )2 që (k − q)ı̈ qä (k − p)ü
},
(k − p)2
where Z
1
σ(z) ≡ d2 pσ(p) exp(−ipx).
(2π)2
The contributions of tedpole nonvanishing diagrams mutually compen
sate. The sum of the rest of contributions results in the anomaly
α′ 1 α′ b − 2 H 2 ),
γ (2) = (−R + H 2 ) = (−R
64π 3 64π 3
where H 2 = H<α><β><γ> H <α><β><γ> and R b is the scalar curvature with
torsion.
Computing W in the leading order on α′ for the closed boson string, it
is not difficult to find the effective action Γ for massless perturbations of
the string (of the metric G<α><β> and field H<α><β> ) on the tree (χ = 2)
level. Taking into account the identity
Z
√ √
(R(z) γ(e) )z 2−1 2 2 ′
zz ′ (R(z) γ(e) )z ′ d zd z = 16π
144
In consequence, the correction to the critical dimension is
Dc = 26 + α′ H 2 + O([α′ ]2 ). (4.31)
H H
145
ë ë 1 1
N = 2 : eë = eσ δë ψë = γë λ, Aë = εëü ∂ü ρ,
2 2
where λ is the Maiorana (N = 1 ) or Dirac (N = 2 ) spinor. Because of
supersymmetry it is enough [80] to compute only the coefficient before Weyl
anomaly in order to get the superconformal anomalies. The one–loop results
are
nE nE
N = 1 : β (1) = , γ (1) = ,
16π 64π
nE nE
N = 2 : β (1) = , γ (1) = ,
8π 32π
from which, taking into account the reparametrization and superconformal
ghosts we obtain these values of critical dimension (γ = 0) :
(1) nE − 2 (1) nE − 10
N = 1 : βt = , γ = ,
16π 64π
nE nE − 2
N = 2 : β (1) = , γ (1) = .
8π 32π
From formal point of view in the two–loop approximation we must con
sider diagrams b)–m) from fig. 4.2. By straightforward calculations by us
ing methods similar to those presented in [80] we conclude that all two–loop
contributions b)–m) vanish. In result we conclude that for Fermi strings one
holds the next formulas:
nE − 2 α′ H 2 nE − 10 α′ H 2
N=1:β= − + ..., γ = − ,
16π 24π 64π 96π
nE α′ H 2 nE − 2 α′ H 2
N=2:β= − + ..., γ = −
8π 24π 32π 96π
or
2
N = 1 : Dc = 10 + α′ H 2 + ...,
3
1
N = 2 : Dc = 2 + α′ H 2 ...
3
in the leading order on α′ .
Finally, we note that because H 2 contains components of N–connection
and torsion of d–connection on higher order anisotropic space we conclude
that a possible local anisotropy of space–time can change the critical di
mension of Fermi strings.
146
4.5 Anomalies in LAS–Models
Anomalies in quantum field theories are considered beginning with works
[2] and [35]. Conformal and gravitational anomalies have been analyzed in
[61,72,6] (see also reviews [298,169,139,140,92]). The aim of this section is
to investigate anomalies in higher order anisotropic (1,0)–superspaces.
1Z 3 −
I1 = − d z {(gb<α><β> + ζ <γ> Ab<γ><α><β> +
2
b
ζ <δ> ζ <γ> B <ε> <δ> <γ> b
D<ε><δ><γ><α><β> +
<δ><γ><α><β> + ζ ζ ζ
c
ζ <τ > ζ <ε> ζ <δ> ζ <γ> M = <α>
∂= ζ <β> +
<ε><δ><γ><τ ><α><β> ) + [iH+ ∂= ζ
1
D+ ζ <α> (D+ H=‡ )D+ ζ <β> + i(D+ ζ <α> )H=‡ (∂‡ ζ <β> )]+
2
I J I J
χ(−) H+= ∂= χ(−) + χ(−) χ(−) H+= ∂= ζ <β> ×
147
IJ IJ IJ
(ζ <α> Cb<α><β> + ζ <γ> ζ <α> Eb<γ><α><β> + ζ <ε> ζ <γ> ζ <α> K
c
<ε><γ><α><β> )+
6
i X 1 <α1 > <αp > b b ‡ 2 =
ζ ...ζ D<α1 > ...D <αp > Φ(D+ ∂‡ H= + ∂= H+ )},
4π p p!
where
2c
Ab<γ><α><β> = H <γ><α><β> ,
3
1b 1b
Bb<δ><γ><α><β> = R c
<δ><α><β><γ> + D<δ> H<γ><α><β> ,
3 2
b 1b b c
D <ε><δ><γ><α><β> = D<ε> D<δ> H<γ><α><β> +
5
1b b 2 <τ > c
D<ε> R <δ><α><β><γ> + R H <β>]<γ><τ > ,
6 15 <δ><ε>[<α>
c 1 b b b
M <ε><δ><γ><τ ><α><β> = D<ε> D <δ> R<γ><α><β><τ > +
20
2 b <ϑ> b b b c
R<β><τ ><γ><ϑ> R<δ><ε><α> +D <ε> D<δ> D<γ> H<τ ><α><β> +
45
1 b b <ϑ> c 1b c b <ϑ>
D<ε> R <γ><δ>[<α> H<β>]<τ ><ϑ> + D<γ> H<τ ><ϑ>[<α> R<δ><ε><β>] ,
18 9
IJ 1 IJ IJ 1b b IJ
Cb<α><β> = − Fb<α><β> , Eb<γ><α><β> = − D <γ> F<α><β> ,
2 3
cIJ 1 b b b IJ b IJ <τ >
K <ε><γ><α><β> = − (3D<ε> D <γ> F<α><β> + F<ε><τ > R<α><γ><β> .
24
For simplicity, in this section we shall omit tilde ”e” over geometric objects
(such as curvatures and torsions computed for Christoffel distinguished sym
bols (1.39)) but maintain hats ”b” in order to point out even components on
the s–space).
We write the supergravitational anomaly in this general form (see [287]
for locally isotropic models):
Z 4 3
1 3 − = ∂= ‡ ∂=
d z {γ1 D+ H+ H+= − iγ2 D+ H= H=‡ },
32π 2 2
where background depending coefficients will be defined from a perturbation
calculus on α′ by using (4.32).
148
∂=
∂=
H H
p p
∂= ∂=
∂‡
∂‡ 2
∂=
∂= = ∂=
∂=
H+= H+
H=‡ D
H=‡
∂=
H+=
∂=
H+=
∂=
+
Figure 4.4: (1, 0) supergrafs defining the 1–loop dilaton contribution to the
anomaly
H+= H‡ =
Z 2
1 k= (k= + p= )2 i p4=
d2 k = − .
(2π)2 k 2 (k + p)2 24π p2
Diagrams of type illustrated on fig. 4.4 give rise only to local contributions in
the anomaly and are not introduced because of dimensional considerations.
149
D+
B
∂= D+
B
∂=
a) b)
We note that comparing with similar locally isotropic results [140] the
torsions H·· are generated by components of the distinguished torsion of the
higher order anisotropic background.
The action (4.34) is the conformal anomaly of our model (Σ+ depends on
S). The critical parameters of the higher order anisotropic heterotic string
n + m1 + ... + mz = 10 and NE = 32
150
D D+ D
+ D+
∂ ∂= ∂=
+
=
∂=
l) m)
D+
∂= D+
∂= D+ D+
+ ∂=
D
∂= ∂=
∂= D+ i) j) k)
D+ D+
D+ ∂= ∂= ∂=
f)
D+ ∂= d) ∂= D+ e) ∂= D+
∂=
D+ ∂=
D+ ∂=
D+
151
make up the conditions of cancelation of it anomalies (the original locally
isotropic result was obtained in [97]). We can also compute and add the
one–loop dilaton (see fig. 4.5) contribution to (4.34):
Z
(1,Φ) D2Φ ∂‡3 ‡ ∂4
Wef f = d3 z − [iD+ H=‡ H= − D+ H+= = H+= ],
128π 2 2 2
1 2
γ (1,Φ) = − D Φ.
4π
computed
Z 2
d2 kd2 q q= (q= + p= )(k= + p= )
a) = I1 (p) = ×
16π (q − µ2 )[(q + p)2 − µ2 ]
4 2
k2 1 p4=
= + O µ2 ,
(k 2 − µ2 )[(k + p)2 − µ2 ] 64π 2 p2
Z
d2 kd2 q q= (q= + p= )
b) = I2 (p) = ×
16π (q − µ2 )[(q + p)2 − µ2 ]
4 2
k 2 (k= + p= )2 1 p4=
2 2 2 2
= − 2 2
+ O µ2 ,
(k − µ )[(k + p) − µ ] 32π p
where the mass parameter µ2 is used as a infrared regulator.
Two–loop A2 –dependent diagrams are illustrated in fig.4.7. The super
grafs f),i) and j) are given by the momentum integral If = Ii = Ij = I(p) :
Z
d2 kd2 q k= q= (k= + q= + p= )2 p4=
I(p) = = ;
(2π)4 k 2 q 2 (k + q + p)2 96π 2 p2
to this integral there are also proportional the anomaly parts of diagrams
a)e),k),l) and m). The rest of possible A2 –type diagrams do not contribute
to the anomaly part of the effective action. After a straightforward compu
tation of two loop diagrams we have
1 e + 1 H 2 );
γ 2−loop = (−R
16π 3
there are not dilaton contributions in the two–loop approximation.
The anomaly coefficient γ is connected with the central charge of Vira
soro superalgebra of heterotic string on the background of massless modes
152
(under the conditions of vanishing of βfunctions or, equivalently, if the
motion equations are satisfied, see [241,243,231,178,67,173,48]):
1 g
2γ + α′ (D<β> Φ)2 = βeΦ ≡ β Φ − β<α><β> g <α><β> =
4
n + m1 + ... + mz − 10 α′
+ Lef f ,
2 2
1 eΦ +
< T >− = β Σ + ...,
4π
g
where < T >− is the averaged supertrace, β<α><β> is the metric βfunction,
eΦ
β is the dilaton βfunction and by dots there are denoted the terms van
ishing on the motion equations. We note that the βfunctions and effective
Lagrangian are defined in the string theory only with the exactness of redef
inition of fields [48]. From a standard calculus according the perturbation
theory on α′ we have
g e
β<α><β> = α ′ (R 2
<α><β> − H<α><β> )
and Z q
(0) (0)
Sef f ≡ d10 X gLef f =
Z q
1 e − 4D 2 Φ + 4(D 1 2
d10 X g{−R 2
<α> Φ) + H },
2 3
where
2
H<α><β> ≡ H<α><γ><δ> H<β><γ><δ> ,
which is a higher order anisotropic generalization of models developed in
[38,58,36].
4.6 Conclusions
To develop in a straightforward manner self–consistent physical theories, de
fine local conservation laws,give a corresponding treatment of geometrical
objects and so on, on different extensions on Finsler spaces with nonlinear
structure of metric form and of connections, torsions and curvatures is a
highly conjectural task. Only the approach on modeling of geometric models
153
of the mentioned type (super)spaces on vector (super)bundles provided with
compatible nonlinear and distinguished connections and metric structures
make ”visible” the possibility (see, for instance, [160,161,256,272,255,258,
259,264,267]), manner of elaboration, as well common features and differ
ences of models of fundamental physical fields with generic locally anisot
ropic interactions. From viewpoint of the string theory fundamental ideas
only some primarily changes in established material have been introduced
in this Chapter. But we did not try to a simple straightforward repetition
of standard material in context of some sophisticate geometries. Our main
purposes were to illustrate that the higher order anisotropic supergravity is
also naturally contained in the framework of low energy superstring dynam
ics and to develop a corresponding geometric and computational technique
for supersymmetric sigma models in locally anisotropic backgrounds.
The above elaborated methods of perturbative calculus of anomalies of
hetrotic sigma models in higher order anisotropic superspaces, as a matter
of principle, can be used in every finite order on α′ (for instance, by using
the decomposition (4.32) for effective action we can, in a similar manner
as for one and two–loop calculations presented in section 4.5, find correc
tions of anomalies up to fifth order inclusive) and are compatible with the
well known results for locally isotropic strings and sigma models. We omit
such considerations in this work (which could make up a background for a
monograph on locally anisotropic string theory).
154
Chapter 5
Stochastics in LAS–Spaces
We shall describe the analytic results which combine the fermionic Brow
nian motion with stochastic integration in higher order anisotropic spaces.
It will be shown that a wide class of stochastic differential equations in lo
cally anisotropic superspaces have solutions. Such solutions will be than
used to derive a Feynman–Kac formula for higher order anisotropic sys
tems. We shall achieve this by introducing locally anisotropic superpaths
parametrized by a commuting and an anticommuting time variable. The
supersymmetric stochastic techniques employed in this Chapter was devel
oped by A. Rogers in a series of works [206,207,205,209,210] (superpaths
have been also considered in papers [103,82] and [198]). One of the main
our purposes is to extend this formalism in order to formulate the theory
of higher order anisotropic processes in distinguished vector superbundles
[260,262,265,266,267,253,268]. Stochastic calculus for bosonic and fermionic
Brownian paths will provide a geometric approach to Brownian motion in
locally anisotropic superspaces.
Sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Chapter contain correspondingly a brief
introduction into the subject and a brief review of fermionic Brownian mo
tion and path integration. Section 5.3 considers distinguished stochastic
integrals in the presence of fermionic paths. Some results on calculus on a
(1,1)–dimensional superspace and two supersymmetric formulae for super
paths are described in section 5.4 and than, in section 5.5, the theorem on
the existence of unique solutions to a useful class of distinguished stochas
tic differential equations is proved and the distinguished supersymmetric
155
Feynman–Kac formula is established. Section 5.6 defines some higher or
der anisotropic manifolds which can be constructed from a vector bundle
over a vector bundle provided with compatible nonlinear and distinguished
connection and metric structures. In section 5.7 a geometric formulation of
Brownian paths on higher order anisotropic manifolds is contained; these
paths are used to give a Feynman–Kac formula for the Laplace–Beltrami
operator for twisted differential forms. This formula is used to give a proof
of the index theorem using supersymmetry of the higher order anisotropic
superspaces in section 5.8 (we shall apply the methods developed in [4,82]
and [209,210].
5.1 Introduction
The stochastic calculus have been recently generalized to various extensions
of Finsler geometry and has many applications in modern theoretical and
mathematical physics and biology [13,14,131,141,189,253,262] (see also con
structions connected with path integration techniques for Euclidean spaces
and Riemannian manifolds [71,74,75,76,90,123,124,125,132]). We intend to
present a manifestly supersymmetric formalism for investigation of diffu
sion processes in superspaces with higher order anisotropy. Stochastic cal
culus is characterized by many uses in modern physics (see, for instance,
131,141,282,73,74,75,76]), biology [14,13] and economy [189] and became
more familiar to theoretical physics. There are a lot monographs and text
books where the stochastic processes and diffusion are considered from a
rigorous mathematical view point or with the aim to make the presenta
tion more accessible for applications in different branches of science and
economy. In section 10.1 a brief introduction into the theory of stochastic
differential equations in Euclidean spaces and necessary basic definitions
are presented (one can consult the Chapter 10 and some of the just cited
monographs if this is necessary). Here we do not assume any prior knowl
edge of stochastic calculus and consider the reader oriented to differential
geometry and supergravity theories.
In their simplest form, path integrals can be defined on Euclidean space
Rq , parametrized by coordinates x, with respect to Hamiltonians of the
156
form q
1X
H=− ∂i ∂i + V (x),
2 i=s
where V (x) is the interaction potential, which leads to the Feynman–Kac
formula
Z Zt
exp(Ht)ϕ(x) = dµ exp(− V (x + bs )ds)ϕ(x + bs ),
0
where bs denotes a Brownian paths and the Wiener measure is often written
in the physics literature as
Zt !2
1 dx
dµ ∼
= Dx exp(− ds.
2 ds
0
157
Laplace–Beltrami operators in locally anisotropic superspaces). Here we
also note that because the canonical anticommutation relations are also
the defining relations of a Clifford algebra, the methods developed in this
Chapter are also applicable to various geometrical operators on Clifford and
spinor bundles and various bundles of differential forms on distinguished
vector (super)bundles [160,161,162,256,255,258,259,264,267].
158
(x1,1 , ..., xK,n , θ1,1 , ..., θ1,k , ..., θK,k , ρ1,k , ..., ρK,k ).
Having defined classes of functions C ∞ (Rn , R) or L2 (Rn , C) on Rn we
can in a similar manner introduce corresponding analogous of classes of
functions on Rn,k
l , denoted C
′∞
(Rn , R) or L′2 (Rn , C) . For a Banach space
S by C ′∞ (Rn , S) we denote the class of functions
f : Rn,k
l → Bl ⊗ S (5.1)
such that
b X b
f (x1 , ..., xn , θb1 , ..., θk ) = f{i} (x1 , ..., xn )θbi1 ...θlw ,
{µ}∈Mk
where f{µ} ∈ C ∞ (Rn , S) , {i} = bi1 , ...biw is a multi–index with 1 ≤ bi1 <
... < biw < k and Mk is the set of multi–indices, including the empty one.
A function on Rn,kl is bounded if each of the coefficients functions f{µ}
are bounded. Differentiation of a function of Rn,k l with respect i the even
element will be denoted as ∂i and differentiation with respect to the bjth odd
element will be denoted as ∂bj . Details on analysis of functions of Grassmann
variables may be found in [203,205].
The class of functions (5.1) can be extended on trivial distinguished
vector bundles (dvs–bundles) if we consider distinguished sets of indices; in
this case we write
mp ,lp
f : (Rn,k m1 ,l1
l , Rl , ..., Rl , ..., Rlmz ,lz ) → Bl ⊗ S,
X
f (u<α> ) = f (uαp ) = f{bap } (ub1 , ..., ubn+m1 +...+mz )ζ abp 1 ...ζ abp w ,
{<b
ap >}∈Mk
f{bap } ∈ C ∞ (Rnl E , S),(nE = n+ m1 + ...+ mp )), {< abp >} = {abp1 , abp2 , ..., abpw }
are multi–indices with 1 ≤ abp1 < ... < abpw ≤ lp and Mk = {Mk1 , ..., Mkp }. If
all coefficients f{bap } are bounded the function f on
mp ,lp
(Rn,k m1 ,l1
l , Rl , ..., Rl , ..., Rlmz ,lz )
is said to be bounded.
159
We shall also use distinguishings of indices and denote corresponding
n ,k
spaces and local coordinates respectively by RnlEE ,kE = (..., Rlpp p , ...) and
(x1,1 , ..., xK,n , θ1,1 , ..., θ1,k , ..., θK,k , ρ1,k , ..., ρK,k , ...,
1,1 K ,mp 1,1 1,k K ,k K ,k
y(p) , ..., y(p)p , ζ(p) , ..., ζ(p) , ..., ζ(p)p , ρ1,k p
(p) , ..., ρ(p) , ...).
if f (ζ) = fbap1 ...bapw ζ abp 1 , ..., ζ abp w + terms of lower order in ζ. The necessary
details on the analysis of functions of Grassmann variables may be found,
for instance, in [203,205,146,147].
n,2k[J]
Because Rl is not a simply product of copies of Rln,2k we have a
quite sophisticate definition of distinguished Grassmann random variables:
Definition 5.1 Let be finite subsets of Ip , with JMp ⊂ JMp +1 for each
160
ρ1(p) , ..., ρK p
(p)
, ...) × GrME (θ1 , ..., θK , ρ1 , ..., ρK , ..., ζ 1(p) , ..., ζ K p
(p)
, ρ1(p) , ..., ρK p
(p)
, ...);
a) a collection (JME , GME ) is called a distinguished random variable
on Grassmann Wiener space of the sequences {..., IMp , ...} tends to lim
R
its (denoted as dµf (p) GrMp or EF (GrMp ) as Mp tends to infinity for every
p = 0, 1, ..., z;
b) a sequence of pairs (JME , GME ) for which distinguished integrals (5.2)
do not necessarily satisfy the divergence condition is called a generalized
random variable.
For finite sets IME the defined distinguished Grassmann random vari
ables (in brief dr–variables) are said to be finitely defined. There are 2nE
finitely defined dr–variables ζr<α> , ρ<α> r for every r ∈ IE and corresponding
J = {r} :
m m
ζr<α> (..., ζ(p)
1
, ..., ζ(p)p , ρ1(p) , ..., ρ(p)p , ...) = ζ <α> ,
m m
ρ<α>
r
1
(..., ζ(p) , ..., ζ(p)p , ρ1(p) , ..., ρ(p)p , ...) = ρ<α> .
y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ζ 1(p) , ..., ζ K p
(p)
, ρ1(p) , ..., ρK p
(p)
, ...) =
161
φ(θ1 , ..., θK , ρ1 , ..., ρK , ..., ζ 1(p) , ..., ζ K p
(p)
, ρ1(p) , ..., ρK p
(p)
, ...),
where
fJE (x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., yK p
(p)
, ...) = fJE (u) =
162
X X
<ν>
f<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... ζ <µ> ρ<ν>
<µ>∈MnK <ν>∈MnK
E E
2′ nE ,2kE [JME ]
∈L RlE ,C .
The functions f 1 ∈ L2 RnE KE , R and f 2 ∈ L1 RnE KE , R are defined
by
f 1 x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... =
X X
<ν>
f<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... 
<µ>∈MnK <ν>∈MnK
E E
and
(f 2 x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., yK p
(p)
, ... )2 =
X X
<ν>
f<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... 2 .
<µ>∈MnK <ν>∈MnK
E E
y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ζ 1(p) , ..., ζ K p
(p)
, ρ1(p) , ..., ρK p
(p)
, ...) = (5.4)
X X
<ν>
Gr<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... ζ <µ> ρ<ν>
<µ>∈MnK <ν>∈MnK
E E
<ν>
×Gr<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... . (5.5)
Lemma 5.1 Let Es (Gr) be the expectation of variable (3.4) with respect
to distinguished super Wiener measure (3.3) and Eb (Gr1) is the bosonic
expectation (3.5). Then Es (Gr) ≤ Eb (Gr1).
163
Proof. One holds the inequality
X X Z
Eb (Gr) ≤  dubnE KE dζ nE KE dρnE KE ×
<µ>∈MnK <ν>∈MnK
E E
fJE x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... ×
<ν> (r)
Gr<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... ζ <µ> ρ<ν> dµE  ≤
X X Z
 dubnE KE fJE x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ... ×
<µ>∈MnK <ν>∈MnK
E E
<ν>
Gr<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ...
because for even Grassmann elements on every distinguished ”shell”, whose
squares are zero, theirs Taylor expansions contain each non–zero element
with coefficient exactly 1. Thus
X Z X
Es (Gr) ≤ dubnE KE fJE x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., y K p
(p)
, ...
<µ>∈MnK <ν>∈MnK
E E
<ν>
×Gr<µ> x1 , ..., xK , ..., y 1(p) , ..., yK p
(p)
, ...  = Eb (Gr1 ).
2
We conclude this section by emphasizing that on distinguished vector
superbundles with trivial N–connection structures we can apply the Rogers’
supersymmetric stochastic calculus [209,210,206,207] in a straightforward
manner, step by step, on every ”shell” of local anisotropy.
164
where f is a suitable well–behaved function of Rk × R+ . In the case of
purely fermionic Brownian motion one writes
Zt
f (θt , t) − f (θ0 , 0) =I ∂s f (θs , s)ds,
0
where ”=I ” means that there are two random variables on R(0,2nE )[(0,t)] with
equal expectations. For, simplicity we shall consider k = 2nE .
Let Fs be a [0,t]–adapted process on the distinguished super Wiener
n ,2k [[0,t]]
space RlEE E . We suppose that for ∀s ∈ IE Fs corresponds to the
sequence of pairs of subsets and functions (Js,A , Fs,A ; A = 1, 2, ...) , JA =
2AS
−1
rt
Jtr, A , where for r = 1, ..., 2A − 1, tr = 2A
, and consider functions KA =
r=1 !
2A
P −1 n ,2kE [JA ]
Ftr ,A 2tA on RlEE .
r=1
The definition 5.5 holds also good for distinguished generalized random
variables.
′
We introduce the next denotations: MΩ1 [0, t] is the set of all [0, t]–adapt
n ,2k [[0,t]]
ed processes Fs on the distinguished super Wiener space RlEE E such
Rt 2′
that 0 Fs 1 ds exists and is finite and Eb (Fs 1 ) is bounded on [0, t]; MΩ [0, t]
denotes the set of all [0,t]–adapted processes Fs on the distinguished super
n ,2k [[0,t]]
Wiener space RlEE E such that
Z t
Fs 22 ds
0
165
exists and is finite and Eb (Fs 22 ) is bounded on [0, t] (we use correspondingly
sequences
(Js,A , Fs,A 1 : A = 1, 2, ...)
and
Js,A , Fs,A 22 : A = 1, 2, ...
as in the definition 5.3 and note that following definition 5.5 the time inte
grals are Riemann integrals).
′
Theorem 5.1 Let F <α> ∈ MΩ2 [0, t] for < α >= 1, 2, ...k, for each A =
1, 2, ... let JA = {t1 , ..., t2A −1 } with tr = rt/2A for r = 1, ..., 2A − 1 and
consider
A A A
GA ub1 , ..., ub2 −1 , ζ 1 , ..., ζ 2 −1 , ρ1 , ..., ρ2 −1 =
nE A −1
X 2X
F A,<α> ub1 , ..., ubr , ζ 1 , ..., ζ r , ρ1 , ..., ρr ubr+1,<α> − ubr,<α>
<α>=1 r=1
′ nE ,2kE [JME ]
∈ L2 RlE ,C .
166
′
which tends to a correct limit as A → ∞ since F is in MΩ2 [0, t].2
Combining both type of integrations we obtain the following definition
of distinguished stochastic integral.
Definition 5.6 Let t be a positive real number and consider a stochastic
n ,2k [[0,t]]
process on distinguished super Wiener space RlEE E such that
Zt2 Zt2 X
nE
Zt1 − Zt2 = As ds + Cs<α> db<α>
s ,
t1 t1 <α>=1
′ ′
where 0 ≤ t1 ≤ t2 ≤ t and As ∈ MΩ1 [0, t] and Cs<α> ∈ MΩ2 [0, t] are [0,t]–
adapted processes on the distinguished Wiener space.Then Zs is said to be
a distinguished stochastic integral.
Now we formulate the key result of this section (the generalized for dis
tinguished superspaces Itô theorem):
Theorem 5.2 Consider distinguished stochastic integrals Zs<β>
n ,2k [[0,t]]
(< β >= 1, 2, ..., nE ) on the distinguished super Wiener space RlEE E
with
Zt Zt2 X
nE
<β> <β> <β> <α><β>
Zs − Z0 = As dt + Cs db<α>
s (s)
0 t1 <α>=1
2
<β>
and suppose that E As is bounded for ∀s ∈ [0, t]. Then, if
′
<β>
H ∈ C 5 R(nE ,kE ) , C and Zs,A is the Ath term in the sequence defining
<β> <β>
the random variable Zs , the sequence H(Zs,A ) defines a distinguished
stochastic process according the stochastic integral
Zt nEX
+kE X
nE
<α><β>
H s − H 0 =I δ<β> H (Zs ) Cs db<α>
s +
0 <β> <α>
Zt nEX
+kE
<β>
( As δ<β> H (Zs ) +
0 <β>
nE nEX
X +kE nEX
+kE
1 <α><β> <α><γ>
Cs Cs δ<γ> δ<β> H (Zs ))ds.
2 <α> <β> <γ>
167
Proof. From
A −1
2X
H (Zt,A ) = H (Z0,A ) + H Ztr+1 ,A − H (Ztr ,A )
r=1
we have
nEX
+kE
H Ztr+1 ,A − H (Ztr ,A ) = ∆rA Z <β> δ<β> H (Ztr ,A ) +
<β>
nEX
+kE nEX
+kE
∆rA Z <β> ∆rA (Z <γ> ) δ<β> δ<γ> H (Ztr ,A ) + Rr ,
<β> <γ>
<β> <β>
where ∆rA Z <β> = Ztr+1 ,A − Ztr ,A and Rr is the remainder term to be
analyzed. As in the classical case (see a similar considerations in [209]) by
using truncated Taylor series) one finds that Rr  ≤ const/22A , where const
is independent of A, and using lemma 5.1 we obtain
A −1 n +k
2X XE
E
E (H (Zt,A ) − H (Z0,A )) = E( ( ∆rA Z <β> δ<β> H (Ztr ,A ) +
r=1 <β>
1 nEX
+kE nEX
+kE
′
∆rA Z <β> ∆rA (Z <γ> ) δ<β> δ<γ> H (Ztr ,A ))) + RA ,
2 <β> <γ>
′
where RA  < C/2A for some C independent of A. So the result follows on
taking limits as A → ∞.2
168
which acts on functions of the form
F (t, τ ) = A(t) + τ B(t), (5.6)
where A(t) has a time derivative (A and B may have either Grassmann par
ity and A(t) has a time derivative). If B(t) is also differentiable, we have
DT2 = ∂/∂t and for a system where the Hamiltonian H is the square of a
supercharge Q, which is an odd operator, the imaginary–time Schrödinger
equation ∂f
∂t
= −Hf has a square root DT f = Qf. In our further consider
ations we shall use the formula
DT (exp(−Ht − Qτ )) = (exp(−Ht − Qτ )) (Q − 2τ H). (5.7)
Now we define an integral with respect to a (1, 1)–dimensional variable
S = (s, σ) including both odd and even limits [208]:
Zτ Zt Z t+στ
Z
.
dσ dsF (s, σ) = dσ dsF (s, σ),
0 0 0
where
Ru
the even integral on the right–hand side os evaluated by regarding
0 dsF (s, σ) as a function of u (evaluating this expression when u = t + στ
by Taylor expansion about t = u) and the integration with respect to the
odd variable σ is then carried out as Berezin integration. For a function of
type (5.6) we have
Zτ Zt Zt
dσ dsF (s, σ) = τ A(t) + B(s)ds.
0 0 0
From the above definition of integration one follows the next important for
calculations result:
Zτ Zt
dσ dsDS F (s, σ) = F (t, τ ) − F (0, 0)
0 0
and (the rules for the superderivatives of such integral with respect to its
upper limits)
Zτ Zt
DT dσ dsG(s, σ) = G(t, τ ).
0 0
169
Definition 5.7 Let Gs and Hs are adapted stochastic processes on distin
′
guished super Wiener spaces and Hs ∈ MΩ1 [0, t]. Then, if Fs = Gs + σHs ,
Zτ Zt Zt
.
dσ dsFS = dsHs + τ Gt .
0 0 0
where
i <α>
√
u<β>
S = u<β>
s
<β>
+ √ σξs<α> f(s)<α> , ζS = ξs<α> + 2iσäs<α> ,
2
<β>
ηs<β> = ζ <α> f(s)<α> ,
ξs<α> = ζs<α> − iρs<α>
and the notation ä<α>
s is to be interpreted in combination with ds as
<α>
äs ds = das . Then
Zτ Zt !
′ i
qt,τ (ub, ζ) − q0,0 =I dσ ds {qs,σ (ub, ζ) φ u + uS + √ σηs , ζ + ζS −
0 0
2
!
′′ i
[2σqs,σ (ub, ζ) δ<α> φ u + uS + √ σηs , ζ + ζS
2
!
i
δ<α> φ u + uS + √ σηs , ζ + ζS ]}.
2
170
Proof. We have
qt,τ (ub, ζ) − q0,0 (ub, ζ) =
′ ′
qt,0 (ub, ζ) + τ φ(u + ut , ζ + ξt )qt,0 − q0,0 = τ φ(u + ut , ζ + ξt )qt,0 +
Zt !
i <β>
q( ds √ (ζ <α> + ξs<α> )f(s)<α> δ<β> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs ))+
0
2
√ Zt <α>
2i das δ<α> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs ) − q0,0 (ub, ζ) =I
0
′
√ Zt <α> ′
τ φ(u + ut , ζ + ξt )qt,0 (ub, ζ) + 2i das q0,s (ub, ζ) δ<α> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs )+
0
Zt
i ′ <β>
ds( √ qs,0 (ζ <α> + ξs<α> )f(s)<α> δ<β> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs )−
0
2
′′
qs,0 δ<α> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs )δ<α> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs ))
and (using theorem 5.2)
Zτ Zt !
′ i
dσ ds qs,σ (ub, ζ) φ u + uS + √ σηs , ζ + ζS =I
0 0
2
′
√ Zt <α> ′
τ φ(u + ut , ζ + ξt )qt,0 (ub, ζ) + 2i das q0,s (ub, ζ) δ<α> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs )+
0
Zt
i ′ <β>
√ dsqs,0 (ζ <α> + ξs<α> )f(s)<α> δ<β> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs )+
2 0
Zt
′′
ds φ(u + us , ζ + ξs )qs,0 (ub, ζ) φ(u + us , ζ + ξs ).
0
171
Zt nE
X
′′
dsqs,0 (ub, ζ) δ<α> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs )δ<α> φ(u + us , ζ + ξs ).
0 <α>
2
The second basic result in this section is a distinguished supersymmetric
version of the restricted Itô theorem.
where for < α >= 1, ..., nE and < β >= 1, ..., k (we can consider, for
<α> b
instance, k = nE ), l<β> (us ) is a function on RnE and L<α>
<β> is an adapted
distinguished stochastic process on (k, k)–dimensional distinguished super
Wiener space. Then, using notations of theorem 5.3, there is a function
′
f ∈ C 5 RnE ,k satisfying conditions
!
i
f ub + ubT + √ τ η, ζ + ζs − f (ub, ζ) =I
2
Zτ Zt !
i
dσ <α>
ds[ψ <β> l<β> (ub + ubs )δ<α> f ub + ubS + √ τ η, ζ + ζs +
0 0
2
!
<α> <β> i
σl<β> (ub + ubs )l<β> (ub + ubs )δ<α> δ<β> f ub + ubS + √ τ η, ζ + ζs +
2
Zτ Zt !
i
dσ du<α>
s σ δ<α> f ub + ubS + √ τ η, ζ + ζs .
0 0
2
Proof. Applying the Itô formula from the theorem 5.3 we write
!
i
f ub + ubT + √ τ η, ζ + ζs − f (ub, ζ) =I
2
Zτ Zt
dσ du<α>
s σ δ<α> f (ub + ubs , ζ + ζs ) +
0 0
172
i
√ τ (ζ <α> + ξt<α> )l<α>
<α>
(ub + ubs )δ<α> f (ub + ubt , ζ + ζt ) +
2
Zτ Zt
1
dσ du<α>
s
<α>
σ l<α> <β>
(ub + ubs )l<α> (ub + ubs )δ<α> δ<β> f (ub + ubs , ζ + ζs ) .
2
0 0
The result follows from a simple integration on s and a corresponding re
groupation of terms.2
The theorems 5.3 and 5.4 (which are extensions for distinguished classes
of indices of similar results proved by Alice Rogers [209]) will be used in
section 5.5 for a proof of a variant of Feynman–Kac formula for locally
anisotropic stochastic processes.
173
We note that two random variables F and G are said to be equal if
E(F − G2 ) = 0.
The basic result of this section is formulated as
Theorem 5.5 Suppose that under conditions of definition 5.8 and all s ∈
[0, t] and all (< µ >, < ν >) ∈ (AkE × AkE )the coefficient functions of A<α>
<α>
and B <α> satisfy conditions
ub1 − ub2 
<α><µ>
b 1 , s) − A<α><µ>
A<α><ν> (u <α><ν> ( u
b 2 , s) ≤C ,
nE k × 22kE
1 + ub1 
<α><µ>
A<α><ν> (u
b 1 , s) ≤C ,
nE k × 22kE
<α><µ> <α><µ> ub1 − ub2 
B<ν> (ub1, s) − B<ν> (ub2 , s) ≤ C ,
nE × 22kE
<α><µ> 1 + ub1 
B<ν> (ub1 , s) ≤ C ,
nE × 22kE
for some fixed positive number C. Then there exists a unique solution to the
stochastic differential d–equation
U0 = A.
Proof. Supposing that ubs and vbs are two solutions of (5.10) and using
theorem 5.1 we can write
Zs
2
Eubs − vbs 22 ≤2 B <α> (ubz , ζz , ρz , z) − B <α> (vbz , ζz , ρz , z)2 dz+
0
Zs 2
2 A<α>
<β> ( u
b z , ζ z , ρz , z) − A<α>
<β> ( v
bz , ζ z , ρz , z) dz ≤
2
0
Zs
2
2C (1 + s) ubs − vbs 22 dz,
0
i.e. Eubs − vbs 22 = 0 ∀s ∈ [0, t], and thus any solution which exists is unique.
174
The existence of solutions is established by considering the sequence
<α>
Us(r) (r = 1, 2, ...) of stochastic processes on the distinguished super Wiener
space
(n ,2k )[[0,t]] <α>
Rl E E with Us(0) = 0 and, for r > 0,
Zs Zs
<α> <α> <β>
Us(r) =A+ B (Us(r−1) , ζz , ρz , z)dz + A<α>
<β> (Us(r−1) , ζz , ρz , z)das .
0 0
The next step is the following inductive hyposes, for all integers q up to
and including some fixed integer r :
<α> ′
a) Us(r) take values in MΩ2 [0, t];
q
<α>
b) E(Us(q) <α> 2
− Us(q−1) 2 ) ≤ (Cq!
1 s)
, where C1 is a positive constant.
<α>
So, Us(1) is well defined and
Zs Zs
<α> <α> 2 <α>
EUs(1) −Us(0) 2 ≤ 2 B (u0 , ζz , ρz , z)dz22 +2 A<α> 2
<β> (u0 , ζz , ρz , z)2 dz,
0 0
Zt
<α> 2 (C1 s)r (C1 t)r+1
Us(r−1) 2 ds ≤ C1 ds =
r! (r + 1)!
0
<α> ′
implies that Us(r+1) takes values in MΩ2 [0, t], i.e. the inductive hypothesis
<α>
is satisfied and the sequence Us(r) converges in the manner required by the
theorem.2
Now we formulate the distinguished variant of the main theorem from
[209] establishing a Feynman–Kac formula for a Hamiltonian H which in
our case is considered for locally anisotropic interactions.
175
Let (as , ζs , ρs ) denotes Brownian motion in (k, k)–dimensional distin
guished super Wiener space, g is a C 5 Riemannian metric on Rk which
has components g<α><β> and consider an orthonormal basis e<α> of distin
<α>
guished 1–forms with components e<α> satisfying conditions
<α> <α>
gb<α><β> (ub) = e<α> (ub)e<β> (ub).
<α>
We consider that all derivatives of e<α> up to fifth order are required to be
uniformaly bounded on Rk . and consider ubs to be the unique solution to
the distinguished stochastic differential equation
dub<α>
s = e<α> b + us )da<α>
<α> (u s +
1 <α><β> <β>
(δ + ζs<α> ζs )e<β> b + us )δ<β> e<α>
<α> (u <α> (u
b + us )ds,
2
ub<α>
0 = 0,
<β> <α>
where e<α>
<α> and e<α> δ<β> e<β> are to be extended to even Grassmann ele
ments by Taylor expansion truncated at the first–derivative term, and in
troduce variables
i
ub<α>
S = ub<α>
s + √ σζs<α> e<α>
<α> (u
b+u
bs ) ,
2
<α>
√
ζS = ζs<α> + 2iσas<a> and ηs<α> = ζ <α> e<α>
<α> (ub+u bs) .
δ
Theorem 5.6 Consider the operator ψ <α> = ζ <α> + ∂ζ <α>
acting on the
2′ (k,k) 5 (k,k)
spaces L and ϕ being a C function on R
(Rl ) which is linear in the
odd argument and has
all derivatives up to fifth order uniformly bounded.
2′ (k,k)
Then if Q = ψ <α> e<α>
<α> ( u
b ) δ<β> + ϕ ( u
b , ψ) acts on L (Rl ), where
′ (k,k) (nE ,k)
H = Q2 , F ∈ C 5 Rl and (ub, ζ) ∈ Rl , one holds the formula
exp(−Ht − Qτ )F (ub, ζ) =
Zτ Zt !
i
E{exp[ dσ ds ϕ ub + ubS + √ σηs , ζ + ζS ]×
0 0
2
!
i
F ub + ubT + √ σηt , ζ + ζt }.
2
176
′ (k,k)
Proof. We introduce on L2 (Rl ) the operator V t,τ defined by comple
′ (k,k) ′ (k,k)
tion of Vt,τ : C0∞ (Rl ) → L2 (Rl ) with
Zτ Zt !
i
Vt,τ P (ub, ζ) = E{exp[ dσ ds ϕ ub + ubS + √ σηs , ζ + ζS ]×
0 0
2
!
i
P ub + ubT + √ σηt , ζ + ζt },
2
′ (k,k)
where P ∈ C0∞ (Rl ). Applying the Itô formula for products to the inte
grand in Vt,τ f (ub, ζ), taking expectations and after some algebraic transforms
we obtain
Vt,τ P (ub, ζ) − P (ub, ζ) =
Zτ Zt
dσ ds Vs,σ QP (ub, ζ) − 2σVs,σ HP (ub, ζ).
0 0
As a consequence,
using equation (5.7) and taking into account the uniqueness of solutions to
such differential equations we deduce as required by the conditions of the
theorem that
Vt,τ P (ub, ζ) = exp(−Ht − Qτ )P (ub, ζ).
2
177
Riemannian metric structures and let EH be a smooth mH –dimensional
Hermitian vector bundle over EeN . Suppose that {U{z}
α  {z}
α ∈ Λ} by sets
which are both coordinate neighborhoods of EeN and local trivializations
α , β , ... ∈ Λ we consider coordinate maps on EeN of
of EH . For each {z}
{z}
type φ α : U α → Rn and transition functions of the bundle EH of
{z} {z}
type h α β : U α ∩ U β → U(mH ) (for every point q ∈ U α ∩ U β
{z} {z}{z} {z} {z} {z}
the transition functions are parametrized by unitary mH × mH matrices
distinguished correspondingly to shells of anisotropy). We denote by
{τ α β : φ β U α ∩ U β → φ α U α ∩ U β }
{z} {z} {z} {z} {z} {z} {z} {z}
f with τ −1
the coordinate transition functions on M α ◦ φ β and
α β = φ{z}
{z} {z} {z}
by (m α β )<γ>
<ε> (u b<γ>
b) = ∂ u α /∂ ub<ε>
β
be the corresponding Jacobian
{z} {z} {z}
{z}
matrix.
In our further considerations we shall use the (nE , mH + nE )–dimension
al distinguished supermanifold S (EH ) built over EeN with local coordinates
1 m
p 1 p m 1 mH
y(p) α , ζ(p) {z}
α , ..., y(p) {z} α , ..., η(p) {z}
α , η(p) {z}
α , ..., ζ(p) {z} α , ...),
{z}
where p = 1, ..., z, and transition functions
1 pm 1 p m 1 mH
y(p) α , ..., y(p) {z}
{z} α , ζ(p) {z}
α , ..., ζ(p) {z}
α , η(p) {z} α , ...) →
α , ..., η(p) {z}
178
where < µb p >= µb p1 ...µb pkp is a multi–index with 1 ≤ µb p1 < ... < µb pkp ≤ mp ,
the symbol M c
nE is used for the set of all such multi–indices (including the
p µp
b
empty one), ζ µ > = ζ bµ1 ...ζ kp and each f<bµp >r take values in C ∞ (RnE , C) ,
<b p
p
such functions are linear in the η r but multilinear in the ζ bµn . As a result of
choise of the transition functions (5.11), there is a globally defined map
′
f ) ⊗ E ) → C ∞ (S(E ), C)
I : Γ(Ω(M H H
if m
X XH
179
where Ω(M f ) is the bundle of smooth forms on M f and (e1 , ..., emh ) is the
appropriate basis of the fibre of the bundle EH . This map is also an isomor
phism of vector spaces and of sheaves. For simplicity we shall omit ”hats”
on indices and consider < α b >=< α > in this section.
The aim of our constructions in this section is to allow one to express the
Hodge–de Rham operator on twisted differential forms on M f as a differential
∞′
operator on the extended space of functions C (S(EH ), C). In explicit form
we introduce the Hodge–de Rham operator in the form
e <β> ∂
d + δ = ψ <α> (δ<α> − Γ <α><γ> ζ
<γ>
δ<β> − As<α>r η r ), (5.12)
∂η s
e <β>
where ψ <α> = ζ <α> − g <α><β> δ<β> , Γ <α><γ> are the Christoffel d–symbols
(1.39) of the Riemannian metric on a dv–bundle EN . For simplicity, in this
chapter we shall analyze locally anisotropic supersymmetric stochastic pro
cesses on higher order anisotropic spaces provided with d–connections of
type; a further generalization is possible by introducing deformations of
connections of type (1.40), for instance in (5.12) in order to define a de
formed variant of the Hodge–de Ram operator.
180
with
e <γ> <β> δ ∂
D<α> = δ<α> − Γ <α><β> ζ − As<α>r η r .
δζ <γ> ∂η s
Proof. We have
1
L = (ψ <α> D<α> ψ <β> D<β> ) = (5.14)
2
1 1 <α> <β> 1
( {ψ ψ } + [ψ <α> ψ <β> ]) D<α> D<β> + ψ <α> [D<α> ψ <β> ]D<β>
2 2 2
and
1 <α> <β>
{ψ ψ } = −g <α><β> .
2
Calculating in explicit form we obtain
1 <α> <β>
[ψ ψ ]D<α> D<β> =
2
1 e <γ> e <ε> e <γ> δ
− [ψ <α> ψ <β> ]((δ<α> Γ <β><δ> − Γ<α><δ> Γ<β><ε> )ζ
<δ>
<γ>
+
2 ∂ζ
∂ e <α> (u δ
δ<α> As<β>r − At<α>r As<β>t )η r s
=R <β> b )ζ
<β>
<α>
+
∂η ∂ζ
1e <α><β> δ δ 1 ∂
R<γ><δ> (ub)ζ <δ> ζ <γ> <α> <β> − [ψ <α> ψ <β> ]F<α><β>r
s
ηr s .
2 ∂ζ ∂ζ 4 ∂η
Taking into account that
e <β>
[D<α> , ψ <β> ] = −Γ <δ>
<α><δ> ψ
and
e <δ>
ψ <α> [D<α> , ψ <β> ]D<β> = −ψ <α> ψ <β> Γ e <δ>
b<α><β> Γ
<α><β> D<δ> = g <α><β> .
181
details on nonsupersymmetric locally anisotropic stochastic processes) de
fined similarly as the Hermitian vector bundle,of course, with correspond
<µ
ing coordinate and local trivialization neighborhoods. Let (u<α> β , b β ),
{z} {z}
where indices run as < α >, < β >, ... = 1, ..., nE and < µ, < ν, ... =
1, ..., 12 nE (nE −1), be local coordinates on O(EeN )U α . Then S(O(EeN ), E) is
h i {z}
1
the n (nE
2 E
+ 1), nE + mH –dimensional distinguished supermanifold with
<µ
local coordinates (u<α> <α> r
β , b β , ζ β , η β ). On overlapping neighborhoods
{z} {z} {z} {z}
U α and U β the coordinates (u<α> <α> r
β , ζ β , η β ) have the transition func
{z} {z} {z} {z} {z}
<µ
tions defined by (5.11) while the coordinates b β transform as on the bundle
{z}
of orthonormalized distinguished frames e
O(E ).N
182
Let A<α> be a system of nE –dimensional d–vector field on a dvs–bundle
Ee
N . In a locally adapted to Nconnection coordinate system we can write
δ
A<α> = A<α> <α> ∂u<α> and consider the distinguished stochastic differential
equations
du<α>
s = A<α> <α>
<α> (us ) ◦ das + A<α>
0 (us )ds. (5.15)
It is known that the solution to such an equation exists globally on usual
manifolds [74,117]; such equations enable one to define a notion of stochastic
flow on a manifold and to construct functions on EeN × R+ which satisfy the
differential equation
∂f 1
= A<α> A<α> f with f (u, 0) = h(u), (5.16)
∂t 2
where h is a smooth function on EeN and A<α> has suitable properties as in
the following theorem:
Proof. We schetch the proof by using the Itô formula and omit details of
the patching of solutions over different coordinate neighborhoods. Having
Zt
E (h(ut )) − h(u) = E( δ<α> h (us ) du<α>
s +
0
t
1 Z <α>
A<α> (us )A<β>
<α> (us )δ<α> δ<β> h (us ) ds)
2
0
we write
1 <β>
du<α>
s = A<α>
<α> (u s )da<α>
+ A (u s ) δ<β> A<α>
(u s ) ds.
2 <α> <α>
Because das<α> have zero expectation and are independent of a<α> when
u ≤ s we compute
t
1 Z <α>
E (h(ut )) − h(u) = E( A<α> (us )(δ<α> A<β>
<α> (us ))δ<β> h (us ) +
2
0
183
Zt Zt
1
A<α> <β>
<α> (us )A<α> (us )δ<α> δ<β> h (us ) ds) = A<α> A<α> h(us )ds.
2
0 0
where Γe <γ>
<α><β are the Christoffel d–symbols (1.39). In this case from (5.15),
one follows the stochastic differential equations
<τ > <ε> e <α> <β>
du<α>
s
<α>
= l<α>,s ◦ das<α> , dl<α>,s
<α>
= −l<α>,s l<β>,s Γ<τ ><ε> (us ) ◦ das .
If f is a smooth function on O EeN ,
Zt
1
E (f (ut , lt )) − f (u, l) = V<a> V<a> f (us , ls ) ds.
2
0
When f depends on u only, i.e. f = ϕ ◦ π where π : O EeN → EeN is the
projection map, and ϕ ∈ C ∞ EeN ),
Zt
E (ϕ (ut , )) − ϕ (u) = − Lscal ϕ (us ) ds,
0
184
e <τ >
where Lscal = − 21 g <α><β> δ<α> δ<β> + g <α><β> Γ <α><β> δ<τ > is the scalar
Laplacian. This holds since
1
V<a> V<a> f (u) = −Lscal f (u)
2
and
<α> <β>
l<α>,s l<α>,s = gb<α><β> (us )
almost certainly (a.c.) (in Chapter 10 we shall use also the term almost
sure, a.s.). Hence one finds that f (u, t) = E (ϕ (ut , )) satisfies
∂f
= −Lscal f.
∂t
We shall define the Brownian paths in superspace which lead to
Feynman–Kac formula for the Laplace–Beltrami operator
L = (d + δ)2
′ <α> <α>
acting on C ∞ (S(EH ), C). Denoting by ζt , ρt the nE –dimensional
<α> <α>
fermionic Brownian paths and by u<α> , l<α> ,ζ , η r the coordinates of a
pont in the extended bundle of orthogonal distinguished frames S(O(EeN ), E)
we consider nE + n2E + mH stochastic differential equations
Zt
u<α>
t =u <α>
+ <α>
l<α>,s ◦ das<α> , (5.17)
0
Zt
<α> <α> <γ> e <α> <β> <β>
l<α>,t = l<α> − l<α>,s Γ<τ ><β> (us ) l<β>,s ◦ das ,
0
Zt
ξt<α> =ζ <α>
+ ζt<α> l<α>,t
<α>
+ (−ζt<α> dl<α>,s
<α>
−
0
185
1 q <α>
p
ηs (ξs + iπs<α> ) ξs<β> + iπs<β> F<α><β>q (us ) ds),
4
<γ>
where πs<α> = l<α>,s ρs<α> .
The existence of local solutions of distinguished stochastic differential
equations of type (5.17) is a consequence of theorem 5.5; a usual patching
techniques allow a global solution to be constructed since they transforms
d–covariantly under coordinates changes.
For our further purposes it is convenient to introduce into consideration
d–vector fields W<α> on S(O(EeN ), E), written in the form
1 e <α> ζ <β> δ −
L = − (W<α> W<α> − R <β>
2 ∂ζ <α>
1e <α><β> δ δ 1 ∂
R<γ><δ> (ub)ζ <δ> ζ <γ> <α> <β> + [ψ <α> ψ <β> ]F<α><β>r
s
ηr s )
2 ∂ζ ∂ζ 4 ∂η
(a consequence from lemma 5.2).
Now, applying the theorem 5.7 we establish the Feynman–Kac formula:
Theorem 5.8 For a distinguished stochastic process u<α>
t
<α>
, l<α>,t , ηtr sat
isfying equations (5.17) one holds the formula
exp(−Lt)ϕ(u, ζ, η) = E (ϕ(ut , ξt , ηt ))
186
Proof. From the distinguished superspace Itô formula (see theorem 5.2)
and using properties of fermionic paths (see section 5.2) we have
Zt
1
E (ϕ(ut , ξt , ηt )) − ϕ(u, ζ, η) = E( W<α> W<α> ϕ(us , ξs , ηs )−
2
0
i e <α> δ
R<β><γ><δ> (us )ξs<γ> πs<δ> ξs<β> <α> ϕ(us , ξs , ηs )+
4 ∂ζ
1 <α> q ∂
(ξs + iπs<α> )(ξs<β> + iπs<β> )F<α><β>p ηtp q ϕ(us , ξs , ηs )ds) =
4 ∂η
t
1Z e <α> ζ <β> δ −
E( (W<α> W<α> − R <β>
2 ∂ζ <α>
0
1e <α><β> δ δ
R<γ><δ> (ub)ζ <δ> ζ <γ> <α> <β> +
2 ∂ζ ∂ζ
1 <α> <β> s ∂
[ψ ψ ]F<α><β>r η r s .
4 ∂η
Putting
f (u, ζ, η, t) = E (ϕ(ut , ξt , ηt )) ,
and writing
Zt
f (u, ζ, η, t) − f (u, ζ, η, 0) = − Lf (u, ζ, η, s)ds
0
187
them in this monograph. Although such formulas in the simplest case of tor
sionless connections defined by Christoffel d–symbols contain contributions
from components of N–connection the geometric constructions connected
with the proof of the Atiyah–Singer theorem hold good for higher order
anisotropic s–spaces having the even part provided with a distinguished
Riemannian metric and corresponding Christoffel like (containing locally
adapted partial derivations instead of usual derivation) d–connection. For
instance, the formula of McKean [135] and Witten [291] expressing the index
of the complex in terms of the heat kernel of the Laplacian.
Let consider EeN , g<α><β> a compact distinguished Riemannian mani
fold of dimension nE = 2n′E and a mH –dimensional Hermitian vector bundle
over EeN . By using corresponding extensions on EeN of the Hodge–de Rham
operator d + δ and the Laplace–Beltrami operator L = 12 (d + δ)2 can write
the McKean and Singer formula
where Str denotes the supertrace. Identifying the space of twisted forms on
′
EeN with the space of functions C ∞ (S(EH ), C) on the supermanifold S(EH )
we can define the supertrace in this manner: The standard involution τ may
′
be defined on C ∞ (S(EH ), C) by the formula
X m
XH
mH Z
X X d nE ρ
q ×
bnE
<µp >∈M r=1 B det (g<α><β> )
p
exp iρ<α> ζ <β> gb<α><β> (u) f<bµp >r ρ<µ > η r ,
R
where ρ1 , ..., ρnE are anticommuting variables and B denotes the Berezin
integration. The supertrace can be defined for a suitable operator O on
′
C ∞ (S(EH ), C) by the formula StrO = T rτ O, where T r denotes the con
ventional trace.
The extension to higher order anisotropic spaces of the Atiyah–Singer
index theorem for the twisted Hirzebruch signature complex is formulated
in this form:
188
Theorem 5.9 One holds the formula
!1/2
Z
tr exp −
F iΩ/2π ,
Index (d + δ) = det
2π tanh(iΩ/2π)
EeN
One also can present a stronger local version of the just formulated
theorem:
Theorem 5.10 With the notation of the theorem 5.9, if p ∈ EeN , there is
the limit
!1/2
F iΩ/2π
lim str exp (−Ht) (p, p)dvol = tr exp − det p ,
t→0 2π tanh(iΩ/2π)
where str denotes the 2nE mH × 2nE mH matrix supertrace, as opposed to the
full operator supertrace
Str,
so that str exp(−Ht)(p, q) is then the kernel of
∞ e
the operator on C EN obtained by this partial supertrace.
189
of polynomial functions of q anticommuting variables. A linear operator O
on this space has a kernel O (ξ, ζ) = O (ξ1 , ..., ξq , ζ1 , ..., ζq ) being a function
of 2p anticommuting variables and satisfying
Z
Of (ξ) = dq O (ξ, ζ) f (ζ)
B
′
In a similar manner for Q being an operator on C ∞ (S(EH ), C) one has the
local coordinate expression
190
z}{
and det ( g )<α><β> = 1 through RnE and
z}{
( A )s<γ>r (u1 , ..., unE ) = As<γ>r (φ−1 (u1 , ..., unE )) when u ∈ φ (U) ,
z}{
( A )s<γ>r (u1, ..., unE ) = 0 when u ∈
/ φ (U)
We note with ” z}{ ” geometric objects on RnE and RnE ×C mH ,
z}{
−1
( R )<α> b) = R<α>
<β><γ><δ> (u <β><γ><δ> φ (ub)
and z}{
( F )p<α><β>q (ub) = F<α><β>q
p
φ−1 (ub)
on φ (U) . From standard Taylor expansions in normal coordinates
z}{ 1 e
( g )<α><β> (ub) = δ<α><β> − ub<γ> ub<δ> R <γ><α><δ><β> (0) + ...
3
z}{
( Γ )<γ>
<α><β> (u
b) =
1 <δ> z}{ <γ> z}{
ub (( R ) <α><δ><β> (0) + ( R )<γ> <β><δ><α> (0)) + ...
3
z}{ 1
( A )s<γ>r (ub) = − ub<δ> F<γ><δ>r
s
(0) + ....,
2
cutting and pasting arguments we obtain
z}{
lim (str exp(−Ht)) (w, w) − str exp(− H t(0, 0)) = 0, (5.20)
t→0
191
satisfying the Duhamel’s formula (see [89])
z}{ z}{0
K (u, u′, ζ, ζ ′, η, η ′) − K (u, u′, ζ, ζ ′, η, η ′) =
t t
!
z}{
Zt −(t−s) H z}{ z}{0 ! z}{0
dse H − H K (u, u′, ζ, ζ ′, η, η ′)
s
0
Z z}{
z}{ z}{
E dnE ρdmH k (2πs)−nE /2 Fs ( u )t−s , ( ξ )t−s , ρ, ( η )t−s , k
B
192
z}{<α> z}{ z}{
<α>
l = δ<α> , ξ = ζ and η = η) we can write
<α>0 0 0
z}{ Z Zt
str K (0, 0) = E[ nE
d ζd ζ d ρdnE ′ nE mH
k ds (2πs)−nE /2 ×
t B
0
z}{
z}{ z}{
Fs ( u )t−s , ( ξ )t−s , ρ, ( η )t−s , k exp(−iζζ ′ ) exp(−iρζ ′ ) exp (−ikη)].
ub1<α>
t = a<α>
t ,
z}{ 1 z}{
<α> <α> e <α> ds−
( ξ )1<α>
t−s = ζ <α> + ζt δ<α> + ( ξ )1<β>
s R <β>
3
Zt z}{
1 e e
(( ξ )1<α>
s ub1<γ>
s (R <γ><δ><β>
<α>
+R <γ><β><δ>
<α>
)da<β>
s +
3
0
i z}{ 1<β> z}{ 1<γ> z}{ 1<δ> e
( ξ )s ( ξ )s ( π )s R<β><γ><α>
<δ> ds),
4
t
z}{ 1 Z z}{ 1q <α>
( η )1r
t =η + r
( η )t (ζs r
− iπs<α> ) ζs<β> − iπs<β> F<α><β>q ds,
4
0
193
z}{
<β>
where πs1<β> = ρs<α> δ<α> , R<γ><α><δ><β> = ( R )1<γ><α><δ><β> (0) and
z}{
r
F<α><β>q = ( F )r<α><β>q (0), with indices raised and lowered by
z}{1
g (0) = δ<α><β> , we introduce the modified Hamiltonian
<α><β>
z}{1
H satisfying conditions
z}{
z}{
E f ub1t , ( ξ )1t , ( η )1t − f (0, ζ, η) = (5.21)
Zt z}{1 z}{
z}{
E − H f ub1s , ( ξ )1s , ( η )1s ds
0
∞′
where f ∈ C (S (R ×C mH )) and
nE
z}{1
1 1 e <α> b<β> δ
H = − δ<α> δ<α> + R (ub)ζ +
2 3 <β> ∂ζ <α>
1e δ δ
<α><β>
R<δ><γ> (ub)ζb<δ> ζb<γ> <α> <β> −
4 ∂ζ ∂ζ
1 e <α> b<β> δ 1 ∂
+ R <β> (u
b )ζ
<α>
− ψ <α> ψ <β> F<α><β>r
s
ηr s +
2 ∂ζ 4 ∂η
1 b<δ> <γ> e <α> <β> e δ
<α><β>
ζ ub R<γ> <δ> + R<γ><δ> δ<α> +
3 ∂ζ <β>
1 b<ε> b<δ> <τ > <γ> e <α> e <α>
ζ ζ ub ub (R<τ ><δ><ε> +R <τ ><ε><δ> )×
18
δ δ
e <β> <γ> + R
R e <β><γ>
<γ> <δ> <γ><δ>
∂ζ <α> ∂ζ <β>
(in this formulas the objects enabled with ”hats” are operators).
Applying again the Duhamel’s formula and introducing variable
u2
Gs (u, ξ, ζ, η, k) = exp(−( + iζξ + ikη)
2s
we find that
Z Zt
f (0, 0) − K
K t
f1 (0, 0)
t =E nE
d ζd mH
ηd mH
k ds (2πs)−nE /2 ×
B
0
194
z}{ z}{0 !
[ H − H Gs (u, ξ, ζ, η, k)  z}{ z}{ −
u=b
ut−s ,ξ=( ξ )t−s ,η=( η )t−s
1 z}{0
z}{
H − H Gs (u, ξ, ζ, η, k)  z}{ z}{ ].
u=b
u1t−s ,ξ=( ξ )1t−s ,η=( η )1t−s
√
It is convenient to introduce scaled variables ω = 2πtζ and then after the
Berezin integration we find
f (0, 0) − K
K f1 (0, 0) = A(t) + B(t),
t t
where
Z Zt
−nE /2
A(t) = E nE
d ωd mH
ηd mH
k (2πt) ds (2πs)−nE /2 ×
B
0
z}{ z}{1
ω
[( H − H )Gs (u, ξ, √ , η, k)  z}{ z}{ ]
2πt u1t−s ,ξ=( ξ )1t−s ,η=( η )1t−s
u=b
and
Z Zt
−nE /2
B(t) = E nE
d ωd mH
ηd mH
k (2πt) ds (2πs)−nE /2 ×
B
0
z}{ z}{0
ω
[( H − H )Gs (u, ξ, √ , η, k)  z}{ z}{ −
2πt ut−s ,ξ=( ξ )t−s ,η=( η )t−s
u=b
z}{ z}{0
ω
( H − H )Gs (u, ξ, √ , η, k)  z}{ z}{ ].
2πt u1t−s ,ξ=( ξ )1t−s ,η=( η )1t−s
u=b
Using the standard flat space Brownian motion techniques we can show
that for any suitable regular function f on S (RnE ×C mH ) we write
" z}{1 # !
z}{ z}{ ω
Ef ub1t−s , ( ξ )1t−s , ( η )1t−s = exp − H (t − s) f u, √ ,η =
2πt
(5.22)
(taking into account (5.21) ) =
t−s
Z
i
E[exp( r
(− (ζs<α> − iπs<α> ) ζs<β> − iπs<β> F<α><β>q ηs0q krs
0
ds−
4
0
195
1e i e
R<α><β><γ><δ> ζs<α> ζs<β> ρ<γ>
s ρ<δ>
s + R <α> <β>
<α><β> ζs ρs ds−
4 3
i <ε> <δ> <τ > e e <α>
ζ ρs as (R<τ ><δ><ε><α> + R <τ ><ε><δ><α> )das ))×
3 s
!
ω 0
f bt−s , √ + ζt−s , η − ηt−s ].
2πt
Estimations of solutions in a manner similar to that presented in [209,
210] enable us to show that A(t) → 0 as t → 0 and B (t) → 0 as t → 0.
Thus
z}{ " z}{1 #
lim str exp − H t(0, 0) = lim str exp − H t(0, 0) . (5.23)
t→0 t→0
Now we begin the final step in the proof of this theorem by using
the standard flat–space path–integral techniques. Applying once again the
Duhamel’s formula and using (5.22) we obtain
z}{1 Z
str exp[− H t(0, 0)] = E[ dnE ωdmH ηdmH k (2πt)−nE /2 ×
B
" z}{1 #
Zt z}{1 z}{0
−nE /2 nE ′
ds (2πs) d ζ {exp − H (t − s) ( H − H )
0
!
ω ω ′
Gs (0, √ , ζ ′, η, −η) exp(−(ikη) exp −i √ ζ }] =
2πt 2πt
Z Zt
E[ nE
d ωd mH
ηd mH
k ds (2πs)−nE /2 ×
B
0
t−s
Z
1
[exp( ( (ζs<α> − iπs<α> ) ζs<β> − iπs<β> F<α><β>q
r
ηs0q krs
0
ds−
4
0
1e ie
R<α><β><γ><δ> ζs<α> ζs<β> ρ<γ>
s ρ<δ>
s + R <α> <β>
<α><β> ζs ρs ds+
4 3
i <ε> <δ> <τ > e e <α>
ζs ρs as (R<τ ><δ><ε><α> + R <τ ><ε><δ><α> )das ))×
3
196
z}{1 z}{0
ω
( H − )Gs (u, ξ, √
H , α, k) u=bat−s,ξ=ξt−s ,α=ηt−s
0 exp(ikη)]].
2πt
After some usual estimates for flat space Brownian paths it can be seen that
" z}{1 # Z
lim str exp − H t(0, 0) = E{ lim dnE ωdmH ηdmH k (2πt)−nE /2 ×
t→0 t→0 B
Zt z}{2 z}{0
−nE /2
ds (2πs) [( H − H )
0
ω
Gs (u, ξ, √ , α, k) u=bat−s ,ξ=ξt−s,α=ηt−s
0 exp(ikη)]},
2πt
where z}{2
1
H = −( δ<α> δ<α> −
2
1 ω <α> ω <β> e <δ> e <δ>
√ √ R<γ> <β><α> + R <γ><β> <α> ub<γ> δ<δ> −
3 2πt 2πt
1 ω <ε> ω <β> ω <α> ω <ν> e e
√ √ √ √ (R<τ ><µ><ε><α> + R <τ ><ε><µ><α> )×
18 2πt 2πt 2πt 2πt
e <µ>
R e <µ>
ub<τ > ub<γ> +
<γ> <β><ν> + R<γ><β> <ν>
z}{2
The operator H decouples into operators acting separately on the u
ζ and η–variables:
z}{2 z}{2 z}{2 z}{2
H = H + H + H ,
u ζ η
197
where
z}{2
1 1 ω <α> ω <β> e <µ> <ν>
H = −( δ<α> δ<α> + √ √ R ub δ<µ> +
u 2 2 2πt 2πt <α><β><ν>
198
Now we can compute
" z}{2 # n/2 m(p) /2 m(z) /2
Y Y Y
exp − H t(0, 0) = ... ... ×
u k(0) =1 k(p) =1 k(z) =1
Z n/2
Y
m(p) /2
Y
m(z) /2
Y
n mp mz
d ω(0) ...d ω(p) ...d ω(z) ... ... ×
B k(0) =1 k(p) =1 k(z) =1
iΩk(0) iΩk(p) iΩk(z) <α> <β> F<α><β>
cosh( )... cosh( )... cosh( )tr exp −ω ω .
4π 4π 4π 2π
199
Using (5.20),(5.23) and (5.24) we obtain the required result of the theorem
200
Part II
201
Chapter 6
HA–Spinors
202
and ha–spinors).
In order to develop the higher order anisotropic spinor theory it will
be convenient to extend the Penrose and Rindler abstract index formalism
[180,181,182] (see also the Luehr and Rosenbaum index free methods [154])
proposed for spinors on locally isotropic spaces. We note that in order to
formulate the locally anisotropic physics usually we have dimensions d > 4
for the fundamental, in general higher order anisotropic space–time and to
take into account physical effects of the nonlinear connection structure. In
this case the 2spinor calculus does not play a preferential role.
Section 6.1 of this Chapter contains an introduction into the geometry
of higher order anisotropic spaces, the distinguishing of geometric objects
by N–connection structures in such spaces is analyzed, explicit formulas
for coefficients of torsions and curvatures of N and d–connections are pre
sented and the field equations for gravitational interactions with higher
order anisotropy are formulated. The distinguished Clifford algebras are
introduced in section 6.2 and higher order anisotropic Clifford bundles are
defined in section 6.3. We present a study of almost complex structure for
the case of locally anisotropic spaces modeled in the framework of the al
most Hermitian model of generalized Lagrange spaces in section 6.4. The
d–spinor techniques is analyzed in section 6.5 and the differential geometry
of higher order anisotropic spinors is formulated in section 6.6. The section
6.7 is devoted to geometric aspects of the theory of field interactions with
higher order anisotropy (the d–tensor and d–spinor form of basic field equa
tions for gravitational, gauge and d–spinor fields are introduced). Finally,
an outlook and conclusions on ha–spinors are given in section 6.8.
203
part of the monograph (for locally trivial considerations we can formally
omit ”tilde” on denotations of sbundles, change sindices into even ones
and supersimmetric commutation rules into usual ones).
204
out of abstract indices instead of boldface ones if this will not give rise to
ambiguities.
′ ′
Coordinate transforms u<α > = u<α > (u<α> ) on E <z> are written as
′
′ ′
{u<α> = xi , y <a> } → {u<α > = xi , y <a > }
∂<α> = (∂i , ∂<a> ) = (∂i , ∂a1 , ..., ∂ap , ..., ∂az ) = (6.2)
! !
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= , <a> = , a1 , ... ap , ..., az ,
∂u<α> i
∂x ∂y i
∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y
and the reciprocal to (6.2) coordinate basis
d<α> = (di, d<a> ) = (di , da1 , ..., dap , ..., daz ) = (6.3)
205
which is uniquely defined from the equations
δ<α> = (δi , δ<a> ) = (δi , δa1 , ..., δap , ..., δaz ), (6.5)
206
................
δap = ∂ap − Naapp+1 ∂ap+1 − ... − Naapz ∂az ,
...............
δaz = ∂az
and it dual la–basis
δ <α> = (δ i , δ <a> ) = δ i , δ a1 , ..., δ ap , ..., δ az , (6.6)
δxi = dxi ,
δy a1 = dy a1 + Mia1 dxi ,
δy a2 = dy a2 + Maa12 dy a1 + Mia2 dxi ,
.................
a
δy ap = dy ap + Maap−1
p
dy p−1 + Maap−2
p
dy ap−2 + ... + Mi p dxi ,
...................
δy az = dy az + Maaz−1
z
dy z−1 + Maaz−2
z
dy az−2 + ... + Miaz dxi
(for details on expressing of coefficients Maafp , the dual coefficients of a N–
connections, by recurrent formulas through the components Naafp , see sub
section 1.22; we have to consider the even part for the calculus presented
there).
The nonholonomic coefficients
<α>
w = {w<β><γ> (u)}
207
!
p r1 ... rp ... rz
An element t ∈ Tqspr11...s
...rz
, dtensor field of type ,
z
q s1 ... sp ... sz
can be written in local form as
(1) (1) (p) (p) (z) (z)
i1 ...ip a1 ...ar1 ...a1 ...arp ...a1 ...arz
t=t (1) (1) (p) (p) (z) (z) (u) δi1 ⊗ ... ⊗ δip ⊗ dj1 ⊗ ... ⊗ djq ⊗
j1 ...jq b1 ...br1 ...b1 ...brp ...b1 ...brz
(1) (1)
δa(1) ⊗ ... ⊗ δa(1) ⊗ δ b1 ... ⊗ δ bs1 ⊗ ... ⊗ δa(p) ⊗ ... ⊗ δa(p) ⊗ ...⊗
1 r1 1 rp
X = hX + v1 X + ... + vz X and f = hX
X f+ v Xf + ... v X.
f (6.7)
1 z
and
(v ) (v )
DX 1 Y = Dv1 X Y , ..., DX z Y = Dvz X Y ∀Y ∈X (E <z> ),
for which the following conditions hold:
(h) (v ) (v )
DX Y =DX Y + DX 1 Y + ... + DX z Y, (6.8)
208
(h)
DX f = (hX)f
and
(v )
DX p f = (vp X)f, X, Y ∈X (E) ,f ∈ F (M) , p = 1, 2, ...z.
We define a metric structure G in the total space E <z> of dvbundle
E <z> = (E <z> , p, M) over a connected and paracompact base M as a sym
metric covariant tensor field of type (0, 2), G<α><β>, being nondegenerate
and of constant signature on E <z> .
Nonlinear connection N and metric G structures on E <z> are mutually
compatible it there are satisfied the conditions:
G δaf , δap = 0, or equivalently, Gaf ap (u)−Na<b>
f
(u) haf <b> (u) = 0, (6.9)
where hap bp = G ∂ap , ∂bp and Gbf ap = G ∂bf , ∂ap , 0 ≤ f < p ≤ z, which
gives
Ncbfp (u) = h<a>bp (u) Gcf <a> (u) (6.10)
(the matrix hap bp is inverse to hap bp ). In consequence one obtains the follow
ing decomposition of metric :
G(X, Y )= hG(X, Y ) + v1 G(X, Y ) + ... + vz G(X, Y ), (6.11)
!
0 0
where the dtensor hG(X, Y )= G(hX, hY ) is of type and the d
2 0
!
0 ... 0(p) ... 0
tensor vp G(X, Y ) = G(vp X, vp Y ) is of type . With
0 ... 2 ... z
respect to la–basis (6.6) the d–metric (6.11) is written as
G = g<α><β> (u) δ <α> ⊗ δ <β> = gij (u) di ⊗ dj + h<a><b> (u) δ <a> ⊗ δ <b> ,
(6.12)
where gij = G (δi , δj ) .
A metric structure of type (6.11) (equivalently, of type (6.12)) or a metric
on E <z> with components satisfying constraints (6.9), equivalently (6.10))
defines an adapted to the given Nconnection inner (d–scalar) product on
the tangent bundle T E <z> .
We shall say that a dconnection D c is compatible with the dscalar
X
<z>
product on T E (i.e. is a standard dconnection) if
c (X · Y) = D
D c Z , ∀X, Y, Z∈X (E <z> ).
c Y · Z + Y· D
X X X
209
An arbitrary d–connection DX differs from the standard one D c by an
X
b <α> b <γ>
operator PX (u) = {X P<α><β> (u)}, called the deformation dtensor
with respect to Dc , which is just a dlinear transform of E <z> , ∀u ∈ E <z> .
X u
The explicit form of PbX can be found by using the corresponding axiom
defining linear connections [154]
c
DX − D c
X f Z = f DX − DX Z,
written with respect to labases (6.5) and (6.6). From the last expression
we obtain h i
PbX (u) = (DX − D c )δ
X <α> (u) δ
<α>
(u) ,
therefore
c Z +Pb Z.
DX Z = D (6.13)
X X
Γ<γ>
<α><β> (u) = (D<α> δ<β> ) ◦ δ
<γ>
. (6.15)
(h)
The operations of h and v(p) covariant derivations, Dk = {Lijk , L<a>
<b>k }
(vp ) i i <a> <a>
and Dcp = {Cjcp , C<b>cp , Cjcp , C<b>cp } (see (6.8)), are introduced as cor
responding h and v(p) parametrizations of (6.15):
and
i
Cjc p
= Dcp δj ◦ δ i , <a>
C<b>c p
= Dcp δ<b> ◦ δ <a> (6.17)
i
C<b>c p
= Dcp δ<b> ◦ δ i , <a>
Cjc p
= Dcp δj ◦ δ <a> .
210
A set of components (6.16) and (6.17), DΓ = Lijk , L<a> i <a>
<b>k , Cj<c> , C<b><c> ,
<z>
! D in E
completely defines the local action of a dconnection . For instance,
1 ... 1(p) ... ia
taken a dtensor field of type , t = tjbpp δi ⊗ δap ⊗ δ j ⊗ δ bp ,
1 ... 1(p) ...
and a dvector X = X i δi + X <a> δ<a> we have
(h) (v ) (v ) (v )
DX t =DX t+DX 1 t + .. + .DX p t + ... + DX z t =
ia ia
X k tjbpp k + X <c> tjbpp ⊥<c> δi ⊗ δap ⊗ dj ⊗ δ bp ,
where the h–covariant derivative is written as
ia
ia δtjbpp ha a ic ia c ia
tjbpp k = + Lihk tjbpp + Lcppk tjbpp − Lhjk thbpp − Lbpp k tjcpp
δxk
and the v–covariant derivatives are written as
ia
ia ∂tjbpp i ha a id h ia d ia
tjbpp ⊥<c> = <c> + Ch<c> tjbpp + Cdpp<c> tjbpp − Cj<c> thbpp − Cbpp<c> tjdpp .
∂y
For a scalar function f ∈ F (E <z> ) we have
(h) δf ∂f ∂f
Di = i
= i − Ni<a> <a> ,
δx ∂x ∂y
δf ∂f ap ∂f
Da(vff ) =
a
= a
− N a , 1 ≤ f < p ≤ z − 1,
δx f ∂x f f
∂y ap
∂f
and Dc(vz z ) f = cz .
∂y
We emphasize that the geometry of connections in a dvbundle E <z> is
very reach. If a triple of fundamental geometric objects
(Naafp (u) , Γ<α>
<β><γ> (u) , G<α><β> (u))
211
1. Every Nconnection in E <z> , with coefficients Naafp (u) being differen
tiable on yvariables, induces a structure of linear connection
f<α>
N <β><γ> , where
ap ∂Ncafp
f
Nbp cf =
∂y bp
and
a
f p (u) = 0.
Nbp cp
For some
Y (u) = Y i (u) ∂i + Y <a> (u) ∂<a>
and
B (u) = B <a> (u) ∂<a>
one writes
" ! #
e)
(N ∂B ap fap B bp + Y bp ∂B
ap
∂
DY B = Y cf c
+ Nbp i b
(0 ≤ f < p ≤ z).
∂y f ∂y p ∂y ap
where !
1 δgjk δgkr δgjk
Li.jk (u) = g ir + − ,
2 ∂xk ∂xj ∂xr
!
<a> 1 δh<b><d> δh<c><d> δh<b><c>
C.<b><c> (u) = h<a><d> + − ,
2 ∂y <c> ∂y <b> ∂y <d>
(6.19)
(B) (B)
which is hvmetric, i.e. Dk gij = 0 and D<c> h<a><b> = 0.
(c)i (c)<a>
Ljk = Li.jk , C<b><c> = C.<b><c>
<a>
(see (6.19)
212
(c)<a> f<a> +
L<b>i =N<b>i
!
1 <a><c> δh<b><c> f<d> f<d> h
h − N<b>i h<d><c> − N<c>i <d><b> ,
2 δxi
(c)i 1 ∂gjk
Cj<c> = g ik <c> . (6.20)
2 ∂y
This is a metric d–connection which satisfies conditions
(c) (c) (c) (c)
Dk gij = 0, D<c> gij = 0, Dk h<a><b> = 0, D<c> h<a><b> = 0.
1 <α><τ >
G (δ<γ> G<τ ><β> + δ<β> G<τ ><γ> − δ<τ > G<β><γ> ) , (6.21)
2
which have the components of dconnection
e <α>
Γ i <a>
<β><γ> = Ljk , 0, 0, C<b><c>
<a>
with Lijk and C<b><c> as in (6.19) if G<α><β> is taken in the form
(6.12).
or, in general,
Γ<α> e <α> <α>
<β><γ> = Γ<β><γ> + P<β><γ> ,
(B)<α> (c)<α> <α>
where P<β><γ> , P<β><γ> and P<β><γ> are respectively the deformation d–
tensors of dconnections (6.18), (6.20), or of a general one.
213
6.1.2 D–Torsions and d–curvatures
The curvature Ω of a nonlinear connection N in a dvbundle E <z> can be
defined as the Nijenhuis tensor field Nv (X, Y ) associated to N [160,161]:
214
i <a> <a> <a> <a>
T.j<a> = 0, T.<b><c> = S.<b><c> = C<b><c> − C<c><b> ,
a
a δNcafp δNbfp <a> <a> δNi<a>
T.bfp cf = − , T.<b>i = P.<b>i = − L<a> <a> <a>
.<b>j , T.i<b> = −P.<b>i .
∂y bf ∂y cf ∂y <b>
The curvature R of d–connection in E <z> is defined by the equation
One holds the next properties for the h and vdecompositions of curvature:
.i δLi.hj δLi.hk
Rh.jk = − + Lm i m i i <a>
.hj Lmk − L.hk Lmj + C.h<a> R.jk , (6.28)
δxh δxj
.<a> δL<a>
.<b>j δL<a>
.<b>k
R<b>.jk = − + L<c> <a> <c> <a> <a> <c>
.<b>j L.<c>k − L.<b>k L.<c>j + C.<b><c> R.jk ,
δxk δxj
.i δLi.jk i <b>
Pj.k<a> = <a> + C.j<b> P.k<a> −
∂y
i
!
∂C.j<a>
k
+ Li.lk C.j<a>
l
− Ll.jk C.l<a>
i
− L<c> i
.<a>k C.j<c> ,
∂x
.<c> δL<c>
.<b>k <c> <d>
P<b>.k<a> = + C.<b><d> P.k<a> −
∂y <a>
215
<c>
!
∂C.<b><a>
+ L<c> <d> <d> <c> <d> <c>
.<d>k C.<b><a> − L.<b>k C.<d><a> − L.<a>k C.<b><d> ,
∂xk
i i
.i δC.j<b> δC.j<c> h i h i
Sj.<b><c> = − + C.j<b> C.h<c> − C.j<c> Ch<b> ,
∂y <c> ∂y <b>
<a> <a>
.<a> δC.<b><c> δC.<b><d>
S<b>.<c><d> = −
∂y <d> ∂y <c>
<e> <a> <e> <a>
+C.<b><c> C.<e><d> − C.<b><d> C.<e><c> .
We note that torsions (6.25) and curvatures (6.28) can be computed by
particular cases of dconnections when dconnections (6.17), (6.20) or (6.22)
are used instead of (6.16) and (6.17).
The components of the Ricci d–tensor
.<τ >
R<α><β> = R<α>.<β><τ >
216
for every scalar function f on E <z> . Curvature can be introduced as an
operator acting on arbitrary d–vector V <δ> :
<γ>
(∆<α><β> − T.<α><β> ∇<γ> )V <δ> = R.<δ>
<γ>.<α><β> V
<γ>
(6.31)
(we note that in this Chapter we shall follow conventions of Miron and
Anastasiei [160,161] on d–tensors; we can obtain corresponding Penrose
and Rindler abstract index formulas [181,182] just for a trivial Nconnection
structure and by changing denotations for components of torsion and cur
γ
vature in this manner: T.αβ → Tαβ γ and R.δγ.αβ → Rαβγ δ ).
Here we also note that torsion and curvature of a d–connection on E <z>
satisfy generalized for ha–spaces Ricci and Bianchi identities which in terms
of components (6.30) and (6.31) are written respectively as
R.<δ> <δ> <ν> <δ>
[<γ>.<α><β>] + ∇[<α> T.<β><γ>] + T.[<α><β> T.<γ>]<ν> = 0 (6.32)
and
·<σ> <δ> ·<σ>
∇[<α> R<ν><β><γ>] + T·[<α><β> R<ν>.<γ>]<δ> = 0.
Identities (6.32) can be proved similarly as in [181] by taking into account
that indices play a distinguished character.
We can also consider a hageneralization of the socalled conformal Weyl
tensor (see, for instance, [181]) which can be written as a dtensor in this
form:
4 [<γ> <δ>]
C <γ><δ> <γ><δ>
<α><β> = R <α><β> − R [<α> δ <β>] +
n + m1 + ... + mz − 2
(6.33)
2 ←
− [<γ> <δ>]
R δ [<α> δ <β>] .
(n + m1 + ...mz − 1)(n + m1 + ... + mz − 2)
This object is conformally invariant on ha–spaces provided with d–connec
tion generated by d–metric structures.
217
proved that the lagravity can be formulated in a gauge like manner and an
alyzed the conditions when the Einstein lagravitational field equations are
equivalent to a corresponding form of YangMills equations. In this subsec
tion we shall write the higher order anisotropic gravitational field equations
in a form more convenient for theirs equivalent reformulation in haspinor
variables.
We define dtensor Φ<α><β> as to satisfy conditions
. 1 ←
−
−2Φ<α><β> = R<α><β> − R g<α><β>
n + m1 + ... + mz
which is the torsionless part of the Ricci tensor for locally isotropic spaces
<α> .
[181,182], i.e. Φ<α> = 0. The Einstein equations on ha–spaces
←
−
G <α><β> + λg<α><β> = κE<α><β> , (6.34)
where
←− 1←−
G <α><β> = R<α><β> − R g<α><β>
2
is the Einstein d–tensor, λ and κ are correspondingly the cosmological and
gravitational constants and by E<α><β> is denoted the locally anisotropic
energy–momentum d–tensor, can be rewritten in equivalent form:
κ 1
Φ<α><β> = − (E<α><β> − E<τ<τ>> g<α><β> ). (6.35)
2 n + m1 + ... + mz
Because ha–spaces generally have nonzero torsions we shall add to (6.35)
(equivalently to (6.34)) a system of algebraic d–field equations with the
source S <α>
<β><γ> being the locally anisotropic spin density of matter (if we
consider a variant of higher order anisotropic Einstein–Cartan theory ):
From (6.32 ) and (6.36) one follows the conservation law of higher order
anisotropic spin matter:
218
which a tangent bundle T M is considered instead of a vbundle E <z> ) and
for constructions on the so called osculator bundles with different prolon
gations and extensions of Finsler and Lagrange metrics [162]. We also note
that the Lagrange (Finsler) geometry is characterized by a metric of type
1 ∂2L 1 ∂ 2 Λ2
(6.12) with components parametized as gij = 2 ∂yi ∂yj gij = 2 ∂yi ∂yj and
hij = gij , where L = L (x, y) (Λ = Λ (x, y)) is a Lagrangian (Finsler metric)
on T M (see details in [160,161,159,29].
219
F C
Q j
Q
Q
ϕ Q τ
s
Q +
A
Proof: (We adapt for dalgebras that of ref. [133], p. 127.) For
a universal problem the uniqueness is obvious if we prove the existence
of solution C (G) . To do this we use tensor algebra L(F ) = ⊕Lpr qs (F )
∞ i 0 i i
=⊕i=0 T (F ) , where T (F ) = k and T (F ) = k and T (F ) = F ⊗ ... ⊗ F
for i > 0. Let I (G) be the bilateral ideal generated by elements of form
ǫ (u) = u ⊗ u − G (u) · 1 where u ∈ F and 1 is the unity element of alge
P
bra L (F ) . Every element from I (G) can be written as i λi ǫ (ui ) µi , where
λi , µi ∈ L(F ) and ui ∈ F . Let C (G) =L(F )/I (G) and define j : F → C (G)
as the composition of monomorphism i : F → L1 (F ) ⊂ L(F ) and projec
tion p : L (F ) → C (G) . In this case pair (C (G) , j) is the solution of our
problem. From the general properties of tensor algebras the homomorphism
ϕ : F → A can be extended to L(F ) , i.e., the diagram 2 is commutative,
F  L(F )
Q i
Q
ϕ QQ ρ
s
Q +
A
220
p : L (F ) → C (G) is the canonical projection. Then C (G) = C (0) (G) ⊕
C (1) (G) and in consequence we obtain that the Clifford dalgebra is Z/2
graded.
It is obvious that Clifford dalgebra functorially depends on pair (F , G) .
If f : F → F ′ is a homomorphism of kvector spaces, such that G′ (f (u)) =
G (u) , where G and G′ are, respectively, metrics on F and F ′ , then f
induces an homomorphism of dalgebras
C (f ) : C (G) → C (G′ )
is defined as
m(x, y(1) , ..., y(z) ) =
n(x) ⊗ 1 ⊗ ... ⊗ 1 + 1 ⊗ n′ (y(1) ) ⊗ ... ⊗ 1 + 1 ⊗ ... ⊗ 1 ⊗ n′ (y(z) ),
x ∈ hF , y(1) ∈ v(1) F , ..., y(z) ∈ v(z) F . We have
2 2 2
2 ′ ′
m(x, y(1) , ..., y(z) ) = (n (x)) + n y(1) + ... + n y(z) ·1=
[g (x) + h y(1) + ... + h y(z) ].
221
Taking into account the universality property of Clifford dalgebras we
conclude that m1 + ... + mz induces the homomorphism
hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F :
δ : C (hF , g) → C hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F , g + h(1) + ... + h(z) ,
′
δ(1) : C v1 F , h(1) → C hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F , g + h(1) + ... + h(z) ,
...................................
′
δ(z) : C vz F , h(z) → C hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F , g + h(1) + ... + h(z) .
Superpositions of homomorphisms ζ and υ lead to identities
υζ = IdC(hF ,g)⊗
b C (v1 F ,h(1) )⊗ b C (vz F ,h(z) ) ,
b ...⊗ (6.37)
ζυ = IdC(hF ,g)⊗
b C (v1 F ,h(1) )⊗ b C (vz F ,h(z) ) .
b ...⊗
Really, d–algebra
C hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F , g + h(1) + ... + h(z)
222
1 ⊗ .... ⊗ n′(z) y(z) ) = δ (n (x)) δ n′(1) y(1) ...δ n′(z) y(z) =
m (x, 0, ..., 0) + m(0, y(1) , ..., 0) + ... + m(0, 0, ..., y(z)) = m x, y(1) , ..., y(z) ,
we prove the first identity in (6.37).
On the other hand, dalgebra
b
C (hF , g) ⊗C b ⊗C
v1 F , h(1) ⊗... b vz F , h(z)
is generated by elements of type
n (x) ⊗ 1 ⊗ ...⊗, 1 ⊗ n′(1) y(1) ⊗ ... ⊗ 1, ...1 ⊗ .... ⊗ n′(z) y(z) ,
223
C 3,0 = H ⊕ H, C 0,3 = M2 (R) , C 4,0 = M2 (H) , C 0,4 = M2 (H) ,
C 5,0 = M4 (C) , C 0,5 = M2 (H) ⊕ M2 (H) , C 6,0 = M8 (R) , C 0,6 = M4 (H) ,
C 7,0 = M8 (R)⊕M8 (R) , C 0,7 = M8 (C) , C 8,0 = M16 (R) , C 0,8 = M16 (R) .
One of the most important properties of real algebras C 0,p (C 0,a ) and
C p,0 (C a,0 ) is eightfold periodicity of p(a).
Now, we emphasize that H 2n spaces admit locally a structure of Clif
ford algebra on complex vector spaces. Really, by using almost Her
mitian structure Jα β and considering complex space C n with nondege
P
narate quadratic form na=1 za 2 , za ∈ C 2 induced locally by metric (2.12)
(rewritten in complex coordinates za = xa + iya ) we define Clifford alge
←− ←− ←− ←−
bra C n = C 1 ⊗ ... {z
⊗ C 1}, where C 1 = C⊗R C = C ⊕ C or in consequence,
n
←−
C n ≃ C n,0 ⊗R C ≈ C 0,n ⊗R C. Explicit calculations
← lead to isomorphisms
←−2 −n
C = C ⊗R C ≈ M2 (R) ⊗R C ≈ M2 C , C 2p ≈ M2p (C) and
0,2
←−
C 2p+1 ≈ M2p (C) ⊕ M2p (C) , which show that complex Clifford algebras,
defined locally for H 2n spaces, have periodicity 2 on p.
Considerations presented in the proof of theorem 6.2 show that map
j : F → C (F ) is monomorphic, so we can identify space F with its image
in C (F , G) , denoted as u → u, if u ∈ C (0) (F , G) u ∈ C (1) (F , G) ; then
u = u ( respectively, u = −u).
Definition 6.1 The set of elements u ∈ C (G)∗ , where C (G)∗ denotes the
multiplicative group of invertible elements of C (F , G) satisfying uF u−1 ∈
e (F ) .
F , is called the twisted Clifford dgroup, denoted as Γ
e (F ) → GL (F ) be the homorphism given by u → ρu
Let ρe : Γ e, where
−1 ∗ e
ρu (w) = uwu . We can verify that ker ρ = R is a subgroup in Γ (F ) .
e e
Canonical map j : F → C (F ) can be interpreted as the linear map
F → C (F )0 satisfying the universal property of Clifford dalgebras. This
leads to a homomorphism of algebras, C (F ) → C (F )t , considered by an
antiinvolution of C (F ) and denoted as u → t u. More exactly, if u1 ...un ∈
F , then tu = un ...u1 and t u = t u = (−1)n un ...u1 .
224
e (F ) , then S(u, u′ ) = S (u) S (u′ ) and
It is obvious that if u, u′, u′′ ∈ Γ
S (uu u ) = S (u) S (u ) S (u ) . For u, u′ ∈ F S (u) = −G (u) and S (u, u′) =
′ ′′ ′ ′′
225
ξ <z> is given by the continuous map C (ξ <z> ) ×E ξ <z> → ξ <z> with every
fiber Fu provided with the structure of the C (Fu ) −module, correlated with
its kmodule structure, Because F ⊂ C (F ) , we have a fiber to fiber map
<z> <z>
F ×E ξ <z> → ξ <z> , inducing on every fiber the map Fu ×E ξ(u) → ξ(u)
(Rlinear on the first factor and klinear on the second one ). Inversely,
every such bilinear map defines on ξ <z> the structure of the C (ξ <z> )
module by virtue of universal properties of Clifford dalgebras. Equiva
lently, the abovementioned bilinear map defines a morphism of vbundles
m : ξ <z> → HOM (ξ <z> , ξ <z>) [HOM (ξ <z> , ξ <z>) denotes the bundles
of homomorphisms] when (m (u))2 = G (u) on every point.
Vector bundles ξ <z> provided with C (ξ <z> )structures are objects of
the category with morphisms being morphisms of dvbundles, which induce
on every point u ∈ ξ <z> morphisms of C (Fu ) −modules. This is a Banach
category contained in the category of finitedimensional dvector spaces on
filed k. We shall not use category formalism in this work, but point to its
advantages in further formulation of new directions of Ktheory (see , for
example, an introduction in Ref. [133]) concerned with laspaces.
Let us denote by H s (E <z> , GLnE (R)) , where nE = n + m1 + ... + mz ,
the sdimensional cohomology group of the algebraic sheaf of germs of con
tinuous maps of dvbundle E <z> with group GLnE (R) the group of auto
morphisms of RnE (for the language of algebraic topology see, for exam
ple, Refs. [133] and [98]. We shall also use the group SLnE (R) = {A ⊂
GLnE (R) , det A = 1}. Here we point out that cohomologies
H s (M, Gr) characterize the class of a principal bundle π : P → M on
M with structural group Gr. Taking into account that we deal with bun
dles distinguished by an Nconnection we introduce into consideration coho
mologies H s (E <z> , GLnE (R)) as distinguished classes (dclasses) of bundles
E <z> provided with a global Nconnection structure.
For a real vector bundle ξ <z> on compact base E <z> we can define the
orientation on ξ <z> as an element αd ∈ H 1 (E <z> , GLnE (R)) whose image
on map
H 1 (E <z> , SLnE (R)) → H 1 (E <z> , GLnE (R))
is the dclass of bundle E <z> .
226
βd ∈ H 1 (E <z> , Spin (nE )) whose image in the composition
where H 1 (E <z> , Z/2) is the first group of Chech cohomology with coeffi
cients in Z/2, Considering the second Stiefel–Whitney class w2 (ξ <z> ) ∈
H 2 (E <z> , Z/2) it is well known that vector bundle ξ <z> admits the spinor
structure if and only if w2 (ξ <z> ) = 0. Finally, in this subsection, we em
phasize that taking into account that base space E <z> is also a vbundle,
p : E <z> → M, we have to make explicit calculations in order to express
cohomologies H s (E <z> , GLn+m ) and H s (E <z> , SO (n + m)) through coho
mologies H s (M, GLn ) , H s (M, SO (m1 )) , ...H s (M, SO (mz )) , , which de
pends on global topological structures of spaces M and E <z> . For general
bundle and base spaces this requires a cumbersome cohomological calculus.
227
P C (E <z> , Gr) . We can always define a metric on the Clifford fibration if
every fiber is isometric to P C (E <z> , G) (this result is proved for arbitrary
quadratic forms G on pseudoRiemannian bases [245]). If, additionally,
Gr ⊂ SO (G) a global section can be defined on P C (G) .
Let P (E <z> , Gr) be the set of principal bundles with differentiable base
E <z> and structural group Gr. If g : Gr → Gr ′ is an homomorphism of Lie
groups and P (E <z> , Gr) ⊂ P (E <z> , Gr) (for simplicity in this section we
shall denote mentioned bundles and sets of bundles as P, P ′ and respectively,
P, P ′ ), we can always construct a principal bundle with the property that
there is as homomorphism f : P ′ → P of principal bundles which can be
projected to the identity map of E <z> and corresponds to isomorphism g :
Gr → Gr ′. If the inverse statement also holds, the bundle P ′ is called as the
extension of P associated to g and f is called the extension homomorphism
denoted as g. e
Now we can define distinguished spinor structures on bundle spaces
(compare with definition 6.3 ).
Pe ∈ P (E <z> , P inG) .
228
is a principal bundle
Pe = Pe (E <z> , SpinG)
for which a homomorphism of principal bundles
pe : Pe → P,
R : SpinG → SO (G) ,
is defined.
In the case when the base space variety is oriented, there is a natural
bijection between tangent spinor structures with a common base. For special
ds–structures we can define, as for any spinor structure, the concepts of spin
tensors, spinor connections, and spinor covariant derivations (see subsection
6.6.1 and Refs. [255,275,264]).
and define almost complex spinor structures. For given metric (6.38) on
H 2n space there is always a principal bundle P U with unitary structural
group U(n) which allows us to transform H 2n space into vbundle ξ U ≈
P U ×U (n) R2n . This statement will be proved after we introduce complex
spinor structures on oriented real vector bundles [133].
229
U(n)  SO(2n)
Q i 3
Q c
σQ Q ρ
s c
Q (6.39)
Spin (2n)
230
can be defined for the tangent bundle T M n , which directly points to the
possibility of defining the c Spinstructure on H 2n spaces.
Let λ be a complex, rank n, spinor bundle with
? ?
O(n) × O(n′ )  O(n + n′ )
231
!
α 0 −δji
structure J β ; multiplication on i is given by . Then, the dia
δji 0
gram 5 is commutative up to isomorphisms ǫc and ǫec defined as in (6.40), H
is functor E c → E c ⊗L (λc ) and EC0,2n (M n ) is defined by functor EC (M n ) →
EC0,2n (M n ) given as correspondence E c → Λ (C n ) ⊗ E c (which is a catego
rial equivalence), Λ (C n ) is the exterior algebra on C n . W is the real bundle
′
λc ⊕ λc provided with complex structure.
EC0,2n (M 2n )  E λc ⊕λc (M n )
c C
Q ǫ
Qc
ε̃ QQ H
s
Q +
ECW (M n )
232
Spin(2n) ⊂ Spinc (2n)
6 6
β
SO(n)  SO(2n)
233
We introduced dspinors as corresponding objects of the Clifford dalgebra
C (F , G), defined for a dvector space F in a standard manner (see, for in
stance, [22]) and proved that operations with C (F , G) can be reduced to
calculations for C (hF , g) , C (v1 F , h1 ) , ... and C (vz F , hz ) , which are usual
Clifford algebras of respective dimensions 2n , 2m1 , ... and 2mz (if it is nec
essary we can use quadratic forms g and hp correspondingly induced on
hF and vp F by a metric G (6.12)). Considering the orthogonal subgroup
O(G) ⊂ GL(G) defined by a metric G we can define the dspinor norm
and parametrize dspinors by ordered pairs of elements of Clifford algebras
C (hF , g) and C (vp F , hp ) , p = 1, 2, ...z. We emphasize that the splitting of a
Clifford dalgebra associated to a dvbundle E <z> is a straightforward conse
quence of the global decomposition (6.3) defining a Nconnection structure
in E <z> .
In this section we shall omit detailed proofs which in most cases are
mechanical but rather tedious. We can apply the methods developed in
[180,181,182,154] in a straightforward manner on h and vsubbundles in
order to verify the correctness of affirmations.
where the frame dvectors and constant metric matrices are distinguished
as
b
lj (u) 0 ... 0
j
b>
<α 0 b
a1
la1 (u) ... 0
l<α> (u) = ,
... ... ... ...
0 0 b
az
.. laz (u)
gbibj 0 ... 0
0 hba1bb1 ... 0
G<αb><βb> = ,
... ... ... ...
0 0 0 hbazbbz
234
gbibj and hba1bb1 , ..., hbazbbz are diagonal matrices with gbibi = hba1ba1 = ... = hbazbbz =
±1.
To generate Clifford dalgebras we start with matrix equations
indices β,γ,... refer to spin spaces of type S = S(h) ⊕ S(v1 ) ⊕ ... ⊕ S(vz )
and underlined Latin indices j,k, ... and b1 , c1 , ..., bz , cz ... refer respectively
to hspin space S(h) and vp spin space S(vp ) , (p = 1, 2, ..., z) which are cor
respondingly associated to a h and vp decomposition of a dvbundle E <z> .
The irreducible algebra of matrices σ<αb> of minimal dimension N × N,
where N = N(n) + N(m1 ) + ... + N(mz ) , dim S(h) =N(n) and dim S(vp ) =N(mp ) ,
has these dimensions
(
2(n−1)/2 , n = 2k + 1
N(n) =
2n/2 , n = 2k;
and (
2(mp −1)/2 , mp = 2kp + 1
N(mp ) = ,
2mp , mp = 2kp
where k = 1, 2, ..., kp = 1, 2, ....
The Clifford dalgebra is generated by sums on n + 1 elements of form
b
A1 I + Bbi σbi + Cbibj σbibj + Dbibj k σbibjbk + ... (6.45)
235
with antisymmetric coefficients
Cbibj = C [bibj ] , C bapbbp = C [bapbbp ] , Dbibjbk = D [bibjbk] , Dbapbbpbcp = D [bapbbpbcp ] , ... and matrices
σbibj = σ[bi σbj ] , σbapbbp = σ[bap σbbp ] , σbibjbk = σ[bi σbj σbk] , ... . Really, we have 2n+1 coef
ficients A1 , Cbibj , Dbibjbk , ... and 2mp +1 coefficients (A2(p) , C bapbbp , Dbapbbpbcp , ...) of
the Clifford algebra on F .
For simplicity, in this subsection, we shall present the necessary geomet
ric constructions only for hspin spaces S(h) of dimension N(n) . Considera
tions for a vspin space S(v) are similar but with proper characteristics for
a dimension N(m) .
In order to define the scalar (spinor) product on S(h) we introduce into
consideration this finite sum (because of a finite number of elements σ[bibj ...bk] ) :
ij i j 2 .j 22 .j 23 b .j
Ekm = δk δm + (σbi )k (σbi )m + (σbibj )k (σbibj )m + (σbibjbk )k (σbibj k )m +... (6.46)
(±) .i .i .i
1! 2! 3!
which can be factorized as
(±) ij (±) (±) ij
Ekm = N(n) ǫkm ǫ for n = 2k (6.47)
and
(+) ij ij
Ekm = 2N(n) ǫkm ǫij , (−)
Ekm = 0 for n = 3(mod4), (6.48)
(+) ij (−) ij
Ekm = 0, Ekm = 2N(n) ǫkm ǫij for n = 1(mod4).
Antisymmetry of σbibjbk... and the construction of the objects (6.45),(6.46),
(6.47) and (6.48) define the properties of ǫobjects (±) ǫkm and ǫkm which
have an eightfold periodicity on n (see details in [182] and, with respect to
laspaces, [256]).
For even values of n it is possible the decomposition of every hspin space
S(h) into irreducible hspin spaces S(h) and S′(h) (one considers splitting of
hindices, for instance, l= L ⊕ L′ , m = M ⊕ M ′ , ...; for vp indices we shall
write ap = Ap ⊕ A′p , bp = Bp ⊕ Bp′ , ...) and defines new ǫobjects
236
We can verify, by using expressions (6.48) and straightforward calcula
tions, these parametrizations on symmetry properties of ǫobjects (6.49)
! !
lm ǫLM = ǫM L 0 lm 0 0
ǫ = and ǫe = LM for n = 0(mod8);
0 0 0 ǫ
e = ǫeM L
(6.50)
1
ǫlm = − (−) ǫlm = ǫml , where (+) ǫlm = 0, and
2
1
ǫelm = − (−) ǫlm = ǫeml for n = 1(mod8);
2
! ′ ′
!
0 0 0 ǫeLM = −ǫM L
ǫlm = ′
lm
and ǫe = for n = 2(mod8);
ǫL M 0 0 0
1 (+) lm
ǫlm = − ǫ = −ǫml , where (−) ǫlm = 0, and
2
1
ǫelm = (+) ǫlm = −ǫeml for n = 3(mod8);
2
!
lm ǫLM = −ǫM L 0
ǫ =
0 0
and !
lm 0 0
ǫe = for n = 4(mod8);
0 ǫeLM = −ǫeM L
1 (−) lm
ǫlm = − ǫ = −ǫml , where (+) ǫlm = 0, and
2
1
ǫelm = − (−) ǫlm = −ǫeml for n = 5(mod8);
2
! ′ ′L
!
lm 0 0 lm 0 ǫeLM = ǫM
ǫ = ′ and ǫe = for n = 6(mod8);
ǫL M 0 0 0
1 (−) lm
ǫ = ǫml , where (+) ǫlm = 0, and
ǫlm =
2
1
ǫelm = − (−) ǫlm = ǫeml for n = 7(mod8).
2
Let denote reduced and irreducible hspinor spaces in a form pointing to
the symmetry of spinor inner products in dependence of values n = 8k + l
237
(k = 0, 1, 2, ...; l = 1, 2, ...7) of the dimension of the horizontal subbundle
(we shall write respectively △ and ◦ for antisymmetric and symmetric inner
products of reduced spinors and ♦ = (△, ◦) and ♦ e = (◦, △) for correspond
ing parametrizations of inner products, in brief i.p., of irreducible spinors;
properties of scalar products of spinors are defined by ǫobjects (6.50); we
shall use 3 for a general i.p. when the symmetry is not pointed out):
Se(h) (8k) = S
e ⊕S
◦
e′ , Se (8k + 1) = Se(−) , ...
◦ (h) ◦ (6.53)
and
(−)
Se(vp ) (8k ′ ) = S
e ⊕S
◦
e′ , Se
◦
′ e
(vp ) (8k + 1) = S◦ , ... (6.54)
238
respectively for the dual to (6.50) and (6.51) spinor spaces.
The spinor spaces (6.50)(6.54) are called the prime spinor spaces, in
brief pspinors. They are considered as building blocks of distinguished, for
simplicity we consider (n, m1 )–spinor spaces constructed in this manner:
e′ ,
S(◦◦,◦◦ ) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ,S(◦◦,◦ ◦ ) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S (6.55)
◦
e ⊕S
S(◦◦, ◦◦ ) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ⊕ S e ′ ,S( ◦◦◦ ) = S ⊕ S
e′ ⊕ S
e ⊕Se′ ,
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
...............................................
(+) (+) (+) (+)
S(△ ,△ ) = S△ ⊕ S△ , S(△ ,△ ) = S△ ⊕ Se△ ,
................................
′ ′
f ⊕ S , S( ◦ ,♦ ) = S ⊕ S
S(△ ◦ ,♦ ) = S△ ⊕ S f ⊕ Se♦ ,
◦ ♦ △ △ ◦ 
................................
Considering the operation of dualization of prime components in (6.55) we
can generate different isomorphic variants of distinguished (n, m1 )spinor
spaces. If we add anisotropic ”shalls” with m2 , ..., mz , we have to extend
correspondingly spaces (6.55), for instance,
(−)
S(8k+4,8k′ +5) = S△ ⊕ S′△ ⊕ S△ , ...
The scalar product on a S(n,m1 ) is induced by (corresponding to fixed values
of n and m1 ) ǫobjects (6.50) considered for h and v1 components. We
present also an example for S(n,m1 +...+mz ) :
239
(−)
S△ ⊕ S′△ ⊕ S(1)△ ⊕ ... ⊕ S(p)△ ⊕ S′(p)△ ⊕ ... ⊕ S(z)◦ ⊕ S′(z)◦ .
Having introduced dspinors for dimensions (n, m1 + ... + mz ) we can
write out the generalization for ha–spaces of twistor equations [181] by using
the distinguished σobjects (6.44):
..γ δω β 1 ..γ δω β
(σ(<αb> )β = G<αb><βb> (σbǫ )β , (6.56)
δu<βb>) n + m1 + ... + mz δubǫ
where β
denotes that we do not consider symmetrization on this index.
The general solution of (6.56) on the dvector space F looks like as
..β
ω β = Ωβ + u<αb> (σ<αb> )ǫ Πǫ , (6.57)
where Ωβ and Πǫ are constant dspinors. For fixed values of dimensions n
and m = m1 +...mz we mast analyze the reduced and irreducible components
of h and vp parts of equations (6.56) and their solutions (6.57) in order to
find the symmetry properties of a dtwistor Zα defined as a pair of dspinors
Zα = (ω α, πβ′ ),
(0)
where πβ ′ = πβ ′ ∈ Se(n,m1 ,...,mz ) is a constant dual dspinor. The problem
of definition of spinors and twistors on haspaces was firstly considered in
[275] (see also [246,250]) in connection with the possibility to extend the
equations (6.57) and theirs solutions (6.58), by using nearly autoparallel
maps, on curved, locally isotropic or anisotropic, spaces. In this subsection
the definition of twistors have been extended to higher order anisotropic
spaces with trivial N– and d–connections.
240
Transformation of dtensors into dspinors
In order to pass from dtensors to dspinors we must use σobjects (6.44)
written in reduced or irreduced form (in dependence of fixed values of
dimensions n and m ):
·γ
(σ<αb> )β , (σ <αb> )βγ , (σ <αb> )βγ , ..., (σ<ba> )bc , ...,
′ b
(σbi )jk , ..., (σ<ba> )AA , ..., (σ i)II ′ , .... (6.58)
It is obvious that contracting with corresponding σobjects (6.58) we can
introduce instead of dtensors indices the dspinor ones, for instance,
b
ω βγ = (σ <αb> )βγ ω<αb> , ωAB′ = (σ <ba> )AB′ ω<ba> ,
i i
..., ζ·j = (σ k )·j ζbk , ....
241
Transformation of dspinors into dtensors; fundamental dspinors
We can transform every dspinor ξ α = (ξ i, ξ a1 , ..., ξ az ) into a correspond
ing dtensor. For simplicity, we consider this construction only for a h
component ξ i on a hspace being of dimension n. The values
b
ξ α ξ β (σ i...bj )αβ (n is odd) (6.63)
or
I J bi...bj I′ J′ bi...bj
ξ ξ (σ )IJ or ξ ξ (σ )I ′ J ′ (n is even) (6.64)
with a different number of indices bi...bj, taken together, defines the hspinor
ξ i to an accuracy to the sign. We emphasize that it is necessary to choose
only those hcomponents of dtensors (6.63) (or (6.64)) which are symmetric
on pairs of indices αβ (or IJ (or I ′ J ′ )) and the number q of indices bi...bj
satisfies the condition (as a respective consequence of the properties (6.60)
and/or (6.61), (6.62))
n − 2q ≡ 0, 1, 7 (mod 8). (6.65)
Of special interest is the case when
1
q= (n ± 1) (n is odd) (6.66)
2
or
1
q = n (n is even) . (6.67)
2
If all expressions (6.63) and/or (6.64) are zero for all values of q with the
exception of one or two ones defined by the conditions (6.65), (6.66) (or
(6.67)), the value ξbi (or ξ I (ξ I )) is called a fundamental hspinor. Defining in
′
242
6.6 Differential Geometry of D–Spinors
This section is devoted to the differential geometry of d–spinors in higher
order anisotropic spaces. We shall use denotations of type
and
ζ αp = (ζ ip , ζ ap ) ∈ σ αp = (σ ip , σ ap )
for, respectively, elements of modules of dvector and irreduced dspinor
fields (see details in [256]). Dtensors and dspinor tensors (irreduced or
reduced) will be interpreted as elements of corresponding σ–modules, for
instance,
αp γ αp γ Ip Ip′ Ip Ip′
q <α>
<β>... ∈ σ
<α>
<β>.... , ψ β ...
p
∈σ βp ...
p
,ξ Jp Kp′ Np′ ∈σ Jp Kp′ Np′ , ...
p
243
approach to gravitational and matter field interactions on haspaces ( the
spinor Ashtekar variables [20] are introduced in this manner).
We note that a d–spinor metric
ǫij 0 ... 0
0 ǫa1 b1 ... 0
ǫντ =
... ... ... ...
0 0 ... ǫaz bz
on the dspinor space S = (S(h) , S(v1 ) , ..., S(vz ) ) can have symmetric or an
tisymmetric h (vp ) components ǫij (ǫap bp ) , see ǫobjects (6.50). For sim
plicity, in this section (in order to avoid cumbersome calculations connected
with eightfold periodicity on dimensions n and mp of a haspace E <z> ) we
shall develop a general dspinor formalism only by using irreduced spinor
spaces S(h) and S(vp ) .
as maps
β β
∇α1 α2 : σ β → σ<α> = σα1 α2 =
β β β β β β β β
σi = σi1 i2 , σ(1)a1 = σ(1)α α , ..., σ(p)ap = σ(p)α α , ..., σ(z)az = σ(z)α α
1 2 1 2 1 2
satisfying conditions
244
and
∇<α> (f ξ β ) = f ∇<α> ξ β + ξ β ∇<α> f
for every ξ β , η β ∈ σ β and f being a scalar field on E <z> . It is also required
that one holds the Leibnitz rule
and that ∇<α> is a real operator, i.e. it commuters with the operation of
complex conjugation:
(1)
(∇<α> − ∇<α> )(ωβ ξ β ) = 0.
γ γ
In consequence we conclude that there is an element Θα1 α2 β ∈ σα1 α2 β for
which
γ β
∇(1) γ γ
α1 α2 ξ = ∇α1 α2 ξ + Θα1 α2 β ξ (6.72)
and
γ
∇(1)
α1 α2 ωβ = ∇α1 α2 ωβ − Θα1 α2 β ωγ .
(1) β β
(∇<α> − ∇<α> )v β 1 β 2 = Θ<α>γ
1
v γβ 2 + Θ<α>γ
2
vβ1γ =
245
β β2 β β1
(Θ<α>γ
1
δγ 2 + Θ<α>γ
2
δγ 2 )v γ 1 γ 2 = Q<β>
<α><γ> v
<γ>
,
1 1
where
β β β β β β
Q<β>
<α><γ> = Q
1 2
α1 α2 γ γ
1 2
= Θ<α>γ
1
δγ 2 2
+ Θ<α>γ
2
δγ 2 1
. (6.73)
1 1
The dcommutator ∇[<α> ∇<β>] defines the dtorsion (see (6.23)(6.25) and
(1) (1)
(6.30)). So, applying operators ∇[<α> ∇<β>] and ∇[<α> ∇<β>] on f = ωβ ξ β
we can write
(1)<γ>
T <α><β> − T <γ> <γ> <γ>
<α><β> = Q <β><α> − Q <α><β>
with Q<γ>
<α><β> from (6.73).
(1) β β ...
The action of operator ∇<α> on dspinor tensors of type χα1 α2 α3 ... 1 2
must be constructed by using formula (6.72) for every upper index β 1 β 2 ...
and formula (6.73) for every lower index α1 α2 α3 ... .
A dspinor κα ∈ σ α
has components κα = κα δα α
. Taking into account
that
β
δα α δβ ∇αβ = ∇αβ ,
we write out the components ∇αβ κγ as
α β γ γ γ
δα δβ δγ ∇αβ κγ = δǫ τ
δτ ∇αβ κǫ + κǫ δǫ ∇αβδǫ ǫ
=
γ
∇αβ κγ + κǫγ αβǫ, (6.74)
γ
where the coordinate components of the d–spinor connection γ αβǫ are de
fined as
γ . γ
γ αβǫ = δτ ∇αβ δǫ τ . (6.75)
246
We call the Infeld  van der Waerden dsymbols a set of σobjects (σα)αβ
parametrized with respect to a coordinate dspinor basis. Defining
introducing denotations
.
γ γ <α>τ = γ γ αβτ (σ<α> )αβ
and
<α> β δ
l<α> δβ ∇<α> µβ = ∇<α> µβ − µδ γ <α>β (6.77)
<α>
l<α> <α>
∇<γ> (σ<β> )ǫτ = l<α> ∇<γ> ((σ<β> )ǫτ δǫǫ δττ ) =
<α> α ǫ <α>
l<α> δα δǫ ∇<γ> (σ<β> )αǫ + l<α> (σ<β> )ǫτ (δττ ∇<γ> δǫǫ + δǫǫ ∇<γ> δττ ) =
<α> <α> µ
lǫτ ∇<γ> (σ<β> )ǫτ + lµν δǫ δτ ν (σ<β> )ǫτ (δττ ∇<γ> δǫǫ + δǫǫ ∇<γ> δττ ),
<α>
where l<α> = (σǫτ )<α> , from which it follows
ν µ µ ν
(σαβ )<β> ∇<γ> (σ<α> )µν + δβ γ <γ>α + δα γ<γ>β .
247
Connecting the last expression on β and ν and using an orthonormalized
dspinor basis when
β
γ <γ>β = 0
(a consequence from (6.75)) we have
µ
γ <γ>α =
1 µβ
(Γ <γ> αβ − (σαβ )<β> ∇<γ> (σ<β> )µβ ),
N(n) + N(m1 ) + ... + N(mz )
(6.78)
where
µβ
Γ <γ> αβ = (σ<α> )µβ(σαβ)β Γ<α>
<γ><β> . (6.79)
We also note here that, for instance, for the canonical (see (6.18) and (6.19))
and Berwald (see (6.20)) connections, Christoffel dsymbols (see (6.21))
we can express dspinor connection (6.79) through corresponding locally
adapted derivations of components of metric and Nconnection by intro
ducing corresponding coefficients instead of Γ<α><γ><β> in (6.79) and than in
(6.78).
248
and
δ
2αβ µγ = Xγ αβ µδ .
and
τ
Ψγδαβ = δδτ 2(αβ δγ) .
γ γ
The dspinor torsion T 1 2 αβ is defined similarly as for dtensors (see
(6.30)) by using the dspinor commutator (6.80) and equations
γ γ
2αβ f = T αβ ∇γ 1 γ 2 f. (6.82)
1 2
δ δ
The dspinor components Rγ γ 1 2 αβ of the curvature dtensor Rγ δ αβ
1 2
can be computed by using relations (6.79), and (6.80) and (6.82) as to satisfy
the equations (the dspinor analogous of equations (6.31) )
γ1γ2 δ 1 δ2 δ 1 δ2 γ γ
(2αβ − T αβ ∇γ 1 γ 2 )V = Rγ γ αβ V
1 2 ,
1 2
249
It is convenient to use this dspinor expression for the curvature dtensor
δ1δ2 δ1 τ 1τ 2
Rγ γ α1 α2 β β = Xγ α1 α2 β β +T α1 α2 β β γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2γ δγ δ2
+
1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
δ2 τ 1τ 2
Xγ α1 α2 β β +T α1 α2 β β γ δ2 τ 1 τ 2 γ δγ δ1
2 1 2 1 2 2 1
δ1 τ 1τ 2 δ2 τ 1τ 2
Xγ α1 α2 δ 1 γ +T α1 α2 δ 1 γ γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2 γ +Xγ α1 α2 δ 1 γ +T α1 α2 γ δ2 γ δ2 τ 1 τ 2 γ
1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
(6.84)
and this dspinor decomposition of the scalar curvature:
←− α1 δ 1 α2 τ 1 τ 2 α1 α2
q R = Rα1 α2 α1 α2 =X α1 δ 1 α2 +T α2 δ 1 γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2 α1 +
α2 δ 2 α1 τ 1τ 2 α2 α1
X α2 δ 2 α1 +T α1 δ2 γ δ2 τ 1 τ 2 α2 . (6.85)
Putting (6.84) and (6.85) into (6.34) and, correspondingly, (6.35) we find
the d–spinor components of the Einstein and Φ<α><β> dtensors:
←
− ←
− δ1 τ 1τ 2
G <γ><α> = G γ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 = Xγ α1 α2 δ 1 γ +T α1 α2 δ1 γ γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2 γ +
1 2 2 1
δ2 τ 1τ 2
Xγ α1 α2 δ 1 γ +T α1 α2 γ δ 2 γ δ2 τ 1 τ 2 γ −
2 2 1 2
1 β µ β τ 1 τ 2β1 β2 µ1
εγ 1 α1 εγ 2 α2 [X 1 1 β 2 µ β +T β µ γ τ 1τ 2β +
2 1 1 2 2 1 1
β 2 µ2 ν 1 τ 1τ 2 β2β1 δ2
X β µ ν1 +T β δ2 γ τ 1τ 2β ] (6.86)
2 2 1 2
and
1 β µ β
Φ<γ><α> = Φγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 = εγ 1 α1 εγ2 α2 [X 1 1 β 2 µ1 β 2 +
2(n + m1 + ... + mz ) 1
τ 1 τ 2β1 β2 µ1 β 2 µ2 ν 1 τ 1τ 2 β2β1 δ2
T β 2 µ1 γ τ 1 τ 2 β1 +X β 2 µ2 ν 1 +T β1 δ2 γ τ 1 τ 2 β 2 ]−
1 δ1 τ 1τ 2
[X +T γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2γ +
2 γ1 α1 α2 δ1 γ 2 α1 α2 δ 1 γ 2 1
250
δ2 τ 1τ 2
Xγ α1 α2 δ1 γ +T α1 α2 γ δ 2 γ δ2 τ 1 τ 2 γ ]. (6.87)
2 2 1 2
251
scalar field ϕ are considered. The equations (6.88) are (locally adapted to
the Nconnection structure) Euler equations for the Lagrangian
L(0) (u) =
" ! #
q nE − 2
<α><β> 2
g g δ<α> ϕ (u) δ<β> ϕ (u) − µ + ϕ (u) ϕ (u) ,
4(nE − 1)
(6.89)
where g = detg<α><β> .
The locally adapted variations of the action with Lagrangian (6.89) on
variables ϕ (u) and ϕ (u) leads to the locally anisotropic generalization of
the energymomentum tensor,
(0,can)
E<α><β> (u) = δ<α> ϕ (u) δ<β> ϕ (u) +
1
δ<β> ϕ (u) δ<α> ϕ (u) − q g<α><β> L(0) (u) , (6.90)
g
and a similar variation on the components of a dmetric (6.12) leads to a
symmetric metric energymomentum dtensor,
(0) (0,can)
E<α><β> (u) = E(<α><β>) (u) − (6.91)
nE − 2 h i
R(<α><β>) + D(<α> D<β>) − g<α><β> 2 ϕ (u) ϕ (u) .
2(nE − 1)
Here we note that we can obtain a nonsymmetric energymomentum d
tensor if we firstly vary on G<α><β> and than impose constraints of type
(6.10) in order to have a compatibility with the Nconnection structure. We
also conclude that the existence of a Nconnection in dvbundle E <z> results
in a nonequivalence of energymomentum dtensors (6.90) and (6.91), non
symmetry of the Ricci tensor (see (6.29)), nonvanishing of the dcovariant
←−
derivation of the Einstein dtensor (6.34), D<α> G <α><β> 6= 0 and, in con
sequence, a corresponding breaking of conservation laws on haspaces when
D<α> E <α><β> 6= 0 . The problem of formulation of conservation laws on la
spaces is discussed in details and two variants of its solution (by using nearly
autoparallel maps and tensor integral formalism on locally anisotropic and
higher order multispaces) are proposed in [262] (see Chapter 8). In this sec
tion we shall present only straightforward generalizations of field equations
252
and necessary formulas for energymomentum dtensors of matter fields on
E <z> considering that it is naturally that the conservation laws (usually
being consequences of global, local and/or intrinsic symmetries of the fun
damental spacetime and of the type of field interactions) have to be broken
on locally anisotropic spaces.
Equations (6.93) are a first type constraints for β = 0. Acting with D<α>
on (6.93), for µ 6= 0 we obtain second type constraints
Putting (6.94) into (6.93) we obtain second order field equations with
respect to ϕ<α> :
253
and
(1)
J<α> (u) = i f <α><β> (u) ϕ<β> (u) − ϕ<β> (u) f<α><β> (u) .
For µ = 0 the dtensor f<α><β> and the Lagrangian (6.92) are invariant
with respect to locally anisotropic gauge transforms of type
D<α> h<α>
<β> (u) = 0, h (u) ≡ h<α>
<β> (u) = 0,
254
where coefficients Cαbβbbγ = D<γ> lα<α>b lβb<α> lbγ<γ> generalize for haspaces
the corresponding Ricci coefficients on Riemannian spaces [79]. Using σ
objects σ <α> (u) (see (6.44) and (6.60)–(6.62)) we define the Dirac equations
on ha–spaces:
−−−→
(iσ <α> (u) ∇<α> − µ)ψ = 0,
which are the Euler equations for the Lagrangian
q −−−→
L(1/2) (u) = g{[ψ + (u) σ <α> (u) ∇<α> ψ (u) −
−−−→
(∇<α> ψ + (u))σ <α> (u) ψ (u)] − µψ + (u) ψ (u)}, (6.97)
where ψ + (u) is the complex conjugation and transposition of the column
ψ (u) .
From (6.97) we obtain the dmetric energymomentum dtensor
255
the case when the base space of the vbundle πB is a locally isotropic space
time). Let ∇<α> be, for simplicity, a torsionless, linear connection in BE
satisfying conditions:
h i
∇<α> : ΥΘ → ΥΘ
<α> or ΞΘ → ΞΘ
<α> ,
∇<α> λΘ + ν Θ = ∇<α> λΘ + ∇<α> ν Θ ,
∇<α> (f λΘ ) = λΘ ∇<α> f + f ∇<α> λΘ , f ∈ ΥΘ [or ΞΘ ],
where by ΥΘ ΞΘ we denote the module of sections of the real (complex) v
bundle BE provided with the abstract index Θ. The curvature of connection
∇<α> is defined as
Θ
K<α><β>Ω λΩ = ∇<α> ∇<β> − ∇<β> ∇<α> λΘ .
Φ Φ b Φ b
Φ Θ b
B<α>Θ 7→ B<α> b = B<α>Θ sΦ
Θ
qΘ
b + isΘ Φ ∇<α> qΘ
b
Θ
,
Φ Φ b Φ b
Φ Ξ
F<α><β>Ξ 7→ F<α><β> b
Ξ
= F<α><β>Ξ sΦ qbΞ ,
∇<α> F<α><β>Θ
Ψ
= J<β> Ψ
Θ, (6.99)
Ξ
∇[<α> F<β><γ>]Θ = 0. (6.100)
256
We must introduce deformations of connection of type ∇⋆α −→ ∇α +Pα , (the
deformation dtensor Pα is induced by the torsion in dvbundle BE ) into the
definition of the curvature of hagauge fields (6.98) and motion equations
(6.99) and (6.100) if interactions are modeled on a generic haspace.
257
and in H 2n spaces is the periodicity 8 on the dimension of the base and on
the dimension of the typical fiber spaces.
It should be noted that we introduced [256,255,275] dspinor structures
in an algebraic topological manner, and that in our considerations the com
patibility of dconnection and metric, adapted to a given Nconnection,
plays a crucial role. The Yano and Ishihara method of lifting of geomet
rical objects in the total spaces of tangent bundles [295] and the general
formalism for vector bundles of Miron and Anastasiei [160,161] clearing up
the possibility and way of definition of spinors on higher order anisotropic
spaces. Even a straightforward definition of spinors on Finsler and Lagrange
spaces, and, of course, on various theirs extensions, with general noncom
patible connection and metric structures, is practically impossible (if spinors
are introduced locally with respect to a given metric quadratic form, the
spinor constructions will not be invariant on parallel transports), we can
avoid this difficulty by lifting in a convenient manner the geometric ob
jects and physical values from the base of a laspace on the tangent bundles
of v and tbundles under consideration. We shall introduce correspond
ing discordance laws and values and define nonstandard spinor structures
by using nonmetrical dtensors (see such constructions for locally isotropic
curved spaces with torsion and nonmetricity in [154]).
The distinguishing by a Nconnection structure of the multidimensional
space into horizontal and vertical subbundles points out to the necessity
to start up the spinor constructions for laspaces with a study of distin
guished Clifford algebras for vector spaces split into h and vsubspaces.
The dspinor objects exhibit a eightfold periodicity on dimensions of the
mentioned subspaces. As it was shown in [256,255], see also the sections
6.2 6.4 of this work, a corresponding dspinor technique can be developed,
which is a generalization for higher dimensional with Nconnection structure
of that proposed by Penrose and Rindler [180,181,182] for locally isotropic
curved spaces, if the locally adapted to the Nconnection structures dspinor
and dvector frames are used. It is clear the dspinor calculus is more te
dious than the 2spinor one for Einstein spaces because of multidimensional
and multiconnection character of generic haspaces. The dspinor differen
tial geometry formulated in section 6.6 can be considered as a branch of the
geometry of Clifford fibrations for vbundles provided with Nconnection,
dconnection and metric structures. We have emphasized only the fea
258
tures containing dspinor torsions and curvatures which are necessary for
a dspinor formulation of lagravity. To develop a conformally invariant d
spinor calculus is possible only for a particular class of haspaces when the
Weyl dtensor (6.33) is defined by the Nconnection and dmetric structures.
In general, we have to extend the class of conformal transforms to that of
nearly autoparallel maps of haspaces (see [275,276,279,263] and Chapter 8
in this monograph).
Having fixed compatible Nconnection, dconnection and metric struc
tures on a dv–bundle E <z> we can develop physical models on this space
by using a covariant variational dtensor calculus as on RiemannCartan
spaces (really there are specific complexities because, in general, the Ricci
dtensor is not symmetric and the locally anisotropic frames are nonholo
nomic). The systems of basic field equations for fundamental matter (scalar,
Proca and Dirac) fields and gauge and gravitational fields have been intro
duced in a geometric manner by using dcovariant operators and laframe
decompositions of dmetric. These equations and expressions for energy
momentum dtensors and dvector currents can be established by using
the standard variational procedure, but correspondingly adapted to the N
connection structure if we work by using labases.
259
Chapter 7
Despite the charm and success of general relativity there are some funda
mental problems still unsolved in the framework of this theory. Here we
point out the undetermined status of singularities, the problem of formula
tion of conservation laws in curved spaces, and the unrenormalizability of
quantum field interactions. To overcome these defects a number of authors
(see, for example, refs. [240,285,194,3]) tended to reconsider and reformu
late gravitational theories as a gauge model similar to the theories of weak,
electromagnetic, and strong forces. But, in spite of theoretical arguments
and the attractive appearance of different proposed models of gauge gravity,
the possibility and manner of interpretation of gravity as a kind of gauge
interaction remain unclear.
The work of Popov and Daikhin [195,196] is distinguished among other
gauge approaches to gravity. Popov and Dikhin did not advance a gauge
extension, or modification, of general relativity; they obtained an equivalent
reformulation (such as wellknown tetrad or spinor variants) of the Einstein
equations as YangMills equations for correspondingly induced Cartan con
nections [40] in the affine frame bundle on the pseudoRiemannian space
time. This result was used in solving some specific problems in mathemat
ical physics, for example, for formulation of a twistorgauge interpretation
of gravity and of nearly autoparallel conservation laws on curved spaces
[246,250,252,249,233]. It has also an important conceptual role. On one
260
hand, it points to a possible unified treatment of gauge and gravitational
fields in the language of linear connections in corresponding vector bundles.
On the other, it emphasizes that the types of fundamental interactions
mentioned essentially differ one from another, even if we admit for both of
them a common gauge like formalism, because if to YangMills fields one
associates semisimple gauge groups, to gauge treatments of Einstein gravi
tational fields one has to introduce into consideration nonsemisimple gauge
groups.
Recent developments in theoretical physics suggest the idea that a more
adequate description of radiational, statistical, and relativistic optic effects
in classical and quantum gravity requires extensions of the geometric back
ground of theories [282,163,13,14,15,28,29,118,119,120,122,212,235,236,238,
280,41] by introducing into consideration spaces with local anisotropy and
formulating corresponding variants of Lagrange and Finsler gravity and
theirs extensions to higher order anisotropic spaces [295,162,266,267,268].
The aim of this Chapter is twofold. The first objective is to present
our results [272,258,259] on formulation of a geometrical approach to in
teractions of YangMills fields on spaces with higher order anisotropy in
the framework of the theory of linear connections in vector bundles (with
semisimple structural groups) on haspaces. The second objective is to
extend the formalism in a manner including theories with nonsemisim
ple groups which permit a unique fiber bundle treatment for both locally
anisotropic YangMills field and gravitational interactions. In general lines,
we shall follow the ideas and geometric methods proposed in
refs. [240,195,196,194,40] but we shall apply them in a form convenient
for introducing into consideration geometrical constructions[160,161] and
physical theories on haspaces.
There is a number of works on gauge models of interactions on Finsler
spaces and theirs extensions(see, for instance, [17,18,19,28,164,177]). One
has introduced different variants of generalized gauge transforms, postulated
corresponding Lagrangians for gravitational, gauge and matter field inter
actions and formulated variational calculus (here we note the approach de
veloped by A. Bejancu [30,32,29]). The main problem of such models is the
dependence of the basic equations on chosen definition of gauge ”compensa
tion” symmetries and on type of space and field interactions anisotropy. In
order to avoid the ambiguities connected with particular characteristics of
261
possible lagauge theories we consider a ”pure” geometric approach to gauge
theories (on both locally isotropic and anisotropic spaces) in the framework
of the theory of fiber bundles provided in general with different types of non
linear and linear multiconnection and metric structures. This way, based on
global geometric methods, holds also good for nonvariational, in the total
spaces of bundles, gauge theories (in the case of gauge gravity based on
Poincare or affine gauge groups); physical values and motion (field) equa
tions have adequate geometric interpretation and do not depend on the type
of local anisotropy of spacetime background. It should be emphasized here
that extensions for higher order anisotropic spaces which will be presented
in this Chapter can be realized in a straightforward manner.
The presentation in the Chapter is organized as follows:
In section 7.1 we give a geometrical interpretation of gauge (YangMills)
fields on general haspaces. Section 7.2 contains a geometrical definition
of anisotropic YangMills equations; the variational proof of gauge field
equations is considered in connection with the ”pure” geometrical method
of introducing field equations. In section 7.3 the ha–gravity is reformulated
as a gauge theory for nonsemisimple groups. A model of nonlinear de Sitter
gauge gravity with local anisotropy is formulated in section 7.4. We study
gravitational gauge instantons with trivial local anisotropy in section 7.5.
Some remarks are given in section 7.6.
262
Transition functions gU V are defined as
gU V : U ∩ V →Gr, gU V (u) = ϕU (p) ϕV (p)−1 , π (p) = u.
Ω = ϕ∗ θ + Ad ϕ−1 (π ∗ ω) (7.1)
where δu<µ> = (dxi , δy <a> ) and the Einstein summation rule on indices
ab and < µ > is used. Functions ωb<µ> a
(u) from (7.2) will be called the
components of YangMills fields on haspace E <z> . Gauge transforms of ω
can be geometrically interpreted as transition relations for ωU and ωV , when
u ∈ U ∩ V,
(ωU )u = (gU∗ V θ)u + Ad gU V (u)−1 (ωV )u . (7.3)
To relate ωb<µ>
a
with a covariant derivation we shall consider a vector
bundle Υ associated to P. Let ρ : Gr → GL (Rs ) and ρ′ : G → End (E s )
be, respectively, linear representations of group Gr and Lie algebra G (in a
more general case we can consider C s instead of Rs ). Map ρ defines a left
action on Gr and associated vector bundle Υ = P ×Rs /Gr, πE : E → E <z> .
Introducing the standard basis ξi = {ξ1 , ξ2, ..., ξs } in Rs , we can define the
263
right action on P × Rs , ((p, ξ) q = (pq, ρ (q −1 ) ξ) , q ∈ Gr) , the map induced
from P
where
B (X) = (ρ′ X)ba ωba (X) . (7.4)
Transformation laws (7.3) and operators (7.4) are interrelated by these tran
sition transforms for values ei , ζ i, and B<µ> :
j i j i
eVi (u) = [ρgU V (u)]i eUi , ζU (u) = [ρgU V (u)]i ζV ,
V
B<µ> (u) = [ρgU V (u)]−1 δ<µ> [ρgU V (u)] + [ρgU V (u)]−1 B<µ>
U
(u) [ρgU V (u)] ,
(7.5)
U
where B<µ> (u) = B <µ> (δ/du<µ> ) (u) .
Using (7.5), we can verify that the operator ∇UX , acting on sections of
πΥ : Υ → E <z> according to definition (7.4), satisfies the properties
∇Uf1 X+f2 Y = f1 ∇UX + f2 ∇UX , ∇UX (f ζ) = f ∇UX ζ + (Xf ) ζ,
∇UX ζ = ∇VX ζ, u ∈ U ∩ V,f1 , f2 ∈ C ∞ (U) .
So, we can conclude that the Yang–Mills connection in the vector bundle
πΥ : Υ → E <z> is not a general one, but is induced from the principal bundle
π : P → E <z> with structural group Gr.
The curvature K of connection Ω from (7.1) is defined as
c◦d
K = DΩ, D = H (7.6)
where
operator of exterior derivation acting on Gvalued forms as
d is the
d ∆ba ⊗ χ = ∆ba ⊗ dχba and H
b
a c is the horizontal projecting operator act
c
ing, for example, on the 1form λ as Hλ (Xp ) = λp (Hp Xp ) , where Hp
P
264
projects on the horizontal subspace Hp ∈ Pp [Xp ∈ Hp is equivalent to
Ωp (Xp ) = 0]. We can express (7.6) locally as
K = Ad ϕ−1 ∗
U (π KU ) (7.7)
where
1
KU = dωU +
[ωU , ωU ] . (7.8)
2
The exterior product of Gvalued form (7.8) is defined as
h i ^ b
b bb
a
∆ba ⊗ λ , ∆bb ⊗ ξ = ∆ba , ∆bb ⊗ λba b
ξ,
where
δωb<ν>
a δωb<µ>
a
1 bb bb
Kb<µ><ν>
a
= − + f b
a
ω ω b
c
− ω b
c
<ν> <µ> .
ω
∂u<µ> ∂u<ν> 2 bbbc <µ> <ν>
265
7.2 YangMills Equations on Haspaces
Interior gauge (nongravitational) symmetries are associated to semisimple
structural groups. On the principal bundle (P, π, Gr, E <z>) with nondegen
erate Killing form for semisimple group Gr we can define the generalized
Lagrange metric
and introduce the scalar product on forms β1 , β2 , ... ⊂ Λr (E <z> ) with com
pact carrier: Z ^
(β1 , β2 ) = η (1) ...η (nE ) β1 ∗G β2 .
266
The operator δbG is defined as the adjoint to d associated to the scalar
product for forms, specified for rforms as
∆K =Ad ϕ−1 ∗
U π (∆K)U .
267
Projection of (7.13) on the base can be written as (∆K)U = 0. To calculate
(∆K)U , we use the equality [40,196]
h i
d Ad ϕ−1 −1 ∗ −1
U λ = Ad ϕU dλ − ϕU θ, Ad ϕU λ
and, as a consequence,
b = Ad ϕ−1 {δb π ∗ K + ∗−1 [π ∗ ω , ∗ π ∗ K ]}−
δK U H U H U H U
h i
− ∗−1 −1 ∗
H Ω, Ad ϕU ∗H (π K) . (7.15)
By using straightforward calculations in the adapted dual basis on π −1 (U)
we can verify the equalities
h i
Ω, Ad ϕ−1 c (π ∗ K ) = π ∗ δb K ,
∗H (π ∗ KU ) = 0, Hδ
U H U G
∗−1 ∗ ∗ ∗ −1
H [π ωU , ∗H (π KU )] = π {∗G [ωU , ∗G KU ]}. (7.16)
From (7.15) and (7.16) it follows that
∗−1 −1
G ◦ d ◦ ∗G KU + ∗G [ωU , ∗G KU ] = 0. (7.18)
dKU + [ωU , KU ] = 0.
Equations (7.18) (see (7.17)) are gaugeinvariant because
268
where D<ν> is, for simplicity, a compatible with metric covariant derivation
on haspace E <z> .
We point out that for our bundles with semisimple structural groups
the YangMills equations (7.13) (and, as a consequence, their horizontal
projections (7.18) or (7.19)) can be obtained by variation of the action
Z
b
I= Kba<µ><ν> Kb<α><β> G<µ><α> G<ν><β> Kbabb × (7.20)
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