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The world's most comprehensive encyclopedia of the military weapons of the 20th cenrur-.

with IssuE I 8op

Ground-launched Cruise in Actioi^

The Strategic Missile Balance

'% fumed Forces

of the world:
':j, Sweder.
Volume I Issue 2

Sruface to Surfase Missiles
The Land Based Strate$c Missile Balurce 22
Pluton Short Ruqe Battlefield Tactical Support Missile Sy$em 24
French IRBM Missile Systems 24
Chinese MRB}1/IRBII4/ICBM Missile Sy$ems 25
Lance Short Range Battlefreld Tactical Support Missile System 26
Honest john Short Range Tactical Battlefield Support Mssile Sy$em 26
Persh:ng Short Range Battlefield Support Missile System 2t
Tttar II Heavy ICBM Missile System 28
MGM-l 18 (l\,0() Peacekeeper Heavy ICBM Missile System 28
Minuteman Lightweight ICBM Missile Sy$em 29
Americur Ground.larrnched Cruise Missile System 30
Grormd-Lauched Cruise in Action 32 Published by Australia: Back numbers are obtainable
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rface to
Surface lvlisstle
Ever since the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan in 1945
the defence of the bigpowers hasbeenbased onthemutual
ar o f nucl e ar w arfare, and missile forc e s hav e he e n t h e
main aqents of those in command. Deterrence seemed
absolute. but the emergence of smaller mobilebattlefield
nuclear weapons has destabilized the once-simple equation. Lance is the only battlefield guided
missile of NATO armies. anditis a
Do these weaponsmaintain our security or produce a relatively small weapon. At launch the
dangerous and potentially deadly insecurity? dense smoke from its on-board gas
generator is expelled through
tangential ports fo spin fie mrssr/e,
--:d-based mrssile systems are usually classed as strategtc, theatre, or adding stability. One of Lance's good
:,-:Lcai. Strategrc normally refers to those missrles which have lntercon features is that it can be fitted with a
'-:,:ntal ranges (more than 3 350 miles/5400 km), and as such are termed v ariety of different w arhe ad s,
-:.::r Contrnental Balhstrc Mrssrles (lCBMs) Only thr--e countrtes pos- including nuclear.
-.=ss this class of mrssrle, the USA the USSR and Chrna In the case of lhe
..:-.: two, each deploys over 1,000 ICBMs of vartous types lhat are marntalns a small 18 rrtuncl IRBM force a,s Lis l::t.. i . ,:-
j.'..rCed rnto either the heavy or hghtweiqht varlants dependrng on thetr contributron
:-:: thror,v-werght and performance capabrlrtres. ChLna has only de 'fhe tactrcal mrssrles .rre class,od :rs ihose ::,...,:..=.
:-,-red L4 ICBMs to date, and is rnvolved tn a acttve research and than 700 mLk:s (l'l25 km) These systenrs carr r:. ,r .. -
r=;elopment programme to rncrease thts force level tn order to provrde those whLch can be used rn the dLrect-sur-.L-, r ,:
. :redrble deterrent agarnst the USSR. fronl-hne troops (and as such ar-o known as i-r-::r=:,., .

Theatre area missrles are those mrsstles that have ranges restrrcted to and those whrch are capable ol strrkrnq iijro!-: .

-r,:crfic geo,3raphrcal areas, such as West and East Europe. They can be allowable range under the system classrfrcalir,r- .,- . .
,:lled erther Medrum-RangJe Ballistic Missrles (MRBMs) wtth ranges termedShortRangeBa]lrstlcMtsst]es,orSRBiv1:
::.:'l,/een 700 and I 725 mrles ( I 125 and 2775 km) or interm-odtate Range to the rnventories oi the USA USSR and Lrbya ."', r,-, ,
:,--hstrc Missiles (lRBMs) wrth ranges between 1725 and 3,350 mtles misstles can be found rn practrcally all the li,-- - .
-175 and 5400 km) The USA did at one trme deploy IRBMs but wtth armres and also rn lhe armres of the two SLLr:n '.:,
l:ew them as her ICBM programmes matured. The greatest operator of client stat-os
:--. two systems is the USSR, whrch created a peak lorce ol some 700
:---ssrles in the 1960s for use against possible tarqets rn Europe, the LookingdownintoaMinutemanICBMsilo.Thesilotsexre:-'.-e.-,,.:r:.:J; bu;,'l
towithstand nuclear attack, but Large enough Ior the giar.i !,:::.s :::::. :.:e
l.llcldle East and Chrna The USSR has also pLoneered the use of the first-stage motor to escape past the missilewithout dama;:n;.:. .".':.::;:1.:a.i ls
.:-,,brle IRBM system. The second major operator rs Chrna wrth some 100 over 20 years old and a very small missile compared w'rli ;.le .': ;:-r --: cjs
l. ?BMs and IRBMs currently deployed aoarnsl S.'"'re: iar.i-ots France numerous Soviet ICBMs.
Ihe [cnC Based Strcffegic
lvlissile Bcilance
,:.: :;rerrt strategrc weapons of the two major superpowers are deployed on
A Minuteman ICBM rockets

up from its silo in a practice
launch from Vandenberg
ForceBase, California.
llousrngrin srTos was

':-::: :i'pes of delivery system that are collectively known as the Trrad. These supposed foprolect US
:'.'s::nr are the land-based ICBM, the long-range bomber carrying the gravrty mrssr7es from a Soviet first
::::b ancVor nuclear missile and the missrle-carryrnq submarine. In each case strike, but improvements in
r?ussian mrssrJe warhead yield
::-;re are two essential factors to be considered in assessrng the value to the Triad
and accuracy have eroded
:: :ne dehvery platform. They are penetratlon to the target, and survLvabrlrty. In the that security, creating anxiety
:-rst case the need is for the majority of the attackrng systems to avoid destructton in the minds of theAmerican
b-r' the enemy defences, and rn the second case the need is for a sLgtntficant defence es tablis hment. T his
lercentage olsystems to survive a pre-emptive strtke before therr own launch. It ts anxiety has now manifested
::.ris second factor whrch rs causing the most concern at present to US strateqfic itsel{ in the production of the
'.'.'arfare planners MX, but US poiiljcjans seem lo
The US Minuteman and Titan II ICBM force is housed rn spectally hardened be hopelessly confusedas to
its adoption and method of
-nderground missile silos burlt to suwive nuclear blast over-pressures of between deployment. The latest
33 and up to 70 kg/cm2 (500 and up to 10 000 lb/sq rn). The srlos are also proofed to scleme is lo house tfiem rn lie
crovide protectron against the radtation and other electro-magnetrc waves that supposedly vulnerable
:nq[nate from the explosions. The flxed-location stlo allows for better missile Minutemansilos!
;.udance accuracy as the missile will be fired from a pre-surveyed stte to a
orecisely known target location, thus ensulng that the onboard inerttal navtgation both the majority of Western nuclear forces (either on the qround or in flight) a::
system has exact sets of co-ordinates to Lrse In rts calculattons. However, when the the American capabihty to flght beyond its own shores.
:pposlng side increases its missrle performance to the level where a comblnatlon The American (and hence the Western natlons) rulnerabtlity to such a strategl- .
:f warhead yield and accuracy overcomes the advantage of the srlo anti-blast readrly apparent because of the letharEnc and erratic policy decisions that ha..':
:ardenrng features then the fixed-location basrng concept makes the ICBM tn- consistently plagmed AmerLcan strategtc weapon development prognammes ovel
ierently vulnerable The Amencans have now conceded that this is the case wlth the last decade or so The MX basLnq controversy the delayed Trrdent mrssrl:
:ierr ICBM forces as the present Soviet force of SS-18 Model 4 and SS-19 Model 3 submanne progrranme and the cancelled then reinstated B-] bomber are but :
iCBMs can destroy the majority of the US mrssrles and assocrated command, few.
:cntrol and communications centres tn a flrst-strlke attack. This, coupled wtth the
:ontingency planning the Soviets have for reloading launch silos that have already Theatre nucle.u missiles
been used to fue an inrtial round of SS-l7s and SS-18s, and the fact that they have Hitherto there seemed to be n\,'o drstrnct famLhes of mrssrle systems, the strateq.
buLlt some l, 175 ICBMs since l978 (compared with none by America) tndicates that and the tactrcal. The tacncal v,'eapons'lvere to an extent discounted in arms contrc-
the Sovlets are preparrnq for protracted nuclear war The level of ICBM production discussions, because theLr rang:es .,';ere so short and therr warheads so compara-
srnce 1972 (some 2 000 rounds) rs assessed as beinq far above the normal require- tively small - thougth thts dtsttnciLo: mrght have been lost on the hapless citizens c:
ment for the Soviets to maintarn a credrble deterrent force The net result of thts, tn the territory (probably West Gelmanv) over whrch a battle was fought. But latel';
conjunction wlth the previor-s data, is that both the numertcal and technological gffeat stndes have been made -: as.uracy range and warhead capability and wrtf.
balances have shifted signifrcantly towards the Soviets so that they are effecttvely at the rntroduction of new qreneralio:. :actLcal weapons such as Pershingr 11, Crurse
the point of being able to carry out therr hvofold strateqlc strategry, which is first to and SS-20, theatre weapons ha',': :,i-sei rnto the realms of the strateglc and thrs has
capitalize 1n peacetrme on the coercive leverage rnherent rn such a force so as to greatly enlarged the scope ol arn:s i-scr-sstcns Some argnre that thts is a destabihz-
exert political rnfluence on free-world socletLes, and second to employ the force in ing factor but it also seems i. r:ake the decLsrcn to Ltse the flrst albert smallest
wartlme rn a war-wrnning role by ensurLng the homeland's survrval by destroytng battlefield nuclear weapon :ia: i:jl: nore Lmpossrble


Throw. Cold
Range Warhead Number weight launch No, deployed
Missile Tvpe {kml type and yield , CEP {m) (kg) Propellant capability 1 983 Notes

Titan ll 1st 1 962 heavy SRV 1 xgNy't 13CC 3;-;a j3 berng ret red
Nlinuteman ll 2nd 1 966 I ght SRV 1 x 1.2N,41 370 73C 440
lvlinuteman lll 3rd 1 970 light MRV 3x165kt );n f; 14 2aa
Minuteman lll 3rd r qfq light MIRV 3x 335kt 22C 5:1 300
Peacekeeper 4th late 1980s heavy MIRV I 0x 335k1 6C 9C 3600 none under development, at leasl
T 00 planned


Number Cold
ICBM Range and (cEP) launch
Missile Variant generation lOC date (km) yield (m) Propellant capability

x 3.5N/1 850 1824 llqu d 'r90 r90 80 0 0 0 0

SS.7 SADDTER 2nd I 962 heavy 1 0400 SRV 1 1

ss.8 sAstN 2nd 1 963 heavy T 100 SRV l x2Mt 1 850 1 590 lquid T9 19 I 0 0 0 0
ss-g scARP lvloci T 3rd 1 965 heavy TTOO SRV I x20Mt 744 5000 lqurd
lquid \27a )308 )298 )208 )68 )0 )0
ss.g scARP Mod 4 3rd 1971 heavy 12AA MRV 3x3.5M] 1 850 5680
ss-1r sEGo Mod 1 3rd 1 966 ght SRV '1
x950kt 400 1 000 lrqurd
ss.l1 SEGO Mod 3 3rd 1 973


9600 MBV 3x200kr


1110 1 135 lrquid

)970 )970 )960 )8s0 ,:;,
SS.I3 SAVAGE 3rd 1 969 lrght 8000 SRV 1 x 600kt 1 850 680 solld 40 60 60 60 60
ss-r6 4th 1 978 I ght 8750 SRV 1 x 650kt 480 980 solid 0 0 0 0 160 !u I but not depoyed
I ght 4 x 750kt 480 liquid 0 -f gures for Mod 1 & Mod
ss-17 Mod 1 4rh 1 975 I 0000 T,1IRV 21 4A YCS 0 10 50 3
ss-17 Mod 2 4th 1977 light 1T000 SRV I x6Mt 425 t1 1i iiquid VCS 0 0 0 0 ;;
ss-17 Mod 3 4th 1 980 light I 0000 MIRV 4 x 750kt 350 27 4A iquid yes 0 0 0 0 '' for Mod 1 & Mod 3
x27Mt 425 7560 rquid yes 0 t0 60- -' for Mod 1 & Mod
ss.18 Mod 1 4rh 1974 heavy r 2000 SRV T 0 3
ss-18 Mod 2 4th T 976 heavy l] 000 MIRV 8 x 900k1 425 7590 rquid yes 0 0 0 4C

350 7500 iquid yes 0 0 0 -' for Mod 1 & Mod 3

ss.18 Mod 3 4th 1911 heavy r 6000 SRV
ss-18 Nlod 4 4th I 979 heavy r 1000 MIRV 260 7590 rqu d VES 0 0 c
ss.19 Mod 1 4th 1 975 ight 9600 MIBV 390 3420 rqu d 0 0
ss.19 Mod 2 4th 191A ight 1 0000 SBV 264 3',r B0 ou d C c
ss.19 Mod 3 4th 1 980 ight 1 0000 MBV 2AA 34r 0 c! C c

Notes MRVr Multrp e Re-entrv Vehicle counts as s ng e warhead) '1'r.cA-i!eight r: .:':be payload of ICBM rn
lOCr a
Operallonal Capability
nrt MIRV: Multiple ndependent Re-e.lrv Veh cle lscparale warhea.s ::: :: : : t: :r_ah az muth, re-entry
SRV: Srng e Re-entry Vehic e. CEP: Crcuar Error Probab1lv LcTcuara'ea around larQel ! ih- :^ --::: -:: ii', a'a- a-: a- a

Range Warhead
Nuclear Users No. deployed I No, deployed
Number Payload other than
IVissile Type lOC date (km) Type Yield CEP (m) (ksl Propellant Launcher US Notes

SSBS-S3 IRBM 1980 3T 50 SRV 1xT.2Mr 830 soId sllo France '16
French RBM system
Pluton SRBM 1314 10-124 1x15ktor1x25kt 330 solid tracked France 42 French tactical SRBM system
Lance ] sngv 1912 5-121 1x1okt or 1x'l00kt 460 212 liqu d tracked alternative conventonal
Belgium, Netherlands warheads available
Honest John SFBM 1 953 8-37 1 xskt or I x25kt 830 680 solid whee ed Greece, Turkey 30 alternative conventional
warheads availab e
Pershing la SRBM 1 969 T 60-740 Ix 60kt or 1 x400kt 374 c.750 sol d wheeled WGermany 72 to be replaced in US serv ce
by Pershing
Pershing ll MRBM 1 984 I x20kt or 1 x200kt 12 36 c.750 solid whecled to replace l0B Pershing la
in Europe
1 983 x 200kt t8 5 123 turbofan wheeled total of 454 to be deployed
in Europe


I| l| warPac
No. deployed
by usets
Range Warhead Number Payload | | other than other
Missile Type lo0 date lkm) Type Yield CEP {m} {ks) Propellant llauncherl US than USSR
ss.4 MBBM 1 959 220 SRV 1xT.2Mt 2300 not available qu d I
s,ro ruun.r,
c.200 expected to be phased out by
late 1 980s
ss.s MRBM I 961 41 00 SRV 1x1.2Mt 41 00 not avarlable lqu d I .,,o o, I few expected to be replaced by
tauncn oao end 1983


ss.20 IRBM 1977 5000 or SRV I x650kt or 425 not avallable so rd | *i notoa I 350 tota of 400 expected to be
7000km or 1 x50kt or deployed
{50kr MRV 3x 1 50kt
FROG.7 SRBM T 965 SRV 1xloktor 700 550 sotd | *nee,eo I erq.'u. rc, c 670 a ternative conventional
II II czecl Hunsan warheads avai able. FROG 3
x 200kt
1 Polaro Ronaria a so in use
ss.21 SRBM I 976 14-120 SRV 1 x'lokt or 1 x l00k1 280 not aval ab e sol.l I wrreetca I c40 eventual y to replace FROG

Scud-B SRBM 1 965 B0-1 B0 SRV 1x40ktor1xl00k1 930 1 000 rqu'd | *.""r"0 I a,rqu,ir. rc 130 r 5,10 some Scud-A w th WarPac.
C/ech. Hulsal
I I Poland Roranra
Scud-C rry th Sov ets on y
ss.x.23 SRBM 1 980 B0-444 SRV 280 not avallab c so rd I wheeled I c30 s lr v reo ac ng Scud-B C
. Scv e: Se-, !e
Scaleboa.d I snev I 969 20 800 SRV 480 1250 so rd I *n*,.n I c 4a r: _: chasa! tr:
ss.22 snav rd c la 'a!: ! -aa n: -r S:a eboa'd
| -r,"","0
1911 20-BB0 SBV 320 notavai able 50
I |

Titan ll
Davrs-Monthan AFB f
Minutbman il ,O,
Francis E- Warren AFB
i' Minuteman ll /r, /j /Minuteman lll
,l Ellsworrh AFB ,ry' r / Minot AFB
Tifan ll
/' Mcconnell AFB ri
f,'''irinuteman tt ana ttt
Minuteman ll ,ij /' Malmstrom AFB
Whiteman AFB
Titan ll
Little Rock AFB

3""1,1"** l/ I

i-i '!


lffilTil,"* 0",-"i, ij, fui
\l/fj.;fl"^""" ', (-._..._._.,r.1

,inJE@q;Derazhnva iri,t).. ,)
ssBs.s3 .
''._. ii 'l-.,r-'-.)'--. '--*(.,., '\
\ prareau dArbion ,"''''- -i'-' ;iI _ il B!-'"'-","n
...-,i-*..-.i,-,.--*rr"::'-1, F;;l'-"v"k ,/' "--t'r,

i I t')r._, ,,._.__._,) j I
*.-...,-.-.,,.-. '/'-' 'i..- (
tt Pluton Short Range Battlefield Tactical Support Missile System
r: :-:- ,-,:t- t---:-::. iunng 1972.
- :- t-,.. -:.:: .: ::: F:ench army
:: : := =.-:,'.- -:-= :l::Ce then the
. ... : :. .=:.,'eregiments
'. - -.-:..-:-: : :::'.'-ie 'iactrcal nu-
: -. -:_-. , L ., :::-: ield armies.

a: l = 1,::-,:::S :,aS SUt laUnCher

: r :i ::.:ir ::- :he AMX-30 main
:- :.-.: ':L:. l:-::S-S Se'nelal COmmand
1 :.'-::.., :=t:-lns A tota.l of 42
..- L^^*
-. - - ^:^^
-.:--:-15 rruer- pfOdUCed
. ...-::--= r::','.'arhead are supplied
. - .:: :perattonal units, The
.: .-'=,'.' :
: ,.--:::;: dual-lhrust solrd-
.-..,:.- :.r:::- rs flrted \ rth a slm-
-- .:.=::--l r.udance package that
i ::-r ::- = SFENA semr-strapdown
,'-:. ,-.'.': -.','alheads have been de-
-. : - I : i ::: nrssrle: one is the AN-
' . -.= :J1-:si rear-area targets and
..':.:--:.1 ::: same 25-kiloton MR50
r:: ','.'=rlon as the French air
' -. .:.:::- -ac:rcal
nuclear gravlty
. ':.i- ::.: ::her rs a lS-kiloton war- Carried on a
- .: :=:.::-=d as an aLr-burst weapon modifiedAMX-30
. .i: -:. :.= maLn battle zone area. As MBTchassis,
..:: :=::. ::3 case wtth most French Plutonis amodern
::r '.'.':aocns
' -, ^, - +L^ l^^i--
the destgn, testlng
'^^ri-^ and effective
:, : - of the systems was car- weapon; itwent
, r ::::li; by the French them- intoservicewith
the French army
,..::'..i-i317 the French defence in 1974.
...-: -i :-.- Crsclosed that consideration
,, Super Pluton' tactical missile was turn towards the development of their rnterest in developing this class of kiloton nuclear, or tratningr
: :--r:--n hand for deployment rn the own mobile land-based cruise missile, weapon. Minimum range: 10 lcn (6.2 miles)
:'= .::is
This missile would have a Designated Hades by A6rospatrale, Maximum range: i20 km (75 miles)
- ... r:rably rmproved performance
. the mrssrle (7rn/23t1 long) will prob- Specification CEP:330m (360 yards)
:. '=::-s of accuracy and rangre as well ably have an integral booster/ramjet Pluton Launch vehicle: tracked AMX-30 MBT
.,:'.'-nq an improved warhead. By propulsron system, a Tercom (Terrain Lengrth: 7,64m (25 ft 0% in) chassis
l9B0s, however, an A6rospa- Contour Matching) gnldance system Diameter: 0.55 m (1ft 9% rn) Propellant type/gruidance: solid/
' ..==-rl.r
s: -rdy of the 'Super Pluton' and the and a range in the order of 350 km (2 17 weight: 2350 kq (5, lBl lb) inertial.
... :r:si generated in mllitary circles miles), Warhead options may include Warhead weight: 350-500 kg (772-
: . ':.= Amerrcan cruise missile progr- an enhanced-radiation (neutron) de- 1,102 lb)
:.:',::e had persuaded the French to vice as the French have shown some Warhead type: iS-kiloton nuclear, 25-


French IRBM Missile Systems

: : ,::. rhe deployment of the first tial 53 deployment began in l9B0 and
.;-=iron in 1971, the main land-based by l9B2 the missile had completely re-
r :.Donent of France's Force de Frap- placed the SZ in the two IRBM squad-
:= cecame lB SSBS 52 IRBMs. The rons. During the deployment the
SSBS 52 was a two-stage inertially- ground facilities of the silo complexes solid-propellant missile wrth a were improved to allow modetnization
value of 900m (985 yards) and of some systems and to rncrease mrs-
-s deployed in two squadrons each sile reliability whrle reducing mainte-
,: :lre mrssiles. lrocated on the Plateau nance costs, Reactron time of the 53 is
';-:lbron east of Avrgnon in Haute said to be around 200 seconds from the
:::-,'ence rn hardened underground order to fire. the squadrons were controlled
',' iwo heavily protected subterra- Specification
:in hre-control centres that had spe- ssBs s3
-.1 communicatrons links direct to the Lengrth: 13.8 m (45 ft 37: in)
r:rch strateqic air force headquar- Diameter: m (4 ft l1 in)
:s The 14.8 m (48 ft 7 rn) Ionq and weisht: kq (56,880 lb)
25800 ti:
-:. '4 ft I I ln) dramelcr missile had a Warhead: single 1.2-megaton thermo-
.-:.:n werght of 31900 kg (70,325 Ib) nuclear RV ',*1

.:, a maximum range of 2750 km Range: 3150 km (1.957 miles) .{
- -18 miles), and carried a 1SO-kiloton CEP: 830 m (908 yards)
.'-=.i nuclear warhead, Launch facility: hardened silo $
-: 1973 a new IRBM development Launch: hot type .i
::l ;lramme was initrated to produce a Propellant ty?e/gruidance: solid/
.=,-,-:nd-generation missile to replace rnertial
:---: S2 The new mrssile, the SSBS 53, tl
'.'.':s developed by A6rospatiale under '!l
:--.': contracts spannrng the years 1974- traunclr of an SSBS, probably of the ir
!, and uses the same first stage as the newS-3 typewhichis now .;!

S. The second slage is, however, of replacing the S-2 in the same silos
:.,:her performance with a warhead on the Plateau d'Albion in southern J..!
:.-.a: rncludes a hardened thermonuc- France. S-3 ias a range of 3500 km i,i!
-=ar charge and advanced penetratlon (2,175 miles)with a single large j
.-is to counter anti-ballistic missrle de- Aerospatiale warhead with a yield
:=::es. The flrst test launch was in De- of I .2 megatons. The entire silo and .!ffi6
:=:rber 1976, the test firing trials being missile are hardened aErarnsf 'Wi
,-:::rpleted in the summer of 1979. Ini- nuclear attack.
I 8irin"r" MRBVI/IRBVI/ICBM Missile Systems
The Chinese have had a strateglc mls- css-2 css-x-4
sile development proqramme under Type: IRBM Type: ICBM
way srnce the early I96Os. The first Lengrth: 20.5 m (67 ft 3 rn) Lengrth: 32.5 m (106 ft 772 tn)
missile to become operational was a
modified and Iengthened version of
the Soviet SS-3 'Shyster' MRBM, This
Diameter: 2,44 m (B ft 0 in)
Weisht: 28000 ks (61,730 lb)
Range: 3200km (1,990 miles)
Diameter: 3 0 m (9
Weisht: I50000 kq
ft 10 in)
(330,690 Ib)
Range: 8000 km (4,970 miies) t
Warhead: 200 kilotons or I megaton Warhead: 5 megatons

single-stage liquid-fuel missile, coded
CSS-I by the Americans and called TI Launch facility: pad Launch facility: stlo or pad
Tong Feng (East Wind) by the Launch: hot type Launch: hot type
Chinese, is fired from an above- Propellant tlpe/gruidance: liqutd/ Propellant type/gn:idance: hqurd./ IE L
gnound launch pad. The missile was rnertral inertial
rnitially deployed from 1966 onwards
rn the north eastem and nofih western css-3 css-5
areas of China. With a ranqe of
1200 km (745 miles) and an estimated
Type: ICBM
Lengrth: 25.5 m (83 ft B in)
Type: ICBM
Length: not avatlable E.L
warhead yield of 20 kilotons, the mis- Diameter: 2.4 m (B ft O tn) Diameter: not available
srle has maintained a useful threat Weisht: 50000 kq (110,230 lb) Weight: not available
value against Soviet Far Eastern Range: 6960 km (4,325 miles) Range: 13800 km (8,575 miles)
targets whilst more capable systems Warhead: 2 megatons Warhead: 5 megatons
are deployed, A full scale test of the Launch facility: stlo Launch facility: srlo r
CSS-I was conducted in 1966 and in- Launch: hot type Launch: hot type L
cluded the use of a fully armed war- Propellant type/gnridance: liquid/ Propellant typeigmidance :

head, The number of CSS-ls operated rnertral liqurd/rnertral

by the Second Artillery offensive
strategic forces of the Chinese Peo-
ple's Liberation Army has remained at
a relatively constant 50 for some hme
The second missile to be depioyed
was the CSS-2 (or T2) IRBM, Achtev-
rng initial operational capabrlLty tn
1971, this singrle-staqe storable ltqutd-
propellant missile is fired from fuxed

above-ground launch pads WLth a
maxrmum range of around 320C km
(1,990 miles) it can engage tarqrets tn
Soviet Central and Eastern AsLa The
Iaunch facilitres can rf requtred be
relocated in a shofi trme The number
of CSS-2s deployed rs belteveci to be Ln
the region of 50 and the tyoe ls eqilLp'
ped with either a 2OO-kLlclon or l-
meqaton warhead Both i,:e N'lRBIv{
and IRBM forces a:e bel.:'.'ec -c :.a'. e
a reload capabLlrti'
The first Chrnese ICBM :le CSS-3
(or T3), was not deployed ur:Ll t.:e nLi-
1970s. Based Ln -r.:=:-
ground srlos, the rnerually gut i+: : .'. : -
stage storable liquLd-propellant CSS i
has an estimated range of 700i kn
(4.350 mrles). Only l0 CSS-ls .-.a-.'=
been deployed by eariy l9B3 The n:s-
sile rs thought to carry a 2-mega::i:
yield warhead.
The next ICBM model was the CSS-
X-4 (or T4), which was successfully
test-fued in I9B0 from the Shuangt-
chengzi missile test site in the GobL
desert. The CSS-X-4 also formed the
basrs of the marn Chrnese satelllte
Iaunch vehicle, the CSL-Z (or FBI). It is
believed that the further development
of this mrssile resulted the operational
CSS-S (or TS) ICBM. This is estimated
to have an operational range of
13800 km (8,575 miles) and to carry a
S-megaton warhead. By 1982 four CSS-
5 missiles had been deployed in silos
to threaten both the USSR and the USA.
The total lCBM force is not expected to
expand very much from tts present
numbers for the foreseeable future,

Type: MRBM
Lengrth: 22.8 m (74 ft 9 in)
Diameter: 1.75 m (5 ft 9 in)
Weisht: 22A00kg (48,500 lb)
Range: 1200 km (745 mrles)
Warhead: 20 kilotons
Launch facility: pad
Launch: hot type
Propellant tlpe/guidance: Iiquid/
inertial CSS-2 css-3 t-<<_v-z.
*: Lance Short Range Battlefield Tactical Support Missile System
The MGM-52 Lance battlefield sup- srnqle-ra;l :.::.": = ;:-: launcher has
port mrssile was first concerved of in also been ::'.'=.-:-= j lcr dehvery by
i962 when the Voughl Corporalion hehcopte: :r::.r:-r:.-ie rnto the battie Lance is a mobile
ba f tiefei d miss ile with a
was chosen as the prtme contractor for area.
the proeramme In 1963 the research The warnea: :: -::s for the Lance range of up to I 20 km (75
and development contract was placed rnclude the l'.-:.-, s:andard 212-kg miles), with a nuclear
and in March 1965 the first test firrng of (467-lDJ M2-- . - -. krloton option' warhead. This Lance of the
al yreld weap::, -:.: US ArmY n re- US Army is mounted on the
a trials mrssrle was conducted. After
prob)ems wirh lhe propulston sys'em placrng son= : :.. -' wt-h a verslon lightweight launcher
based on the
',','- -- '''reapon that has which can be carried by
and rocket engine had been over-
come, the first production models burlt-rn featul:: :,-: .'.'tng Lt to operate helicopter or dropped by
as a 7z-krlc:::, --','.' ,'ield enhanced- parachute. Lance js a,lso
were dehvered to the US Army in 1971
for sewrce trrals. The missiie was type' radration (rie...:::. ievlce that minl- fired from a tacked
classrfied as'standard in 1972, wlth the mizes blast d::.::e and restdual amphibious vehicle.
frrst trarning battalion belng actlvated radiatron bu: r.a::-:-,zes the output of
rn Aprrl of that year The mrsstle pro- ::,: ::rne of detonation
fast radratLon a:
vides nuclear flre support at the corps to rncrease pe:s::.:.:l casualhes ThLs
1evel. The US Army has elght batta- effect Ls of cc:.s-i::able use when
Iions in service at present. The Lance large concer:ra:-::.s of tanks and
has also replaced most of the Honest APCs are el;:;:d bY nuclear
John short-range msstles In servlce weapons. Ali t:: lr.:.TO nuclear war-
with various NATO armres. Current heads for Lance tt: :-:lc bY the Amer-
operators of the Lance are: USA (65 rcans undet a i:-.-kE-" arrangement
M752 launchers) UK (18 M572 laun- Israel does noI i:1.': ari' nucleat war-
chers), West Germany (24 M572 laun- heads for Lanc: c-t uses the M25i
chers), Netherlands (nine M572 laun- cluster munLtLo:'.'.'at:ead lnstead The
chers), Italy (nine M572 launchers), M25i rs also usec'c'; :re US ArmY and
Belgrum (nine M572 launchers) and the Netherlands lhls atr burst war
Israel (18 M572 launchers) headLs filled ! l€ C 43-kg (0.95-lb)
The Lance has a two-Part Rocket- sphere-shape: a:t,-personneYantl-
dyne concentrLc pre-packed storable matenel fraome:.:a:ton bomblets that
hqurd-propellant motor, the outer sec- can saturate a EZi-m (900 Yard) dra
ILon of which provldes the thrust during meter ctrcle lethal fragments.
the Lnrtral boost phase of the flrght "'.'::i use to Israel as a
This is of partlci-lar
when the mrsstle ts under the control of possible arr-ciefe:-ce suppresslon sys
the onboard srmplLfled inertral qur tem that does nct rtsk any personnel
dance system, once this system de casualtres ln Lts LSe
tects that the crulse veloclty has been Vought ls c.trrer-ltly developLng an
ot-orFpd. the innet propellanl secllon ls Improved Lance to meet the US ArmY s
rqfnlted to take over the propulslon un- Corps Support Si'stem programme re
iLl the gurdance unit commands it to qulrement. The ne',ri missrle wrll be
shut down so as to leave the mtsstle Ln compatrble wLth the current lance sys-
free flight lor the termlnal phase of tts tems and will be effecttve Into the
'ralectory. I he mrssrle ls sPln 1990s. Improved Lance wlll have three
stabllized rn flight by the expulsion of times the range. stx tlmes the accuracy
propellant qases throuqh canted vents and a 30 per cent Increase Ln payload
Ln the mrsstle body. The Lance system when compared to the present misstle
rs normally carrLed on two tracked de-
nvatrves of the 11113 APC famlly: the
M752 self-propelled erector-launcher Specification
'rehicle carries one ready-to-fire mts MGM-S2C Lance
srle and the MOBB loader-transporter Lengrth: 6. l7 m (20 ft 3 rn)
vehrcle carrles two reload mrssiles Diameter: 0.56 m (1 ft 10 in)
f mrnus therr flns) and a loadtnq hoLst. A Weight: 1530 kg (3 373 lb) with nuclear

ry iLn"r, John Short Range Tactical Battlefield Support Missile System

lhe MGR-I Honest John mtsstle first
:ntered service in rts MGR-IA form tn
1353 In 1960 the Lmproved MGR-IB
rntroduced, and thls has now been
rhased out of servtce with most NATO
:ountrres except Greece and TurkeY
-:l favour ofthe Lance sYstem Greece
:urrently employs three battaltons
-.'.'Lth 12
launchers whtlst Turkey has
battallons wlth a total of 18 iaun
:hers The only other country that stLll
d 'd

:. ,s Honest John tn acttve serulce LS
S.uth Korea, whrch has two battaltons J,
'.'.'1th a total of l2 launchers. Honest John
aiso served wtth the armies ol Belgtum,
lenmark, France, ItalY, JaPan the Now obsolete, HonestJohn is still
l.ietherlands, the UK, the USA and type. An alternattve cluster munlt-c:.
warhead has also been develoPed an: tound in some NATO armies, this
Getmany. France repiaced her example being used bYWest
Hcnest Johns wtth Pluton, whilst Den-
"Vest rs known to have been sold to SoJ.::-
Korea as recently as 1977 Both Greec: Germany. A clumsy artillery rocket, it
:. rrk and Japan dtd nor bo'her -o Inrro- is carried singly on a truckwhich has
:;ce any replacement system. and Thrkey have access to NATO nu;-
Iear warheads for Honest Jon:- to be aimed at the target, range
The Honesr iohn rs rndrvrdualJy laun-
ahhough these are tn American 'i:- being determined by the elevation of
:hed from a raLl on lts own truck laun- thelaunchrcil.
:1er-transporter. The Mach 1.5 mis- tody under a dual-key arrangemenl I:
:-le rs powered by a soltd'propellant rs probable that both countrles '/"-ll
phase out the mEslle durlng the mlai- CEP: 830 m (910 Yards)
:'otor and rs unqrurded beinq balhstr- Launch velucle: wheeled truck laun-
:aLly aimed at tts target The warhead lg8Os as a result ol the sYstems l:l-
:an erther be a 680-kg (1,500-lb) HE ot creasrng obsolescence. 72 kn (1 n.lesl cher-transporter
S/25-krloton nuclear ;7 kn (23 mtlesl Propellant type/gnridance: solld/none
= 580 kq i,500-lb)
Fershing Short Range Battlefield Support Missile System
- :--= :.',-: -stagf e solid-propellant MGM-
3i Pershing I missile was flrst de-
Large and cumbersome, theUS
Army Pershing nevertheless brought
:.:-,':i in 1962, and the entire system
anewlevelof rangeof upto740 km
:arned on four XM474 tracked (460 miles)when it entered sewice in
-.-=:.::les The flrst deployment to 1962. Pershingla, seen at launch, is
:-::pe occurred in 1964 when the soon to be replaced by Pershing II
:,ss-le served in the Quick Reaction which has super-accurate radar
-:-:l role for the Central European
-:.:arre of operations and as a gteneral
gruidance and thus doesnofneed
such a hig h-yield w ar head.
:.*:lear delivery system for f,eld
:::::Les. The Pershing was grouped
-::: battairons comprisrng a headquar-
.::s battery, a service battery and four
-::g batterres. The West German arr krloton earth-penetrator warhead of
::::e also adopted the Pershing i, re- the Pershing IL Thus targets which
:::'ilng a total of72 launchers. Because might have to be attacked by two or
:: :he poor mobility characteristics of three of the older missiles need only
::: tracked vehicles, ln 1966 a de- one Pershrng II, the earth penetrator
'.':icpment contract was placed with warhead being of particular import-
l.lartrn-Marietta to improve the system ance as before detonation it can pene-
::.C the mrssile's capabilities, trate the overlying 30 m (1000 ft) or so
In November 1967 production ofsoil and concrete that conceal Soviet
s:arted of the improved Pershing Ia to rear zone command, control and com-
::place the Pershing I in both the US munications facilities. The older Per-
irny and West German air force, The shing Ia will stay in the West German
ilst operational Pershing Ia was de- air force's inventory for some time to
ployed in 1969. The most obvious im- come, the nuclear warheads for these
provement was the replacement of the being held under a dual-key aqree-
XM474 tracked vehicles by wheeled ment,
'.'ehrcles derived from the M656 S{on
:ruck chassis. This grreatly enhanced Specification
:he system's mobility over paved roads MGM-3IA Pershing Ia
and across country. It also allowed the Lengrth: 10,6 m (34 ft 972 in)
'.varhead to be carrred with the mrssile Diameter: L0 m (3 ft 37r tn)
rather than on its own vehrcle as had Weight:4600 ks (10, 141 ]b)
been the case with the Pershing L The Warhead weight: about 748 kq (1,650
system's firing unit now consisted of an lb)
aniculated truck and trailer combina- Warhead types: 60-kiloton nucleat,
tion that served as the erector- 400-kiloton nuclear and training
Iauncher, a transpofier for the pro- Minimum range: 161 km (100 miles)
:ffamme tester and generator units, a Maximum range: 740 km (460 miles)
firing battery control centre vehicle CEP: 365 m (400 yards)
and a radio terminal set vehicle with an taunch vehicle: wheeled M656 truck
A series of subse-
Lnflatable aerial, and trailer combination
quent system improvements has Propellant type/gnridance: solid/
allowed the reaction time to be re- inertial
duced still further, and the rntroduction
of an automatic reference system and
sequential launch adapter in 1976-7
allows the Pershing unit commander to
fire up to three missiles from a single
control statlon at previously unsur-
veyed launch sites, The current US
Army inventory of Pershrng systems is
164 launchers, of which l0B are in
Westem Europe, The West Germans
replaced their Pershing I systems on a
one-for-one basrs by the Pershinq Ia.
In 1978 the advanced development
proe[amme of the Pershing II system
was successfully completed, Thrs mis-
srle, which has a range of more than
1490 kn (925 miles), is a modular mod-
ernization of the Pershing Ia with a con-
srderably enhanced accuracy and
range. The Pershing II is expected to
achieve an initial operational capabil-
rty date of l9B4 to replace the Pershing
la in Europe and then presumably in
the continental United States, The
European deployment is to improve
NATO's intermediate-range theatre
ruclear weapons stockpile and is a
dlrect response to the Russran deploy- The replacement of
ment of the SS-20 IRBM system. Pershing I withPershing II
The Pershing IIs terminal gn-ridance has greatmilitary and
system utilizes an all-weather radar pol itic al s ignifi c ance. With
:orrelation unit in its ceramic nose its maximum range of
Jone that compares the radar returns 2500 km (1,550 miles), the
rvrth a pre-recorded onboard radar highly - ac cur ate e ar th -
proflle of the target, This RADAG sys- penetrator warhead as a
:em allows CEP values of beftveen 12 payload, the mr'ssiJe can
and 36 m (40 and 120 ft) to be achieved. destroy anything it is fired
In turn this allows the higher yield 60- at, inclu ding s pecially -
and 4OO-krloton au-burst versions of hardened targefs. Eased jn
:ne W50 warhead of the Pershing Ia to Germany, the tange of
be replaced by the WBS 20O-kiloton targrets rncludes M os cow.
arr-burst warhead and the WB6 20-


G fi,"n II Heavy ICBM Missile System
!:rlt by Martin Manetta, the LGM-2SC thermonuclear warhead, elaborate
Titan II rs an rmproved verston oi the penetratron aLds and an onboard com-
::rlier HGM-254 Titan I ICBM De puter wrth a three-target selectLon
clcved orLgrnally rn i962 the mrssrle rs capabLhty The two-stage mrssrle has a
ine last survrvor of the Amencan first- maxrmum burn out speed ol more than
jeneratlon hqurd propellant missiles 24000kn/h (14900 mph) and a max-
A toial of 54 of the mrssrles was de- lmum range tn excess of 15000km j
ployed in sLx nLne-missrle squadrons (9 325 mrles). The maxrmum cerhng
However. rn l97B and 1980 two mrssrles attarned dunng Lts flrght rs around
were destroyed rn Broken Arrow l50O km (930 miles) The propulsron
classrflcation nuclear accLdents that system comprlses two Aero;et LRBT-
occurred in therr srlos. These have not Aj 5 gtmballed rocket motors each
been replaced. ln l9B1 lt was tenta- rated at 97975 kq (216,000-lb) thrust on
trvely announced that the remarnrng 52 the first stage and an Aerolet LR91-
missLles were to be progressLvely
wrthdrawn between l9B3 and 1987 due
to thelr age anci dechnrng mrLrtary
AHS rocket motor rated at 45360 kq
(100 000-1b)
thrust for the second /u
eflectrveness and rn order to make s
way for the new MX mrssrle However i-
the MX basrng problems have resulted Specification A
tn thLs rdea berng grven a lower prror- LGM-2SC Titan II I
rty for the present By mLd 1983 only 43 314m (l03ft 0rn)
Trtan IIs wrll be tn service. ln early Diameter: 35 m (10 lt 0 rn) .R
l9B0 Lt was learnt that the Trtan il force
was havrng rts AC/IBM inertrai gur
Weight: 149690 kq (330 000 lb)
Warhead: srngle 9 megaton thermo rF

dance systems updated to remaLn

effectLve throughout the mrssrles re-
nuclear RV
Range: 15000 km (9 325 mrles) Titanwas developed by Martin as the
maLnrng hfetrme. The work was com- CEP: 1300 m (1,420 yards) fir st tand e m two- s tage I C B M, the R
pleted 1n 198l As the heavrest Amer- Launch facility: hardened srlo
Lcan ICBM deployed, the Trtan rs fitted Launch: hot type
photograph showing a test launch c
from Cape Canaveral of a Titan I.
with a General Electrrc Mk 6 re-entry Propellant type/grLridance: lLqutd/ From this was developed the larger E
vehrcle carryrng a 9-meqaton W53 ineriial Titan II, shown in the profile.

E iWCnn-I 18 (MX) Peacekeeper Heavy ICBM Missile System _- ffi ffi aa

SerLous development of the Martin-
Marietta MX mLssrle began Ln 1974
under Ptesrdont Foro s aorilntsttdl.on
and has progressed well despLte all
the problems assocrated wrth rts bas
tng The first of 20 test rounds are due
lor hrrnqi Ln 1983 and the first produc
tron rounds wrll be operatronally de-
ployed rn the late I 9BOs. The four-staqe
sohd propellant mrssrle has been de- o!
slgned to have consrderably rmproved a
accuracy range and payload features
when compared wrth current ICBMs. iA
The mrssrle rs encased at the tlme of lts t
assembly rn a protective launch canrs-
ter compatrble wlth a vanety of basLng IR
optlons. When the mrssrle rs fired a
soLrd-propellant Lrnlt rn the base of the F
canlster rs lgnrted to elect the mLssLle Ln
a cold launch clear ol the protectrve r0
casLng The flrst-stage propulsron
motor system ls then fired automatrcai .R
ly once the mrssrle rs some 24-30 m
(80-100ft) clear A protectrve shroud
over the nose assembly and a 6 mm iE
(% rn) thick rubber-hke skrn over the
missrle's surface protects lt fuom dust
and debrrs.
The flrst stage ts powered by
Throkol rockets and burns out at an
altrtude about 24385 m (BO,O00 ft) The
second stage Aerolet propulsron unit
then takes
about 85345
over Thts stage burns
out at
(280,000 ft), whereupon
the final sohd propellant Hercules
Aerospace motor Lgnltes The nose
shroud rs then lettlsoned at around 97-
km (60-mrle) altrtude to uncover the
MIRV payload. Frnal thrrd stage burn
out occurs around I 16 km (72 mrle)
altrtude when the luel load has been
totally exhausted Dunnq all three po-
wered flrght stages the gurdance sys

The first completely assembled

Peace keeper I C BM photogr ap hed
on slafic fesf jn 1 98 2. Former ly
known only as MX (missile X), the
Peacekeeper ICBM has been
planned for over I 2 years. I t weighs
95 siort tons al lift- of{, compared MX Peacekeeper Titan II
with 38 for Minuteman III.
MGM-118 Peacekeeper Heavy ICBM Missile System (continued)
Surface-to-Surface Mis s -e s
::m has constantly modrfied the flrght systems, and the Avco re-entry pack- repeated unttl all l0 MIRVs ha'.': :==:. Specficat:or.
riath so lhat ali the solLd fuel aboard rs age of 10 MIRVs wtth penetratlon ards launched The ,ndrv,crual := MCM- I ic;. Fea::.::=:=:
::nsumed, thrs meanrnq that no prop- The rocket motor rs used to target the entry vehlcle most favoured as :lr: ).1-.- m h
!!119rrr. _
rlsron cut-olf system ts requtred on the MIRVs. Once the course of the drs payload ts rhe Ctrrtrtd. Flr t-:. l.:,. Diamete: :: .. . -:
:hrrd sraqe. pensrnq bus ts set a warhead rs re- 12 A (1 Bi3 m/6 ft I I ,,.: Ln lonc -:.i ::--..,:
Weight: ,: -
The fourth-staqe Rockwell Interna leased and the RS-34 backs away The 0.542 n/I ft 9 . rn base otameler t.: Walheac ' ...
:ronai RS-34 assembly rs then released newly released MiRV ls then spln ryrnq a W78 3J5-krloron vtelo .'. ,:. D^--^
r\ilruE -: .

Thrs carries a post-boost lrqurd- stabrlized by the two smali rockets lt nead Another possrorlrV ts rne r.a,', CEP:-- :
cropellant propulsron motor wrth mul- carnes As soon as the warhead ts well RV berng developed as part of the Lar.mch iac :-' :t :: : .
:.ple burn capabllrty, the Northrop clear of the RS-34 the moror re rgnrtes Advanced Balhsttc Re-entrv Vehrcle Launch: ,-.: j.-
rdvanced rnertrai reference sphere and the assembly changes course to (ABRV) programme. The MX rs nov.. Propellar.: r.,-r€ :--:r- ::
-rurdance system attltude-reference anqaqe lhe naxt target. The process rs desrgnated MGM llBA Peacekeeper -tl:I:-n-

=::. : , :. r. :
rxe]a:::. 'a

E iitinuteman Lightweight ICBM Missile System three -::' -:

Range: -:l.l:
: ::

: -:

The Minuteman famrly of ICBMs com- have the Mk 12 re-entry vehrcle con Specification mrles) ,l:.:':. j -
crrsed four variants, of whrch oniy the tarnrng three W62 165-kLloton yreld LGM-30F Minuteman II and LGM-3OG mries)
Minuteman II and Minuteman III re- warheads wrth chaff and decoy Minuteman III :, ::
CEP: LCI'.1-:,:
marn in service. The ongrnai LGM-30A penetration atds. Length: lB 20 m (59 lt B/: in) LGM-3CCi:-:.:: -::
Minuteman I equrpped one Strategrc On the remarnrng 300 mrssrles and Diameter: LGM-3OF I 83 m (6 fr 0 rn); ^fca^^ :
Arr Command mnsrle wrng rn 1963. An presumably on the further 50 mrssrles LGM-30G I BS m (6 ft 0% rn) Launch facility: :.:tt: --
lmproved LGM-308 Minuteman I wlth that wrll replace 50 Mrnuteman IIs by weight: LGM-3OF 31750 kq (70,000 lb) Launch: hc: :-.':=
rncreased range and of longer length the mid-l98Os, the Mk l2A re-entry LGM 30G 34500 kq (76,0s8 lb) Propellant type qfuaa:. :.
'rias then brouqtht rnto servlce wrth the vehtcle rs fitted. Thls rs about 16 kg Warhead type: LGM-3OF sinqle 1 2- rnertral
next four wrngs formed, whtlst the sxth (35 lb) heavier than the Mk l2 but as a
was equrpped Ln i966 with the LGM- result of the minlaturizatron of certarn
30F Minuteman II. Both the Minuteman componenls remalns tdenttcal In stze.
ll and the LGM-3OG Minuteman III, rn- It is able to carry three W7B 335-kLloton
troduced rn 1970 then replaced the yteld warheads wtth shghtly better
two Mlnuteman I variants. The sLx de- CEP capabrlrty The assocrated
ployed strategrc mrssrle wrngs are cur- penetratlon aids also remarn Con
rently the 34lst at Malmstrom, Monta srderable effort Ls betng cievotecl to
na wrth 150 MMII and 50 MMIII; the sustain lhe Minuteman forees oper-
44th at Ellsworth, South Dakota wlth ational capabrlrtres and survrvabLLrty
150 MMII the 9lst at Minot, North prospects durrng any nuclear-
Dakota, wrth I50 MMIII the 35lst at exchange scenano
Whrteman, Mrssourr, wrth 150 MMIIT
the 9Oth at F.E Warren, Wyomrnq, Minutemanlllwas
wLth 200 MMIII; and the 32lst at Grand theultimate
Forks North Dakota, wrth 150 MMIII. developmentof the
The wrngs are drspersed over wrde neatMinuteman
qeographrcal areas and are organrzed developedin 1958-60
tn squadrons offive flrghts each wLth 10 as the first solid-
hardened mrssLle srlos and an under- propellant(CBM.
ground launch control centre If the Among its new
control centre rs rncapacitated for any features were
reason iaunch controi rs passed erther multiple
to one of two control centres wrthtn the independently
squadron that can also serve as a targeted warheads
squadron control centre or, in the case (up to three 335-
of some 200 or so mrssiies, to a specral- kiloton units) and a
1y configured Strateglc Arr Command Command Buffer U
aLrborne command post arrcraft that System for rapid
.arrres an airborne launch control and retargeting. A total of --r
retargeting system. 550 of this version 1A
The three-stage solid propellant was put into silos. ;r
LGM-3OF Mtnuteman II rs essentrally "i^
an upgraded Minuteman I wrth rn-

:reased range and a more sophLstr

rated gurdance system The latter has ln
rn eight target selectlon capabrlrty Ir
;Lvrng increased accuracy and a srng l-

le Mk 11G thermonuclear RV with Tra- I

:cr Mk lA chaff-dispenser penetratron t--

ards. Severai of the Mrnuteman IIs are
spectally configured to carry com
:nunrcahons equlpment rnstead of a
-.','arhead to act as Emerqency Rocket
3ommunicatrons Systems for the back-
lp role of crrsts communlcatlon to sur-
..ving nuclear slnke torces ln a post-
ruclear exchanqe envlronment.
The Lmprovements of the LGM-3OG
i+ I
N,fLnuteman lll over rts predecessor !
rre confined marnly to the third stage i
:nd the warhead re-entry system. The j

narn feature ts the rntroductron of .;

:hree MIRVs as the payload. The post- *l
boost bus has been frtted wrth a small I
BeLl Aerosystem hquid-propellant I
:ocket motor, four smaller roll rockets I
-nd sLx sirghtly iarger pitch stabrlizer I
'ets All of these are under the com- t
nand of the onboard Rockwell Inter-
:atLonal rnertral gn-udance system. Cur-
rently 250 of the Minuteman III force
Fr. -E-:
: American Ground-Launched Cruise Missile System
a - lv .Iulse mts-
West are greater than in the Warsaw selective or general nuclear release system, The major advantage of the
: . . ..-. :::..1: :.:.=.'gen RUSStan, bUt Pact powers, where the population as options against either flxed targets GLCM is its abrlrty to fly most of the
::-:-:= :::::::rnbrned efforts of a whole are not mobile and the area (such as lines of communication, Iogis- mission at low altitude to avord radar
' ::':r- ;::.:s,ars and the Western available for concealing mobile longr- tical stores dumps, arrfields and com- detection and air defence systems, Its
- - I r ::.: :::r- 3r,jise today means a range missiles far grreater, mand and control facihtres) or station- major disadvantaqe is its slow speed
-: ::.:.. ..:.: -.1:'.'.-mtsslle whtch the The other big question mark hangr- ary tactrcal targets such as troop stag- (Mach 0,7), which makes for long mrs-
ing over such slow-flying missiles is ing and assembly areas. sion times to extreme-range targets.
their ability to penetrate hostile air- The GLCM is deployed in flring un- Thus if the Russians field enough high-
space. In I944 southern Engrland rapid- its of 16 missiles carried on four TELs performance low-level detection and
ly got the upper hand over very similar with two mobile LCCs in attendance, air defence-missile systems, and air-
missiles which were fired in much lar- The unit is in peace located in a har- craft with look-down radars, then the
ger numbers (several thousands) us- dened concrete shelter at rts home credibllity of the cruse missile in rts
ing piston-engrne flghters and ordin- base, but will deploy to pre-suweyed present form becomes questionable
ary anti-aircraft gnrns, Modern radars, flrrng positions offering gTood natural The Americans are actively looking at
computers, jet rnterceptors and preci- concealment at distances of about the incorporation of 'stealth' anti-radar
sion missile combine to form a defence 160 km (1OO miles) from the base rf hos- detection technology into its next
network that a 805 kmih (500-mph) tilities seem imminent. Escorts from cruise-missile generation to mitigate
missile would certainly find very dif- the host natron's armed forces will thrs farling.
ficult to prerce. accompany the unit to provide security
The land-based ground-launched during the dispersal operation and to
cruise missile (GLCM) wrll be oper- provide gnound defence at the launch
ated by the United States Arr Force site. Both the TEL and the LCC have
(USAF) and be deployed in five West good cross-country capabilitres. To
European countries: Belgium (48 fire a mssrle the launcher-container is
rounds), Italy (1 12 rounds), the Nether- flrst elevated and then a solid-
lands (48 rounds), the UK (160 rounds) propellant booster on the missile is
and West Germany (86 rounds) Total ignited to boost it to its cruise speed.
USAF procurement rs intended to be Once this has been attained the boos-
560 BGM-I09G missrles, 137 four-round ter is jettisoned, the missile wings and
wheeled transporter-erector- flns unfold, the engrne inlet is de-
launcher (TEL) vehrcles and 79 ployed and the turbofan engine
wheeled launch control centre (LCC) ignited in order to sustain flight. Gui-
vehicles. The BGM-109G is a member dance throughout the mission is by an
of the General Dynamics BMG-I09 inertral navigation gnridance system
Tomahawk cruise-missile family and Ls updated by a terrain contour matchrng
intended to be the major compolent of (Tercom) unrt at periodic intervals,
the NATO theatre nuclear force mod- The GLCM carries a 123-kq (2701b)
ernization programme to counter the WB4 nuclear warhead with a yield of
Russian deployment of the SS-20 IRBM 200 kilotons to a maxrmum range of
system, The other component ls the 2800 km (1,740 miles). The CEP value
Pershing 1l surface{o-surface mrsstle over that range is estimated to be a
Due for deployment in December phenomenal 18.3 m (60 ft), and is
1983, the GLCM can be used for both due to the inertiaVTercom guidance


The basicGLCM combat unit

comprises 1 6 missiles loaded on tour
TELs ( tr ansporter/ etectorl launcher s )
and twoLCCs (launch control
centres) for command and control.

Surface-to-Surface M: s s.. : s

- ,*-r

A dramatic launch picture of a GLCM

during a test firing (probably at
White Sands Missile Range, New
M e xico). The mrssr/e rs p opped from
its tube by a short-burn rocket,
giving it enough energy to keep
coasting upwards as it unfolds its
wings, tail and engine inlet, and fires
up the small turbojet onwhich it

BGM-109G Tomahawk
Lengrth: 6.4 m (21 ft 0 rn)
Diameter: 0.53 m(l ft Belro rn)
Weight: 1200 ks
(2 645 lb)
Warhead weight: 123 kq (270 lb)
Warhead type: 200 krloton nuclear, t
and trarnrng
Minimum range: not avarlable t
Maximum range: 27BO km (l 725 mrles)
CEP: 18 3 m (60 ft)
Launch vehicle: wheeleci transporter-
arector launcher
Propellant type/gnridance: sold boos-
:er plus turbofan marn engrne/Lnertral
lr ',vLth Tercom updatLng

Here the TEL is shown parked in the

firingmodewith the quad missile
box elevated. The LCC seen below
contains all systems needed {or a
two-man crew to target and fire.
-...f$' :
;-;:r' r i!

ffir'p*:;'*f trH# :.+.
Ground-lcrunched Crube in Action
2 After launch Cruise flies 3 The r:nboard comp!':'
high in f riendly airspace to calculates the distarce '.'
save fuel. and direction, keeprno
preclse track of the m s. :
prog ress.

4 As it approaches e-=^
tetritory it drops to ,o\.. :.
and compares the arc
prolile below wrth thar ,' .
'routes'it has stored . -:
memory, making nece::.
correction to fly onto:--.
prescribed route

-1'.a+)i;. I -7
o\\+'* -

participatlng in what so far have been mere itri,l

manoeuvres. Soon the BGM-109G cruise mis-
Onthemove siles will also be seen trundling along roads in away, whilst the vehicle changes itself from a
Western Europe, but as far as possibie they will tightly packed cylinder into a smali aeroplane.
keep out of sight by moving at mght, because it The Atlantic Research or CSD rocket boost
is vital to keep secret the locatlons selected as motor imparts quite gentle thr-ust and accelera-
their actual fi.ring positions. tion, and throughout the flight the environment
Every missile with self-contained guidance is no more severe than in a modern fighter.
has to know its exact position at the start of its Like any air-breathing aircraft, it pays to fly
flight In the case of BGM-109G each launch high in order to reduce fuel consumption, and
location is pre-suweyed, so that the exact co- for maximum range the high-level portion of
ordinates can be prepared rn advance and the mission is extended as far as possibie. The
inserted into the missile gmidance system, The smalj Williams FI07 turbofan, of 272-kg (600-lb)
latter is of an unusual type which reiies crucial- sea-level thrust, burns kerosene at about one-
ly upon the undulations in the ground over tenth the rate that an equivalent rocket would
which the missile flies, and thus the missile has eat up its fuel, so despite the modest size of the
to know not only its launch position in the usual tankage the missile can fly up to 92872 lar]
geographrcal sense but also its exact height (1,785 miles) This range is reduced if most of
above sea level. the trip has to be made at low level.
One has oniy to draw a line less than 24i5 km
l0-metre accuracy (1500 mlles) long from the likely iaunch re-
As the missile climbs away it contains a com- gions to see that usually the first several hun-
puter in whose memory are stored all the dred miles can be flown with maximum fuel
necessary details of its launch position in three economy at high altitude through friendly or
dimensions, the flight trajectory to be followed neutral airspace. Over this section the whole
to the target, and the precise location of the method of gmidance is the self-contatned iner-
target. As far as possible only pre-suweyed tiai system, a Litton Industries P-1000 package
launch sites would be used, but it is essential to containrng super-sensitive gryros and accelero-
have the capability of switching to a different meters which sense the exact motion of the
launch site (for example, if it is beiieved the mrssile and continuously compute the output in
original location has become lcrown to the terms of changed latitude and longrtr:de from
enemy), and from 1987 the Rockwell Collins the point of launch. No radio srgnal is emitted,
Navstar global satellite-based positioning sys- so the misslle gives no warning of its approach,
tem will enable launch data to be entered into and though at an altitude of some I2190m
the misslie memory within seconds of arriving (40,000 ft) the missile can be seen by radars
at a fresh site. Navstar data are accurate to over 402 km (250 miies) away, it is very small
within about I0 m (33 ft), which rs adeguate for and specrally designed so that its appearance
this missile; the numbers entered diQritaily into as seen on hostile radars (technicaily known as
the memory include latitude, longitude, altt- its 'radar cross-section') is minimal. it is vital
!-:'CC ;s here seen on the march as itwould be tude, velocity within 0,01 m (4 in) per second that the cruise missile should as far as possible
:: =:',- :;:ne of crisis. {ollowing a known route as (zero before launch, relative to the Earth's sur- remain undetected by hostile radars, and its
:-:: - ,cossrb.le screenedfrom aerial or satellite
:::-e.;a!on predetermined firing location.
to a face) and time within a few nanoseconds small size and careful shaping combine to
)i:'-::::gltould be left at the only known location, (thousandths of a milllonth of a second). make it very elusive.
:.: e -*a ce dn're base. ?ft us a pre' e m p t ive nucleat After launch the computer automatically The accuracy ofan inertial system grradually
sire'n-culC have little effect. ticks away the metres and seconds on climb- falls away as time passes. A fast ballistic misstle
Surface-to-Surface Miss I es

6 (l .itti'rt.trti r,I il '

I lllj'ri i rir'-( -r!f,, l, r r'.: rr1
rlril i :;i i i( .rt, ililtr'
-tiri rtr Vtlt,l rt ,,1 ;1[r 1,.. I J
t|lJrl, li, ,i'hill I :,,'it.t r/

t;l|'r tl I rrtt,tr ':1,,'y' 1, 1,1,


--l .t
:ft=-=- -$..--
swooped down almost to ground level, Normal- The missrle now proceeds :: :::.i---. . -
ly it holds a height of about 15 m (50 ft), but target, knowrng exactly \\'h-r= ..
radar, opttcal and IR sen-:--r-r '-:.:. .:.:. . -

can cover rntercontinental ranges rn 30 crossrng hrlls it will rise to about twrce this
minutes, but the slow cruise mrssrle needs heighi above the ground, and the'terrain ciear- turns the picture actudlly s+a:. .: - : .. . .: :
several times as long to fly its much shorter ance crossrng mountains may have to be in- bers and compares them .'.-:: .-.. .- . .- .
distance, and after an hour or two the cumula- creased ro IOO m (330 ft) Thus, the Tercom the TCU. The computer fina,.-,'s :=: j ' : . :
tive effect of the various errors in the rnerttal system s measurements of the height above the sile to merge the lwo se-s :- :. .-.: - -
measurements begins to be signrficant. i ylpr- ground have to be subtracted from the known Thus, as the mrssrle piLnges r ''.

cally, a modern inertial system might be 50C m herght ot the mrssrle Lfrom arr pressure or lner- lalget. ItS aCCuIaCy tS CC -: -.-- : ..:.
(l 640 ft) oif course after an hour, or after two tial measurements) to get the true undulations 'looking' at the Larger, and 'es-: r.: . : : . . - .

hours in the case of a very good system. There rn the Earth's surface. the final CfP (crrcllar eiror ir- i:.'.-
are ways of checking on the missrle's posrtron very to be worse '.:.::. .. : ...
as it flies across the land, and thus of updatrng
Finaltargeting Thrs rs an unprecedenteci a::-:'.:'. r -:-

the inertral navrgation system to maintarn its When the missile gets near rts target rt flrght of some 2800km (L ?=,:-,,=. .i. . :
accuracy. The BGM-109G rs equrpped wrth an switches on yet a thrrd guidance mode, the lhree hours lt has so v.orr::c '--.: .- -, , ',

amazing new back-up system developed by most accurate of all. The TCU (Termrnal Corre- the'antr-crurse' campalgn rS'.-,i.1 rt:: - : ...
McDonnell Douglas and called Tercom (Ter- lator Unit) contarns further sets of mrlhons of
raln comparrson, or more accurately, TERrain numbers whrch rn fact are a digital (numerical)
COntour Matchrng). Technically known as representation of a detarled picture of the
DPW 23 this small package stores rn irs mem target. The picture shows the target as it would
cry millions of figures which represent the suc- be seen by the approaching missile, using va-
cessive heights of the ground over which the rrous vrsible and IR (rnfra-red) wavelengths.
missile will fly, These measurements combine
to form an exact profile of the Earth's surface,
each of whrch is unique to a particuiar flrght
cver a particular route, DPW-23 stores perhaps
25 such profrles. No matter how the inertia]
guidance has behaved, rt will make landfall on
to one of the 25 routes,
Terrain clearance
As soon as DPW-23 is switched on, a super-
accurate radar altimeter begins measuring the
distance vertically down to the ground, and the
successive readings qulckly estabhsh which
route the missile is on. The on-board computer
:hen adjusts the flrght path shghtly unttl the
missile is exactly on course, and updates the
inertial system. The Tercom system keeps
neasuring the herght oi the terrain below at
rarefully spaced time intervals and thus keeps
lpdating the guidance and holdtng the exact
lesired route, What makes the process more
:omplicated is that, to try io avoid detection by
enemy radars, the missile has already
I SS- l 'Scud'/SS-X-23 Short Range Ballistic Missile Systems
. One of the earliest Soviet
SS- - Sc:d' ;-^.1ei mLsstles are
publicity photograPhs was this
:::- :: -:::::-::al taCtrCal-level
- i:..: -:'':'::.: :-.'::e SsVlets The Ori- lcene showing four'Scud-A' m jssi/es

- -. --,,-,; : -,,-:cl 'Scud-A'was

in about 1 9 62. C arried on a very
.-:- :-,:---.'-1 .:. -lll Carrred on a heaw IS-3 tank chassis, 'Scud-A'was
' one of the largestbattlefield mobile
': .:-;.:,. .,--=
-- -S---- :.3a',ry tank chassis
: ..'.- -_r::ed to a L3O-km weapons with a length of I I '25 m/
37 fl and launch weight of 4400 kg
:.-:-...= :-:-;=',','-::, a 4o-kLloton nuc- (9700 Ib). Range is uP to I 30 km (8 I
.-.. =::=.j=:.:spaf ioad In 1965the
-' :.- - .:t ::-,-<1 .11 043-lb)'Scud-B' miles).
- ---..:: :-:=i :il an etght-wheeled
I ..:.-':;: =:::::r-launch vehlcle for
::=--=: ::-::,,-:-; By 1970 the'Scud-B'
- ..'.:- =j :::ee-quarters of the 300
-: :--:::'.=..-:-::.:rs deployed. Around
.:.= .::-ier ranqe 'Scud-C'was
..-. -=:'.-'.'- : 'rLs belng an improve-
-:-- '.':: ::: Scud-B in terms of
: =..::.. :::.:tency but at the ex-
.= :- .','.':rse CEP at Iong ranges. Below : MAZ- 5 43 type vehicles have
: : . - .i: 520 or so 'Scud' iaun-
been used forseveral types of large
-:. :=:-:';ed ln the Sovlet army Soviet tactical missile, and here this
:--- -:::.'-:.; :re Scud-B' or 'Scud-C'
vehicie rs seen a s the TEL
(tr ansporter/ erectorl launcher) in the
firing position.


The replacement for 'Scuc Ls desLqt' Scud-C. Limited servlce lntroductton Warhead type: 40-l l0O-kiloton nuclear
nated SS-X-23 by NATO Thrs mLsstle was in l9B0 and by 1982 only 10 SS-X- HE, chemtcal and training
has much improved reactton t:mes 23s had been deployed. The number Minimum range: BO km (50 miles)
over the 'Scud' and rs much mole accu- of 'Scud-B' and Scud-C' misstles in ser- Maximum range: lB0 km (l12 mtles)
rate, with a CEP of 280 m (305 -vards) at vrce then was 550. with nuciear warhead, and 280 km ( I 74
range of 440 km (273 mLles) compared mrles) with HE or chemtcal warhead
with 930 m (1,015 yards) for the Scud- Specification CEP:930 m (1 015 yards) at 180 km (1 12
B' at a range of 180 km ( I l2 mLles) and SS-I'Scud-B' miles), reducing with further range
1100 m (1,205 yards) for the Scud-C at Lengrth: 11.4 m (37 ft 4% in) Launch vehicle: wheeied MAZ-537
450 km (280 mrles) The warhead yreld Diameter: 0 84 m (2 ft 9 in) Propellant type/guidance: liqurd/iner-
is 200 krlotons compared wLth the 40/ weisht: 6370 kq (14,043 lb) tral
lOO-kiloton yields of the Scud-B and Warhead weight: 1000 kq (2,205 lb)

I $'i-f Z 'scaleboard'/SS-22 Short Range Ballistic Missile Systems

me by the SS-22 started rn 1977, 60 of
these newer systems berng deployed
by 1982. The solid-propellant SS-22 has i'
improved ranqe, reactLon tlme and
accuracy compared wlth the
'scaleboard' A range of BB0 km (547
miles) with a CEP of 320 m (350 yards)
whilst carrying a 550 krloton warhead
has been indtcated The nuclear war-
heads for any Sovlet battlefleld or rear-
area delivery system are stored at a
separate sites heavilY guarded bY
KGB rather than by army units. The
warheads are moved before use in
securely gnrarded vehicle convoys or
by a transport helicopter with a close
eicort of gunshrp helicoPters and
fighter atrcraft as top cover. Usually
only one warhead is asstgned to each
of the targets on the war Plan. SS- I 2 is a powerful battlefield mobile
weapon with a range of 800 I<m (500
miles). It is gradually being replaced
Specification by the SS-22, which has imProved
SS- 12 'Scaleboard' range and accuracy.
Lensrth: 1l 25 m (36 ft 11 in)
Diameter: 1.05 m (3 ft 5 /r ln)
Weisht: BB00 kq (19,400 1b)
Warhead weight: 1250 kg (2,756 lb)
Warhead type: 800-krloton nuclear
Minimum iansel.220 km (138 mrles)
Maximum range: 800 km (497 miles)
CEP:.480 m (525 Yards)
Launch vehicle: wheeled MAZ-537
Propellant tYPe/guidance: solid/
I FnOC senes SS-21 Tactical Surface-to-Surface Missile Systems
;-^--.- -: ------ l: ,,:
-. :::=:.::''=-,-.=: ::::--- : -' :::::: :: :---:-I -:-:::-lr-
' __- - '
,. '::'---=i r,-.]s:-.t -:'.'-:':::.: ::.I ::: l-','---::.::=a: -:a l]-as: I:a::-: i: ::
J-._:t ::1.., _-::.__: -, .--:
==a- ---:^^-
'. j.:--n Luna Fttstdeplc-,'r,:-:.
-::. -:.+ Ir;:. -:. ::.e Suli ,4'=r .:;: :.=-. : ==:.
: : I I ras undergone an exiensrve de- using the FROG-7 as a lcrq-rai-;e
'=- :r:.ent programme that has re- bombardment sys-em rlrl+'::
. --:: i in seven versrons of the mrssile, aqarnst Iranran citres immedrately be- '/.he:i+: -:i.-: i=:<: '.:.-..:_= :.::'
: : . ,'.':. by the NATO desLgnatrons hrnd the battle zone. A hst of current deploTed r. .: .l '.:.+ j-: - :.i.. l: .'. :
:: :3-1 to FROG-7 Of these the track- FROG operators rs as follows: USSR 'o only 30 sysren c t .:12 T.-.: :S . .-.
'.':rLcie-mounted FROG-l to FROG-
-= -
=: (680 FROG-3/7), Bulsaria (36 FROG-7) a gurded srngle-sta7e scl.c.r:-':=-.=:.:
i -:: considered obsolescent, East Germany (24 FROG-7), Czechos- misstle with rmproved reac:ton ltr-€
---:.:ugh the FROG-3 is still used in Iovakia (40 FROG-3/7), Hungary (24 and rncreased range (120 km 75 mtles
'::.::ng units and held in the Soviets FROG-7), Poland (52 FROG-3/7), compared wrth the FROGs 70km43
:-::.v'e war stocks The FROG-6 rs a Romania (30 FROC-3/7), Yugoslavra mrles). Warhead types beheved to be Maximum ranqe: ,, :-:,-. -:
:.-:-:perational trainingr round, and
-:.= FROG-? is the current system. In-
(16 FROG-7), Esypt (i2 FROG-7), Iraq associated with the mrssLle rnclude CEP: r:i -, - :: -: - -:-:
(24 FROG-7), Kuwait (12 FROG-7), nuclear, chemical fuel-aLr explosrve pendr:; :l:a:,1=
-::jiced lnto servlce rn 1965, the Libya (48 FROG-7), Syria (24 FROG-7), and high explosive payloads Max- Launch vehrcle: '.' :.=-.= :
Propellant tpe gnroa-r.:.
: :.aG-7 is carrred on a ZIL-135 South Yemen (12 FROG-7), North imum warhead yield has dropped to :
'''.--:e1ed erectorlauncher vehicle and Korea (54 FROG-5/7) and Cuba (50 100 kilotons because ol the rmprove-
-. -:.rnd at drvisional level in both the FROG-4), ment rn the CEP to 280 m (3OS yards)
!:-.'-et and Warsaw Pact armies. Each FROG-7 is a srngle-stage sprn- from the FROG s maxrmum-range
-.-,=,k stabilzed solid-propellant ungmided
drvrsron and motorized rifle divr 700 m (765 yards). The alternate nuc-
-.,:: has a FROG battalion with a head- rocket that uses speed brakes as rts lear warhead is of 10-krloton yreld. The
l-rners battery and two firinef batter- main inflrght control system. The rock- minrmum range is said to be 14 km,
.=.- (each equrpped wrth two FROGs et, werghing 2300 ks (5 071 lb), takes and it is believed that the SS-2 I batta-
- :. :rerr launchers and two reload vehr- about 30 mrnutes to prepare for flnng lion has sx rather than four launcher
:.:s .wrth a further sx missiles). TWo and is armed by adjusting the elevatron unrts.
. ..:rants of the FROG-7 have been of the launcher arm. Meteorologrcal
.r:ntlfled: the nuclear-armed FROG- radars are requrred for maxrmum
:a 'rLth a 550-kq (1,213-lb) warhead, effect. In the nuclear role the Sovrets
.:.1 the FROG-7b wrth a 390-kq (860- will frre srngle FROG rounds wrth air-
::l chemrcal warhead, The latter rs burst nuclear warheads (50-200 krlo-
::lLeved to contain the thrckened per- tons) aqtarnst battlefleld nuclear deirv-
:-.::ant nerve gas agent VR-55, and ery systems lorward and reserve
- rer types ofagents may also be car- troop concentratrons forv,,ard head-
:-:C The FROG serres has been ex- quarters and communrcatlon facrhtres
'=isrvely exported and has also been the largre-yLeld vrarheads used makrng
-sed rn combat The Eqyptrans used up for the FROGs lack :i accuracy
::th FROG-3 and FROG-7 mrssrles
.'.'rih HE warheads in the 1973 war wrth
-s:ael. Fired initially agrainst fixed
..rgets ln the Sinai and then against the
-sraeli bridqehead over the Suez Can-
.. the mrssiles caused relatively little
ramage At least one FROG-7 was
:.armed as shot down by the Israeh
:attlefleld arr defence system The Sy'
:,ans used FROG-2 and FROG-3 mls-
---les during their Golan Herghts

I Soviet Cruise Missile

-:.: army has at present no bases, The 'Sepal', a land based vartant cyanide and the other filled wrth VR- Warhead weisht: 1000-kg (2 205-lb)
=:-.','alent to the American land- of the SS-N-3 'Shaddock' naval anti- 55, which is a thrckened form of the nuclear, 1000-kq (2,205-lb) conven-
:-:j :rurse mrssrle, although it has ship missile, is carried on the rdar of a nerve gas Soman. The maximum flight tional, 1000-kq (2,205-lb) chemical and
::=:. rehably reported that the Rus- large lengthened lorry chassis in its altitude of the 'Sepal' is 4600 m 2000-kq (4,409-lb) nuclear
:-::i are currently rn the early stages own cylindrical container-launcher (13, 125ft) with a maximum attained Warhead types: 35O-krloton nuclear,
::' such a missile with a range rn brn, which is elevated for frring, The speed of Mach i.4. This makes the mis- hrgh explosive, AC or VR-55 chemical
::-,: ::Cer of 2000-3000 km (1,240-1,865 'Sepal' has a secondary surface-to- sile very vulnerable to European agent, and BO0-kiloton nuclear
:.--:s) The missile will apparently be surface role agrainst land targets and battlefleld air-defence systems Minimum range: 40 lcn (25 miles)
:=p:bie of berng launched from shrps, can be fitted wtth a nuclear or a che- although it is still a viable system in Maximum range: 460 km (286 miles)
:-ir:arrnes, aircraft or mobile land- mical warhead. in the flrst case the secondary battle zones, Current de- CEP: 500-IOOO m (545-1,190 yards) de-
::s:d launchers along the hnes of the warhead can be either of 8OO-kiloton ployment is approximately 100 laun- pending on qnridance packagTe used
-:-:::errcan BGM-109 Tomahawk family. yield when the gnridance is solely by cher-containers in battahons of l5 to tB and ranqe
lreratronal deployment is not thought autoprlot with a mid-course gnridance vehrcles. Launch vehicle: lengthened wheeled
.-<ely untrl the late l9BOs or early 1990s. capability, or of 350-kiloton yield when lorry chassis
At present the nearest that a Soviet the gruidance also includes an active- Propellant tlpe/guidance: liquid/auto-
:::ssrle comes to the cruise mtssile radar terminal homing unit as well as Specification pilot plus mid-course correction and
:aiegory is the turbojet-powered SS- the autopilot and mid-course gmidance SS-C-18 'Sepal' optronal active-radar terminal homing
C-lB 'Sepal' assigned to the Soviet capability. The chemical warhead Length: 10,9 m (35 ft 9 rn) (depending on warhead choice)
3castal Artillery and Rocket Troops comes in two variants, one carryrng the Diameter: 0.86 m (2 ft 93/+ in)
::r defence of major ports and naval non-perststant blood aqent hydrogen Weisht: 10500 kg (23, 150 lb)

L $t-+ MRBM Missile system

dance had been changed from com-
mand to an inertial system. The com-
plete SS-4 flring unrt consists of around
use ofthe Bl was tn 1962, and the type
has been used to Iaunch Kosmos and
Interkosmos series satellites from the
The Soviet SS-4 (NATO reportrng Middle East, Japan and China. The SS- one dozen tractor vehrcles and associ- Kapustin Yar space centre.
name 'Sandal') is a development of the 4 and SS-20 systems targets include ated trailers. The missile can be flred
SS-3 'Shyster' mrssile. Deployed initial- those in the immediate enemy army either from a fixed hardened srte or Specification
Iy rn 1959, the SS-4 rapidly became the group rear areas lyrng some 3 I0 to 375 from a soft launch pad. At the latter site SS-4'Sandal'
standard operatlonaystrategic-level miles (500 to 600 km) behind the battle a reload capacrty rs known to exist The Lengrth: 21.0 m (68 ft 10% in)
MRBM of the Sovret Strategic Rocket zone, whrlst the remaining targets for SS-4 force peaked at rts maximum dur- Diameter: 1.6 m (5 ft 3 in)
Forces (Raketnyye Voyska the SS-4, SS-5 and SS-20 missiles lie at ing the 1960s but fell to 500 in the Weisht: 27000ks (59,525 lb)
Strategicheskovo Natnachentya, or distances in excess of 620 miles period 1971-7. From the latter year the Warhead type: single 1.2-megaton
RVSN). In fact all Soviet land-based (1000 km) and rnclude strategic numbers started to decline as the SS- thermonuclear RV, or high explosive
missrles with ranges exceeding 620 theatre headquarters and communlca - 20 was rntroduceci untLl rn March l9B3 Range: 2200 km (1,367 miles)
mrles (1000 }cn) are assigned to the tions facilities, airfields ports logisttc- only some 232't;ere rn servtce, based CEP: 2300 m (2,515 yards)
Strategdc Rocket Forces whilst those al centres and selected polLtico- prrmarrly rn :he \A'esrern SovLer states Launch facility: hardened silo or ftxed
missiles with ranges of under 620 miles economic targets such as oil reflneries. and targeted to',';ards NATO and the soft launch pad
(1000km) are assigned to the Rocket The SS-4 gatned a certain notortely Mrddle East Replacement by the SS- Launch: hot type (reload capability at
Troops and Artillery branch of the in 1962 as the main Soviet missrle de- 20 ccntLnues soft site)
Soviet army. Both the MRBM and IRBM ployed to Cuba during the Cuban Mts- The SS i ';as aLs: developed into Propellant t1rye/gnridance: liquid/
forces are designed to deliver nuclear sile Crisrs. It was during this deploy- the Bl small J.iil:i',' satellite launch- inertial
strikes agiainst Westem Europe, the ment that it was noticed that the qntl- vehrcle b_v it:irg a second staEre. Ftrst

L Ht-s IRBM Missile System

developmerr as a satellte launch-
vehicle The flexrble intermediate
Iaunch vehrcle coded CI by the
Length: 23.0 m (75 ft 572 in)
The Soviet SS-5 (NATO reporting SS-5 soft sites are known to have a Amerrcans rs an SS-5 fltted with a re- Diameter: 2.4 m (7 ft 10/z in)
name 'Skean') is the operational/ refire capability. The SS-5 force level startable second stage. The CI is Weight: not available
strategiclevel IRBM singrle-stage suc- peaked at its maximum in the 1960s, thought tc be 3. 6 m (103 ft B in) long, Warhead type: single I 2-megaton
cessor to the SS-3 and SS-4 MRBM mis- wrth a small decline to 90 for the period with a draneler of 2 4 m (7 ft i07z in), thermonuclear RV
siles, Frst deployed tn 196i, the missile 1975-8. In numbers began to
1979 the and has bee: used to launch Kosmos, Range: 4100 km (2,548 miies)
is similar in conflEnlation to its prede- drop sharply as the SS-20 reached Interkosrncs Creol and Aryabhata CEP: I 110 m (1,215 yards)
cessors but is identifiable by a lack of operational units, until only 16 were tn serLes satelhtes irom the Kapustin Yar, Launch facility: hardened silo or ftxed
fins and a blunter nose cone. Normal service in March I9B3 with the rocket Plesetsk anci Tvuratam space flight soft launch pad
transport is by a trailer towed by a armies facing NATO, By late 1983 or centres SLnce rts first flLght in 1964 the Launch: hot type (reload capability at
wheeled tractor vehicle. The missile is early 1984 the SS-5 is expected to be Ci has been developed to carry multi- soft site)
deploybd in hardened underground phased out of service entirely ple spacecrait payloads, initially three, Propellant type/$ddance: liquid./iner-
silos and at soft launch pad srtes, The The SS-5 has also been the subject of then frte and lnall'.' elght at a trme tial

L Ht-g Heavy ICBM Missile System

The SS-9 heavy ICBM (NATO report- warhead-carrrer that attained a tem-
ing name'Scarp') entered service in its porary orbit close to the Earth's surface
initial.form with the Strategic Rocket before a retro-rocket untt was acti-
Forces in 1965 as the largest ICBM in vated to bring the carrier back into the
the world, The missile was a three- atmosphere over the target zone. Such
stage rnertially-guided liquid- a missile can be fired in any directron
propellant type, The Soviets then de- to hit its target without alerting the de-
veloped another three variants of fending early warning systems until
which only one, the Model 4, actually just before impact. However, the
entered service rn some numbers from penalty incurred is a reduction in
l97l onwards. The SS-9 Model I car- accuracy that is offset somewhat by the
ried a 2S-megaton warhead; the brief- high-yield multi-megaton warhead
Iy-deployed SS-9 Model 2 had a 20- carried. A three-stage FOBS variant is
megaton warhead; and the SS-9 Model also beheved to have been de-
4 had three MRVs of 3.5-megaton yield veloped, possibly using the uppermost
each, The Model 3 or F-l-m satellite stage of the SS-10 'Scrag' ICBM for the also appeared in the F-I-r satelhte First of the really globalmissiles to
Iaunch-vehicle version was employed suborbital warhead carrier. The FOBS launcher form. This is the main Soviet be dep loyed in subslan ltal n umbert
as the test vehicle for a depressed test flrghts lasted until 1971. anti-satelllte hunter,&iller missile and SS-9 rs 345 m (J I 3 ft) Iong and has a
:rajectory role and Fractional Orbital All the SS-9 ICBM variants can carries a manoeuvring flnal stage with Iaunch weight of 200 tonnes. This
Bombardment System (FOBS). The loosely be described as bottle-shaped multiple-burn capacity to attack US versjon, seen o n parade through Red
:rst flight of a FOBS mrssile was in 1966, in appearance with the flrst stage hav- near-Earth orbit reconnaissance and .Squarer'n I 967, has a single 25-
:re uppermost stage being a new ing sx frxed thrust nozzles and four communications satellites by detonat- megaton warhead, by far the largest
::urth stage acting as the suborbital vernier nozzles. The SS-9 Model 3 has rng an onboard high explosive frag- ever produced for any missile.

!S-3 Heavy ICBM Missile System (continued)
Surface-to-Surface Mis sile s
-: r:ron chargte near them. F- i -m missrles remain avatlable for use megaton thermonuclear Mociel 2 s-:.:- Ftrcr ai'ie --. '.
:-: numbers of SS-9s deployed in a strategic nuclear exchange. le 2O-megaton rhermonuclear 1tl: ::. yru!o;
-..,:i-.:: .,
-..::d at 308 rn the penod 1972-4, but three 3.S-megraton MRVs
be dep.c','ec::.
--:--led from then as the first of the
. =: largrer SS-18 iCBMs became
Specification Range: Models i and 2 I 1000 km i: ::: subs:a-: ::a- .: ';--:: -
SS-9 'Scarp' mrles) Model 4 .l2O0O km rl -J: r.-...:.- bers.:rei-i-!:::-
,=rrtLonal, By l9BO-1 the SS-9 had Lengrth: Model I34.5 m (113 ft 27q rn); CEP: Models t and 2 740 m (B 10 vards' riF.l . .re-. ::
. -::, totally replaced in therr silos on a Model 2 34.5 m (113 fi Zt/q tn), Model 4 Model 4 IB5O m i2.025 yards; mega:c.:'.,,
.=-:cr-one basis, although it rs known 35.0 m ( 1 14 ft 10 rn) Launch facility: hardened srlc lht-e . - =::.eaa
-= -8 launch pads remarn operational Diameter: 3.05 m (10 ft 0 in) Launch: hot type megratc.:_',Li, s .':
,' :e Tyuratam space centre to launch weisht: 200000 ks (440 920 lb) Propellant tlpe/gmidance: ILqurd. has noz'Lee:.:=-
= F-l-r It is also likely that several Warhead type: Model I srngle 25- inertial piaced b.;- :-: s SJ-

E Ht-rI Lishtweisht ICBM System

.:-e SS-ll (NATO reportlng name
Sego') was rnrroduced rnto servrce in
:i6. By 1970 some 970 had been de-
: .-yed, making this the most numer-
;s of all ICBMs deployed. The two-
. age storable hquid-propellant mrs-
,.-+ was developed rn Jour versrons.
':-e basic Model I with a single RV, the
Model 2 flrst seen in the late i96Os but
,,:n-operational although fitted wrth a
,-:gle RV and advanced penerration
=-ds, the Model 3 deployed rn 1973
',','rth three MRVs and the Model 4
::en in the late I970s wrth three or srx
:mall MiRVs but not deployed oper-
:tronaily. We in theWest still have only a rough
By 1975 the number of the deployed idea of what SS- I I looks like, but this
SS-ll Model 1 and Model 3 variants ts themrssiTe ttralhas smce J 966m-
lropped slightly to 960 as the first of creasingly been targeted on every
:he SS-17 and SS-19 replacement sys- city, airfield and port inWestem
:emswere fielded By 1977 the number Europe. By 1 972 there were 970
rad dropped to 850 and then by 1979 to known SS- I I silos, with 66 more then
i50. By mid-1982 the number had sta- being built. Over 1,000 are still avail-
bilized at around 570 with only a small able, each with three 30A-kiloton
rumber believed to be of the Model 3 ieads.
type. In March 1983 the number had
Cropped to 550 as the first 20 of an Specification
additional 50 MIRVed SS-19 Modei 3s SS-Il'Sego'
,rere deployed to suitable SS-11 silos. Lengrh: 20 0 m (65 ft 7rl:) .1:
By the mid-l9BOs the Soviets will have Diameter: 2 5 m (B fl ZVz rn)
completed their present ICBM mod- weight: kq (99,205 tb)
ernization programme and wtll have a Warhead type: Model I single 950-
total of 520 SS-1 1, 60 SS-13, 150 SS-17, kiioton RV Model 3 three 25O-kiloton
308 SS-IB and 360 SS-19 third- and MRVs
iourth-generation ICBMs rn service Range: Model I BB00 km (5,470 miles)
The SS-11 has been rdentrfied at the Model 3 9600 km (5,965 miles)
followrng mrssile fleld locattons: De- CEP: Model 1 l4O0m (1,530 yards);
razhnya, Kozelek Teykovo, Kostroma, Model 3 1ll0 m (1,215 yards)
Perm, Gladkaya, Drovyanava, Olor,ry- Launch facility: hardened srlo
annaya and Svobodnyy. Launch: hot type (limited reload capa-
The SS-11 has been periodicaily btlity)
shown in the Moscow mrlitary parades Propellant type/guidance: liquid,/rner-
but only enclosed in a tubular contain, tial
er carrred on the rear of a wheeied
tractor-trailer combination. The only Pictured from left to right:
physical features of the missile to be SS-4 was operational in 1 959 but ftas
seen are four thrust nozzles on the first been superseded by SS-20.
stage and the tip ofthe nose cone. The nextgenera tion missile,
container is believed to be raised to deployed from )96 L Rapidly being
the vertical over a srlo for loading. The replaced bySS-20.
Americans credrt the SS- I I force with first deployed in I 966, at one
SS- 1 I ,
a hmited reload capability as the hot- time the most numerous ICBM with
launched missrle rs accommodated almost 1000 in place.
within a launch container inside the SS-9, once flre /a rgest ICBM, now
silo. This and the srlo desrgn are com- replaced by the even larger SS-1 L
mon to the SS-11 SS-17, SS-18 and SS-
19 systems, and ltmit damage during
main-engine ignrtion and launch Re-
furbishment and reloadrng probably
take several days. Provision for the de-
livery of reserve missiles warheads
and propellants to a number of SS-11
and SS-19 hot-launch ICBM com-
plexes, together with all the cold,
Iaunch SS-17 and SS-18 missrles rs
known to exist None ol lhe extra mrs-
stles or warheads rs reckoned under
the SALT agreements, only the laun-
chers being counted.

L SS-13 and 55-16 Lightweight ICBM Missile Systems
-.-.= SS-13 a:C SS-16 are the flrst solid- However, the mssrle carries only a
: :-:=-ra:: ICBMs ic have been de- single RV. The SS-16 rs considered to
.::r i'. rh= Scvrets probably by be launchable from erther a silo or a
'-= '.'li Nadradze mrssile desrgn mobile tractor-erector-launcher vehL-
. -r.=i- :nai specralzes rn such sohd- cle, most American defence sources
- -=- :--ssiles The SS- l3 (NATO report- tending to support the latter. No reload
,.-.: :.1:e'Savage') was first deployed capabilrty for the system is believed to
. , -::: aLthouqrh tt was actually first exist, The upper two stages of the SS-
-.==:, -:'r publtc Ln 1965.
By 1970 the 16 have been used to form the SS-20
,-.-:--.:r deployed operationally had mobile IRBM mssiie
:,:=:- :: 20. wLth 40 operational in l97l
..--: :he maxLmum 60 the following Specification
..=:r The SS-13 is deployed in the ss-t3
Ola missile fleld The 60 mis- Lengnh: 20.0 m (65 ft 77: rn)
:-,=s are certain to serve into the late Diameter: I7m(5ft7rn)
-::-s before replacement is under- Weisht: 34000 kg (74,955 lb)
':.::n The three-staQte inertially- Warhead type: single 600-kiloton RV
,..-^-:ed mrssile rs stated to be compa- Range: 8000 km (4 970 miles)
:-rle r,vrth the Minuteman mrssile in CEP: 1850 m (2,025 yards)
'=:i:.s of performance and capabilities. Launch facility: silo
-:.: upper two stages of the SS-i3
'.'.:le used rn the development ol the
Launch: hot type
Propellant type/guidance: sohd/
SS-14 'Scapegoat' mobile IRBM sys- inertial
1978 the second-generatlon Specification
-lBM due to be the SS-13s replace- ss-16 Only a few (about 60) were put into Right: SS-l,7, an
:.:nt rs stated to have attarned oper- Length: 20 5 m (67 ft 3 Ln) serrice of tlre SS- I 3, the tirst of the accuratelCBM
::-rna1 status after evaluatron between Diameter: 1.7 m (5 ft 7 rn) S ov ie t U nion's s olid - pr opellant whichreplaces
.:r2 and 1975 This missile, the 55-16 weight: 36000 kq (79,365 lb) slralegicmissrTes. Sma//er flan SS- some olderS,S-l.l
S:';ret desrgnation RS-14), was not Warhead tyge: sinqrle 650-krloton RV I I, it is very like a Minuteman III, and mr'ssr'/es.
::bsequently deployed, although Range: 8750 km (5,435 mrles) has a launchweightof34 tonnes and
::ne 60 were burlt. The three-stage CEP: 14BO m (525 yards) range of over 8000 km (5,000 miles),
SS-16 has an advanced Enridance sys- Launch facility: srlo or mobrle launcher usually carrying a warhead of 600-kt
:m beheved tc be of the stellar- Launch: hot type yield.
.:.ertial type, and a post-boost bus Propellant type/gnudance: sohd/
'.':nicle usually associated with MIRVs, stellar-rnertiaI

L Hil-rz Lishtweisht ICBM Missile System

-:e SS-I7 Sovret desrgnatron RS-16)
'.'.'ls flrst deployed rn i975 as the
the foreseeable future Two missile Specification
flelds contaLn the SS-]7: Yedrovo and ss-17
s::ond two-staqe storable hquid- Kostroma. Lengrth: 24.0 m (78 ft 9 rn)
:lcpellant successor to part of the SS- The accuracy of the iorce makes Diameter: 2.5 m (8 fI 21/z tn)
- - Sego force, theotherpartbeingthe feasrble attacks on some hardened weisht: 65000 kq (143 300 lb)
-iS-19 The SS-17 is slightly longer than Amerrcan tarqrets The use of the Warhead type: Model I four 750-
:---e SS- I I and has an rncreased MIRVed warhead allows a srngle kiloton MIRVs; Model 2 single 6-
'.:lume. The most important features, Model I or Model 3 mrssrle to attack megaton thermonuclear RV; Model 3
:.:',r,'ever are rts cold-launch technr- tndividual tarqets throughout an area four 750-krloton MIRVs
::e and, rn its Model I and Model 3 covenng several tens of thousands of Range: Model I 10000 km (6,215 miles),
::rns the four-MIRV warhead tt car- square mrles whereas the oider Soviet Model 2 11000 km (6 835 miles); Model
:-:s The Model 2 rntroduced rn i977 SS-1ls equipped wrth MRVs can only 3 10000 km (6,215 miies) a singtle medrum-yreld thermonu- attack a srngle tarqret wLthrn a few CEP: Model I 440 m (4BO yards); Modei
:rear warhead, whilst the Model 3 was thousand square krlometres by creat- 2 425m (465 yards)t Model 3 350m
.:-:roduced rn the early 1980s because ing a nuclear explosion footprrnt' (385 yards)
:: rts rncreased accuracy over the atound rt wlth tls warheads to maxi- Launch facility: hardened srio
].l:del I version, The number of the mrze the blast and radratron damaqe. Launch: cold type (confirmed reload
:-::erent versrons fielded was 20 Mod- The SS-17 has yet to appear at a Mos- capabrlrty)
:- 2 plus 130 Model I and Model 3 cow parade. Propellant tlpe/gn:idance: liqurd./rner-
- ltsMs rn mrd- 1983, No further upgrad- tral.
.:.; :f the SS-17 force is envrsagred for

I Ht-re Heavy ICBM Missile System

-:,: SS-I8 heavy ICBM (Sovret de-
: j:.j-ron RS-20)
Model 4 is also MIRVed but cardes up stage llqurd-propellant mrssrle. The
entered service in its to l4 warheads (usually l0 SOO-krloton launch technique is so called because
,:.-:--l iorm Ln 1974. Since then three MIRVs and four dummies plus other the missile rs ejected from its srlo by a
::,:: ','ersrons have been deployed, advanced penetratron ards). The SS- lB qas generator system before the marn
:.- Model 2 rn 1976, the Model3 in 1977 Models 3 and 4, together wrth the most engines are fired. Thrs allows the silo
..*,: ::e Model 4 in 1979. By 1980-1 the accurate verslon of the SS- i9, can des- to be reused wrthrn a day or so after the
: -:'.'elsLons had replaced the 308 SS- troy hard targets. Thrs effectively mtssile has been fired. The Russians
: :--:s:les In mid-1982 the number means the Amerrcan Mrnuteman have been monitored doing this during
::=:.,i- r.n for the four versions was ICBM force rn rts silos. Hence the Strategic Rocket Force exercises, The
l.l- r:ls I and 3 total 26, Model 2 total Soviets have a credible flrst-strike reload capabrlrty is of significant im-
- : - ::.i Model 4 total 120. In l9B3 it was capabrlity if they requrre it. The very portance to the Russrans in therr pro-
.==::.: :lat the Model 4 was continuing high yield SS-18 Models I and 3 also tracted nuclear-exchanqe warflghtrng
' :=:.,:e rhe Model 2 rn a progressive maintain the Russian preference for scenario The SS-iB missile flelds are
-:;::i:ng of the ss-18 force. The such warheads, the accuracy of both known to be located in the followrng
I.l-:=l - carries a single 27-megaton berng sufficrent to allow the missiles to areas: Kartaly, Dombarovskiy, Imeni
=::-:aC ',vh1lst the lonqer-ranqe and engage the deeply buned and nuclear Gastello, Aleysk, Zhangrz Tobe and
.-.:,::-.':ci-accuracy Model 3 carries a hardened American Strategic Air Uzhur.
..:.;.: 2- -megaton warhead. The Mod- Command command, control and
-. - :...: a spln-stabllized computer- commumcation facilrties that wlll be Specification
: . ',varhead
:::..:C bus carryrng B to used in the event of a nuclear conflict ss-18
. :,,-<-lc:cn yield MIRVs The later The SS-18 is a cold'launched two- Lensth: 35.0 m ( I 14 ft 10 in)
ss-.r3 ss-/7
SS- 18 Heavy ICBM Missile System (continued)
)rameter: 3.0 m (9 ft 10 rn) 11000 km (6.835 mLles)
,'/eisht: 225000 kq (496,030 lb) CEP: Model I 425 m (465 yards). Model
,'/arhead type: Model stngle 27- Z 425m (465 yards); Model 3 35Om
':qaton RV; Model 2 B 1O 9OO-ktloton (385yards) Model 4 260 m (285 yards)
I.liRVs Model 3 stngle 20-megaton Launch facility: hardened stlo
: .' Model 4 l0 500 kiloton MIRVs Launch: cold type (conflrmed reload
Range: Model 1 12000 km (7,455 mrles); capabrlity)
Propellant type/gnridance: liquid/
l.l:del 2 11000 km (6,835 mrles); Model
i i'lt
16000km (9,940 miles); Model 4 rnertlal ill

t Hil-rg Lishtweisht ICBM Missile System

-re SS-19 (Sovret desrqtnatton RS-18) The Sovtets in thetr weapon Im- EeJow: SS-.19 was 'i:.
:ntered servrce in 1975 as the ftrst of provement programmes follow an tn- deployedfirstin af;
:re SS-li 'Sego' replacements, the cremental policyt they Lmprove those l,975, along with SS-
,ther berng the SS 17. The SS-19 rs a components of the system thal Iequlre 17. Both arc :
:-,vo-stage hqurd-propellant mlsstle improvrng whrlst retainrnq those por- infendedas ft:
'..;rth an onboard computer, a MIRV trons that have demonstrated thelr re- replacements for
cayload and a combrned 'fly the-wire' liabLlity to a satisfactory level. For the are
SS-l 1, and t7
-nertial quldance systenr srmilar to that current ICBM force thrs poltcY has among themost
itted on the SS l7 and SS-18 missrles. meant a consrderable improvement Ln accurate of Soviet
The computer determines the devta- both rts rehabilrty and capabrlrtres The ICBMs.
trons from the preprogrammed course fourth-generatron SS-17, SS lB and SS-
and erther corrects it or computes a l9 deploymenl was primartly Lnro con- pf
new course rf the circumstances re- verted thrrd-generatron srlos. During i-i
qurre it. The SS-19 Ls shghtly larger the process of converston the sllo tr
hardness was greatly enhanced to im- s;
:han the SS 17 and has been flelded in
:hree versrons: the basrc Model I wLth prove he survivabrltty factor extstinq s-
sx MIRVs, the Model 2 (deployed in communlcatlons syslems were up- lq
1978) with a srnqle hLgh-yteld thermo graded and where necessary new L: -.-,--
nuclear warhead, and the rmproved ones added and sLlo based launch- *,"
accuracy Model 3 (rntroduced rn 198O) controL factltttes built.
wrth the same MIRV payload as the F,r

orLginal versron. In 198I the numbers of Specification

each version deployed were lB0 Mod- ss- 19 ki
el 1, 40 Model 2 and BO Model3 ICBMs Lengrth: 22 5 m (73 ft 9",1 rn) {,.
By 1982 the Model 3 total had rnen to Diameter: 2.75 m (9 ft 0'/r Ln) M:.
90 and rn March l9B3 the totals were Weight: 78000 kg (171 960 ]b) ffi,
180 Model l. Model 2 and 110 Model
80 Warhead type: Mcdel L sr-r 55O-kLLoton tr:
t i-
3 mrssrles. A further 30 Model 3s wrll be MIRVs: Model 2 s-rgle l0 meqaton Ei.,,l;

deployed to replace SS-11 Sego sys- thermonuclear Rv- Moce] 3 sL: 55i
tems by I9B5 to grve a final SS- 19 force krloton MIRVs
level of 360 The SS-19 mrssLle flelds Range: Mcdel , 963t-l km (i 96: n:les) lat,
are located in the Derazhnyna Model 2 1lirCi krn (6 215 r::les) MoCel E::
Kozeisk, Perrromayek and TatLschche- 3 10000 km (6 215 mLles) i:':''
vo areas CEP: lv{oiel I 39C m (125 yarcis) Model illi

Because of its accuracy the Model 3 2 26C (285 vards) Mode] 28C m
m ;,"
together with the most accurate ver- (305 yards) il
sions of the SS I B are consrdered to be Launch facility: hardened stlo I,,,
counterforce weapons capabLe of des- Launch: hot type (limrted reload capa- l::
troyrng practlcally all the Amerrcan bLlrty) i' e.

hardened mrssrle sjlos by usrng a -wo Propellant type/gruidance: ItquLd' nl,

warhead-to-one srlo ratio inerhal *., I

n H3-zo Mobile IRBM system +--

Desrgn of the operatlonaystrateglc- 07:rn) long, 1.4m (4ft 7tn) dLameter
levelmobileSS-20IRBMsystembegan SS-15 utilized the same transporter-
rnabout 1967asthelong-termreplace erector-launcher vehicle as the SS-14
ment for the SS-4 and SS 5 mtssiles but was contained tn a 19 m (62 ft 4 tn)
TheSS-2Oprogrammewasallocatedto lonq tubular contalner-launcher that :
the VN Nadradze design bureau, had to be elevated to the vertical for t
which specralizes rn buildrnqt sohd firrng. The SS-15 had a 5630-km (3 500- tr
propellant misstles. The design mile)ranqe, carrledaOOO-kllotonwar-
bureau had already some experience head and had a CEP value about the
Ln developrng mobrle IRBM systems as same as that of the SS- 14. Both systems
SS-14'scapegoat' were deployed rn hmrted numbers in
the brrefly deployed F:
and SS-I5'Scrooge' IRBM systems SovretCentralAsiaadlacenttothebor- k
showed The SS-14 carrted in a con- der wtth China
tarner nicknamed the lron Matden The SS-20, basrcally the flrst two
was deployed on a consrderably mod- stages of the solid-propellant SS- 16
Lfied lS-lll heavy tank chassrs thatICBM had rts flrst fltgtht test in 1974 By
served as the transporter-erector- 1977 rt had entered service with the
launcher vehrcle. The whole system Strateglc Rocket Forces and was soon
was known by the NATO reportinq deployed wrth each of the sx Rocket
name 'scarnp'. The 10.7 m (35 ft 1% rn) Armres that compose these forces. The
long, I 5 m (4 ft 7 rn) diameter mtssrle SS-20s are rn su major base groupings
was rnertially gnlded, had a maximum located in three geographLcal areas of
range of 3540 km (2 200 mrles) and car- the USSR namely the western USSR
rLed a 6OO-klloton yield warhead. The lust east of the Ural Mountalns and the
CEP value was around IB00 m (1,970 Soviet Far East The mobtle launchers
','ards). The 'Scapegoat was basrcally are grouped toelether Ln brLqtades of
:': trst two skqes af thg-sp r3 991!9 v9!-:9.)?:<

7- 7- a:-
:.:,-- !
ICBM Nuclear Warhead Development
-: :a\.' s ng e re-enlry vehicle blast damage caused; the resulting pattern
,::: :-J:-\'e d relat vely inaccurate of nuclear explosions is known as the nuc-
r r:: :^:l 1o ce used against large lear footprint. The USA deployed this type
:: :;-:::s sJCh as c t es or industrial of warhead only on its Polaris submarine-
: ::::: :v lc devastate such targets launched ballistic missile force and did not

:: :5ast e'fect. which rs use it on any ICBM.
. -::S-'eC rn pounds per Square
-:- -,'-.
:.:'3.essure 1r.e. pressure qrea-
atmospheric). Such war-
'.: - . r TOSt Certainly be detonated
:::.e ihe target to give what is
..- :: :- : -burst explosion. Wth the
:-: ,' ::::e. gu dance systems terminal
'.'eased and thls allowed the
: .,;rheads to be retargeted as
: -'s: wea pons agai n st point targets
:s :-€ e.emy s mLlitary and political
:: , :ommand. control and com-
:^s C'l facil ties located n deeply There was a time when threatened nuclear force seemed fo consrst ofa srnErle
:r '-J hardened underqround bunker blunt instrument of undeniable devastation. But defence strategrsts and

: ='=. )estructron of some or all of scjent ifs have now developed a range of warheads, and methods of delivery
-:: ':: : es would cause consrderable
'-: :- :^d delay to the opposing side in which have greatly complicated ffte djscussjons of nuclear comparability and
. -.a.' exchange until new lines ol security.
- - :.^r :.d control could be activated.
nrque in order to ensure that the kill prob-
ability approaches the certainty value. Both
Multiple Re-entry Vehicles (MRV s ). the Soviets and the Americans use MIRV
Each missile could deliver a number equipped lCBMs. The current Soviet SS-18
of warheads (usually three) whose Model4 and SS-19 Model3 MlRVed ICBMs
combined airburst footprint could are considered to be the world's most lethal
obliterate a city. missiies in terms of accuracy, and given the
numbers deployed the Russians can des-
The USA decided to freid the mult ple troy most of the American Mlnuteman
independently-targeted re-entry vehicle ICBM {orce in therr sitos by erpendrng or y
iMIRV)warhead system lnstead. The MIRV a tractron o, lhe warheddb they carry for a
is highly accurate and independently trrsLstrike situation
targeted, whch means that each MIRV- The Americans, however, have de
equipped missi e can engage a number of veloped a follow-on to the MIRV. This is
widely separated targets equivalent to the knowr as the nanoeuv'rng .e ertry vel rcle
number of M RV warheads it carrles. The (MARV), ano ,s caoaole oorh of rnf I gnt rar
accuracy of the N,4lBV s usually sufficient oeuvrinq to avoid anti'miss le def ences and
for the carry ng missile to be targeted ol terrrrra. in.atmosprere gu darce ro grve
against the enemy's hardened m ssile silos. very low CEP (circular error probable, a me-
Usual y two warheads are assigned from asure of statistica accuracy) values in the M anoeuvr ab IeR e - en try V e h icle s
different missrles n a cross-targeting tech- order of tens of mentres. The (MARVs). Eachwarhead has an
S :ng le R e- entry Vehicles (SRVs). ability to manoeuvre itself through
iarly generation single warheads defences and onfo its assjgred
2:rburst over their targets to achieve target.
.e',,astation by blast. Later more
.ccurate warheads were designed to for the MARV is available for eventual de-
;: o u n d bur s t ag ains t h ar dene d ployment on all American strategic balltstic
:arErefs. such as sr7os or command missile systems if required.
c::rkers. The Americans also have available the
technology of
the Pershing earth il
:-: lSA and USSR currently have penetrator theatre nuclear missile war-
r'::3d w th thermonuclearwarheads heads. lf the Americans were to combine
' : e-t accuracy to achieve these re- the low-yield earth-penetrator design with
MARV technology then the possibility is
:::acKS against soft city, industrial opened up of the eventual deployment of
:r1 targets were then, in the case an ICBM carrying a large number (20 or
S:, et CBM force, assiqned to the more) of super accurate warheads capable
:= : :f u poed wrth a multiple re-entry of attacking any type of target. Such a de-
: = \,'lV) package as the payload. This velopment would have a considerab e
,: .: ', provides for landing severalwar- effect on the strategic forces of both sides
:= -sJai y two or three, which have Multiple Independently-targeted Re-entry Vehicles (MIRVs). The as a radical rethlnking of f ixed-base misslles
:'j::i n the final stage of the flighl in independent accurate targetingof a number of warheads enables MIRVs to and command {aclltres would have to be
::-: 3'ea as the target to maximize the be groundburst against hardened targets. u nderta ken.

SS-20 continued NATO. ']'he Russrans are also known to

be developing an SS-20 follow-on for
serurce ln the late l980s or early 1990s.
r.. r :.:.::a:ance base As rn the case This has been tentatively identrfied as
- '.-= -:-r:ttcan ground-iaunched the SS-X-28 IRBM system.
,: -,:= :.-ssrle the launchers would in
':.=: ,: -rn-rent conflict move by Specification
:, : : :- -.'.',i:l',' dtspersed presurveyed ss-20
.- .:.1:. .r.;.: :- ensure the minrmum Length: 16,0 m (52 ft 6 in)
::r:r -:- ::-: :rertral quidance launch Diameter: 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in)
Weisht: 25000 kq (55, I l5 lb)
=:--- :S-2, is carrLed on the rear of a Warhead type: Model I single 650-
' .-. - : .'= -. :le Ln a tubular contarner kiloton nuclear RV, Model 2 three 150-
:, a: elevated to the vertrcal kiloton nuclear MIRVs; Model 3 single
l.-.::: cther wheeled vehr- 50-krloton nuclear RV
-!-::: the SS-20 system, one Range: Model I 5000 km (3, 105 miles)
- ::Lcad round whilst the Model 2 5000 km (3, 105 miles); Model3
::::-,'ihe launch control, test, 7000 km (4,350 miles)
:s a:i communrcatron sys-
---'.' :3 I ihe number of SS-20
CEP: 425 m (465 yards)
- Launch facility: wheeled transporter-
:=c-:','eC ',Yas about 250 (175 erector-launcher
'.'.'::: :arJeted agalnst NATO Launch: cold type (reload capability
-:. ::-i-Nlarch l9B3 the num- confirmed) SS-20 is being deployed in increasing numbers in Europe and the Far East.
:-:=: r. more than 330, of Propellant type/gnridance: solid,z The USDepartment of Defensevisualizes highly mobileunits operatingfrom
:.= ::, targeted aQtainst rnertial easily prepared concealed positions, as shown here.
Armed Forces of the World

Proportionally, Sweden is one of the most

highly-taxed nations on Earth, and a great
proportion of the revenue is spent on defence.
Sweden is not a member of NATO but has a
border with the USSR, and the terrain forms a
useful method of entry to both Norway and
the Baltic to the south. The country has rich
mineral resources but the terrain is hostile to
both attackers and defenders alike, and for iii^
much of the year the climate is cold to an
extreme and wet for much of the rest. To "'i"-;,^;*, i
maintain their neutrality the Swedes use a :'
combination of conscription followed by recall 1J':
to the forces at intervals, coupled with a well- , t'/
trained and well established system of Home
Guards and local defence units. Sweden has a
strong armaments industry which supplies
almost all its armed forces' equipment.
The amphibious, tracked Bv 202 weighs 3.2 tons
The army and can tow up to I 5 soldjers on skls or bicycles. In
The army maintains only a small cadre of about a northern country like Sweden, such vehicles are
9,000 regulars, who are used to train the essential in providing cross-country mobility in
36,900 or so conscripts who pass through winter. The Bv 202 is now being replaced by the Bv
their hands at any one time To train this f low 206,which has a much larger load capacity.
of recruits the army maintains about bO train-
ing establishments for all arms of the force, Among the 9 tnfantry brigades that would

and large and well-protected depots full of be formed in an emergency are the four Nor-
equipment ready for use. ln an emergency the /and brigades that wculd be used to defend
army could suddenly be expanded to no less the northern areas of Sweden. These brigades
than 700,000 men, with a furrher 'i 00,000 are specially equipped with over-snow vehi-
men turning out for Home Guard duties. To cles such as the 8v.206 and its weapon carrier
these would be added about 100 independent variants with TOW and recoilless rifles. Some
infantry battalions, between 400 and 500 inde- carry the Bofors RBS-70 anti,aircraft guided
pendent companies and a large number of missile. lnhe .l se lf- propelled gun m a.r :j.-: :: - : ::
more Home Guard units all operating under The only regular army unit kept in being all Sweden attracted worldwide rn leresl ;',..::.:
the general control of 26 Local Defence Dis- the time is a single army aviation battalion with introduced in 1966. This heavy vehicle .c...e: : _

tricts. about 35 helicopters including BellAB 204 and tons) has afully automatic gun which is ie=:::::
To maintain sL,ppl,es in an emergency the AB 206 helicopters. Also kept in being are a 14-round clip, and which can fire a 48-kz . - :..-
Swedes ma<e much use of their orin indust- HE projectile up to 25 km ( I 5 milesl.
further 1 '1 army artillery aviation platoons, 66
rial resources for arms production, and many strong in all, that are used for army liaison,
of therr wcapons bear comparison with any- artillery spotting, observatron and casualty the older Saab Draken in tne J c-:
thing produced elsewhere Although the buik evacuation. Types in service include BAe Bull- of which remain tn use. anr '--:
of the five armoured brigades thai would be dogs, Piper Super Cubs and Dornier Do 27s. being delivered.
formed on mobilization are made up from _ The conscript's time with the army may vary ln wartime, the Flyg,,,aoe^
Centurion M BTs, the army also has about 330 from 71/z to 15 months, depending on the - of which about 45 na .: -
airf ields
Strv-l05MBTs and about 200 lkv-91 infantry trade involved. After this period the conscript and stretches of strenqthe.e. ,:'
support tanks. To these can be added large becomes an active reservist and can expect to dispersed operations. n sJc- :: . :- .
numbers of Pbv-302 APCs and a wide arraybf spend some time each year with the army. On instance, aViggen would and c- :': :_
towed and self-propelled artillery. Some of the mobilization, full strengths for nearly all units ly taxi on a smaller road to : ::
towed artillery is still effective but of some can be expected within 72 hours, and to this shelter. be refuelled and rearn^.1
vinttge, and a programme of replacement by force can be added the large numbers of 10 minutes, and tnen tar, brc. -' '- -'
the Bofors '1 55 mm FIJ-77 A is now well adv- Home Guard and local defence units. Takino take-off on another mrssion
anced. Anti-tank missiles are widely used, into account the formidable Swedish terrain, fr Attack and reconna ssarce -^ ::
with large numbers of TOW anti{ank missiles can be seen that invadlng Sweden would be further 180 AJ SH37 Viggers :- -
with large quantities of the
in use and on order no easy matter. to-surlace missiles for botr a-: = '
new Bofors BILL missile in prospect for the Sweden's neutrality in all matters has led to armour use, while specially der, = ::
infantry. Mortars of all calibres are well suited Swedish army troops being virtual full-time as and inf ra-red equipment a d :-: -=:
to the Swedish terrain. members of any United Nations force. At pre- with the SF37 variant of th s r:-sr: :
sent the Swedes are operating under the Un- Light attack duties are'ron^ r. :.,-:
ited Nations flag in Cyprus and the Lebanon. and a trainer version equ ps i-= _.-
Flying Training Scnooi i1o :-= - - ::
The air force lege at Uppsala. Fifty-e grt 3r: s--::
Saab-Scania at Linkoping has been the main dogs conduct basic ra ^ Fo - :^-.
supplier of combat aircraft to the Swedish air unrt rs equrpped wrth e qhI f ^- =' ' - -
force (Flygvapen) for more than 40 years, and and some ageing C-4ls rre' '^ .. :_=
today has production lines building the JA 37 ployed on United Nations !...-. _.:
interceptor version of the canard-winged Vig- supply duties wrthrr Svreoe^
gen. This powerful combat aircraft is replacing
The navy
Swedish subm arines are specifically designed for The Swedish navy is nre-oe c '_' -
operation in the Baltic Sea. ?Ffte Niicken, namesftip defence only, and has no 3.1: t::
of the latest class of three boats, has a crew of only units. lt is unusual in ii .r : ::
20 due to extensive use of automation. borne element the navy a sc --.: . .'-- .- _

Armed Forces of the World Sweden t
': :' :, siem of coastal defences involving
.' :-^s, guided misstles and prepared
JS ?"d t is the nature of these that
.: =':
: -- .:i sc attractive to marauding Soviet
-:--:- -:S n reCent timeS.
-: :l:stai art llery could perhaps be dealt
:- ' -s: as t involves no less than five full
I ^-:-is wth 45 static batteries and 12
, a : 3atter es. The static batteries are cur-
-: . - tne process of being re-equipped with
-^-- and 20 mm turreted guns of adv-

-:r Cesrgn with equally advanced fire-

--:'l svstems, whrle the mobile batteries
-: 3€ rQ re-equipped wirh 120-mm Kartn
-^- V,ssiles include the RB-08 and the RB-
- _-::tr effective against even large naval The Swedish navy devotes a relatively high
proportion of
Norrk6ping r's a 'Spica'-c/ass fa st patrol boat,
ifs resources lo mine warfare. The armedwith a radar-directed 57-mm Bofors gun
'.'^es form an important part of Swedish 300-ton minesweeperArkors fypical of its kind. Of and six 2 I -inch torpedo tubes. The anti-ship
-:s:al defences, so the navy includes a large
wooden construction and armed with a40-mm capability of the 'Spicas' will be much enhanced by
- gun, Arko was commissioned in 1958, the first of a the installation of long range (70 km/44 miles) RBS
-^-cer of mtnelayers for both inshore and 12-ship class. /5anfi-ship mrssiles, currently under
i:aaer wateT use. Front the larger sizes down- development.
...'ls ilre navy has two f ull-size minelayers
:- J ivlo trarning vessels for the role. To these 1 2 Pen gu i n surf ace,to-surface missi les, and to used as landing tanks and similar vehicles, but
---^ be added nine coastal and 36 inshore these can be added a further 1B toroedo- the bulk (81) are utility craft that can be used
'- -e ayers For clearing there are 11 coastal armed fast attack craft. A force of 33 cbastal for a number of purposes. 53 are assault land-
-.^: 2O in-shore mine-sweepers. patrol craft back up this force and to these will ing craft. All three types can be used to land
-^e main navy bases are at Stockholm, Karl- be added a further four now on order. troops in remote regions, possibly behinC an
:.-1.a, Goteborg and Hdrnosand. These The navy maintains two helicopter squad- attacker's front lines.
: ::.s support the main defensive element of rons One is at Berga, near Stockholm, and is
.-: -avy, which has as its largest vessels two equrpped with fourAlouette 11 trainers and 1O
r=s:royers with RB-08 surface to-surface mis- AB 206s that can be used in the anti,
. .s lonly one of these is kept in service at any submarine warfare, commando transpoft or
Order of Battle
: ^: t me). A force of 12 submarines is used to gunship roles The other squadron is at Save
:':r'de an offensive patrol capability and a near Gothenburg and has 0 Boeing Vertol/'1

'-1reT four submarines are on order. A sur- Kawasaki KV-l07-1 1 that are used in a wide Army (on mobilization)
'-.:: capabilrty is provided by a force of 17 variety of roles including anti-submarine war- Frve armoured brigades
--c n fast attack patrol craft armed with RB fare, search and rescue and long-range sur- One army aviatron battalion
veillance. They are also to be used to operate 19 infantry brigades, including four Norrland
SaabViggens of the Flyryapen fly low over the
with the new RBS-'1 5 anti-shipping rnissile brigades
::rdra /andscape. TheViggen is the mainstay of that has been ordered for all Swedish navy 50 independent infantry, artt lery and antl-
ve55c 5. aircraft artillery battalions
-::,,eden's arr defence force, and serves in the
:::ack (AJ37), intercepbr AA37), overland The navy has one further claim to being 26 Local Defence Districts encompassing 100
:sconnajssance (S P 37 ), maritime reconnarlsance unusual: it maintains a large force of no less independent battalions, up to 500 indepen-
Si37) and trainer(5K37) roles. than 143 landinq craft. Nrne of these can be dent companies and Home Guard units
The air force
Six attack squadrons (AJ37 Viggen and Saab
1 05)
2 f ighter squadrons (.J437 Viggen and J35D/F
Six reconnaissance squadrons (SH37/SF37
Two operations conversion units (SK37 Vig-
gen and SK35C Draken)
Two transport squadrons (C-130 Hercules, C-
47 Dakota and Caravelle)
Five communications squadrons (Saab 105)
One search and rescue squadron (KV-107)
One utility helicoptersquadron (Alouette ll and
Bell AB.204)
t- r. i t:.&.t ';:.. Navy
"t ii-;.1 r ,lr.' Two destroyers with RB,08 (one in reserve)
" 'lt! rt "1 ! ', 12 submarines (four under construction)
,.i -.::. 17 fast attack craft with RB-12 missiles (two
under construction)
$r. '' 18 fast attack craft with torpedoes
E-J.d i 34 coastal patrol craft (seven of them large,
'ia with four more on order)
Two minelayers
Two minelayer/training ships
Nine coastal minelayers
36 in-shore minelayers
1 coastal minesweepers
20 in-shore minesweepers
45 coastal batteries, static
12 coastal batteries, mobile
two helicopter squadrons