You are on page 1of 11

Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

Name : V SANTHOSH KUMAR End bearing Strength of pile: Qb (sand) = Ap (0.5D N + PDNq)

Roll No: 16PHD0570


Cross sectional area of pile AP =

Advanced Foundation Design


=
Assignment-I
AP = 0.283m2.

at pile tip = (21-9.81)


1. A driven pile of 0.6m diameter is driven into 3 layers of soil profile as shown in
= 11.19 kN/m3
figure. Find the safe vertical compressive load carrying capacity of the pile.
From IS 6403: 1981 N from Table 1
Solution:
N
Given data,
35 48.03
40 109.41

N = 48.03 + ((109.41 48.03)/5)x3

N = 84.86

From Fig.1, IS:2911

Nq = 90

PD = Effective vertical stress at pile tip

Critical Depth
30 15D
40 20D

The ultimate load capacity of pile: Qu = Qb + Qf1 + Qf2 + Qf3


8 the Critical Depth is 19D
Qu = Qb(sand) + Qf1(sand) + Qf2(clay) + Qf3(sand)

VIT University Page 2


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

Critical Depth is 19 x 0.6 = 11.4 m = 212.37 KN

PD = (19 9.81) x 4.4 + (21 9.81)x7 Qf2 = Qf 2(Clay)

= 118.77 kN
2 C2 As2
Qb(sand) = Ap (0.5D N + PDNq) [From Fig.2, IS 2911 Part-1 / Section 3]

= 0.283 [(0.5x0.6x11.19x84.86) +118.77 x 90)] 2 = 0.61

= 3105.44 kN. Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi)


Qf1 = Qf1(Sand) As2 L

= K PDi tan si = 3.14x0.6x6

For = 11.304 m2

PDi = Effective Vertical Stress at Mid Height at Layer 1 Qf2 2 C2 As2s

= (17x 2) + (20-9.81) x (2.5-2) = 0.61x75x11.304

= 39.095 KN = 517.158KN

Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi) Qf3 = Qf3(sand)

As1 = Qf3 = K PDi tan si

= 3.14x0.5x5
38

= 9.42m2
IS 2911 , Note 3
(Note 4, IS 2911 Part-1 / Section 3)
K = 1+((2-1)/5)x8
Tan
= 1.8

Qf1 = K PDi tan si PD3 = (17x2) +[ ( 21-9.81)x3]+[(19-9.81)x6]+[(21-9.81)x3.5]

= 1x39.05x Tan30x9.42 = 158.875 KN

VIT University Page 3 VIT University Page 4


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi) Solution:

As3 Given data,

= 3.14x0.6x7

= 13.188 m2

Qf3 = K PDi tan si

= 1.8x158.875xTan38x13.1888

= 2946.26 kN

The ultimate load capacity of pile Qu = Qb(sand) + Qf1(sand) + Qf2(clay) + Qf3(sand)

=3105.44+212.37+517.158+2946.26

= 6781.228 kN

Qsafe = [Assume Factor of Safety for pile is 3] The ultimate load capacity of pile: Qu = Qb + Qf1 + Qf2 + Qf3

Qu = Qb(Stiff Clay) + Qf1(Medium Clay) + Qf2(Medium Sand) + Qf3(Stiff Clay)


=
End bearing Strength of pile: Qb(Stiff Clay) = Ap Nc cp
= 2712.49 kN

Cross sectional area of pile AP =


Safe load bearing capacity of pile (Qsafe) is 2712.49 kN

2. A bored pile of 0.7 diameter is driven into 3 layers of soil profile as


=
shown in figure. Find the safe vertical compressive load carrying
capacity of the pile. = 0.385 m2

Nc = 9 (From IS 2911 part 1/sec2)

Cp = 100 kPa

Qb(Stiff Clay) = Ap Nc cp

VIT University Page 5 VIT University Page 6


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

= 0.385x9x100 PD2 = (19x7) + 2.5(21-9.81)

Qb(Stiff Clay) = 346.5 kN = 160.975 kN

Qf1(Medium Clay) = 1 C1 As1 Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi)

1 = 0.9 (From Fig.2 IS 2911) As2

Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi) = 3.14x0.7x5

As1 = = 10.99 m2

= 3.14x0.7x7 Qf2(Medium Sand) = K PDi Tan si

= 15.386 m2 = 1.3x160.975xTan36x10.99

Qf1(Medium Clay) = 1 C1 As1 Qf2(Medium Sand) = 1670.94 kN

= 0.9x50x15.386 Qf3(Silt Clay) = 3 C3 As3

Qf1(Medium Clay) = 692.37 kN 3 = 0.43 (From Fig.2 , IS 2911)

Qf2(Medium Sand) = K PDi tan si


Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi)

From IS 2911 (Part 1/ Sec 2) As3

IS 2911 PART-I ( Bored Cast In-situ Concrete = 3.14x0.7x6


Piles)
= 13.188 m2
K
30 1 Qf(Silt Clay) = 3 C3 As3
40 1.5
= 0.43x100x13.188

= 567.084 kN
Value of K for 36
The ultimate load capacity of pile
K= 1+[(1.5-1)/10]x6

K = 1.3 Qu = Qb(Stiff Clay) + Qf1(Medium Clay) + Qf2(Medium Sand) + Qf3(Stiff Clay)

VIT University Page 7 VIT University Page 8


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

= 346.5+692.37+1670.94+567.084 A driven pile of 0.6m diameter is driven into three layers of soil profile as shown in figure

Qu = 3276.894 kN And the middle layer is soft clay, it causes negative skin friction

The ultimate load capacity of pile : Qu = Qb + Qf1 + Qf2 + Qf3


Qsafe = [Assume Factor of Safety for pile is 3]

Qu = Qb(Dense sand) ( Qf1(medium sand) + Qf2(soft clay) ) + Qf3(dense sand)


=
End bearing Strength of pile: Qb(dense sand) = Ap (0.5D N + PDNq)

= 1490.75 kN
Cross sectional area of pile AP =
Safe load bearing capacity of pile (Qsafe) 1490.75 kN

3. A driven pile of 0.6m diameter is driven into 3 layers of soil profile as shown in =
figure. Find the safe vertical compressive load carrying capacity of the pile.
AP = 0.283m2.
Solution:
Water table is located at ground level.
Given data
At 3rd Layer sat=21 kN/m3

From IS 6403: 1981

N from Table 1

N
35 48.03
40 109.41
=39

N = 48.03 + ((109.41 48.03)/5)x4

N = 97.13

From Fig.1, IS:2911 (Part-1 Sec 3)

Nq = 100

VIT University Page 9 VIT University Page 10


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

PD = Effective vertical stress at pile tip Tan

Critical Depth Qf1 = K PDi tan si

30 15D
= 1.5x32.07x Tan35x11.31
40 20D
the Critical Depth is 19.5D Qf1(medium sand) = 380.96 kN

Critical Depth is 19.5 x 0.6 = 11.7 m Qf2 = Qf (Soft Clay)


PD = (21 9.81)x8 + (20 9.81)x3.7
2 C2 As2
= 127.22 KN
[From fig.2, ( IS 2911 (Part-1 Sec 3)]
Qb(sand) = Ap (0.5D N + PDNq)
2 =1
= 0.283 [(0.5 x 0.6 x (21 9.81) x 97.13) +(127.22 x 100)]
Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi)
Qb = 3692.60 kN.
As2
Qf1 = Qf(medium Sand)
= 3.14x0.6x7
= K PDi tan si
= 13.19 m2
For 5, K=1.5 [From Fig.1, IS:2911(Part-1 Sec 3)]
Qf2 2 C2 As2
PDi = Effective Vertical Stress at Mid Height at Layer 1
= 1x15x13.19
PDi = (20.5-9.81) x 3
Qf (Soft Clay) = 197.85 kN
= 32.07 kN
Qf3 = Qf3(dense sand)
Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi)
= K PDi tan si
Asi

= 3.14x0.6x6
39 [IS 2911 Part-1 Sec 3, Note 3]
= 11.31m2
K = 1+((2-1)/10)x9
[ IS 2911 (Part-1 Sec 3) Note 4]

VIT University Page 11 VIT University Page 12


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

= 1.9 Safe load bearing capacity of pile (Qsafe) is 2918.19 kN

; [IS 2911 (Part-1 Sec 3) Note 4] 4. A 300 mm square wooden pile is driven 5m below ground level in preloaded clay.
PDi = Effective Vertical Stress at Mid Height at Layer 1 The load is applied is 1m above the ground. Determine the ultimate lateral load that
can applied on a pile shown in figure.
PD3 = 6 x (2.5-9.81) + (20-9.81) x 7 + (21-9.81) x 4

= 180.23 KN Solution:

Surface area of pile for respective layer (Asi) Given:

As3

= 3.14x0.6x8

= 15.08 m2

Qf3 = K PDi tan si

= 1.9x180.23xTan39x15.08

Qf3(dense sand) = 4181.68 KN

The ultimate load capacity of pile

Qu = Qb(Dense sand) ( Qf1(medium sand) + Qf2(soft clay) ) + Qf3(dense sand)

=3692.60 (380.96+197.85) +4181.68


Width of pile B = 0.3 m
= 7295.47 kN
Pile driven in preloaded clay
Qsafe = [Assume Factor of Safety for pile is 3]
qu=240 kN/m2 ; Mu=100 kNm

Youngs modulus E=109 N/m2


=

We can use R factor soil is preloaded clay [I.S. 2911 ,Part-1 , C-2.3.2 ]
Qsafe = 2918.19 kN

VIT University Page 13 VIT University Page 14


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

= 1.89
Stiffness factor

= 1.4
E = 109 N/m2
z = 0.742 depth of fixity.
Moment of inertia of pile cross section,
Depth of fixity z = 0.742 m

I = 6.75 x 10-4 m4. According to I.S. 2911, Part-1/sec-1, C-4.3

k1= 43.2 x 103 kN/m3 [ IS. 2911 ,Part-1/Sec-1 , Table 4 ] Given Mu = 100 kNm.

Actual bending moment

MF = H(e+z) For Free Head Pile [IS. 2911, Part-1/sec-1, C-4.3]

K=28.3 x 103 kN/m3 By reduction factor chart [ IS. 2911 ,Part-1/sec-1 , Figure:4A ]

For e/R = 1.89

m = 0.59

R=0.5286 ; M = m x H(e+z)

Stiffness factor R=0.53m 100 = 0.59x H(1+0.742)

Checking weather pile is long pile or short pile. H = 97.29 kN.

As length of pile L > 3.5R ; 5 > 3.5 x 0.53 The ultimate lateral load on pile is 97.3 kN

It is a long (elastic) pile [ IS. 2911 ,Part-1/Sec-1 , Table 5 ] The pile head deflection (y) for free head piles

From depth of fixity chart free headed pile [I.S. 2911, Part-1/Sec-1, C-4]

e=1m

VIT University Page 15 VIT University Page 16


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

Estimation of steel

For bored cast in-situ piles the minimum required longitudinal steel should be 0.4% [ IS.
y 2911 ,Part-1/Sec-2 , Cl. 6.11 ]

Therefor the lateral load is 97.3 kN and the corresponding deflection is


Area of steel As=
0.254 m.
=

5. Design the size and reinforcement for a bored cast in situ pile of structural capacity = 636.17 mm2

of 90 tons, using M25 grade concrete and Fe415 grade steel. Area of steel As =637 mm2

Solution: Estimation of laterals

Given Provide laterals 6 mm @ 150 mm centre to centre ( Laterals should not be palced at less
than 150 mm)
Structural capacity of Pile Qs= 90 tons
[ IS. 2911 ,Part-1/Sec-2 , Cl. 6.11 ]
= 90 x 104 N
Specification for mix proportion
Estimation of allowable concrete stress fc = = = 6.25 N/mm2
The minimum cement content is 400 kg/m3 for bored pile and use necessary plasticizers to
Determination of pile diameter for 90 ton capacity get slump value 150mm to 180mm at the time of pouring.

[ IS. 2911 ,Part-1/Sec-2 , Cl. 7.3 ]


Allowable concrete stress

=
The requires pile diameter is 450mm

D= 428.189 mm And area of steel is 637 mm2

Nearest commercial Size is D=450mm

VIT University Page 17 VIT University Page 18


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

Assume nominal cover length is 45 mm then , if we using minimum 8mm dia laterals and
20 mm dia longitudinal rods the actual cover length from center to center of steel is D=
6. Design reinforce concrete pre cast pile of section 400mm X 400mm of length
8+10+45= 63 (65mm say)
12 m fully embedded in clay having undrained cohesion(c) of 20kPa and
transmitting the load by end bearing. The pile as to carry an axial load by Cover length is 65mm.
750kN
Area of steel according to minimum percentage 1.25
Solution:
As= 1.25% x cross sectional area of pile
Given Length of pile L=12m

Dimensions of pile B=400 mm, Square pile


As =2000 mm2s

Undrained cohesion c= 20 kPa Using 4 bars of 25 mm diameter gives 1963.5 mm 2 area of steel
The length of pile is maximum 50 times of least width.
Percentage of steel As = = 1.22 < 6 %
[ I.S. 2911 ,Part-1/Sec-3 , Cl. 6.11.4 ]
(Maximum allowed steel percentage in columns IS 456, C-26.5.1)
Length of given pile is less than allowed length.
Load carrying capacity of column pile

Pu=0.4fck(Ac-As) + 0.67fckAs

Pu=0.4x25x(4002-1963.5)+(0.67x415x1963.5)

Pu=2126 kN
Maximum length of pile is allowed for given cross section is 20 m. but given pile length is
12m. The maximum load carrying capacity of pile is more than given load carried by pile

Estimation of steel Hence safe.

Percentage of steel is 1.25% [ IS. 2911 ,Part-1/Sec-2 , Cl. 6.12.1 ] Check for hoisting and handling moments and shear:

Maximum moments on handling occurs when the pile is picked up at one end

VIT University Page 19 VIT University Page 20


Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I Advance Foundation Design Assignment-I

Cover to center of link = 88 mm; area of 8 mm dia ba r= 50.3 mm2

Volume of each lateral = (400 88) x 4 x 50.3 = 67.77x 103 mm3


2
W= 0.4 x 25 x 12 = 48 kN

Number of laterals required =


Mu= = 108 kNm
Spacing = =63mm
Moment of resistance on steel beam theory (neglecting concrete)

As spacing is less than 150 mm, we may use 12 mm dia. bar. (Maximum spacing allowed
MR =0.87 x x fy x(400- 2x65)
is width of pile = 300 mm).
= 0.87x1000x415x(400-130) Area of 12 mm dia bar = 113.09 mm2

= 97.48 kNm = 114mm2

MU>MR Volume of each lateral = (400 88) x 4 x 114 = 142.27x 103 mm3

Hence safe in handling moment [ I.S. 2911 ,Part-1/sec-3 , Table 1 ] Number of laterals required = =8.09 8

Detail links over length of pile:


Spacing = =150mm.
Distribute links as follows:
Reinforcement required for given pile is
3D from ends 0.6% of volume of concrete
4 bars of 20mm diameter length of pile
3D (transition) 03% of volume of concrete
8 no of 12mm dia laterals.
Balance at centre 0.2%

Links for 3D at ends = 3 x400 = 1200 mm should be 0.6%

Calculate for 0.6%

Volume = =1152x103 mm3

VIT University Page 21 VIT University Page 22