Plates and Shell

© All Rights Reserved

135 views

Plates and Shell

© All Rights Reserved

- Beam
- Body Flange .Pvdb Flange
- STEEL STACK sample report.pdf
- Elasticity
- A Refined RC Beam Element Including Bond Slip
- Mechanics of Solids
- Flitched Beam
- Sr059210303 Mechanics of Solids
- lecture-4
- IPC2012-90053
- hyt dfre frtg
- Design of pressure vessel
- Composites
- free vibration of twisted plates
- Mechanics of Solids
- EgR 236Lecture03
- photoelasticity 1
- Stress Analysis of Welded Gusseted Frames
- HD -Civil
- 3 Second Wind Gust for Kenya

You are on page 1of 213

Chapter-1

Basic Equations

1.1 State of stress at a point: At a point there are three mutually perpendicular planes i.e.

orthogonal planes. Three stresses components, one normal and two shears, act on each plane.

Therefore, nine stress components must be known at each point to define completely state of

stress at a point. Therefore six stress components in the Cartesian ( x, y, z ) co-ordinate system.

x xy xz

yx y yz

zx zy z

Therefore there are only six components of stress at a point, three normal stresses and three shear

stresses. Therefore stress at a point is specified as

x xy xz

xy y yz (1.1)

xz yz z

Similarly, six stress components in the cylindrical ( r , , z ) co-ordinate system.

r r rz

r z (1.2)

z z

rz

1.2 State of strain at a point: Similar to stress considerations, the nine components of strain

are reduced to six independent components, three linear strains corresponding to the change in

Theory of Plates and Shells

line elements and three shear strains corresponding to the change in right angles formed by line

elements. Thus the state of strain at a point of a body in the Cartesian ( x, y, z ) co-ordinate

system can be expressed in the matrix form as

x xy xz

xy y yz (1.3)

yz z

xz

Similarly, six strain components in the cylindrical ( r , , z ) co-ordinate system

r r rz

r z (1.4)

z z

rz

1.3 Strain Displacement relationship: The six strain components, three linear strain and

three shear strains, at a point of the body are related to the three displacements u, v, and w by the

following expressions in the Cartesian ( x, y, z ) co-ordinate system

u v w

Normal strain: x , y , z

x y z

(1.5)

u v v w u w

Shear strain: xy , yz , xz

y x z y z x

Strain displacement relationship for cylindrical ( r , , z ) co-ordinate system

u 1 v u w

Normal strain: r , , z

r r r z

(1.6)

1 u v u v 1 w u w

Shear strain: r , z , rz

r r r z r z r

1.4 Equilibrium Equations: Consideration of the variation of the state of stress from point

to point leads to the equilibrium equations in the Cartesian ( x, y, z ) co-ordinate system are given

by

Theory of Plates and Shells

x xy xz xy y yz xz yz z

X 0; Y 0 and Z 0

x y z x y z x y z

(1.7)

Where X , Y and Z are the components of body force such as gravitational, centrifugal, or other

inertia forces. The equilibrium equations for a body referred in cylindrical co-ordinates ( r , , z )

system

r 1 r r 1 z 2 r

rz r Pr 0 ; P 0

r r z r r r z r (1.8)

rz 1 z z rz

and Pz 0

r r z r

Where Pr , P and Pz are the components of body force such as gravitational, centrifugal, or

other inertia forces.

1.5 Strain compatibility equations:

It is clear from the strain displacement relationship that if the three displacement

components are given, then the strain components can be uniquely determined. If, on the other

hand, the six strain components are arbitrarily specified at a point, then the displacement

components cannot be uniquely determined. This is because the six strain components are related

to only three displacement components viz u, v and w . Hence if displacement components are to

be single valued and continuous, then there must exist certain interrelationship among the strain

components. These relations are called the strain compatibility equations. For three dimensional

bodies there exist six strain compatibility equations.

In the Cartesian ( x, y, z ) co-ordinate system.

2 x y xy 2 y 2 z 2 yz 2 x 2 z 2 xz

2 2

; and (1.9)

y 2 x 2 xy z 2 y 2 yz z 2 x 2 xz

Theory of Plates and Shells

2 x xy xz yz 2 y

xy xz yz

yz x z x xz y z x

2 ; 2

y y

And (1.10)

2 z xz yz xy

2

xy z y x z

Similarly strain compatibility equations, for the case of small displacements, in terms of

cylindrical coordinates ( r , , z ) can be obtained as

2 r 2 z 2 rz r 2 r 2 r 2 r r

; r r

z 2 r 2 rz r 2 r 2 r (1.11)

2

z

2

z

2

r 2 2 r z r rz r

z r 2

z z

r r r z rz 2r r r

z r z r

r 2 1 rz r r

2

r r

2

And r z 2 (1.12)

r r r r z z

r 1 rz 1 z

r z 2

z z r r r r r

The stresses and strains cannot be independent when we consider physical problem of the

theory of elasticity which is concerned with the determination of stress components and

deformation due to external loads acting on an elastic body. Hence the stresses need to be

related to strain through a physical law. For isotropic material, generalized Hooks law

gives the following stress strain relations.

1

x y z ;

1

x y y x z ;

E E

(1.13)

xy yz xz

z y x

1

z and xy , yz , xz

E G G G

Where , E and G are the elastic properties of the material.

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 1

r r z ; r z

E E

(1.14)

1 r z rz

z z r and r , z , rz

E G G G

Alternately stress-strain relation for isotropic material can be written as,

1 0 0 0

x 1 0 0 0 x

0

y 1 0 0

y

z 1 2 0 z

E

0 0 0 0 (1.15)

xy 1 1 2 2 xy

1 2 0

zy 0 0 0 0 yz

zx 2 xz

1 2

0 0 0 0 0

2

D

OR

x x y z 2 G x

y x y z 2 G y (1.16)

z x y z 2 G z

E E

Where Lame's constant = and G

1 1 2 2 1

r r z 2 G r

r z 2 G (1.17)

z r z 2 G z

Theory of Plates and Shells

1.7 Plane Stress Problems: The two dimensional elasticity problems under the following

conditions, is considered as plane stress problem.

1. The thickness of body i.e. the dimension in one direction, say z direction, is small in

comparison with other dimensions in x and y directions.

2. The load acting on the body are in the plane perpendicular to the thickness of the body

i.e. z axis. The loads are distributed uniformly over the thickness.

3. The stresses in the direction of thickness of the body must be zero on free boundary.

Therefore it is assumed that the stress components in the direction of thickness are zero

i.e. z xz yz 0

The plane stress problem is characterized by the following basic concepts and relations of theory

of elasticity.

1.7.1 State of a stress at a point: The three stress components in z direction are zero

x

y (1.18)

xy

1.7.2 State of a strain at a point: Strain at a point is defined by three independent strain

components, two linear strain, x and y , and one shear strain xy .

x

y (1.19)

xy

x y

It may be noted that z 0 , but can be obtained by the condition z 0 , z

E

Theory of Plates and Shells

1.7.3 Strain Displacement Relationship: Three strain components are related to two

displacement components by the following expressions:

u v u v

x ; y and xy (1.20)

x y y x

1.7.4 Equations of equilibrium: Conditions of equilibrium Fx 0, Fy 0 , for the

components of body force and internal forces due to stresses give the following equations.

x xy xy y

X 0 and Y 0 (1.21)

x y x y

1.7.5 Strain Compatibility Equations: The strain components x , y and xy are related by

eliminating displacements from the strain displacement relations as seen previously. Therefore

for plane stress problem, the strain compatibility equation is expressed as

2 x y xy

2 2

(1.22)

y 2 x 2 xy

1.7.6 Stress Strain Relationship: Stresses can be expressed in terms of strains as per Hooks

law

x 1 0 x

E

y 1 0 y (1.23)

1

2

1

xy 0 0 xy

2

1.8 Plane Strain Problems: The two dimensional elasticity problems under the following

conditions, is considered as plane strain problem.

1. The thickness of body i.e. the dimension in one direction, say z direction, is very large in

comparison with other dimensions in x and y directions.

2. External forces are perpendicular to the z axis.

Theory of Plates and Shells

3. The strains in the z direction of the length of the body are zero z xz yz 0

The plane strain problem is characterized by the following basic concepts and relations of theory

of elasticity.

1.8.1 State of a stress at a point: Stress at a point is defined by three independent stress

components, two normal stress, x and y , and one shear stress xy .

x

y But z 0 (1.24)

xy

It may be noted that z 0 , but can be obtained by the condition z 0 , z x y

1.8.2 State of a strain at a point: The three strain components in z direction are

zero z xz yz 0 . Therefore only three independent strain components

x , y and xy exist at a point. Note that xy yx . Such state of strain in known as plane strain.

x

y (1.25)

xy

1.8.3 Strain Displacement Relationship:

The displacement in z direction is zero. Therefore the two displacement components u, v in

x and y directions, exists at a point. The relation between strain components and displacement

components are same as before, i.e.

u v u v

x y and xy

y x

; (1.26)

x y

1.8.4 Equations of equilibrium: Corresponding to three stress components in xy plane, the

equilibrium equations are also same and restated as

Theory of Plates and Shells

x xy xy y

X 0 and Y 0 (1.27)

x y x y

1.8.5 Strain Compatibility Equations: eliminating displacements components, the three strain

components are related by one equation as proved already.

2 x y xy

2 2

(1.28)

y 2 x 2 xy

1.8.6 Stress Strain Relationship: These relations are different than that of plane stress problem

and can be derived from the strain condition z 0 . Stresses can be expressed in terms of strains

as per Hooks law

x 1 0 x

E

y 1 0 y (1.29)

1 1 2

xy 0 1 2

xy

0

2

Theory of Plates and Shells

Chapter 2

Bending of Rectangular Thin Plates

2.1 Introduction:

Flat plates are extensively used in many engineering application like roof and floor of

buildings, deck slab of bridges, foundation of footing, water tanks, bulk heads, turbine disks etc.

plates used in such applications are normally subjected to lateral loads, causing bending of the

plate. The geometry of the plate normally defined by the middle plane which is plane

equidistance from the top and bottom faces of the plate. The thickness of the plate (h) is

measured in a direction normal to the middle plane of the plate. The flexural properties of the

plate largely depend on its thickness rather than its two dimensions (length and width). Plate is

subjected to moments and forces as shown in figure, transverse shear forces acts perpendicular to

the plane of the plate whereas central shear forces acts in the plane of the plate. In general, plate

problems can be classified into three major categories viz. thin plate, moderately thick plate and

thick plate, depending upon the thickness of the plate.

Theory of Plates and Shells

If the thickness of the plate is very small as compared to the other two dimensions, then such a

plate can be called as thin plate. A plate can be considered as thin if the ratio of thickness to the

lesser of other two dimensions is less than 0.05. The simplest and most widely used plate theory

is classical small deflection theory of thin isotropic and anisotropic plates.

2.2 Small Deflection Theory / Kirchhoffs Thin Plate Bending Theory / Classical Plate

Theory:

The classical thin plate theory is based on Love-Kirchhoffs hypothesis which makes

assumptions similar to those made by the Bernoulli-Navier hypothesis used in the theory of thin

or shallow beams. If the deflection is not small, then the bending of the plate is accompanied by

in plane stresses. The nature and magnitude of these in plane stresses depends not only

magnitude of the deflection but also type of support provided at the edges of the plate.

2.2.1 Assumptions in small deflection theory:

The following fundamental assumptions are made in the classical small deflection theory of

thin homogenous elastic plates.

1. Straight line initially normal to the middle surface to the plate remains straight and normal to

the deformed middle surface of the plate and unchanged in length.

Note: This assumption corresponds to the Bernoullis melier hypothesis for the deflection of

beam.

2. Displacement w is assumed to be very small. This means the slope of the deflected surface is

small and hence square of the slope would be negligible in comparison with unity

3. The normal stresses x and y , inplane shear stress xy are assumed to be zero at middle

Note: This assumption is valid if deflection w is very small as compared to the thickness of

plate w h

4. Stress z i.e. transverse normal stress is small as compared to other stress components and

may be neglected in stress strain relationship.

Theory of Plates and Shells

z x , y , xy

The above assumptions, known as Kirchhoffs hypothesis, reduce the three dimensional plate

problems to two dimensions. Hence in Cartesian coordinate system, only normal stresses

x and y and shear stress xy would exists in the plate, and these stresses are function of two

coordinates viz x and y

u

sin

z

w u

sin

x z

w w w

u z sin

x x x

Under the second assumption, points on the middle surface of the plate can be assumed to be

displaced only in the z direction. For other points of plate, the corresponding u and v

Theory of Plates and Shells

displacements in the x and y direction are proportional to their distances from the middle surface.

w

Thus point is displaced by the amount u z in the x direction and by the amount

x

w

v z in the y direction. Therefore displacements in the x, y and z directions are given as.

y

w

u z a

x

w

v z b (2.1)

y

w w x, y c

To obtain components of strain put equation (2.1) in the (1.20)

2w

x z a

x 2

2w

y z 2 b (2.2)

y

2w

xy 2 z c

xy

To find out corresponding stresses put (2.2) in the equation (1.23)

z E 2w 2w

x a

1 2 x 2 y 2

z E 2w 2w

y b

1 2 y 2 x 2

(2.3)

2w E 2w

xy 2G c

xy 1 xy

internal forces and external load q per unit area. For thin plates, the dead load of the plate can be

combined with lateral load q. since the plate element considered is very small we will not

Theory of Plates and Shells

consider the variation of forces on each edge, but instead assume that the mean value of forces

would be acting at the centre of each face or edge. The bending and twisting moments and shear

forces acting on the plate area of unit width and height h are shown in following figure.

Where

M x , M y Bending moments on a plane normal to the x and y axes respectively

It is assumed that positive moments produce tension in the fibres located at the bottom part of

plate. Now, since moments are resultant of the stresses developed in the plate, these are called

stress resultant and are forces per unit length of the plate. Which are given by

h / 2 h / 2

Mx

h / 2

x .b .z .dz .dy

h / 2

x .z .dz (2.4)

Substitute the value of x from equation (2.3 a) in the equation (2.4) to obtain M x

Theory of Plates and Shells

h/ 2

2 w 2w

2

E

Mx

1 2 x 2

h / 2

z dz.

y 2

h/ 2

E 2w 2w z3

Mx

1 2 x 2 y 2 3 h / 2

Eh3 2w 2w

Mx 2

12 1 2 x y 2

2w 2w

Mx D 2 (2.5)

x y 2

Eh3

Where D Flexural Regidity of Plate and w denotes small deflection of the plate

12 1 2

h / 2 h / 2

My

h / 2

y .b .z .dz .dy

h / 2

y .z .dz (2.6)

Substitute the value of y from equation (2.3 b) into the equation (2.6) to obtain M y , hence

2w 2w

My D 2 (2.7)

y x 2

Now, the shearing stresses xy give the twisting moment. Therefore twisting moment will be

h/ 2

M xy

h / 2

xy .z .dz (2.8)

Substitute the value of xy from equation (2.3 c) into the equation (2.8) to obtain M xy , hence we

get

h/ 2

E 2w 2

M xy

1

h / 2

xy

z dz.

Theory of Plates and Shells

h/ 2

E 2w z3

1 xy 3 h / 2

M xy

M xy

Eh3 1 2 w

12 1 1 xy

Eh3 1 2w

M xy

12 1 2 xy

2w

M xy D 1 (2.9)

xy

Now taking moments of all forces on the element with respect to x axis and equating to zero, we

obtained the equation of equilibrium

Mx 0

M y M xy

My dy dx M y dx M xy dx dy M xy dy

y x

Qy dy Qx dy dy

Qy dy dx dy Qx dy Qx dx dy q x , y dx dy 0

y 2 x 2 2

M y M xy

dx dy dx dy Qy dx dy 0

y x

M y M xy

Qy 0 (2.10)

y x

While obtaining above equilibrium equation, the moment due to lateral load q and the moment

Qy

due to the rate of change of shear forces viz have been neglected since these quantities are

y

multiplied by terms which are very small.

M y M xy 2w 2w

Qy D 2 (2.11)

y x y x 2 y

Theory of Plates and Shells

In the same manner, by taking moments with respect to the y axis ( M y 0 ), we get

M x M xy

Qx 0 (2.12)

x y

M x M xy 2w 2w

Qx D 2 (2.13)

x y x x 2 y

Considering all the forces acting on the element in the z direction we obtain the following

equation of equilibrium. If q x, y = intensity of distributed external load on the plate surface, then

Fz 0

Qx Qy

Qx dx dy Qx dy Qy dy dx Qy dx q x ,y dx dy 0

x y

Qx Qy

dx dy dx dy q x ,y dx dy 0

x y

Qx Qy

q x , y 0 (2.14)

x y

Since there are no forces in the x and y directions and no moments with respect to the z axis, the

three equations (2.10), (2.12) and (2.14) completely define the equilibrium of the element. Let us

eliminate the shearing forces Qx and Qy from these equations by determining them from

equations (2.10) and (2.12) and substitute into the equation (2.14). Hence

M x M xy M y M xy

q x ,y 0

x x y y y x

2 M x M xy M y M xy

2 2 2

q x,y 0

x 2 xy y 2 xy

2M x 2 M xy 2 M y

2 q x,y 0 (2.15)

x 2 xy y 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

To represent this equation in terms of the deflections w of the plate, use equations (2.5), (2.7) and

(2.9), we obtain

2 2w 2 w 2 2w

D 2

xy

2 D 1

x 2 x y 2 xy

2 2w 2w

D 2 2

q x ,y 0

y 2 y x

4w 4w 4w 4w 4w

D 4 2 2 2 1 2 2 4 2 2 q x ,y 0

x x y x y y x y

4w 4w 4w q x,y

2 (2.16)

x 4

x y

2 2

y 4

D

This latter equation can also be written in the symbolic form

2

2 2 q x ,y

2 2 w

x y D

q x ,y

2 2

w

D

2

2 2

Where 2 2 Laplacian operator

2

x y

q x , y

4 w (2.17)

D

Which is the Lagrange equilibrium equation for the bending of thin plate with constant

thickness. Therefore the solution of the problem of bending of plates by a lateral load reduces to

the integration of equation (2.17). If, for a particular case, a solution of this equation is found that

satisfies the conditions at the boundaries of the plate, then bending and twisting moments can be

calculated from the equations (2.5), (2.7) and (2.9). The corresponding normal and shearing

stresses are obtained from equation (2.3).

Theory of Plates and Shells

Mx M h 6Mx

x Z 3 x

I

h /12 2 h2

6 M x max

x max (2.18)

h2

6My 6 M xy

Similarly y max 2

and xy max (2.19)

h h2

Equations (2.11) and (2.13) are used to determine the shearing forces Qx and Qy . The shearing

stresses xz and yz can now be determined by assuming that they are distributed across the

xz max

3 Vx

2 h

and

yz max

3 Vy

2 h

(2.20)

1) Simply supported edge conditions:

Plate boundaries that is prevented from deflecting but free to rotate about a line along the

boundary edges such as hinge is defined as simply supported edge. Along the simply supported

edge the bending moment and deflection would be zero.

The condition on a simply supported edge parallel to y axis at x = a

w xa 0

2w 2w (2.21)

D 2 0

y 2 x a

Mx

x

xa

2w

Mx D 2 0 (2.22)

x x a

xa

Theory of Plates and Shells

w y b 0

2w 2w (2.23)

My D 2 2 0

y b

y x y b

Since the changes of w w.r.t. x co-ordinate vanishes along the edge

2w

My D 2 0 (2.24)

y y b

ya

If a plate is clamped the deflection and slope of the middle surface must vanish at the boundary.

on a clamped edge parallel to y axis at x = a the boundary conditions are

w

w xa 0 0 (2.25)

x x a

w

w y b 0 0 (2.26)

y y b

3) Free edge condition: In the most general case a twisting moment, bending moment and

transverse shear force acts on an edge of the plate. An edge on which all these three stresses

vanishes is defined as free edge.

M x M xy Qx 0

xa

(2.27)

M y M yx Qy 0

y b

Kirchhoff Paradox: Later on Kirchhoff provided that three boundary conditions are too

many and so that two conditions are sufficient for the complete determination of w satisfy the

q

equation 4 w . Kirchhoff pointed out that the two conditions prescribing M xy and Qx can

D

be replaced by a single one. The reason is that the twisting moment acting on an element of the

Theory of Plates and Shells

edge of the plate may be replaced by two statically equivalent vertical forces, which can then

combined with the vertical shearing forces.

Note: owing to such replacement the stress distribution in the intermediate neighborhood of the

edge will naturally be affected but the stress distribution in the rest of the plate essentially the

same.

Therefore concentrated force R at corners of rectangular plate supported around the edges in

some manner and under the action of transverse load to prevent middle surface deflection at the

corners.

R 2 M xy (2.28)

The corner of rectangular plate under the action of uniformly distributed load tends to

rise. This action is prevented by the concentrated reactions at the corners.

2.3 Naviers Solution for Lateral Deflection of Simply Supported Rectangular Plate:

The solution of preceding article can be used in calculating deflections produced in a

simply supported rectangular plate y any kind of loading given by the equation q q x, y .

Theory of Plates and Shells

Consider a rectangular plate of sides a and b which is simply supported on four sides and

subjected to distributed load q , which is function of two variables x and y can be expressed in

the domain 0 x a , 0 y b by a double trigonometric series given by

m x n y

w w

m 1 n 1

mn sin

a

sin

b

(2.29)

m x n y

q x,y q

m 1 n 1

mn sin

a

sin

b

where m,n 1,3,5......... (2.30)

To calculate any particular coefficient qmn of this series, we multiply both sides of equation

(2.30) by sin j x / a sin k y / b and integrate with respective x and y from 0 to a and 0 to

b. observing that

x a y b x a y b

j x k y m x n y j x k y

q x,y sin sin dx dy qmn sin sin sin sin dx dy (2.31)

x 0 y 0

a b x 0 y 0

a b a b

x a

m x j x

Performing integration with respect to x, we get sin

x 0

a

sin

a

dx 0 at m j

yb

n y k y

Performing integration with respect to y, we get sin

y0

b

sin

b

dy 0 at n k

x a x a

m x j x m x

x 0 sin a sin a dx sin

2

dx

x 0 a

Theory of Plates and Shells

xa

1 m x

2 x0

1 cos 2

dx

a

xa

1 m x a

x sin 2 a 2m

2 x0

x a

m x j x a

sin

x 0

a

sin

a

dx

2

(2.32)

y a

n y k y b

sin

y0

b

sin

b

dy

2

(2.33)

x a y b

m x n y ab

q

x 0 y 0

x,y

sin

a

sin

b

dx dy

4

qmn

x a y b

4 m x n y

qmn

ab q

x 0 y 0

x, y

sin

a

sin

b

dx dy (2.34)

Performing the integration indicated in equation (2.34) for a given load distribution, i.e., for a

given q x,y , we find the coefficient of series (2.30) and represent in this way the given load as a

sum of partial sinusoidal loadings. Now, Substitute the solution of w (2.29) and q x,y (2.30) in

m 4 4 m 2 n 2 4 n 4 4 m x m x qmn m x m x

a4 2 4 wmn sin sin sin sin

a a a a

2 2

a b b D

qmn

wmn (2.35)

m m2 n2 4 n4 4

4 4

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

Substitute equation (2.35) in the equation (2.29)

Theory of Plates and Shells

qmn m x n y

w

m 1 n 1 m4 4 m2 n 2 4 n 4 4

sin

a

sin

b

(2.36)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

Performing Integration with respect to x we get

xa

m x 2a

sin

x0

a

dx

m

(2.37)

y b

n y 2b

sin

y 0

b

dy

n

(2.38)

4 2a 2b

qmn m n

ab

16 q0

for m, n 1, 3, 5 ..........

qmn mn 2 (2.39)

0 for m, n 2, 4, 6 ..........

16q0 1

wmn (2.40)

mn 2 m4 4 m2 n2 4 n4 4

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

Substitute magnitude of wmn from equation (2.40) into the equation (2.36) to obtain the

deflection of the plate, therefore the expression for the deflected shape of the plate can now be

written as

Theory of Plates and Shells

16q0 1 m x n y

w mn 6

sin

2 sin

b

(2.41)

m 1 n 1 m 2

n 2 a

D 2 2

a b

Equation of Deflection for rectangular plate subjected to uniformly distributed load

In case of uniform load we have a deflection surface symmetrical with respect to axes

x a / 2, y b / 2; and quit naturally all terms with even numbers for m or n series (2.41)

vanish, since they are unsymmetrical with respect to the above mentioned axes. The maximum

deflection of plate is at its center and is found by substituting x a / 2, y b / 2; in the equation

(2.41).

m n

16q0 1

1

1

w 2 (2.42)

m 1 n 1 mn 6 m2 n2

2

D 2 2

a b

This is a rapidly converging series, and a satisfactory approximation is obtained by taking only

the first term of the series, which, for example in the case of square plate gives

4 q0 a 4 0.0416 q0 a 4

wmax (2.43)

6 D D

The expressions for bending moments and twisting moments can be obtained from equation

(2.5), (2.7) and (2.9). Since the moments are expressed by second derivatives of series,

differentiate equation (2.41) w.r.t. x and y.

m x n y

sin sin

w a b m

2 2 2

16q0

x 2

mn 6 2 2 (2.44)

m 1 n 1 m2 n2 a

D 2 2

a b

m x n y

cos sin

w a b m

3 3 3

16q0

x3

mn 6 2 3 (2.45)

m 1 n 1 m2 n2 a

D 2 2

a b

Theory of Plates and Shells

m x n y

sin sin

w a b n

2 2 2

16q0

y 2

mn 6 2 2 (2.46)

m 1 n 1 m2 n2 b

D 2 2

a b

m x n y

cos cos

w b mn

2 2

16q0 a

xy

mn 6 2 (2.47)

m 1 n 1 m2 n2 ab

D 2 2

a b

m x n y

cos sin

w b mn

3 2 3

16q0 a

xy 2

mn 6 2 2 (2.48)

m 1 n 1 m2 n2 ab

D 2 2

a b

Substitute derivatives from equations (2.44) and (2.46) into the equation (2.5) to obtain bending

moment in x direction i.e. M x

16q0 1 m2 2 n2 2 m x n y

M x D 2 2 sin sin

m 1 n 1 mn 6 m2

2

n2 a b a b

D 2 2

a b

16q0 1 m2 n2 m x n y

Mx mn m

4 2 2

2 sin sin

a b

(2.49)

m 1 n 1

2

n a

2 b

a 2 b2

Similarly Substitute derivatives from equations (2.44) and (2.46) into the equation (2.7) to obtain

bending moment in y direction i.e. M y

16q0 1 n2 m2 m x n y

My mn 4 m2 2 2

sin

a2

sin

a b

(2.50)

m 1 n 1 n2 b

a 2 b2

It is seen that maximum bending moments accurse at the centre of plate. Substituting x a / 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

16q0 1 m2 n2

M x max 2 2

2 (2.51)

m 1 n 1 mn 4 m2 n2 a b

a2

b2

n2 m2

M y max

16q0

mn 4 m2

1

2 2

2 (2.52)

m 1 n 1 n2 b a

a2

b2

Twisting moment from equation (2.9)

m x n y

cos cos

b mn

2

16q0 a

M xy D 1 mn 6 2

m 1 n 1 m2 n2 ab

D 2 2

a b

16q0

1 m x n y

M xy 1

ab 4

n 1 m

2

cos

a

cos

b

(2.53)

m 1

2

n2

a 2 b2

The expression for vertical shear forces can be obtained from equation (2.11) and (2.13)

M xy M xy

Qx Vx And Qy Vy (2.54)

y x

In which Vx and Vy are the reactive forces at the supported edges of the plate. Therefore the

expressions for resultant shears or reactive forces at the supported edges of the plate can be

obtained from following equations. For the edges x = a we find

M xy 3w 3w

Vx Qx x3

xy 2

D 2 (2.55)

y x a

In the same manner reactive force for the edge y = b,

M xy 3w 3w

Vy Qy y 3

x 2y

D 2 (2.56)

x y b

Theory of Plates and Shells

Therefore reactive force in x direction is given by substituting equation (2.45) and (2.48) into the

equation (2.55), we obtain

16q0 1 m x n y m

3 3

cos sin

m 1 n 1 mn D m n a b a

6 2 3

2 2

a2 2

b

Vx D

2

m x n y mn

2 3

16q0 1

cos sin

m 1 n 1 mn

2 2

a b ab

6 2

m 2

n

D 2 2

a b

16q0 1 m3 mn2 m x n y

Vx

m 1 n 1 mn m

3 2 3

2 2 cos sin

a b

(2.57)

2

n2 a ab

a 2 b2

16q0 1 m3 mn2 n y

Vx x a

m 1 n 1 mn m

3 2 3

2 2 sin

b

(2.58)

2

n2 a ab

a 2 b2

Similarly, reactive force in y direction is given by using equation (2.56)

16q0 1 n3 m2 n m x n y

Vy

m 1 n 1 mn m

3 2 3

2 2 sin

a

cos

b

(2.59)

2

n2 b ab

a 2 b2

n3 m2 n m x

Vy

16q0 1

yb

m 1 n 1 mn m

3 2 3

2 2 sin

a

(2.60)

2

n2 b ab

a 2 b2

The minus sign indicates that the reactions on the plate act upward. From symmetry it may be

concluded that equations (2.58) and (2.60) also represents pressure distribution along the

sides x 0 and y 0 , respectively.

From equation (2.28) the concentrated reaction at each corner can be determined as

Theory of Plates and Shells

32q0

1 m x n y

R 1

ab 4

n 1 m

cos

a

2 cos

b

(2.61)

m 1

2

n 2

a 2 b2

Total downward force = 4R

128q0

1 m x n y

4 R 1

ab 4

n 1 m

cos

a

2 cos

b

(2.62)

m 1

2

n2

a 2 b2

Now bending stresses in x and y directions are determined using equation (2.18), therefore

bending stress in x direction is given by

96q0 1 m2 n2 m x n y

x h2 mn 4 m2 2 2

2 2

sin sin

a b

(2.63)

m 1 n 1 n a b

a 2 b2

The maximum bending stress is at the center of the plate i.e. x a / 2 and y b / 2 , hence the

maximum bending stress in x direction is

96 q0 1 m2 n2

x max h2 mn 4 m2 2 2

b2

(2.64)

m 1 n 1 n2 a

a 2 b2

Similarly, Bending stress in y direction

96 q0 1 n2 m2 m x n y

y h mn m

2 4 2 2

2

sin

sin

b

(2.65)

m 1 n 1

2

n 2

b a a

a 2 b2

The maximum bending stress is at the center of the plate i.e. x a / 2 and y b / 2 , hence the

maximum bending stress in x direction is

n2 m2

y 96 q0 1

h2 mn 4 m2 2 2

a2

(2.66)

n2 b

max

m 1 n 1

a 2 b2

Theory of Plates and Shells

The maximum shearing stress will be at the middle of the sides of the plate. Observing that the

total transverse force Vx and Vy is distributed along the thickness of plate according to parabolic

24q0 1 m3 mn 2

xz max mn 3 2 3

2

ab 2

(2.67)

m 1 n 1 m2 n2 a

a 2 b2

n3 m2 n

yz

24q0 1

2 3

2 2 (2.68)

m 1 n 1 mn m

3

n2 b ab

max 2

a2

b2

2.3.2 Simply supported Plate carrying Sinusoidal load:

Taking coordinate axes as shown in figure, we assume that the load distributed over the surface

of the plate is given by the expression

x y

q x, y q0 sin sin (2.69)

a b

In which q0 represents the intensity of load at the centre of plate as shown in figure. Substituting

equation (2.69) in the equation (2.34) and after integration we get Fourier coefficient

q for m 1 n 1

qmn 0 (2.70)

0 for m 1 n 1

Theory of Plates and Shells

w0 Mx 0 for x 0 and x a

(2.71)

w0 My 0 for y 0 and y b

It may seen from the boundary conditions are satisfied if we take for deflection the expression,

x y

w w1 sin sin (2.72)

a b

Substitute qmn q0 in the equation (2.35) we get

q0

w1 2

(2.73)

1 1

D 2 2

4

a b

Substitute equation (2.73) in the equation (2.36) and we conclude that the deflection surface

satisfying governing differential equation and boundary conditions.

q0 x y

w sin sin (2.74)

a b

2

4 1 1

D 2 2

a b

The expressions for bending moments and twisting moments can be obtained from equation

(2.5), (2.7) and (2.9). Differentiate equation (2.74) w.r.t. x and y we get

q0 1 1 x y

Mx 2 2 sin sin (2.75)

b

2

1 1 a b a

2 2

2

a b

q0 1 1 x y

My 2 2 sin sin (2.76)

1 b a a b

2

2 1

2 2

a b

q0 x y

M xy 1 cos cos (2.77)

a b

2

1 1

2 2 2

a b

Theory of Plates and Shells

It is seen that the maximum deflection and the maximum bending moments are at the centre of

plate. Substituting x a / 2 and y b / 2 in the equations (2.75), (2.76) and (2.77), we obtain

q0

w max 2

(2.78)

1 1

D 2 2

4

a b

q0 1

M x max 2 2 (2.79)

1 a b

2

1

2 2 2

a b

1

M y max

q0

2 2 (2.80)

1 b a

2

1

2 2 2

a b

In the particular cases of a square plate, a = b, and the forgiving formulae becomes

q0 a 4 1 q0 a 2

wmax

4D 4

M x max M

y max

4 2

(2.81)

We use equations (2.11) and (2.13) to calculate the shearing forces and obtained

q0 x y

Qx cos sin (2.82)

a b

2

1 1

a 2 2

a b

q0 x y

Qy cos sin (2.83)

a b

2

1 1

b 2 2

a b

Therefore the expressions for resultant shears or reactive forces at the supported edges of the

plate can be obtained from the equations (2.11) and (2.13).

M xy q0 1 1 x y

Vx Qx 3 2 2 cos sin (2.84)

y 1 1 a

2

ab a b

2 2

a b

For the edges x = a we find

Theory of Plates and Shells

q0 1 2 y

Vx x a 3 sin (2.85)

b

2 2

1 1 a ab

2 2

a b

Similarly,

M xy q0 1 1 x y

Vy Qy 3 2 2 sin cos (2.86)

x 1 1 b

2

a b a b

2 2

a b

For the edges y = b we find

1 2 x

V

y yb

q0

3 2 sin

2

a

(2.87)

1 1 b

2 2

ab

a b

Hence the pressure distribution follows the sinusoidal law. The minus sign indicates that the

reactions on the plate act upward. From symmetry it may be concluded that equations (2.85) and

(2.87) also represents pressure distribution along the sides x 0 and y 0 , respectively.

Now bending stresses in x and y directions are determined

6 q0 1 1 x y

x 2 2 2 sin sin (2.88)

h 1 a b a b

2

2 1

2 2

a b

6 q0 1 1 x y

y 2 2 2 sin sin (2.89)

h b

2

1 1 b a a

2 2

2

a b

The maximum bending stress is at the centre of the plate. Hence substitute x a / 2 and y b / 2

To fine the maximum bending stress.

6 q0 1

x max 2 2 2 (2.90)

h 1 a b

2

1

2 2 2

a b

Theory of Plates and Shells

6 q01

y 2 2 2 (2.91)

h 1 b a

2

1

2 2 2

a b

Consider rectangular plate of size a b is simply supported as shown in figure. The plate

is loaded with patch load of size u v with intensity q0 / m 2 .

The centre of the patch load will be at a distance x0 from the origin in the x direction and y0

from the origin in the y direction. Patch load is acting over the area u v , therefore the intensity

P

q x , y Where P = Total load

uv

The Fourier coefficient qmn for this case can be determined from equation (2.34). Therefore

Theory of Plates and Shells

x0 u / 2 y0 v / 2

4P m x n y

qmn

a bu v

x0 u / 2

y0 v / 2

sin

a

sin

b

dx dy (2.92)

x0 u / 2 x0 u / 2

m x a m x

x0 u / 2

sin

a

dx

m

cos

a x0 u / 2

a m x0 m u m x0 m u

cos a 2a cos a 2a

m

a m x0 m u

2 sin a sin 2a

m

x0 u / 2

m x 2a m x0 m u

x0 u / 2

sin

a

dx sin

m a

sin

2a

(2.93)

y0 v / 2

n y 2b n y0 n v

y0 v / 2

sin

b

dy sin

n b

sin

2b

(2.94)

Therefore substitute equations (2.93) and (2.94) into the equation (2.34) to determined value of

coefficient qmn

4 P 2a m x0 m u 2b n y0 n v

qmn sin sin sin sin

a bu v m a 2a n b 2b

Hence the Fourier coefficient qmn for a patch load can be obtained as

16 P m x0 n y0 m u n v

qmn 2

sin sin sin sin (2.95)

mnu v a b 2a 2b

If patch load is acting at the centre of the plate, i.e. x0 a / 2 and y0 b / 2 , put into the equation

(2.95), we obtain

Theory of Plates and Shells

16 P m u n v

qmn sin sin (2.96)

mnu v 2a 2b

2

16 P

If u a and v b , equation (2.96) becomes qmn which is similar to Fourier

mn 2 a b

coefficient obtained for uniformly distributed load. Substitute the value of qmn in the above

16 P 1 m u n v

wmn

m 1 n 1 mn u v 2 m 4

mn

4

2 2 4

n

4 4

sin sin

2a 2b

(2.97)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

Substitute magnitude of wmn from equation (2.97) into the equation (2.36) to determined

deflection w of the plate

m u n v

sin sin

16 P 2a 2b m x n y

w

m 1 n 1 mn u v 2

m

4 4

mn2 2 4

n

4 4

sin

a

sin

b

(2.98)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

The series converge rapidly, and we can obtain the deflection at any point on the plate with

sufficient accuracy by taking only first few terms of the series. Let us, for example, calculate the

maximum deflection, i.e. when patch load at the center of the plate i.e. x a / 2 and y b / 2

16 P 1 m u n v

wmax sin sin (2.99)

m 1 n 1 mn u v 6 m 4

mn2 2

n

4

2a 2b

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

Theory of Plates and Shells

Fourier coefficient for the plate carrying concentrated load can be determined from equation

(2.95) by making some mathematical adjustment. Hence using following mathematical

adjustment in the equation (2.95), we obtain

m u n v

m x sin sin

16 P n y0 2a m u 2b n v

qmn sin 0

sin

mnu v 2 a b m u 2a n v 2b

2a 2b

m u n v

sin sin

4P m x0 n y0 2a 2b

qmn sin sin

ab a b m u n v

2a 2b

Hence after simplification the Fourier coefficient qmn for a concentrated load can be obtained as

4P m x0 n y0 sin

qmn sin a sin b lim 1 (2.100)

ab 0

Substitute the value of Fourier coefficient qmn in the above equation (2.35) to determine value of

Theory of Plates and Shells

4P 1 m x0 n y0

wmn

m 1 n 1 ab m4 4 m2 n 2 4 n 4 4

sin

a

sin

b

(2.101)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

Substitute magnitude of wmn from equation (2.101) into the equation (2.31) to determined

deflection w of the plate.

m x0 n y0

sin sin

4P a b m x n y

w

m 1 n 1 ab m 4 4

mn2 2 4

n

4 4

sin

a

sin

b

(2.102)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

If concentrated load is acting at the centre of the plate, put x0 a / 2 and y0 b / 2 in the above

equation, we get

4P 1 m x n y

w

m 1 n 1 ab m 4

mn

2 2 44

n

4 4

sin

a

sin

b

(2.103)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

(2.103) becomes

4P 1

wmax

m 1 n 1 a b 4 m 4

m2 n2 n4

(2.104)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

This is a rapidly converging series, and a satisfactory approximation is obtained by taking only

the first term of the series, which, for example in the case of square plate gives

P a2 0.0112 P a 2

wmax 4 (2.105)

D D

Theory of Plates and Shells

2.3.5 Simply supported plate carrying linearly varying load (hydrostatic pressure):

In this case let assumed simply supported rectangular plate subjected to linearly varying

load as shown in figure. Intensity of loading is zero at x 0 and maximum at x a i.e. q0 .

But for linearly varying load the value of q x, y at any point at a distance of x is given by the

q0 x

expression q x, y

a

The Fourier coefficient qmn for this case can be determined by substituting value of q x, y into the

equation (2.34)

x a yb

4q m x n y

qmn 20

a b

x 0 y0

x sin

a

sin

b

dx dy (2.106)

After performing integration with respect to x and y in the equation (2.106), we get

x a yb

m x a2 n y 2b

x 0

x sin

a

dx

m

And

y0

sin

b

dy

n

(2.107)

Substitute values of integration from equation (2.107) into the equation (2.106) to obtain the

Fourier coefficient qmn .

4q0 a 2 2b

qmn

a2 b m n

Theory of Plates and Shells

8q0

qmn (2.108)

mn 2

Substitute magnitude of Fourier coefficient qmn from equation (2.108) in the equation (2.35) to

8q0 1

wmn

m 1 n 1 mn 2 m

4

m 2 n 2 4 n 4 4

4

(2.109)

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

Put magnitude of wmn into the equation (2.36) to obtained expression for deflection of the plate.

8q0 1 m x n y

w

m 1 n 1 mn 2 m mn

4 4

2 2 4

n

4 4

sin

a

sin

b

D 4 2 2 2 4

a a b b

8q0 1 m x n y

w Dmn m

6 2

sin

a

sin

b

(2.110)

m 1 n 1

2

n

2

a 2 b2

Deflection is maximum at the center of the plate, therefore substitute x a / 2 and y b / 2 in the

above equation, hence we get

8q0 1

wmax (2.111)

m 1 n 1 Dmn m2

6

n2

2

a 2 b2

This is a rapidly converging series, and a satisfactory approximation is obtained by taking only

the first term of the series, which, for example in the case of square plate gives

2q0 a 4

wmax (2.112)

D 6

Theory of Plates and Shells

The Naviers solution is very straight forward; it applies only to the limited category of

simply supported rectangular plate. A more general technique which yields the lateral deflection

of plate with boundary conditions other than simply supported was developed by Levy.

2.4.1 Levys solution for rectangular plate with at least two opposite edges simply

supported carrying a uniformly distributed load.

Assumptions:

1. M Levy assumed that two opposite edges are simply supported and other two edges with

arbitrary supports or any type of supports.

2. It is assumed that the sides x = 0 and x = a are simply supported.

3. It is assumed that the whole load q is shared along x direction producing deflection

w1 x

In figure a plate a b bounded by x-y co-ordinates. The origin is o is taken at the midpoint of the

side b. the boundary condition at x 0 and x a are simply supported whereas those at

y b / 2 May arbitrary. A typical plate strip of unit width AB spanning along x is assumed to

behave as a simply supported beam of span a with the difference that the flexural rigidity of

Theory of Plates and Shells

this strip is D not EI. The applied load q q x, y is considered as prismatic i.e. along the x

Thus, the solution w w x, y of the plate can be taken as sum of complimentary

w w1 x w2 x, y (2.113)

Solution for w1 x

For isotropic plate the particular solution is function of x only. Since it is solution of any

arbitrary plate strip AB as a beam satisfying the differential equation (2.16)

Since w1 x is a function of x only derivative with respective y vanishes from the equation.

4 w1 x q1 x

(2.114)

x 4 D

Where D is the flexural rigidity of the plate

It is not essential that particular solution has to satisfy all the boundary conditions at the four

edges. Here it satisfy all the boundary conditions at the two edges viz at x = a and x = a both of

which simply supported, i.e.,

w1 0 at x 0 and x a

2 w1 (2.115)

0 at x 0 and x a

x 2

The expression for w1 is obtained from equation (2.114). Let the solution of w1 and q1 can be

expressed interms of sine series

m x

w1 w

m 1

m sin

a

(2.116)

m x

And q1 q

m 1

m sin

a

(2.117)

Theory of Plates and Shells

Substitute equation (2.116) and (2.117) in the equation (2.114) to obtained the constant wm

m x m

m x

4 4

1

m 1

wm sin

a a

4

D

q

m 1

m sin

a

qm a 4

wm

m 1 m4 4 D

(2.118)

To determine the value of qm , multiply equation (2.117) by sin j x / a both sides we get

xa xa

j x j x m x

x0 q1 sin a dx

x 0

qm sin

a

sin

a

dx (2.119)

xa

j x m x

Performing integration at j m , we get

x 0

sin

a

sin

a

dx 0

x a x a xa

j x m x m x 1 m x a a

x 0 sin a sin a dx x 0 sin a dx 2 x sin 2 a 2m x 0 2

2

(2.120)

Put magnitude of above integration from equation (2.120) into the equation (2.119) to obtain the

value of Fourier coefficient qm . Hence

xa

m x qm a

x 0

q1 sin

a

dx

2

xa

2 m x

qm

a

x 0

q1 sin

a

dx (2.121)

4q0

qm (2.122)

m

Substitute (2.122) into the equation (2.118) we get

Theory of Plates and Shells

4q0 a 4

wm

m 1 m5 5 D

(2.123)

4q0 a 4 m x

w1

m 1 m D

5 5

sin

a

4q0 a 4 1 m x

w1

D m 1 m

5 5

sin

a

(2.124)

Solution for w2 x , y

Let assume the solution of w2 x , y which is product of two functions, one is function of y i.e.

m x

w2 x, y Y

m 1

m sin

a

(2.125)

Differentiate equation (2.125) with respective x and y we get

4 w2 m 4 4

m x

x 4

a4

Y m sin

a

m 1

w2 m

m x

4 2 2

x 2 y 2

a 2 m 1

Y m

II

sin

a

(2.126)

4 w2

m x

Ym sin

IV

y 4 m 1 a

m4 4

m x m2 2

m x

m x q0

a4

m1

Ym sin

a

2

a2

m1

YmII sin

a

Y

m1

IV

m sin

a

D

Theory of Plates and Shells

IV m 2 2 II m 4 4 m x q0

m

m 1

Y 2 2

Ym 4

Ym sin

a

(2.127)

a a D

The general solution for the above fourth order differential equation is taken in the form as

y yc P.I .

m y m y m y m y

Am cosh Bm sinh C m sinh

qa 4 a a a a

Ym (2.128)

D m y m y

Dm cosh

a a

Since the loading is considered prismatic along y, identical boundary conditions at y b / 2

renders the problem symmetric about x axis. In that case the constant Cm and Dm will vanish

i.e. Cm Dm 0 in the equation (2.83) and for antisymmetric problems in which loading on

the plate maintains antisymmetry about x- axis even if the boundary conditions at y b / 2 are

Therefore

For the symmetric problems:

qa 4 m y m y m y

Ym Am cosh a Bm a sinh a (2.129)

D

And for the antisymmetric problems:

qa 4 m y m y m y

Ym Cm sinh a Dm a cosh a (2.130)

D

Therefore solution of symmetric problems is given by substituting equation (2.129) in the

equation (2.125) we get

qa 4 m y m y m y m x

w2 x, y Am cosh Bm sinh sin (2.131)

m 1 D a a a a

Theory of Plates and Shells

Therefore to find expression for deflection of surface substitute equation (2.124) and (2.131) in

the equation (2.113) we get

4q0 a 4 m x

qa 4 m y m y m y m x

w

m 1 m D

5 5

sin

a

m1 D Am cosh

a

Bm

a

sinh sin

a a

qa 4

4 m y m y m y m x

w

D

m 1

m5 5 Am cosh a Bm a sinh a sin a

(2.132)

Above equation satisfy the boundary condition and equation of equilibrium of the plate.

Now to determine the constants in the equation (2.132) Am and Bm use boundary conditions

given below

w0 for y b / 2 (2.133)

2w

0 for y b / 2 (2.134)

y 2

Therefore using boundary condition from equation (2.133), put y b / 2 into the equation

(2.132) and equate with zero, we get

qa 4

4 m y m y m y m x

D

m 1

m5 5 Am cosh a Bm a sinh a sin a 0

4 m b m b m b

Am cosh Bm sinh 0

m

5 5

2a 2a 2a

m b

Let m

2a

4

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 0 (2.135)

m 5

5

w qa 4 m y m m y m y m m y m m x

y

D m 1 Am sinh a a Bm a cosh a a Bm sinh a a sin a

Theory of Plates and Shells

m y m m y m y m

2 2 2 2

Am cosh a a 2 Bm a sinh a a 2

w sin m x

2

qa 4

y 2

D

m 1

m y m

2 2

m y m

2 2 a

(2.136)

Bm cosh Bm cosh

a a a a

2 2

Substitute y b / 2 into the equation (2.136) and use boundary condition from equation (2.134)

and equate with zero, hence

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 2 Bm cosh m 0 (2.137)

Subtract equation (2.137) from (2.135) we get

4

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 2 Bm cosh m 0

m 5

5

4

2 Bm cosh m

m 5

5

2

Bm (2.138)

m cosh m

5 5

Substitute value of Bm from equation (2.138) into the equation (2.135) to obtained constant Am

4 2

Am cosh m m sinh m 0

m 5 5

m cosh m

5 5

2 m tanh m 4

Am cosh m 5 5

m 5 5

m

2 tanh 4

Am cosh m m 5 5 m

m

2 tanh m 4

Am 5m 5 (2.139)

m cosh m

Substitute constants Am and Bm from equations (2.138) and (2.139) into the equation (2.132) to

calculate the deflection of the plate.

Theory of Plates and Shells

4 2 m tanh m 4 m y

5 5 5 5 cosh

m m cosh m a m x

4

qa

w m y a

sin

D m 1 2 m y

5 5 sinh

m cosh m a a

m tanh m 2 m y

1 5 5 cosh

4qa 2m cosh m

4

a m x

w m5 5 D

sin

m 1 2 m y m y a

5 5 sinh

m cosh m a a

m tanh m 2 m y

5 5 cosh

4qa 4qa 2m cosh m a m x

4 4

w m D

5 5

m D

5 5

m y

sin

m y a

m 1

2

m5 5 cosh sinh

m a a

m tanh m 2 m y

5 5 cosh

4

5qa

4qa 4 2m cosh m a m x

w

384 D

m 1 m D

sin (2.140)

m y m y a

5 5

2

m5 5 cosh sinh

a

m a

This series in this expression rapidly converge and sufficient accuracy is obtained by taking only

the first term. Differentiate above equation with respective x and y to determine bending

moments and bending stresses.

Differentiate equation (2.140) with respect to x upto second order, we get

m tanh m 2 m y

5 5 cosh

2w m2 2 5qa 4

4qa 4 2m cosh m a m x

x 2

2

a 384 D

m 1 m D

sin (2.141)

m y m y a

5 5

2

m5 5 cosh sinh

a

m a

Similarly differentiate equation (2.140) with respect to y upto second order, we get

Theory of Plates and Shells

m tanh m 2 m y m

5 5 sinh

2m cosh m a a

w 5qa 4

4qa 4 2 m y m y m m x

y 384 D

5 5

m D m cosh m a

cosh sin (2.142)

a a a

5 5

m 1

2 m m y

5 5 sinh

m cosh m a a

m tanh m 2 m y m

2 2

5 5 cosh 2

2 m cosh m a a

w 5qa 4

2 4

4qa 2 m y 2 2

m y m m x

y 2 384 D

m 1

5 5

m D m cosh m a

5 5

sinh 2 sin

a a a

(2.143)

m y m

2 2

5 5

4

cosh

2

m cosh m a a

Bending and twisting moments can be calculated using equations (2.5), (2.7) and (2.9) and

corresponding normal stresses are found from equation (2.18) and (2.19)

2.4.2 Levys solution for rectangular plate with at least two opposite edges simply

supported carrying linearly varying load:

In this case also the solution w w x, y of the plate can be taken as sum of complimentary

Solution for w1 x

Let assume the solution scheme for w and q from equation (2.116) and (2.117). In case of

q0 x

uniformly varying load, value of load q1 at any point at a distance of x is given by q1

a

Substitute value of q1 into the equation (2.121) to find out the value of Fourier coefficient qm .

Theory of Plates and Shells

xa

2 m x

qm

a

x 0

q1 sin

a

dx

xa

2 q0 x m x

qm

a

x 0

a

sin

a

dx

xa

2q m x

qm 20

a

x 0

x sin

a

dx

2q m x a

a

m x a

a

qm 20 x cos sin

a a m 0 a m 0

2q0

qm (2.144)

m

Therefore substitute value of Fourier coefficient in the equation (2.118) to obtain constant wm

2q0 a 4

wm

m 1 m5 5 D

(2.145)

Put equation (2.145) into the equation (2.116) to obtained deflection of the plate w1 ( x)

2q0 a 4 m x

w1 x

m 1

sin

m D a

5 5 (2.146)

This should satisfy the plate equation and boundary condition at the edges y b / 2

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 50

Theory of Plates and Shells

Solution for w2 x, y

qa 4 m y m y m y m x

w2 x, y Am cosh Bm sinh sin

m1 D a a a a

Therefore the total deflection of surface is given by the equation (2.72)

2q0 a 4 m x

qa 4 m y m y m y m x

w

m 1 m D

5 5

sin

a

m 1 D

Am cosh

a

Bm

a

sinh sin

a a

qa 4

2 m y m y m y m x

w

D

m 1

m5 5 Am cosh a Bm a sinh a sin a

(2.147)

Above equation (2.147) will satisfy the boundary condition and equation of equilibrium.

To determine the constant Am and Bm use boundary conditions from equation (2.133) and

(2.134).

Therefore using boundary condition from equation (2.133) substitutes y b / 2 into the equation

(2.147) and equate with zero, hence we get

2 m b m b m b

Am cosh Bm sinh 0

m5 5

2a 2a 2a

m b

Let m

2a

2

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 0 (2.148)

m 5

5

w qa 4

m y m m y m y m m y m m x

y

D

m 1

Am sinh a a Bm a cosh a a Bm sinh a a sin a

(2.149)

Theory of Plates and Shells

m y m m y m y m

2 2 2 2

Am cosh a a 2 Bm a sinh a a 2

w sin m x

2

qa 4

y 2

D

m 1

m y m

2 2

m y m

2 2 a

(2.150)

Bm cosh Bm cosh

a a a a

2 2

Using boundary condition from equation (2.134) substitutes y b / 2 into the equation (2.150)

and equate with zero, hence we get

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 2 Bm cosh m 0 (2.151)

Subtract equation (2.151) from (2.148)

2

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 2 Bm cosh m 0

m 5

5

2

2 Bm cosh m

m 55

1

Bm (2.152)

m cosh m

5 5

Substitute value of constant Bm from equation (2.152) into the equation (2.148) to obtain Am

2 1

Am cosh m m sinh m 0

m 5 5

m cosh m

5 5

1 2

Am cosh m m sinh m 5 5

m cosh m

5 5

m

m tanh m 2

Am cosh m 5 5

m5 5

m

tanh 2

Am cosh m m 5 5 m

m

tanh m 2

Am m5 5 (2.153)

m cosh m

Theory of Plates and Shells

Substitute values of constants Am and Bm from equations (2.153) and (2.152) into the equation

(2.147) to obtained deflection of the plate

m y

2 sinh

qa4

tanh m 2 m y a m y sin m x

w

D

m 1

5 5 m5 5

m m cosh m

cosh

a m cosh m a a

5 5

(2.154)

Differentiate above equation (2.154) with respect to x and y to determine bending and twisting

moments from equations (2.5), (2.7) and (2.9), and corresponding stresses from equations (2.18),

(2.19) and (2.20)

2.4.3 Levys solution for rectangular plate carrying moments along edges:

Consider a rectangular plate simply supported all along the edges is acted on by moment

M distributed along the edges at y b / 2 . The solution can be efficiently carried out using

levys method. Since the acting load is the moment and not distributed loading the particular

integral part w1 x is absent. Let assume the solution of w2 x , y from equation (2.125)

m x

w w2 x, y Y

m 1

m sin

a

If the moment acting at the edges y b / 2 are M1 and M2 resp. and are an unequal in

magnitude.

Theory of Plates and Shells

Note: since acting load is moment all the four constants ( Am , Bm , Cm and Dm ) will be

The evaluation of constants can be done satisfying the edge condition viz

2w

at y b / 2 w 0; M y D M1 (2.155)

y 2

2w

at y b / 2 w 0; M y D 2 M 2 (2.156)

y

If M1 M2 M then solution is given by equation (2.84) (symmetrical problem) and

(2.129)

m y m y m y m x

w

m 1

Am cosh a Bm a sinh a sin a

(2.157)

m

Let assume m

a

w

m 1

Am cosh m y Bm m y sinh m y sin m x (2.158)

w0 for y b / 2 (2.159)

2w

D 2 M for y b / 2 (2.160)

y

Using boundary condition (2.159), Substitute y b / 2 in the equation (2.158) and equate with

zero, we obtain

b b b

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 0

2 2 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

b

Let assume m m , therefore equation becomes

2

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 0 (2.161)

Now differentiate equation (2.158) with respective y upto second order

w

y

m 1

Am sinh m y m Bm m y cosh m y m Bm sinh m y m sin m x

2w

y 2

m 1

Am cosh m y m2 Bm m y sinh m y m2 2Bm cosh m y m2 sin m x (2.162)

Using boundary condition (2.160), Substitute y b / 2 in the equation (2.162) and equate

with M , hence we get

m b 2 m b m b 2 m b 2 M

Am cosh 2 m Bm 2 sinh 2 m 2Bm cosh 2 m sin m x D

4 M0

Where M is uniformly distributed over the edges and therefore its value is given by M ,

m

Substitute in the above equation we get

m b 2 m b m b 2

Am cosh 2 m Bm 2 sinh 2 m

sin m x 4 M 0 sin m x

m b 2 Dm

2 Bm cosh m

2

4M 0

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 2 Bm cosh m (2.163)

m m2 D

Subtracting equation (2.163) from (2.160), we get

4M 0

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 2 Bm cosh m

m m2 D

4M 0

2 Bm cosh m

m m2 D

Theory of Plates and Shells

2 M0

Bm (2.164)

m D cosh m

2

m

Substitute magnitude of constant Bm from equation (2.164) into the equation (2.161) to find

2 M0

Am cosh m m sinh m 0

m D cosh m

2

m

2 M 0 m tanh m

Am (2.165)

m m2 D cosh m

Therefore substitute values of constants Am and Bm from equations (2.165) and (2.164) into the

equation (2.158) to find out deflection of the plate.

2 M 0 m tanh m 2 M0

w cosh m y m y sinh m y sin m x

m m D cosh m m m D cosh m

2 2

m 1

2 M0

w m

m 1

2

m tanh m cosh m y m y sinh m y sin m x

D cosh m

(2.166)

m

2.4.4 Levys solution for rectangular plate with two opposite edges Clamped subjected to

uniformly distributed load:

When two opposite edges of the plate are clamped and subjected to uniformly distributed load,

the deflection of the plate is given by the equation (2.132)

qa 4

4 m y m y m y m x

w

D

m 1

m5 5 Am cosh a Bm a sinh a sin a

Applying the boundary conditions at clamed edges to find out unknown constants Am and Bm

w0 for y b / 2 (2.167)

w

0 for y b / 2 (2.168)

y

Theory of Plates and Shells

Therefore substitute y b / 2 in the above equation of deflection and equate with zero using

boundary condition (2.167)

4 m b m b m b

Am cosh Bm sinh 0

m5 5

2a 2a 2a

m b

Let m

2a

4

Am cosh m Bm m sinh m 0 (2.169)

m 5

5

w

Now differentiate equation (2.132) with respect to y, substitute y b / 2 in the and equate

y

with zero using boundary condition (2.168)

m b m m b m b m

Am sinh 2a a Bm 2a cosh 2a a

sin m x 0

qa 4

D

m 1

m b m a

Bm sinh

2a a

m b m m b m b m m b m

Am sinh Bm cosh Bm sinh 0

2a a 2a 2a a 2a a

Am sinh m Bmm cosh m Bm sinh m 0 (2.170)

Solving equation (2.169) and (2.170) for the constants Am and Bm and substitute in the equation

(2.132) to obtain the expression for the deflection of the plate.

Exercise

Que. State the assumptions in the small deflection theory of thin plate. [P.U., Ans. Article 2.2.1]

Que. Distinguish between thin and thick plate bending. [P.U., Ans. Article 2.2]

Que. Sketch the free body diagram of a plate element representing lateral loads, moments and

shears. [P.U., Ans. Article 2.2, Figure, Page No. 14]

Theory of Plates and Shells

Que. Write the equations defining equilibrium of the element. [P.U., Ans. Article 2.2, Eq. 2.10,

2.12 and 2.14]

Que. Starting from the first principles derive the governing differential equation in Cartesian co-

ordinates for thin plate under bending.

q

4 w

D

The symbols carry the usual meaning. [P.U., Ans. Derivation of Article 2.2]

Derive the boundary conditions to be used for

1) simply supported edge 2) a clamped edge 3) a free edge[P.U., Ans. Article 2.2.2]

Que. Derive the governing differential equation of thin rectangular plate subjected to transverse

load q x, y per unit area, according to Kirchhoffs theory. Hence explain how Kirchhoffs

reduces three boundary conditions to two per edge. Discuss boundary condition of

cantilever plate. [Dr. B.A.M.U., Ans. Derivation of Article 2.2]

Que. Explain the stepwise procedure in Naviers method for bending analysis of a thin

rectangular plate simply supported at all four edges. [P.U., Ans. Derivation of Article 2.3]

Que. Discuss Naviers solution of simply supported rectangular plate subjected to UDL q x, y .

Hence find the expressions for transverse deflection w x, y , bending and twisting

moments, bending and shear stresses, shear force and reactive forces along the boundaries.

[Dr. B.A.M.U., Ans. Derivation of Article 2.3.1]

Que. Discuss Naviers solution of simply supported rectangular plate subjected to sinusoidal

loading. Hence find the expressions for transverse deflection w x, y , bending and twisting

moments, bending and shear stresses, shear force and reactive forces along the boundaries.

[Dr. B.A.M.U., Ans. Derivation of Article 2.3.2]

Que. Using Naviers method, find for a square plate of side 3 m, thickness 12 cm under uniform

load of 3 KN/m2 values for

a) Maximum deflection in mm

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 58

Theory of Plates and Shells

The plate is simply supported on all edges [P.U., Ans. Problem based on Derivation of

Article 2.3.1]

Que: A thin rectangular plate of size a 2a and simply supported on all edges carries a

uniformly distributed load of intensity q0 per unit area. Using Naviers method computes the

deflection and the principal moments at the centre of plate. [P.U., Ans. Problem based on

Derivation of Article 2.3.1]

Que. Using Naviers method, obtain expression for lateral displacement w of the plate a b

subjected to hydrostatic pressure which varies in x direction. Take origin at the centre of left

edge find the central deflection if q0 is the peak intensity of loading on the edge x = a.

[P.U., Ans. Problem based on Derivation of Article 2.3.5]

Que. A thin square plate of size a a and simply supported on all edges carries a patch load.

Using Naviers method computes the deflection and the principal moments at the centre of

plate. [Ans., Derivation of Article 2.3.3]

Que. A thin square plate of size a a and simply supported on all edges carries a point load.

Using Naviers method computes the deflection and the principal moments at the centre of

plate. [Ans., Derivation of Article 2.3.4]

Que. Describe the stepwise procedure in the levys method for thin plate bending analysis.

Illustrate the example where two opposite edges of a rectangular plate are simply supported

[P.U., Ans. Problem based on Derivation of Article 2.4.1]

Que. A square plate a a with all four edges simply supported, carries a uniformly distributed

load of intensity q0. Using levys method, compute the maximum deflection in the plate.

[P.U., Ans. Problem based on Derivation of Article 2.4.1]

Que. Discuss Levys solution of simply supported rectangular plate subjected to UDL q x, y .

Hence find the expressions for transverse deflection w x, y , bending and twisting

Theory of Plates and Shells

moments, bending and shear stresses, shear force and reactive forces along the boundaries.

[Dr. B.A.M.U., Ans. Derivation of Article 2.4.1]

Que. Using Levys method, obtain expression for lateral displacement w of the plate a b

subjected to hydrostatic pressure which varies in x direction. Take origin at the centre of

left edge find the central deflection if q0 is the peak intensity of loading on the edge x = a.

[P.U., Ans. Problem based on Derivation of Article 2.4.2]

Que. Using Levys method, obtain expression for lateral displacement w of the plate a b

subjected to moments at the edges. Take origin at the centre of left edge find the central

deflection. [Ans., Derivation of Article 2.4.3]

Que. Discuss Levys solution of simply supported rectangular plate subjected to UDL q x, y .

Hence find the expressions for transverse deflection w x, y [Ans., Derivation of Article

2.4.4]

Theory of Plates and Shells

Chapter 3

Pure Bending of Plate

Consider the middle plane of the plate before bending occurs, as the xy plane. During

bending, the particles that were in the xy plane undergo small displacements w perpendicular to

xy plane and form the middle surface of the plate. These displacements of the middle planes are

called as deflections of the plate. Taking normal section of the plate parallel to xz plane as shown

in figure (a) we find that the slope of middle surface in the x direction is ix dw / dx and in y

direction is iy dw / dy .

Taking now any direction an in the xy plane as shown in figure (b) making an angle with the x

axis. We find that the difference in the deflection of the two adjacent points a and a1 in the an

direction is

Theory of Plates and Shells

w w w x , y n, t

dw dx dy

x y

using chain rule

And slope in the same direction is w w x w y

w w x w y n x n y n

(3.1)

n x n y n

w w w

cos sin (3.2)

n x y

cos sin (3.3)

n x y

Similarly

w w x w y

(3.4)

t x t y t

w w w

cos 90 sin 90

t x y

w w w

sin cos (3.5)

t x y

sin cos (3.6)

t x y

To find out the direction in which the slope of the surface is maximum, we differentiate equation

(3.2) w.r.t. and equate it with zero. Hence the direction of slope can be determine as

Theory of Plates and Shells

w w

sin cos 0

x y

w / y

tan 1 (3.7)

w / x

We can also determine the direction in which the slope of surface would be minimum by

equating equation (3.2) to zero. This direction can be obtained as

w w

cos sin 0

x y

w / x

tan 2 (3.8)

w / y

Therefore from equation (3.7) and (3.8) we note that

tan 1 tan 2 1 (3.9)

Which indicates that the directions of maximum and minimum slopes are orthogonal.

Now to obtain the relations of curvatures,

In considering the curvature of the middle surface in any direction an we obtain

1 2w w

2

rn n n n

Therefore from equation (3.2) and (3.3) we get

2w w w

cos sin cos sin

n 2

x y x y

2w 2w 2w 2w 2w

2 cos 2

sin cos sin cos sin 2

n 2

x yx yx y 2

2w 2w 2w 2w

2 cos 2

2 sin cos sin 2

n 2

x yx y 2

2w 1 1 1

cos 2

2sin cos sin 2

n 2 r rxy ry

x

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 63

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 1 1 1

cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 (3.10)

rn r rxy ry

x

Where

1 2w

2 Bending curvature of thesurfacein plane parallel to xz plane

rx x

1 2w

2 Bending curvature of thesurfacein plane parallel to yz plane

ry y

1 2w

Twisting curvature or twist of thesurface w.r.t. x & y axis.

rxy yx

1 2w

curvature of the middle surfacein any direction an

rn n2

Note: curvatures are the second order derivatives of slope. The curvature is considered positive

if it is convex downward, the minus sign is taken in the equation, since for the deflection

convex downward, as shown in figure, the second derivative 2 w / x 2 is negative.

Similarly, instead of the direction an if we take the direction perpendicular to an, the curvature

in this new direction will be obtained from equation (3.10) by substituting for . Thus

2

we get

1 1 1 1

cos 2 sin 2 sin 2

rt r 2 rxy 2 ry 2

x

1 1 1 1

cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 (3.11)

rt r rxy rx

y

Where

1 2w

curvature of the middle surfacein any direction at

rt t 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

OR

2w w

t 2

t t

2w w w

sin cos sin cos

t 2

x y x y

2w 2w 2w 2w 2w

2 cos 2

sin cos sin cos sin 2

t 2

y yx yx x 2

2w 2w 2w 2w

2 cos 2

2 sin cos sin 2

t 2

y yx x 2

2w 1 1 1

cos 2

2sin cos sin 2

t 2 r rxy rx

y

1 1 1 1

cos 2 sin 2 sin 2

rt r rxy rx

y

Adding equation (3.10) and (3.11) we obtain

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2

rn rt r rxy ry r rxy rx

x y

1

sin 2 cos 2 sin cos 2

1 1 1

2

rn rt rx ry

1 1 1 1

(3.12)

rn rt rx ry

Which shows that, at any point of the middle surface the sum of the curvature in two

perpendicular directions is independent of the angle and this is usually called as the

average curvature on this surface at a point.

The twist of surface at a with respect to the an and at direction is

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 w

rnt t n

1 w w

sin cos cos sin

rnt x y x y

1 2w 2w 2w

2 sin cos

rnt x xy

cos 2 sin 2 2 cos sin

y

1 2 w sin 2 2w 2 w sin 2

2 cos 2 2

rnt x 2 xy y 2

1 1 sin 2 1 1 sin 2

cos 2

rnt rx 2 rxy ry 2

1 1 1 sin 2 1

cos 2 (3.13)

rnt rx ry 2 rxy

In our further discussion we shall be interested in finding, in terms of the direction in which

the curvature of the surface is a maximum or a minimum and in finding the corresponding values

of the curvature. We obtain the necessary equation for determining by equating the derivative

of equation (3.10) w.r.t. equating with zero which gives

1 1 1

2sin cos 2 cos 2 2sin cos 0

rx rxy ry

1 1 1

sin 2 2 cos 2 sin 2 0

rx rxy ry

1 1 1

sin 2 2 cos 2

rx ry rxy

Theory of Plates and Shells

sin 2 2 1

cos 2 rxy 1 1

rx ry

2

rxy

tan 2 (3.14)

1 1

rx ry

From this equation we find two values of differing by / 2 . Substituting these in equation

(3.10) we find two values of 1/ rn , One representing maximum and one representing minimum

curvature at a point a of the surface. These two curvatures are called as principal curvatures

from the surface and corresponding planes defined by and / 2 are called principal

planes of curvatures.

Note: when the co ordinate planes xz and yz are taken parallel to the principle planes of

1 1

curvature at a point a then twisting curvature or twist 0 i.e. 0

rxy rnt

As mentioned earlier, the state of stress in a plate will be two dimensional according to

thin plate theory. In Cartesian co ordinates, the state of stress may be identified as normal

stresses and shear stresses. These stresses are distributed over the thickness of the plate and cause

bending and twisting moments as well as vertical shear forces. Since those moments are

resultants of the stresses developed in the plate, these are called as stress resultants.

h /2 h /2

M x dy

h /2

x dz. dy Mx

h /2

x dz

h /2 h /2

M y dx

h /2

y dz. dx My

h /2

y dz

Theory of Plates and Shells

h /2 h /2

M xy dy

h /2

xy dz. dy M xy

h /2

xy dz

h /2 h /2

M yx dx

h /2

yx dz. dx M yx

h /2

yx dz

Using strain displacement relationship and stress-strain relationship we obtain following moment

curvature relationship for isotropic plate.

2w

2

M x 1 0 x

2 w

M y D 1 0 2 (3.15)

y

M xy 0 0 1 w

2

2

2

xy

i.e.

2w 2w 1 1

Mx D 2 Mx D

x y 2 r ry

x

2w 2w 1 1

My D 2 My D

y x 2 r rx

y

2w 1

M xy D 1 M xy D 1

xy rxy

Similarly, it can be shown that the following will be the moment curvature relationship for an

isotropic plate in polar co-ordinates

Theory of Plates and Shells

2w

2

r

M r 1 0 1 w 1 2 w

M D 1 0 2 2

(3.16)

M 0 0 1 r r r

r 1 2 w 1 w

2

r r r

3.3 Particular cases in Pure Bending:

Case I) If M x M y M and M xy 0

1 1 1 1

Mx D And M y D

r r r r

x y y x

if M x M y M and M xy 0

1 1 1 1

D D

r ry r rx

x y

1 1 1 1

rx rx ry ry

1 1

1 1

rx ry

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 1

(3.17)

rx ry

1 1

Mx My M D

rx rx

1

MD 1

rx

1 M

(3.18)

rx D 1

Similarly

1 M

(3.19)

ry D 1

i.e., the plate in this case is bent to a spherical surface the curvature which is given by

equation (3.19).

From equation (3.18)

2w M

x D 1

2

2w M

x2 dx D 1 dx

w M

x C1

x D 1

Integrate w.r.t. x

M x2

w C1 x C2

D 1 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

M x2

w C1 x (3.20)

D 1 2

Similarly from equation (3.19)

2w M

y D 1

2

M y2

w C3 y (3.21)

D 1 2

Therefore adding equation (3.20) and (3.21) we obtain

M x2 M y2

w C1 x C3 y

D 1 2 D 1 2

M x2 M y2

w

C3 y C1 x (3.22)

D 1 2 D 1 2

Where C1 and C3 are constants of integration and define the plane from which deflection are

measured. If this plane taken tangent to the middle surface of plate then C1 C3 0

Therefore equation (3.22) becomes

M x2 M y2

w

D 1 2 D 1 2

w

M

2 D 1

x2 y 2 (3.23 a)

w C x2 y2

w C r2 (3.23 b)

This is the equation of paraboloid of revolution. This gives synclastic surface.

Case II) If M x M y and M xy 0

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 71

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 1 1 1

Mx D And M y D

r r r r

x y y x

If M x M y Let M x M1 and M y M2

1 1 1 1

Mx D M1 D (3.24)

r ry r ry

x x

1 1 1 1

And My D M2 D (3.25)

r rx r rx

y y

1

To find value of

r multiply equation (3.24) by and subtract from (3.25)

y

1 1 1 1

M 2 M1 D D

r r ry

y x rx

1 1 1 1

M 2 M 1 D D D 2 D

ry rx rx ry

M 2 M 1 D

1

ry

1 2

1 M 2 M 1

(3.26)

ry D 1 2

Similarly

1 M 1 M 2

(3.27)

rx D 1 2

1

Since M xy 0; 0 (3.28)

rxy

Theory of Plates and Shells

2w M M

1 2

x 2

2

D 1

w M M

1 2

x C1

x D 1

2

In which C1 is the constant of integration, now making integrate again w.r.t. x, we obtained

M M x 2

w 1 2

C1 x C2

D 1 2

2

M M x 2

w 1 2

C x (3.29)

2 1

2

D 1

M M y 2

w 2 1

C3 y C4

D 1 2

2

hence

M M y 2

w 2 1

C y (3.30)

2 3

2

D 1

1

From equation (3.28) of twisting curvature 0 we obtain

rxy

w C5 (3.31)

Adding equations (3.29), (3.30) and (3.31) we get

Theory of Plates and Shells

M M x 2 M M y 2

w 1 2

C1 x 2 1

C y C5

2 3

2 2

D 1 2 D 1

M M x 2 M M y 2

w 1 2

2 1

C1 x C3 y C5 (3.32)

D 1 2 D 1 2

2 2

Where C1 , C3 and C5 are constants of integration and define the plane from which deflection are

measured. If this plane taken tangent to the middle surface of plate then C1 C3 C5 0

Therefore equation (3.32) becomes

M M 2 x 2 M 2 M 1 y 2

w 1 (3.33)

D 1 2

2 D 1 2

2

if M 2 M1

Put in the equation (3.33) we obtain

M M1 x 2 M1 M1 y 2

w 1

D 1 2

2 D 1 2

2

1 y 2 1 x2

w M1

D 1 2

2 D 1 2

2

w

M1

2 D 1

y2 x2 (3.34)

Exercise

Que. Derive the relations between moments, curvatures and deflections in pure bending of plates.

[P.U. Ans., Article 3.2]

Theory of Plates and Shells

Que. Show that curvature 1/ rn in general direction can be obtained with the help

of 1/ rx ,1/ ry and 1/ rxy . [P.U. Ans., Article 3.1., Derivation upto Equation (3.14)]

Que. Prove that the directions of maximum and minimum slopes are orthogonal in pure bent

plate. [Dr. B.A.M.U. & P.U. Ans., Article 3.1., Derivation upto Equation (3.9)]

Que. Shows that, at any point of the middle surface of the bent plate, the sum of the curvature in

two perpendicular directions is independent of the angle . [Dr. B.A.M.U. & P.U. Ans.,

Article 3.1., Derivation upto Equation (3.12)]

Que. Using first principles determine central deflection of square plate subjected to pure couple

M distributed along all edges. Corner points are simply supported. Couple on edges

produces synclastic bending surface. [P.U. Ans., Article 3.3, Case I]

Que. A square plate of 400 mm side and 10 mm thick is simply supported at its four corners. If is

subjected to uniformly distributed pure couple M1 acting on edges parallel to x axis

creating hogging and uniformly distributed couple M2 on edges parallel to y axis creating

sagging. If M1 = M2 = 500 Nm, E = 200 GPa and 0.3 find lateral displacement of

midpoints of edges. [P.U. Ans., Article 3.3, Case II]

Theory of Plates and Shells

Chapter 4

Bending of Circular Plates

Consider Symmetrical bending of circular plates shown in figure. Let us take origin of

coordinates O at the centre of deflected plate as shown in figure. Let r denoted the radial

distances of points in the middle plane of the plate and w be the deflection of the plate in z

direction at any point A.

Theory of Plates and Shells

Then for the small value of w, the maximum slope of deflected surface at A is given by

w 1 2 w

and the curvature of plate in diametral section rz is 2

r rn r r

Where, = Small angle between the normal to the deflection surface at A and the axis of

symmetry OB.

From the symmetry we conclude that 1/ rn is one of the principle curvatures of the deflected

surface at A and the second principle curvature will be in the section through normal AB and

perpendicular to rz plane. Therefore we conclude that AB is the radius of second principle

curvature which is denoted by rt

1 1 w

(4.1)

rt r r r

Bending moments per unit length along mn is

d 2 w dw d

Mr D 2 D (4.2)

dr r dr dr r

d 2 w 1 dw d

And M D 2 D (4.3)

dr r dr dr r

Where M r and M denotes bending moments per unit length. The moment M r acts along

circumferential section of the plate, such as the section made by conical surface with the apex at

B, and M acts along the diametral section rz of the plate.

Equations (4.2) and (4.3) contains only one variable, or w , which can be determine by

considering equilibrium of an element of the plate such as element abcd as shown in figure cut

out from the plate by two cylindrical sections ab and cd and by two diametral sections ad and bc.

The couple acting on the side cd of the element is

M r r d

The corresponding couple on the side ab is

Theory of Plates and Shells

dM r

Mr dr r dr d

dr

The couples on the sides ad and bc of the element are each M dr and they give a resultant

From the symmetry it can be concluded that the shearing forces that may act on the element must

vanish on diametral sections of the plate but that they are usually present on cylindrical sections

such as sides cd and ab of the element. Denoting by Q the shearing force per unit length of the

cylindrical section of radius r, the total shearing force acting on the sides cd of the element is

dQ

Q r d , and the corresponding force on the side ab is Q dr r dr d . Neglecting

dr

the small difference between the shearing forces on the two opposite sides of the element, we can

state that these forces give a couple in the rz plane equal to Q r d dr

Theory of Plates and Shells

Summing up the moments with proper sign and neglecting the moment due to external

load on the element as a small quantity of higher order, we obtain the following equation of

equilibrium of the element abcd.

dM r

Mr dr r dr d M r r d M dr d Q r d dr 0

dr

dM r

M r r dr d dr r dr d M r r d M dr d Q r d dr 0

dr

dM r dM r

M r r d M r dr d r dr d dr dr d M r r d M dr d Q r d dr 0

dr dr

Since dr and d are very small its higher power is neglected.

dM r

M r dr d r dr d M dr d Q r d dr 0

dr

dM r

Mr r M Q r 0 (a)

dr

Put value of M r and M from equation (4.2) and (4.3) in (a)

d d d d

D r D D Qr 0

dr r dr dr r dr r

d d 2 d 1 d Qr

r 2 r r 2

dr r dr r dr r dr r D

d d 2 d d Qr

r 2

dr r dr dr r dr r D

1 d d 2 Q

2

2 (4.4)

r dr dr r D

dw

Put

dr

1 d dw d2 dw 1 dw Q

dr dr 2 dr r 2 dr D

r dr

Theory of Plates and Shells

d 3w 1 d 2w 1 dw Q

3 2

2

dr r dr r dr D

d 3w 1 d 2w 1 dw Q

3

2

2 (4.5)

dr r dr r dr D

In any particular case of symmetrically loaded circular plate the shearing force Q can easily

being calculated by dividing the load distributed the circle of radius r by 2 r ; then equation

(4.4) or (4.5) can be used to determine the slope and the deflection w of the plate. The

integration of these equations is simplified if we observe that they can be put in the following

form.

d 1 d dw Q

r (4.6)

dr r dr dr D

If Q is represented by a function r, this equation can be integrated without any difficulty in each

particular case. Sometimes it is advantageous to represent the right hand side of equation (4.6) as

a function of intensity q of the load distributed over the plate.

For this purpose we multiply both sides of the equation by 2 r . Then, observing that

r

2 r Q 2 r q dr

0

r

Q q dr

0

Put in the equation (4.6), and multiply both sides of the equation by r, we obtained

d 1 d dw 1

r

r r

dr r dr dr D

0

q r dr

d 1 d 2 w dw 1

r

r r

dr r dr 2

dr D

0

q r dr

Theory of Plates and Shells

Again differentiate left hand side of the above equation with respect to r, we obtained

1 d 3 w d 2 w d 2 w 1 d 2 w dw q r

r r 3 r

dr 2 dr 2 r 2 dr 2

r dr

r dr dr D 0

r

d 3w d 2 w d 2 w 1 dw q

r

dr 3

2

dr 2

dr 2

r dr

D 0

r dr

d 4 w d 3 w d 3 w 1 d 2 w dw 1 q r

r 4

dr dr 3 dr 3 r dr 2 dr r 2 D

d 4 w 2 d 3 w 1 d 2 w 1 dw q

4

3

2

3 (4.7)

dr r dr r dr r dr D

This can also be written as

1 d d 1 d dw q

r r (4.8)

r dr dr r dr dr D

This equation can be easily integrated if the intensity of the load q is given as a function of r

4.2 Equation of Deflection for Uniformly Loaded Circular Plate: If a circular plate of radius

a carries a load of intensity q uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the plate,

Now multiply equation (4.8) by r

d d 1 d dw q r

r r

dr dr r dr dr D

Integrate w.r.t r

d 1 d dw q r 2

r r C1

dr r dr dr D 2

where C1 is a constant of integration to be found later from the conditions at the center and at the

edge of the plate. Dividing both sides of above equation by r and making second integration, we

find

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 d dw q r 2

r C1 log r C2

r dr dr D 4

Multiply by r to the both sides of the above equation and performing integration with respect to

r, we obtained

dw q r 4 r2 r2 r2

r C1 log r C2 C3

dr D 16 2 4 2

dw q r 3 r r r C

C1 log r C2 3

dr D 16 2 4 2 r

Integrate w.r.t. r

q r4 r2 r2 r2

w C1 log r C2 C3 log r C4 (4.9)

D 64 4 4 4

q r4

w C1 log r C2 log r . r 2 C3 r 2 C4 (4.10)

D 64

The above equation gives the deflection of plate subjected to uniformly distributed load.

Let us now calculate the constants of integration for various particular cases.

From generalized expression (4.10) for deflection of deflected surface of circular plate

subjected to uniformly distributed load.

q r4

w C1 log r C2 log r . r 2 C3 r 2 C4

D 64

Theory of Plates and Shells

Note: since the deflection, moment and transverse shear are to be finite at the centre of

plate r 0 . Therefore the constants C1 and C2 have to remain zero.

q r4

w C3 r 2 C4 (4.11)

D 64

The constants of integration are now to be determined from the conditions at the edges of the

plate.

w0 for r a (4.12a)

Mr 0 for r a (4.12b)

Using boundary condition (4.12a), substitute r = a in the equation (4.11) and equate with zero,

we obtain

q a4

C3 a 2 C4 0 (4.13)

D 64

Differentiate equation (4.11) with respect to r upto second order to find the moment of the plate

dw q 4 r3 q r3

2 C3 r 2 C3 r (4.14)

dr D 64 D 16

Theory of Plates and Shells

d 2w q 3r 2

2 C3 (4.15)

dr 2 D 16

Put equation (4.14) and (4.15) into the equation (4.2)

q 3r 2 q r 3

M r D 2 C3 2 C3 r (4.15 a)

D 16 r D 16

Since this bending moment will vanish at the edges i.e. at r = a, Use equation (4.12b) to obtained

constant C3 by equating equation (4.15 a) with zero

q 3a 2 q a3

D 2 C3 2 C3 a 0

D 16 a D 16

q 3a 2 q a 2

2 C3 2 C3 0

D 16 D 16

q a2

2 C3 1 3 0

D 16

q a 2 3

C3 (4.16)

D 32 1

Put constant C3 from equation (4.16) into the equation (4.13) to obtain constant C4

q a 2 3 2 q a4

a C4 0

D 32 1 D 64

q a 4 3 q a 4

C4

D 32 1 D 64

q a4 2 3

C4 1

D 64 1

q a4 6 2 1

C4

D 64 1

Theory of Plates and Shells

q a4 5

C4 (4.17)

D 64 1

Substitute constants C3 and C4 from equations (4.16) and (4.17) into the equation (4.11) to

obtain deflection of the plate, hence

q a 2 3 2 q a 4 5 q r 4

w r

D 32 1 D 64 1 D 64

q 2 3 2 2 5 a 4 r 4

w ar

64 D 1 1

qa 4 2 3 r 2 5 r4

w

64 D 1 a 2 1 a4

qa 4 r 2 3 5

4 2

r

w (4.18)

64 D a 1 a 1

Deflection is maximum at the center of the plate i.e. at r 0

qa 4 5

w (4.19)

64 D 1

q a 2 3 q 3r 2 q a 2 3 q r 3

Mr D r

D 16 1 D 16 r D 16 1 D 16

qa 4 4 3 12r 2 4 3 4 r 2

Mr 2 4

64 a 1 a 1 a 2 a4

qa 4 r 2 4 1 3

Mr 12 4 4

64 a a2 1

qa 4 3

4

Mr 3 4r 2 4 1 a 2

64 a 1

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 85

Theory of Plates and Shells

q

Mr 3 4r 2 4 a 2 3

64

3 r 2 a2

q

Mr

16

3 a2 r 2

q

Mr (4.20)

16

Use equation (4.3) to find bending moment M , therefore differentiate equation (4.18) w.r.t. r

upto second order

dw qa 4 4r 3 4 3 r

4

dr 64 D a 1 a 2

d 2w qa 4 12r 2 4 3

4 2

dr 2

64 D a a 1

qa 4 12r 2 4 3 1 4r 3 4 3 r

M 4 2 4

64 a a 1 r a 1 a 2

qa 4 4r 2 4 3 12 r 2 4 3

M 2

64 a 4 a 2 1 a4 a 1

qa 4 4 2 a 3 a 2 3

2

M r 3 r

2

64 a 4 1 1

q a2 3

M 1 3 r 1

2

16 1

q

M 1 3 r 2 a 2 3 (4.21)

16

Bending stresses of the plate are to be found out from the following equations

Theory of Plates and Shells

M bh3 h3

r r z I ............. b 1 (4.22)

I 12 12

Substitute equation (4.20) into the above equation (4.22), we get

3 a2 r 2

q z

r

16 I

3 a2 r 2 3 z

q 12

r

16 h

q 3 3 a 2 r 2

3 z

r (4.23)

4 h

Similarly

M bh3 h3

z I ............. b 1 (4.24)

I 12 12

Substitute equation (4.21) into the above equation (4.24), we obtain

q z

1 3 r 2 a 2 3

16 I

q 12

a 2 3 1 3 r 2 3 z

16 h

3 z

q 3 a 2 3 1 3 r 2 (4.25)

4 h

Maximum stress will occur at centre of plate i.e. r = 0, therefore put r = 0 in equation (4.23)

3 z

r max r 0 q 3 a2

4 h3

3 h

r max q 3 3 a2

4 2h

2

3 a

r max q 3

8 h

Theory of Plates and Shells

3 a

r max q 2 3 Aspect Ratio (4.26)

8 h

Similarly, Put r = 0 in equation (4.25) bending stress M

3 z

max r 0 q 3 3 a2

4 h

3 h

max q 3 3 a2

4 2h

2

3 a

max q 3

8 h

3 a

max q 2 3 Aspect Ratio (4.27)

8 h

Therefore maximum stresses in r and are same.

From generalized expression (4.10) for deflection of deflected surface of circular plate subjected

to uniformly distributed load.

Theory of Plates and Shells

q r4

w C1 log r C2 log r . r C3 r C4

2 2

D 64

Note: since the deflection, moment and transverse shear are to be finite at the centre of

plate r 0 . Therefore the constants C1 and C2 have to remain zero.

q r4

w C3 r C4

2

(4.29)

D 64

Integration constants C3 and C4 are to be finding out using boundary conditions at the edges of

the plate. In this case the slope of the deflected surface in the radial direction must be zero for

r 0 and r a and deflection must be zero at the edges of plate i.e. at r a

w0 for r a (4.30a)

dw

0 for r a (4.30b)

dr

Using boundary condition (4.30a), substitute r = a in the equation (4.29) and equate with zero,

we obtain

q a4

C3 a 2 C4 0 (4.31)

D 64

Now using boundary condition (4.30b), differentiate equation (4.29) with respect to r and equate

with zero, we obtain

dw q 4 r3 q r3

2 C3 r 2 C3 r (4.32)

dr D 64 D 16

dw q a3

2 C3 a

dr r a D 16

q a3

2 C3 a 0

D 16

Theory of Plates and Shells

q a2

C3 (4.33)

D 32

Substitute value of C3 in the equation (4.31)

q a2 2 q a4

a C4 0

D 32 D 64

q a2 2 q a4

C4 a

D 32 D 64

q a4

C4 (4.34)

D 64

Substitute C3 and C4 in the equation (4.29)

q a2 2 q a4 q r4

w r

D 32 D 64 D 64

w

q

64 D

a4 2 a2 r 2 r 4

q

a2 r 2

2

w (4.35)

64 D

Deflection is maximum at the center of the plate i.e. r 0

w r 0 max

q a4

64D

(4.36)

This deflection is equal to three-eighths of the deflection of a uniformly loaded strip with built in

ends having flexural rigidity equal to D, a width of unity, and a length of the diameter of the

plate.

Now differentiate equation (4.35) with respect to r upto second order and substitute in the

equations (4.2) and (4.3) to obtain the bending moments M r and M

2 a 2 r 2 2r

dw q

dr 64D

Theory of Plates and Shells

r a2 r 2

dw q

(4.37)

dr 16 D

d 2w

2r 2 a 2 r 2

q

dr 2

16D

d 2w q

2

3 r 2 a 2 (4.38)

dr 16D

Substitute equation (4.37) and (4.38) into the equation (4.2) to obtain the expression for M r

q q

Mr D 3 r 2 a2

r 16 D

r a 2 r 2

16 D

3 r 2 a 2 a 2 r 2

q

Mr

16

q 2

Mr r 3 a 2 1

16

q

Mr a 2 1 r 2 3 (4.39)

16

In the same manner substitute equation (4.37) and (4.38) into the equation (4.3) to obtain M

q 1 q

M D 3 r 2 a 2 r a2 r 2

16D r 16D

q

M 3 r 2 a 2 a 2 r 2

16

q

M 1 3 r 2 1 a 2 (4.40)

16

Substituting r a in the equation (4.39) and (4.40), we find for the bending moments at the

boundaries of the plate

q

Mr ra

a 2 1 a 2 3

16

Theory of Plates and Shells

q

Mr ra

a 2 a 2 3 a 2 a 2

16

Mr

r a max

qa 2

8

(4.41)

And

q

M ra

1 3 a 2 1 a 2

16

q

M ra

a 2 3 a 2 a 2 a 2

16

q a2

M

r a max

8

(4.42)

q 2

Mr r0

a 1

16

q

M r0

1 a 2

16

M r0

Mr r0

(4.43)

Mr bh3 h3 h

r z I &z ............. b 1 (4.44)

I 12 12 2

Put equation (4.41) in the equation (4.44) to find maximum bending stress

qa 2 12 h

r max

8 h3 2

2

3q a

r max

4 h

3q 2

r max (4.45)

4

Theory of Plates and Shells

Similarly

M bh3 h3 h

z I &z ............. b 1 (4.46)

I 12 12 2

Put equation (4.45) in the equation (4.46)

qa 2 12 h

max

8 h3 2

2

3q a

max

4 h

3q 2

max (4.47)

4

From equations (4.45) and (4.47) it is observed that

r max max (4.48)

4.3 Equation of Deflection for Circular Plate subjected to Centre Concentrated Load

q

2 r Q q Q

2 r

Substitute above value of shearing force Q in the equation (4.6), we obtained

d 1 d dw q

r

dr r dr dr 2 r D

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 d dw q

r dr r dr 2 D log r C1

where C1 is a constant of integration to be found from the condition at the center and at the edge

of the plate. Now multiply both sides of above equation by r

d dw q

r r log r C1 r

dr dr 2 D

Integrate both sides of above equation with respect to r, we get

dw q r2 r2 r2

C2

2 D 2 4

r log r C1

dr 2

dw q r r r C

log r C1 2

dr 2 D 2 4 2 r

Integrate w.r.t. r

q 1 r2 r2 r2 r2

w log r C C2 log r C3

2 D 2 2

1

4 8 4

qr 2 r2

w log r 1 C1 C2 log r C3 (4.49)

8 D 4

4.3.1 Simply supported circular plate subjected to centre concentrated / point load:

To find the expressions for deflection, moments and corresponding stresses for the

simply supported plate subjected to concentrated load, consider generalized expression (4.49) for

deflection of deflected surface of circular plate subjected to concentrated load.

qr 2 r2

w log r 1 C1 C2 log r C3

8 D 4

Note: since the deflection, moment and transverse shear are to be finite at the centre of

plate r 0 . Therefore the constants C2 have to remain zero.

Theory of Plates and Shells

qr 2 r2

w log r 1 C1 C3 (4.50)

8 D 4

Integration constants C3 and C4 are to be finding out using boundary conditions at the edges of

the plate. In this case deflection and moment must be zero at the edges of plate i.e. at r a

w0 for r a (4.51a)

Mr 0 for r a (4.51b)

Therefore using boundary condition (4.51a), substitute r = a into the equation (4.50) and equate

with zero

qa 2 a2

w r a log a 1 C1 C3

8 D 4

qa 2 a2

log a 1 1 C3 0

C (4.52)

8 D 4

Now, differentiate equation (4.50) with respect to r upto second order to find out moment M r

dw q 21 r

r log r 1 2r C1

dr 8 D r 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

dw qr r

2log r 1 C1 (4.53)

dr 8 D 2

d 2w q 2 C

r 2log r 1 1

dr 2

8 D r 2

d 2w q C

2log r 1 1 (4.54)

dr 2

8 D 2

Put equations (4.53) and (4.54) into the equation (4.2), we get

q C1 qr r

Mr D 8 D 2 log r 1 2 r 8 D 2 log r 1 C1 2

q C

Mr D 2 log r 1 1 1 1

8 D 2

Therefore using boundary condition (4.51b), substitute r = a in the above equation and equate

with zero, we obtain

q C

Mr D 2 log a 1 1 1 1

8 D

r a

2

q C

2log a 1 1 1 1 0

8 D 2

C1 q

1 2log a 1 1

2 8 D

C1

q 1

2 log a (4.55)

4 D 1

Substitute value of constant C1 from equation (4.55) into the equation (4.52) to obtain constant

C3 , we obtain

qa 2 q 1 a 2 C 0

log a 1 2 log a

8 D 4 D 1 4 3

Theory of Plates and Shells

qa 2 1 qa 2 log a 1

C3 2 log a

16 D 1 8 D

qa 2 1

1 log a 1

C3 2log a

8 D 2

1

qa 2 1 1

C3 1 (4.56)

8 D 2 1

qr 2 q 1 r 2 qa 2 1 1 1

w log r 1 2 log a

8 D 4 D 1 4 8 D 2 1

q

2 1 2a 2 1 1 1

w 2r log r 1 r 2log a

2

16 D

1 2 1

2 1 1

q 2

w 2r log r log a 2r 2a r a2

2 2

16 D 1 1

2 r 2 2 1 2 2

w

q

2r log

16 D a 1

a r

2 r 3 2 2

a r

q

w 2r log (4.57)

16 D a 1

Deflection of the plate is maximum at the center of the plate i.e. r = 0

3 2

w r 0 max

q

a

16 D 1

(4.58)

dw q 2 a 1 r 3

2r log 4r 2r

dr 16 D ra a 1

Theory of Plates and Shells

dw q r 3

2r log 4r 2r

dr 16 D a 1

dw q r 3

log 4r 2r 1

dr 16 D a 1

dw q r r

r log (4.59)

dr 4 D a 1

d 2w q a 1 r 1

r log

dr 2

4 D r a a 1

d 2w q a 1 r 1

r log

dr 2

4 D r a a 1

d 2w q r

log (4.60)

dr 2

4 D a 1

Now, to find the bending moments of the plate, Put equation (4.59) and (4.60) into the equation

(4.2) to obtain M r

q r q r r

Mr D log r log

4 D a 1 r 4 D a 1

q r r

Mr D log log

4 D a 1 a 1

q r r

Mr

4 log a log a

q r

Mr

4 log a 1 (4.61)

Similarly put equation (4.59) and (4.60) in the equation (4.3) to obtain M

q r 1 q r r

M D log r log

4 D a 1 r 4 D a 1

Theory of Plates and Shells

q r 1 r r

M D log r log

4 D a 1 r a 1

r r 1

2

q

M log log

4 a 1 a 1

q r 2 1

M 1 log

4 a 1 1

q r 1

2

M 1

log

4 a 1

q r 1 1

M 1 log

4 a 1

q

1 log 1

r

M (4.62)

4 a

Corresponding bending stresses are to be find out using following equations

Mr q r 12 h

r z

4 log a 1

h3 2

I

(4.63)

3q a

r log 1

2h r

2

Similarly

q 12 h

1 log 1 3

M r

z

I 4 a h 2

(4.64)

3q

1 log 1

r

2h

2

a

Theory of Plates and Shells

4.3.2 Fixed / clamped circular plate subjected to centre concentrated / point load:

Consider generalized expression (4.49) for deflection of deflected surface of circular plate

subjected to concentrated load.

qr 2 r2

w log r 1 C1 C2 log r C3

8 D 4

Note: since the deflection, moment and transverse shear are to be finite at the centre of

plate r 0 . Therefore the constants C2 have to remain zero.

qr 2 r2

w log r 1 C1 C3 (4.65)

8 D 4

Integration constants C1 and C3 are to be finding out using boundary conditions at the edges of

the plate. In this case deflection and slope must be zero at the edges of plate i.e. at r a

w0 for r a (4.66a)

dw

0 for r a (4.66b)

dr

Therefore using boundary condition (4.66a), substitute r = a into the equation (4.65) and equate

with zero

Theory of Plates and Shells

qa 2 a2

w r a log a 1 C1 C3

8 D 4

qa 2 a2

log a 1 C1 C3 0 (4.67)

8 D 4

Now, differentiate equation (4.65) with respect to r

dw q 21 r

r log r 1 2r C1

dr 8 D r 2

dw qr r

2log r 1 C1

dr 8 D 2

Now using boundary condition (4.66b), substitute r = a in the above equation and equate with

zero

dw qa a

2log a 1 C1

dr r a 8 D 2

qa a

2log a 1 C1 0

8 D 2

a qa

C1 2log a 1

2 8 D

q

C1 2log a 1 (4.68)

4 D

Substitute value of constant C1 from equation (4.68) into the equation (4.67) to obtain constant

C3 we get

qa 2 q a2

log a 1 2log a 1 C3 0

8 D 4 D 4

q a2 qa 2

C3 2log a 1 log a 1

4 D 4 8 D

Theory of Plates and Shells

qa 2

C3 2log a 1 2 log a 1

16 D

qa 2

C3 (4.69)

16 D

Therefore substitute values of integration constants C1 and C3 into the equation (4.65) to find the

expression for deflection of the plate.

qr 2 q r2 qa 2

w log r 1 2log a 11

8 D 4 D 4 16 D

qr 2 a2

w

1

16 D r 2

2 log r 1 2 log a 1

qr 2 r a2

w 2 log 1 2

16 D

(4.70)

a r

Deflection is maximum at the center of the plate i.e. at r = 0, therefore put r = 0 into the

equation (4.70)

qa 2

wmax (4.71)

16 D

To find the bending moments differentiate equation (4.70) with respect to r upto second order

dw q r a 1

4r log 2r 2 2r

dr 16 D a r a

dw q r

4r log

dr 16 D a

dw qr r

log (4.72)

dr 4 D a

d 2w q a 1 r

r log

dr 2

4 D r a a

Theory of Plates and Shells

d 2w q r

1 log (4.73)

dr 2

4 D a

Therefore substitute equations (4.72) and (4.73) into the equation (4.2) we obtain

q r qr r

Mr D 1 log log

4 D a r 4 D a

q r

Mr 1 1 log (4.74)

4 a

Similarly substitute equations (4.72) and (4.73) into the equation (4.3) we obtain

q r 1 q r

M D 1 log 4r log

4 D a r 16 D a

q r r

M D log log

4 D a a

q r

M 1 log (4.75)

4 a

Corresponding bending stresses are given as follows

Mr q r 12 h

r z r 1 1 log 3

I 4 a h 2

3q r

r 2

1 1 log (4.76)

2 h a

Similarly

M q r 12 h

z 1 log 3

I 4 a h 2

3q r

2

1 1 log (4.77)

2 h a

Theory of Plates and Shells

Equation (4.76) and (4.77) shows that stresses r and become infinite at the centre of plate

r 0 where concentrated load is applied. Therefore the theory which has been presented is

At r a

q 3q

M r max r max (4.78)

4 2 h2

q 3 q

M max max (4.79)

4 2 h2

4.4 Problem A circular plate of radius R is clamped along boundary and carries a load whose

r

intensity q / unit area is varies according to the relation q q0 1 obtain an expression for

R

deflection of plate at the radius R and hence calculate maximum deflection.

Solution:

Total load supported by plate at radial distance r

W = Total volume over radius r

= Volume of cylinder + Volume of cone

Theory of Plates and Shells

1

W r2 q r 2 q0 q

3

q 2

W r 2 0 q

3 3

q 2 r

W r 2 0 q0 1

3 3 R

q 2 r

W r 2 0 q0 1

3 3 R

q0 r

W r2 1 2 1

3 R

q0 2r

W r2 3

3 R

q0

W r2 3R 2r

3R

Therefore total load on the plate

2 r Q W

q0

2 r Q r 2 3R 2r

3R

Q

q0

6R

3R r 2r 2 (4.80)

d 1 d dw Q

r

dr r dr dr D

d 1 d dw

r

q0

dr r dr dr 6RD

3R r 2r 2

Integrate w.r.t. r

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 d dw q0 3R r 2 2r 3

r dr dr 6 RD 2 3 C1

r

d dw q0 3R r 3 2r 4

r C1 r

dr dr 6 RD 2 3

Integrate w.r.t. r

dw q0 3R r 4 2r 5 r2

r C1 C2

dr 6 RD 8 15 2

dw q0 3R r 3 2r 4 r C2

C1

dr 6 RD 8 15 2 r

q0 3R r 4 2r 5 r2

w C1 C2 log r C3 (4.81)

6 RD 32 75 4

q0 3R r 4 2r 5 r2

w C1 C3 (4.82)

6 RD 32 75 4

Boundary conditions

dw

w rR 0 and 0 (4.83)

dr r R

q0 3R 5 2 R 5 R2

w rR C1 C3

6 RD 32 75 4

q0 R 4 161 R2

w rR C1 C3

6 D 2400 4

q0 R 4 161 R2

C1 C3 0 (4.84)

6 D 2400 4

Differentiate equation (4.82) w.r.t. r

Theory of Plates and Shells

dw q 3R r 3 2r 4 r

0 C1

dr 6 RD 8 15 2

dw q 3 R 4 2R 4 R

0 C1

dr r R 6 RD 8 15 2

dw q R3 29 R

0 C1

dr r R 6D 120 2

q0 R 3 29 R

C1 0

6 D 120 2

R q0 R 3 29

C1

2 6 D 120

q0 R 2 29 q0 R 2

C1 C1 0.0806 (4.85)

D 360 D

Substitute in the equation (4.84) we get

q0 R 4 161 q0 R 2 29 R 2

C3 0

6 D 2400 D 360 4

q0 R 2 29 R 2 q0 R 4 161

C3

D 360 4 6 D 2400

q0 R 4 29 161

C3

D 1440 14400

q0 R4

C3 0.00896 (4.86)

D

Substitute C1 and C2 in the equation (4.82) of deflection

q0 3R r 4 2r 5 q0 R 2 r 2 q0 R 4

w 0.0806 0.00896

6 RD 32 75 D 4 D

Theory of Plates and Shells

q0 3R r 4 2r 5 q0 R 2 r 2 q0 R 4

w 0.0806 0.00896

6 RD 32 75 D 4 D

Deflection is maximum at r = 0

q0 R4

wmax r 0 0.00896 (4.87)

D

4.5 Problem A circular plate of radius R is simply supported boundary and carries a load

r

whose intensity q / unit area is varies according to the relation q q0 1 obtain an

R

expression for deflection of plate at the radius R and hence calculate maximum deflection.

Solution: Refer previous problem. Solution upto equation (4.82) is same i.e.

q0 3R r 4 2r 5 r2

w C1 C3

6 RD 32 75 4

i.e. w rR 0 and Mr rR

0

Theory of Plates and Shells

4.6.1 Bending of a plate by moments M1 and M2 uniformly distributed along inner and

outer boundaries:

Consider bending of a circular plate by moments M1 and M2 uniformly distributed along inner

and outer boundaries. Since plate is subjected to pure bending moments the shearing force

vanishes i.e. Q = 0 in the differential equation (4.6) of deflection.

d 1 d dw Q

r

dr r dr dr D

d 1 d dw

r 0 (4.88)

dr r dr dr

Integrate both sides of above equation with respect to r, we get

1 d dw

r dr r dr C1

Multiply by r to the both sides of above equation and making integration with respect to r again

dw r2

r C1 C2

dr 2

Divide by r to the both sides and integrate with respect to r

r2

w C1 C2 log r C3 (4.89)

4

This is also written as

Theory of Plates and Shells

r2 r

w C1 C2 log C3 (4.90)

4 a

The constants of integration are now to be determined from the conditions at the edges. Since

plate is simply supported along the outer edge, we have

w0 at r a

Mr M2 at r a (4.91)

M r M1 at r b

Since deflection is zero at the supporting edges, using above boundary condition put r = a in the

equation of deflection (4.90) and equate with zero, we get

a2 a

w r a C1 C2 log C3

4 a

a2

C1 C3 0 (4.91 a)

4

Differentiate equation (4.90) twice with respect to r to determine bending moments, hence

dw r C

C1 2 (4.92)

dr 2 r

d 2 w C1 C2

2 (4.93)

dr 2 2 r

Therefore put equation (4.92) and (4.93) in equation (4.2) to find bending moment M r

C C r C

M r D 1 22 C1 2

2 r r 2 r

C C

M r D 1 1 22 1 (4.94)

2 r

This moment must be equal to M 1 for r = b and equal to M 2 for r = a, hence equation (4.94)

becomes

Theory of Plates and Shells

C C

Mr r b

D 1 1 22 1

2 b

C C

M1 D 1 1 22 1 (4.95)

2 b

C C

Mr r a

D 1 1 22 1

2 a

C C

M 2 D 1 1 22 1 (4.96)

2 a

Subtract equation (4.96) from equation (4.95) we get

C C C C

M1 M 2 D 1 1 22 1 D 1 1 22 1

2 b 2 a

1 1

M1 M 2 D C2 1 2 2

b a

M1 M 2 C2

1 D 2 2

1 1

b a

a 2 b2 M1 M 2

C2 (4.97)

1 D a 2 b 2

C1 1 a b M1 M 2

2 2

M 1 D 1

2 1

2 b 1 D a 2 b 2

C a 2 M1 M 2

M 1 D 1 1

2 D a 2 b 2

a 2 M1 M 2 C1

M1 D 1

a b

2 2

2

Theory of Plates and Shells

2 M1 a 2 b2 a 2 M1 M 2

C1

D 1

a 2

b 2

2 a 2 M b2 M

C1 2 1

D 1 a b

2 2

2 b2 M a 2 M

C1 1 2

(4.98)

D 1 a 2 b2

To determine the constant C3 in equation (4.90), the deflection at the edges of plate must be

considered. Therefore put integration constant C1 from equation (4.98) in the equation (4.91 a).

a2

C3 C1

4

a2 a 2 M b2 M

C3 2 1

(4.99)

2 D 1 a b

2 2

Substitute equations (4.97), (4.98) and (4.99) in the equation (4.90) to obtain the expression for

deflection of the plate.

2 r 2 b2 M1 a 2 M 2 a 2 b2 M1 M 2 r

log

D 1 4 a b 1 D a b

2 2 2 2

a

w

a2 a 2 M b2 M

2 1

2 D a b

1 2 2

r a r a M 2 b M1

a 2 b2 M1 M 2

2 2

2 2

w log (4.100)

1 D

a 2

b 2

a 2 D 1

a 2

b 2

Substitute integration constant C1 and C2 from equation (4.97) and (4.98) in the equation (4.94)

for bending moments of the plate.

Theory of Plates and Shells

b2 M a 2 M 2 2

1 2 a b M 1 M 2 1

M r D 1 1 2

2 D 1 a b

2 2

1 D a 2 b 2 r

2

a 2 b2 M M b2 M a 2 M

Mr 1 2 1 2

(4.101)

r a b a b

2 2 2 2 2

Now simplify equations (4.92) and (4.93) by substituting constants of integration C1 , C2 and C3

and then put into the equation (4.3) to obtain bending moment M

C C 1 r C

M D 1 22 C1 2

2 r r 2 r

C C

M D 1 1 22 1 (4.102)

2 r

Put equation (4.97) and (4.98) in the equation (4.102) we get

1 2 b 2 M a 2 M 1 a 2 b 2 M M

M D 1 1 2

1 2

2 D 1 a 2 b 2 r 2 1 D a 2 b 2

b2 M a 2 M a 2 b2 M M

M 1 2

1 2

(4.103)

a b r 2 a 2 b 2

2 2

Corresponding bending stresses are given as follows

Mr M

r z and z

I I

And maximum values of these stresses are given by

M r max M max

r max z and max z

I I

Theory of Plates and Shells

Note: In the previous derivation substitute M2 0 in the equations (4.97), (4.98), (4.99),

2 b2 M

C1 2 12 (4.104)

D 1 a b

a 2 b2 M1

C2 (4.105)

1 D a 2 b2

a2 b2 M

C3 2 1

(4.106)

2 D 1 a b

2

b2 M

a 2 b2 M1 r

r a

1

w 2 1 2 2

log (4.107)

2 D 1 a b 1 D a b a

2 2 2

a 2 b2 M b2 M

Mr 2 2 12 2 1 2 (4.108)

r a b a b

b2 M a 2 b2 M

M 2 12 1

(4.109)

a b r 2 a 2 b 2

Corresponding bending stresses are given as follows

Mr M

r z and z

I I

Theory of Plates and Shells

M r max M max

r max z and max z

I I

4.6.3 Bending of a plate by shearing forces along inner boundaries:

Now consider the case of bending of a plate by shearing forces Q0 uniformly distributed along

the inner edges as shown in figure. The shearing force per unit length of a circumference of

radius r is

Q0 b P

Q

r 2 r

where P 2 bQ0 denotes the total load applied to the inner boundaries of the plate. Therefore

substitute value of shearing force in the equation (4.6) we get

d 1 d dw P

r

dr r dr dr 2 rD

Integrate both sides of above equation w.r.t. r

1 d dw P

r dr r dr 2 D log r C1

Multiply both sides of above equation by r, and making integration with respect to r we get

dw P r2 r2 r2

C2

2 D 2 4

r log r C1

dr 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

dw P r r r C2

log r C

dr 2 D 2 4

1

2 r

Integrate w.r.t. r

P 1 r2 r2 r2 r2

w log r C1 C2 log r C3

2 D 2 2 4 8 4

P 2 r2

w r log r 1 C1 C2 log r C3 (4.110)

8 D 4

This is also written as

P 2 r r2 r

w r log 1 C1 C2 log C3 (4.111)

8 D a 4 a

The constants of integration will now be calculated from the boundary conditions. Since plate is

simply supported along the outer edge, we have

w0 at r a

Mr 0 at r a (4.112)

Mr 0 at r b

Therefore from equation (4.111)

Pa 2 a2

w r a C1 C3

8 D 4

Pa 2 a2

C1 C3 0 (4.113)

8 D 4

Now differentiate equation (4.111) w.r.t. r upto second order

dw P r r r r C

log C1 2 (4.114)

dr 2 D 2 a 4 2 r

d 2w P 1 r 1 1 C2

log 1 C1 2 (4.115)

dr 2

2 D 2 a 4 2 r

Theory of Plates and Shells

P 1 r 1 1 C2

log 1 C1 2

2 D 2 a 4 2 r

M r D

P r r r r C2

r 2 D 2 log a 4 C1 2 r

P 1 1 r 1 r C1 C2

Mr D log log 1 1

2 D 2 2 a 4 2 a 4 2 r2

P 1 C

1 log 1 1 1 22 1

1 r C

Mr D (4.116)

2 D 4 2 a 2 r

P

1 1 1 22 1

C C

Mr D

8 D

r a

2 a

P

1 1 1 22 1 0

C C

(4.117)

8 D 2 a

Similarly

P 1 C

1 log 1 1 1 22 1

1 b C

Mr D

2 D 4

r b

2 a 2 b

P 1 C

1 log 1 1 1 22 1 0

1 b C

(4.118)

2 D 4 2 a 2 b

Subtract equation (4.118) from (4.117)

P

1 1 1 22 1

C C

8 D 2 a

P 1 C

1 log 1 1 1 22 1 0

1 b C

2 D 4 2 a 2 b

P b C C

log 1 22 1 22 1 0

4 D a a b

P b C C

log 1 22 1 22 1

4 D a a b

Theory of Plates and Shells

P b 1 1

log 1 C2 1 2 2

4 D a a b

b 1 b a

2 2

P

log C2

4 D a 1 b a

2 2

b 1 b a

2 2

P

C2 log (4.119)

4 D a 1 a 2 b2

P C1 1 P b 1 b a

2 2

1 1 2 log 0

8 D 2 a 4 D a 1 a 2 b 2

P C P b b2

1 1 1 log 1 2 0

8 D 2 4 D a a b2

P

1 b 1 b2

C1 log 2

D 1 4

a 2 a b

2

P b 2b2 1

C1 log 2 2 (4.120)

4 D a a b 1

Now from equation (4.113)

Pa 2 a2

C1 C3 0

8 D 4

Pa 2 P b 2b 2 1

a2

log 2 2 C3 0

8 D 4 D a a b 1 4

Pa 2 Pa 2

b 2b2 1

C3 log 2 2

8 D 16 D a a b 1

Theory of Plates and Shells

Pa 2 Pa 2

b 2b2 1

C3 log 2 2

8 D 16 D a a b 1

Pa 2

b b2 1 1

C3 1 log 2 2 (4.121)

8 D

a a b 2 1

Therefore from the equation (4.111) of deflection

P 2 r Pr 2 b 2b 2 1

w r log 1 log 2 2

8 D a 16 D a a b 1

(4.122)

r P b 1 b a

2 2

Pa 2

b b2 1 1

log log 1 log 2 2

a 4 D a 1 a b 8 D

2 2

a a b 2 1

P 2 r 1

Pr 2

Pa 2 1 1

w r log 1 1

8 D a 16 D 1 8 D 2 1

P 2 r r 2 1 a 2 1

w r log r 2

a 2

8 D a 2 1 2 1

2 1 1

2

r

r log a r a r

P

w 2 2 2

8 D

a 2 1

2

r 1 1

r log a r 1

P

w 2 2

(4.123)

8 D

a 2 1

Differentiate above equation twice w.r.t. r and substitute in the equations (4.2) and (4.3) to obtain

bending moments M r and M .

Corresponding bending stresses are given as follows

Mr M

r z and z

I I

Theory of Plates and Shells

M r max M max

r max z and max z

I I

Exercise:

Que. Develop from first principles, governing differential equation for circular plate under

axisymmetric loading. [P.U. Article 4.2]

Que. Obtain expressions for radial moments at the centre and at the edge of clamped circular

plate under uniformly distributed loading q [P.U. & Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 4.2.2]

Que. Find the transverse deflection w for the simply supported circular plate of radius a subjected

to uniformly distributed load q . Hence find expressions for M r , M , r and and their

maximum values. [P.U. & Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 4.2.1]

Que. Find the transverse deflection w for the simply supported circular plate of radius a

subjected to centre point load P. Hence find expressions for M r , M , r and and their

maximum values. [P.U. & Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 4.3.1]

Que. A circular plate of radius a is clamped at edges. The plate carries a load of intensity

q uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the plate. The thickness of the plate is h

Analyze the plate from the basic principles and obtain the expressions for [P.U. & Dr.

B.A.M.U. Article 4.3.2]

i) the maximum deflection

ii) bending moments at the boundary of the plate

iii) bending moments at the centre of the plate

iv) Variation of stresses at the inner face of the plate along the radius of the plate.

Que. A solid circular slab of concrete with radius R = 3.5 m and uniform thickness of 120mm

r

carries distributed load where intensity q varies according to relation q 6 1 where

R

q is in KN/m at a radial distance r meters from the centre. Assuming the edge of the slab

Theory of Plates and Shells

as clamped, compute the maximum deflection in the slab. Assume E 0.17 105 MPa and

Poissions ratio = 0.17 for the slab material. [P.U. Article 4.4]

Que. A solid circular slab of concrete with radius R = 3.0 m and uniform thickness of 120mm

r

carries distributed load where intensity q varies according to relation q 4000 1

R

where q is in KN/m at a radial distance r meters from the centre. Assuming the edge of the

slab as simply supported, compute the maximum deflection in the slab. Assume

E 0.15105 MPa and Poissions ratio = 0.17 for the slab material. [P.U. Article 4.5]

Que. A cylindrical R.C.C. water tank with radius 3m stores water to a depth 2m. The bottom slab

is flat with uniform thickness of 180 mm. the slab may be considered to be simply

supported along its edges. Assuming E 0.25105 MPa and Poissions ratio = 0.15, find

the maximum deflection and maximum bending stress. [P.U. Article 4.2.1]

Que. A solid circular slab of concrete with radius 3m and uniform thickness 120mm carries a

uniformly distributed load of 3000 N/m2 assuming the edges of slab as simply supported,

compute the maximum bending moment and deflection in the slab. Starting from

fundamentals, derive the relations you use. For concrete assume E 0.15105 MPa and

Poissons ratio = 0.17. [P.U. Article 4.2.1]

Que. Find the transverse deflection w for the simply supported circular plate with hole of radius a

subjected to moments M1 and M 2 distributed uniformly along inner and outer edges. Hence

find expressions for M r , M , r and and their maximum values. [Article 4.6.1]

Que. Find the transverse deflection w for the simply supported circular plate with hole of radius a

subjected to shearing forces along the inner boundaries. Hence find expressions for

M r , M , r and and their maximum values. [Article 4.6.3]

Theory of Plates and Shells

Chapter 5

General Theory of Cylindrical shell

5.1 Definition

A shell can be defined as a curved structure of which one dimension, the thickness, is small

in comparison with the other two dimensions,

Shell bears the same relation to plates, as curved beams to straight beam

In general shells are termed as curved plates

There are two different classes of shell i.e. Thick shell and Thin shell

A shell will be called thin if the maximum value of ratio h/R can be neglected in

comparison with unity

Where h = thickness of shell

R = Radius of curvature of middle surface

Correspondingly shells will be called thick shell whenever such terms can not be

neglected.

OR h/R > 1/10 = Thick shell

h/R = 1/10 to 1/50 = Thin shell

h/R < 1/50 = Shell is too thin to be used as load carrying member.

5.2 Some important Terms used in shells:

Ruled surface: A ruled surface may be defined as a surface formed by the motion of a straight

line which is known as the generator or ruling.

Singly Ruled surface: A surface is said to be singly ruled if at every point only a single straight

line can be ruled. e.g. Conical shells, conoids and cylinders.

Theory of Plates and Shells

Doubly Ruled surface: A surface is said to be doubly ruled if at every point two straight lines

can be ruled. Hyperbolic paraboloid and hyperboloid of Revolution of one sheet.

Principal curvatures: The curvatures of a point along the direction of maximum and minimum

curvatures are called principal curvatures.

Middle surface: The surface that bisects the thickness of shell or a locus of a point bisecting

thickness of a shell is called middle surface of the shell.

Membrane Action: A shell which carries load entirely by direct stresses lying on its plane is

called as membrane. For membrane action to be possible, shell has to be thin.

Membrane State of Stress: A state of stress in which the stresses in the shell are constant over

its thickness may be defined as Membrane state. A more mathematical approach would be to

regard the membrane theory as a particular case of the more exact bending theory. Thus

membrane theory results if certain effects in the bending theory are ignored.

5.3 Advantages of shell structures:

1. Major load is carried through membrane action and not through bending.

2. Due to this small thickness can be used, requires less material and is economical.

3. Shapes are architecturally beautiful and streamlined.

4. Large floor area uninterrupted by supports is obtained with shells.

5.4 Disadvantage of shell structures:

1. Difficult to analyze.

2. Difficult to construct due to complex geometry.

3. Cannot be used as a floor.

5.5 Classification of shell: Shell surfaces may be broadly classified as singly curved and doubly

curved. Singly curved surfaces are developable. Thus a cylinder can be developed into a plane

rectangle without stretching, shrinking or tearing. Similarly a cone may be developed into a

sector of circle. Doubly curved surfaces are nondevelopable. Hence they will not tend to flatten

out under loads. Further classification of shell surfaces can be attempted on the basis of Gauss

Theory of Plates and Shells

surface or a surface of revolution.

Thin Shell

Gauss Curvature Zero

Membrane equation parabolic

Revolution Translation e.g. Surface, e.g. Conical

e.g. Conical Shell Cylindrical Shell & Cylindrical Shell

Synclastic Anticlastic

Gauss Curvature Positive Gauss Curvature Negative

Membrane equation elliptic Membrane equation Hyperbolic

Shells of Shells of

Revolution Translation Shells of Shells of Ruled

e.g. Circular e.g. elliptic Revolution Translation Surface

Domes, paraboloid, paraboloid. e.g. Conical e.g. e.g. Conical &

ellipsoid of Circular Shell Cylindrical Cylindrical

Revolution Paraboloid Shell Shell

Theory of Plates and Shells

1. Stresses in z direction is neglected in comparison with x and y

2. Straight line normal to undeformed middle surface remains straight and normal to

deformed middle surface.

3. Displacements are small enough so that the changes in geometry of shell are negligible

for equilibrium.

4. The material is linearly elastic, homogenous.

Due to assumption (1) (called Loves Hypothesis) the 3-D problems are converted into 2-D

problems. In assumption (2) effect of shear deformation is neglected. Assumption (3) makes

equations simple and (4) avoid orthotropiy, non-linearity and discontinuities.

5.7 Determination of Stress Resultants:

Consider an infinitesimal small element of shell cut out by sections parallel to x and y axes and

normal to mid plane. Let x and y be the directions of principal curvatures and rx , ry be the radii

of principal curvatures for the element. Let the stresses x , y , xy yx , xz and yz be acting at a

point in the material at distance z from the mid surface as shown in figure.

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 L r z

x Lx x

rx rx z rx

z

Lx 1

rx

z

Similarly Ly 1

ry

z z

1 and along y direction 1

rx ry

h /2

z

Nx x 1

dz

ry

h /2

h /2

z

N y y 1 dz

h /2 rx

h /2

z

N xy xy 1 dz

ry

h /2

h /2

z

N yx xy 1 dz

h /2 rx

h /2

z

h /2

z

Qx xz 1 dz Qy yz 1 dz

ry ry

h /2 h /2

h /2

z

h /2

z

M x x z 1 dz M y y z 1 dz (5.1)

ry

h /2 h /2 rx

h /2

z

h /2

z

M xy xy z 1 dz M yx xy z 1 dz

h /2

ry h /2 rx

Theory of Plates and Shells

Rule used in determining the directions of the moments is same as in the case of plates. Since

z z

thickness h of shell is very small in comparison with rx , ry , and may be omitted from

rx ry

In considering the bending of shell, we assume that linear elements, such as AD and BC,

which are normal to the middle surface of the shell, remain straight and become normal to the

deformed middle surface of the shell. During bending, the lateral faces of the element ABCD

rotate only with respect to their lines of intersection with the middle surface.

Due to bending let the original radius of curvature rx reduced to rx' and ry reduced to ry' .

z z

Therefore original length of curvature 1 reduced to 1 ' .

rx rx

z z 1 1

Change in length of fibre at a distance z from mid surface = 1 ' 1 z '

rx rx rx rx

z

Original length of fibre = 1

rx

1 1

z '

Strain in x direction = x

change in length

rx rx

orignal length z

1

rx

z 1 1 z 1 1

x ' and y ' (5.2)

z rx rx z ry ry

1 1

rx

ry

Theory of Plates and Shells

In considering stretching of the shell then, let the strain in x and y direction due to stretching is

1 and 2 respectively. For a midplane length dx in x direction, l1 and l2 is the length of fibre

at a distance z from midplane before and after bending.

z z

l1 dx 1 And l2 dx 1 1 1 '

rx rx

z z

dx 1 1 1 ' dx 1

l l2 l1 rx rx

x

l l1 z

dx 1

rx

z z z z z

1 1 1 1 '

1 1 '

1 '

rx rx rx rx rx

x

z z

1 1

rx rx

1 1 1 1 1 1

z ' 1 ' z ' 2 '

1 2 ry ry ry

x

r rx rx

x Similarly y (5.3)

z z z z

1 1 1 1

rx rx ry ry

The thickness of the shell will be always assumed small in comparison with the radii of

curvature. In such a case the quantities like z / rx and z / ry can be neglected in comparison with

unity. We shall neglect also the effect of elongations 1 and 2 on the curvature. Then the

expressions are simplified as,

1 1

x 1 z ' 1 x z (5.4)

rx rx

1 1

y 2 z '

2 y z (5.5)

ry ry

Theory of Plates and Shells

In which 1 and 2 are membrane strains and x and y are bending strains. Where

x and y denotes changes of curvatures. Using these expressions for the components of strain

of a lamina and assuming that there are no normal stresses between laminae z 0 , the

Stresses interms of strains:

x y z

E

x (5.6)

1 2

E

But since z

1 2

z y x 0

E

1 2 (5.7)

z y x

Therefore substitute value of z from equation (5.7) into the equation (5.6) we get

x

E

1 2

x y y x

Substitute value of x and y from equations (5.4) and (5.5) respectively into the above

equation. We get

1 x z 2 y z

E

x

1 2

Note: x y 0 since it is very small

1 2 z x y

E

x (5.8)

1 2

2 1 z y x

E

Similarly y (5.9)

1 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

Substituting these expressions in equation (5.1) and neglecting small quantities z / rx and z / ry in

h /2 h /2

Nx x dz

E

1 2 z x y dz

1 2

h /2 h /2

h /2

z2

Nx

E

1 2

1 2 x y

2 h /2

E

Nx 1h 2 h

1 2

Eh

Nx 1 2 (5.10)

1 2

Eh

Similarly Ny 2 1 (5.11)

1 2

In the same manner bending moments M x and M y can be determined using equations (5.8) and

(5.9).

h /2 h /2

Mx x z dz

E

1 z 2 z z 2 x y dz

1 2

h /2 h /2

h /2

z2 z2 z3

Mx

E

1 2

1 2 x y

2 2 3 h /2

Eh3

Mx

1 2

x y

M x D x y (5.12)

Similarly M y D y x (5.13)

A more general case of deformation of the element is obtained if we assume that, in addition to

normal stresses, shearing stresses also are acting on the lateral sides of the element. Denoting by

Theory of Plates and Shells

the shearing strain in the middle surface of the shell and by xy dx the rotation of the edge BC

relative to Oz about the x axis, we obtained

xy 2 z xy G (5.14)

h /2 h /2

N xy

h /2

xy dz

h /2

2 z xy G dz

h /2

z2

N xy G z 2 xy

2 h /2

N xy G h N xy N yx (5.15)

In the same manner twisting moment M xy also be find out from the expression (5.14), we obtain

h /2 h /2

M xy

h /2

xy z dz

h /2

2 z xy G z dz

h /2

z2 z3

M xy G 2 xy

2 3 h /2

G h3 xy

M xy

6

E h3 xy

M xy M yx D 1 xy (5.16)

12 1 2

Thus we can express the resultant forces per unit length N x , N y and N xy and the moments

M x , M y and M xy interms of six quantities of strain. The three components of strain 1 , 2 &

of middle surface of the shell and three quantities x , y & xy representing the changes of

curvature and the twist of the middle surface. In many practical problems bending may be

Theory of Plates and Shells

neglected, as bending if any may be localized in some small portion of shell remaining major

part being subjected to membrane action only.

5.7 General theory of cylindrical shell:

A Circular Cylindrical Shell with Axisymmetric Loadings.

In practical applications we frequently encounter problems in which a circular cylindrical

shell is submitted to the action of forces distributed symmetrically with respect to the axis of the

cylinder. The stress distribution in cylindrical boilers submitted to the action of steam pressure,

stresses in cylindrical containers having a vertical axis and submitted to internal liquid pressure,

and stresses in circular pipes under uniform internal pressure are examples of such problems.

To establish the equations required for the solution of these problems, consider the

various actions on a small element of a shell are as shown in figure. Size of element is dx a d .

Here we have by symmetry, N constant, N x N x 0 and Q 0 also M constant,

Theory of Plates and Shells

N x

N x a d N x dx a d 0

x

N x

dx a d 0 (5.17)

x

Above expression represents that the forces N x are constant, and we take them equal to zero. If

they are different from zero, the deformation and stress corresponding to such constant force can

be easily calculated and superposed on stresses and deformations produced by lateral loads.

Note: Body force X along x direction is not considered

Similarly now summing up the forces along z direction we get,

d d

N dx sin N dx sin

2 2

d

2 N dx sin

2

d

2 N dx

2

Theory of Plates and Shells

N dx d (5.18)

Therefore Fz 0

Qx

Qx a d Qx dx a d N dx d Z dx a d 0

x

Qx

dx a d N dx d Z dx a d 0

x

Qx N

Z 0

x a

Qx N

Z (5.19)

x a

Now taking moment @y i.e. at a distance of dx

M x

M x a d M x dx a d Qx a d dx 0

x

M x

dx a d Qx a d dx 0

x

M x

dx a d Qx a d dx 0

x

Theory of Plates and Shells

M x

Qx 0 (5.20)

x

These are two equations and three unknowns quantities: N , Qx and M x , thus problem in

indeterminate. Therefore two solve the problem consider displacement of a point in the mid

surface of shell. From symmetry we conclude that the component of v of the displacement in

circumferential direction vanishes. We thus have to consider only the components u and w in the

x and z directions. The expressions fir the strain components then become

u w

x and

x a

Therefore using hooks law and integrating over the thickness we get

h /2 h /2

Nx x dz

E

1 2

x dz

h /2 h /2

h /2

E u w

Nx

1 2

h /2

x

dz

a

E u w

z h/2

h /2

Nx 2

1 x a

Eh u w

Nx 2

(5.21)

1 x a

Similarly

h /2 h /2

N dz

E

1 2

x dz

h /2 h /2

Eh u w

N (5.22)

1 2 x a

Since N x 0 (Assumed)

Eh u w

2

0

1 x a

Theory of Plates and Shells

u w

x a

Substitute in the equation (5.22)

Eh 2 w w

N

1 2 a a

Ehw

N (5.23)

a

Considering the bending moments, we conclude from symmetry that there is no bending

d 2w

curvature in circumferential direction, the curvature along x direction is 2 . Therefore from

dx

equation of plate, bending moment in x direction is given by

2w

Mx D 2 (5.24)

x

E h3

Where D = flexural rigidity of the shell

12 1 2

Substitute value of Qx from equation (5.20) into the equation (5.19) we get

2 M x N

Z (5.25)

x a

Put value of M x and N from equation (5.24) and (5.23) into the equation (5.25) to obtained

2 2w E h w

Z

x x 2

D (5.26)

a2

All problems of symmetrical deformation of circular cylindrical shells thus reduced to the

integration of equation (5.26). The simplest application of this equation is obtained when the

thickness of shell is constant. Under such conditions equation (5.26) becomes

4 w E h w

D 4 Z

x a2

Theory of Plates and Shells

4w Z 4 Eh

4 4w 4 (5.27)

x 4

D D a2

w e x c1 cos x c2 sin x e x c3 cos x c4 sin x f x (5.28)

5.8 Membrane theory of cylindrical shell:

Let consider, an element is cut from the shell by two adjacent generators and two

cross sections perpendicular to the x axis, and its position is defined by the coordinates x and the

angle . In addition a load will be distributed over the surface of the element, the components of

the intensity of this load being denoted, by X, Y and Z.

Let x axis be taken along the length, y tangent to the cross-section and z is along normal

to the surface. The stress resultants acting on edges of a small element having size dx . rd are as

shown in figure. Considering the equilibrium of the element and summing up the forces in x

direction we obtained

Theory of Plates and Shells

N x N x

N x r d N x dx r d N x dx N x d dx X r d dx 0

x

N x N x

dx r d d dx X r d dx 0

x

N x 1 N x

X 0 (5.29)

x r

Similarly, the force in the direction of the tangent to the normal cross section, i.e. in the y

direction gives the corresponding equation of equilibrium, i.e. Fy 0

N N x

N dx N d dx N x r d N x dx r d Y r d dx 0

x

N N x

d dx r d dx Y r d dx 0

x

1 N N x

Y 0 (5.30)

r x

The forces acting in the direction of the normal to the shell, i.e. in the z direction

Theory of Plates and Shells

d d

Total downward force in z direction = N dx sin N dx sin

2 2

d

= 2 N dx = N dx d

2

N dx d Z r d dx 0

N Z r 0

N Z r (5.31)

Note: We find N from equation (5.31) and N x , N x by integration of equation (5.30) and

(5.29)

5.8.1 Example: Horizontal cylinder with closed ends filled with liquid and supported at

ends with simple supports.

Solution:

If P0 be the pressure at the axis of the tube, the pressure at any point is given by,

Theory of Plates and Shells

P z P0 a cos (5.32)

Therefore put value of pressure at any point from equation (5.32) into the equation (5.31) to

find N .

N Z r N Z a

N P0 a cos a

N P0 a cos a

N P0 a a 2 cos (5.33)

Now substitute value of N from equation (5.33) into the equation (5.30) to find out N x .

1 N x

P0 a a 2 cos Y 0

a x

N x

a sin 0 Y 0

x

N x

a sin

x

Therefore integrating above equation w.r.t. x we get

N x

a sin dx

x

N x a sin dx

Nx a sin x C1 (5.34)

Now put value of N x from equation (5.34) into the equation (5.29) to find out N x

N x 1

a sin x C1 X 0

x r

Theory of Plates and Shells

N x 1 1

a cos x C1 0

x a a

N x 1

cos x C1

x a

Integrate w.r.t. x to find out N x

N x 1

cos x C1

x a

x2 x

N x cos C1 C2 (5.35)

2 a

Here integration constant must be determined by using known values of N x and N x i.e.

boundary conditions. For example consider ends horizontally free i.e. N x 0 at x = 0 and x = l

Therefore from equation (5.35)

At x = 0

C2 0 (5.36)

At x = l

l2 l

cos C1 0

2 a

l2 l

cos C1

2 a

al

C1 cos

2

Integrate w.r.t.

al

C

1

2

cos

al

C1 sin C (5.37)

2

Theory of Plates and Shells

al

N x a sin x sin C (5.38)

2

It is seen from equation (5.34) that the constant C represents forces N x uniformly distributed

around the edges of the tube, as is the case when tube is subjected to torsion. If there is no torque

applied, we must take C = 0. Then the above equation becomes

al

N x a sin x sin (5.39)

2

al al

N x x 0

sin And N x x l

sin (5.40)

2 2

By substituting values of C2 and C1 in the equation (5.35) we get

x2 x al

N x cos sin

2 a 2

x2 x a l

N x cos cos

2 a 2

x

Nx l x cos (5.41)

2

And from equation (5.33)

N P0 a a 2 cos (5.42)

Here N x and N x are the shear stresses and bending stresses for the simply supported beam of

hallow circular cross section for the weight of liquid i.e. a 2 per unit length. These are

independent of P0

Theory of Plates and Shells

Consider shell ABCD with semicircular edges AD & BC simply supported on gable walls &

edges AB & CD free. The uniformly distributed load of self weight P acts uniformly over the

middle surface. Area of shell at any point x, we have load components

Therefore from equation (5.31)

N z r P a cos (5.43)

At or , N 0 which is as required as there are no external forces at straight

2 2

edges, AB and CD. Therefore from equation (5.30)

N x 1 N

Y

x r

Substitute value of N and Y we get,

N x 1

P a cos P sin

x a

N x

P sin P sin

x

Theory of Plates and Shells

N x

2 P sin

x

Integrating both sides with respective x

N x

x

dx 2 P sin dx

Nx 2 P sin x C1 (5.44)

Since N x must be symmetric at the two supported ends and hence constant term C1 must be

N x 2 P sin x (5.45)

It is seen that this solution does not vanish along the edges AB and CD as it should for free

edges. In structural applications, however, the edges are usually reinforced by longitudinal

members string enough to resist the tension produced by shearing force (5.45). Substituting

equation (5.45) in the equation (5.29), we obtained

N x 1 N x

X

x r

Substitute value of N x from equation (5.45) and X to obtain the value of N x , Hence

N x 1

2 P sin x

x a

N x 2P

x cos

x a

Integrate with respective x we get

N x 2P

x

a

x cos dx

2P x2

Nx cos C2 (5.46)

a 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

If the ends of the shell are supported in such a manner that the reactions act in the planes of the

end cross sections, the force N x must vanish at the ends, i.e. N x l /2 N x l /2 0 , Hence we get

2P l2

0 cos C2

a 4

Pl 2

C2 cos (5.47)

4a

Put equation (5.47) in the equation (5.46) to obtained

2P x2 Pl 2

Nx cos cos

a 2 4a

P cos

Nx

4a

4x2 l 2 (5.48)

These expressions N x , N and N x are satisfactory except for the fact that they do not satisfy

the condition that N x must be equal to zero at the free edges. We get some value for N x and to

resist this, a beam or thick strip must be provided at edges AB and CD.

Exercise:

Que. State the advantages and disadvantages of shell structures compared to plates. [P.U. Article

5.3 & 5.4]

Que. Classify thin shell into various types based on shell geometry and curvature. [P.U. & Dr.

B.A.M.U. Article 5.5]

Que. Write the assumptions made in the general theory of thin elastic shells, stating implication

of each. [P.U. Article 5.6]

Que. Derive expressions for the strains x and y at a point due to the bending and membrane

(stretching) action in a shell. Hence obtain expressions for the stress resultants interms of

strain. [P.U. Article 5.7, Derivation of Equation 5.2 & 5.3]

Theory of Plates and Shells

Que. In a thin shell of thickness h, if x , y , xy , xz and yz are the stresses at a point z from

midplane, write expressions for stress resultants at the section, interms of these. [P.U.

Article 5.6, Derivation of Equation 5.6 to 5.16]

Que. sketch cylindrical shell. Show the stress resultants for a small element on the shell surface.

Derive equations of equilibrium for this element. [P.U. Article 5.7]

Que. Derive the governing differential equations for general theory of cylindrical shell,

considering actions on an infinitesimal element. [P.U. Article 5.7]

Que. Write equilibrium equations for membrane analysis of thin cylindrical shells. Using these,

analyse a semicircular cylindrical shell roof of uniform thickness h under a self weight P

per unit area, to obtain membrane stress resultants N x , N and N x in the shell. Assumed

shell has curved edges simply supported and straight edges free. [P.U. Article 5.7.2]

Que. A horizontal cylindrical shell with closed ends is filled with liquid of density and is

simply supported at ends. Derive expressions for stress resultants, N x , N and N x for a

Theory of Plates and Shells

Chapter 6

Bending theory of Cylindrical Shells

Most cylindrical concrete shells used in practice are

not behaved as a membrane. Along the edges of

shell stresses and displacements are different from

those given by membrane theory usually exists. It

depends on support conditions or physical boundary

conditions.

Let consider above figure of shell element ABCD

which is not supported along edges AB and CD

(free edges) but membrane theory gives that stresses N and N x are present at this edges. The

actual boundary conditions are realized by applying corrective line loads. But application of such

corrective line load would bend shell and depart from its membrane state. The shell now seek a

new equilibrium and in that process brings into play bending moments, twisting moments and

radial shears. A bending theory is essential to account for these effects.

6.2 Strains in cylindrical shell:

Displacements in x, y and z directions are u, v and w

respectively.

Therefore strain in x direction is given by

u

x (6.1)

x

Similarly strain in y direction is sum of strain

corresponding to plane state of stress and circumferential

Theory of Plates and Shells

strain.

1 v w

(6.2)

a a

1 v

Where strain corresponding to plane state of stress

a

w

And circumferential strain

a

u v

And shear strain x (6.3)

a x

6.3 The Finsterwalder Theory:

Starting from 1932 several rigorous and approximate bending theories have been put

forward for the analysis of reinforced concrete cylindrical shell. The earliest of these was due to

Finsterwalder. By making a few simplifications, finsterwalder was able to develop, for the first

time, a theory that the engineer could use for the analysis of shell roofs. The assumptions

underlying all shell theories and the additional simplifying assumption made by the finsterwalder

theory listed below:

6.3.1 Assumptions made in Finsterwalder theory:

1. Material is homogenous, isotropic and obeys hooks law.

2. Stresses normal to shell surfaces are neglected.

3. All dimensions are very small.

4. A rectilinear element normal to middle surface remains rectilinear after deformation

5. M x M x Qx 0

Note: First four assumptions are common to all bending theories of cylindrical shells. Last

Assumption was introduced by finsterwalder to simplify the problem.

6.3.2 Equations of equilibrium:

It is possible to derive four equations of equilibrium for an element of the unloaded shell acted

upon by the stress resultant shown in figure below.

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 148

Theory of Plates and Shells

Fx 0

N x N x

N x a d N x dx a d N x dx N x a d dx 0

x a

N x N x

dx a d a d dx 0

x a

N x N x

a 0 (6.4)

x

Now summing up the forces in direction, i.e., the direction of the tangent to the shell element

at its midpoint pointing in the direction of increasing and equating them to zero, we get

F 0

N N x

N dx N a d dx N x a d N x dx a d

a x

d Q d

Q dx sin Q a d dx sin 0

2 a 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

Note: First two terms of this equation are the same as those appearing in the membrane

theory. The additional term is the resolved components of shear forces Q in tangential

N N x

a d dx dx a d Q dx a d 0

a x

N N x

a Q 0 (6.5)

x

Now equating to zero the sum of all forces in the direction of the inward normal drawn at the

midpoint of the shell element.

d N d Q

N dx sin N a d dx sin Q dx Q a d dx 0

2 a 2 a

Neglecting higher powers of dx and d we obtained

d Q

2 N dx sin d dx 0

2

d Q

2 N dx d dx 0

2

Theory of Plates and Shells

On simplifying, we get

Q

N 0 (6.6)

Another equation of equilibrium results from equating the sum of moments of all forces about

the generatrix AD.

M AD 0

M Q

M dx M a d dx Q a d dx a d 0

a a

Neglecting higher powers of dx and d we obtained

M

a Q 0

1 M

Q 0 (6.7)

a

6.3.3 Derivation of Finsterwalder eighth (8th) order differential equation:

Let us introduce a function f which is such that

n x

M f cos

L

Theory of Plates and Shells

n x n a

Or M f cos n (6.8)

a L

From equation (6.8) into the equation of equilibrium (6.7) to obtain value of Q .

1 M

Q

a

1 n x

Q

a f cos a

1 f x

Q cos n (6.9)

a a

Put equation (6.9) into the equation (6.6) to obtain value of N

Q

N

1 f x

N cos n

a a

1 f x

2

N cos n (6.10)

a 2

a

Substitute equation (6.10) into the equation (6.5) to obtain N x

N x 1 1 f n x 1 f n x

2

cos cos

x a a a a 2 a

N x 1 f f n x

3

2 cos

x a

3

a

N x 1 f f n x

3

x

2

a

3 cos

a

dx

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 f f n x a

3

N x 2

sin

a

3

a n

1 f f n x

3

N x sin (6.11)

n a

3

a

Substitute value of N x from equation (6.11) into the equation (6.4) to find out value of N x ,

hence

N x 1 N x

x a

N x 1 1 f f n x

3

sin

x a n a 3 a

N x 1 2 f 4 f n x

sin

x n a 2

2

4

a

N x 1 f f x

2 4

x n a 2 2 4 sin an dx

1 f f n x

2 4

Nx cos (6.12)

n a

2 2

4

a

x

1

Ed

N x N

1

Ed

N N x (6.13)

N x 2 1 N x

x

Gd Ed

Put values of strains from equations (6.1), (6.2) and (6.3) into the equation (6.13), we get

Theory of Plates and Shells

u

1

x E d

N x N

1 v w

1

N N x (6.14)

a a Ed

u v N x 2 1 N x

a x G d Ed

Expressions for u, v and w may now be derived by making use of the stress strain relationship

(6.14). Before we do so, we may set v, the Poissons ratio to zero 0 . We get

u N

x (6.15)

x E d

1 v w N

(6.16)

a a E d

u v 2 N x

(6.17)

a x E d

Now consider equation (6.15) and substitute value of N x from equation (6.12) to obtain value of

displacement u

u 1 1 f f n x

2 4

cos

x E d n a

2 2

4

a

u 1 1 f f x

2 4

x E d n2 a 2 4 cos an

1 f f n x

2 4

u 3

sin (6.18)

E d n 2

4

a

Theory of Plates and Shells

v 2 N x u

x E d a

Substitute values of N x and u from equation (6.11) and (6.18) into the above equation to find

v 2 1 x 1 x

f . f ... sin n f .. f :: sin n

3

x E d n a a a E d n a

Where f . stands for f

v 2 1 x

f . f ... f ... f ::. sin n

x E d n a E d n a

3

a

v 2 1 x

x E d f . f ... f ... f ::. sin n dx

n a E d n a

3

a

2 1 x

v f . f ...

2

f ... f ::. cos n

4

(6.19)

E d n E d n a

v a N

w (6.20)

Ed

Substitute values of N and v from equations (6.10) and (6.19) into the equation (6.20) to obtain

2 1 x a 1 .. n x

w f . f ...

2

f ... f ::. cos n

4 f cos

E d n E d n a Ed a a

2 1 1 .. x

w f .. f ::

2

f :: f :::

4

f cos n (6.21)

E d n E d n Ed a

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 w

v (6.22)

a

Therefore put equations (6.19) and (6.21) into the equation (6.22) we get

2 1

E d 2 f f E d 4 f f

. ... ... ::.

1 n n

cos n x

a 2 1 1 .. a

2

f ..

f ::

4

f ::

f :::

f

E d n E d n Ed

2 1

E d 2 f f E d 4 f f

. ... ... ::.

1 n n

cos n x

a 2 1 1 ... a

2

f ...

f ::.

4

f ::.

f :::.

f

E d n E d n Ed

2 1

2 f f 4 f ... f ::.

. ...

1 n n

cos n x (6.23)

aEd 2 1 ::. f

7 :::.

a

2 f ... f ::. f f ...

n n

4 7

We may next find (change in curvature)

1 2w

2

w (6.24)

a2

Put equation (6.21) in the equation (6.24)

2 1 1 ..

E d 2 f f E d 4 f f E d f

.. :: :: :::

1

2

n n

cos n x

a 22

1 1 .. a

2 f .. f ::

2

f :: f :::

4

f

E d n E d n Ed

Theory of Plates and Shells

2 1 1 ..

E d 2 f f E d 4 f f E d f

.. :: :: :::

1 n n

cos n x (6.25)

2

Eda 2 1 a

2 f f 4 f f f

:: ::: ::: :::: ::

n n

Ed 3 Ed 3

Put in the moment curvature equation M D where D

12 1 2 12

2 1 1 ..

f .. f :: 4

f :: f ::: f

D E d n E d n

2

cos n x (6.26)

Ed

M

E d a2 2 1 a

2 f :: f ::: 4 f ::: f :::: f ::

n n

Put equation (7.26) into above equation (7.8)

2 1 1 ..

E d 2 f f E d 4 f f E d f

.. :: :: :::

2

d

f

n n

2

12 a 2 1

2 f f 4 f f f

:: ::: ::: :::: ::

n n

Rearranging all the terms we get

2 1 1 ..

E d 2 f f E d 4 f f E d f

.. :: :: :::

n n

0 (6.27)

2 f 1

6

a 2

2 f :: f :::

f ::::

f ::

12 f

n 6 n4

d2

Which is also written as

2 1 1 ..

E d 2 f f E d 4 f f E d f

.. :: :: :::

n n

0 (6.28)

2 1 a 2

2 f f 4 f f f 12 2 f

:: ::: ::: :::: ::

n n d

Theory of Plates and Shells

The simplest among the so-called exact theories which takes into account M x , M x

and Qx ignored in the finsterwalder theory is the D-K-J theory in which the three displacements

u. v and w appear in uncoupled form. The theory appears to be due to Donnell, who first used it

in connection with his studies on the stability of thin-walled circular cylinders in 1933-1934.

Karman and Tsien also employed the same theory in 1941 in their investigation on the buckling

of cylindrical shells. Its presentation in a form suitable for the analysis of cylindrical shell roofs

appeared in a book by Jenkins published in 1947. The theory is appropriately called as Donnell

Karman Jenkins theory.

6.4.1 Equations of Equilibrium:

The equilibrium equations already derived in finsterwalder theory will now be modified to take

into account M x , M x and Qx . It will be assumed that M x M x and N x N x

Referring to above figure, the following equations of equilibrium may be set up. Equating all

forces in the x direction to zero we get

Fx 0

Theory of Plates and Shells

N x N x

N x a d N x dx a d N x dx N x a d dx 0

x a

N x N x

dx a d a d dx 0

x a

N x 1 N x

0 (6.29)

x a

Equating the sum of all the forces acting in direction to zero, we get

F 0

N N x

N dx N a d dx N x a d N x dx a d 0

a x

N N x

a d dx dx a d 0

a x

N N x

a 0 (6.30)

x

The third equation of equilibrium is derived by equating all forces in the direction of the inward

normal drawn at the midpoint of the shell element to zero.

Theory of Plates and Shells

d N d Q

N dx sin N a d dx sin Q dx Q a d dx

2 a 2 a

Qx

Qx a d Qx dx a d 0

x

Neglecting higher powers of dx and d we obtained

d Q Qx

2 N dx sin d dx dx a d 0

2 x

Q Qx

N dx d d dx dx a d 0

x

On simplifying, we get

Q Qx

N a 0 (6.31)

x

Another equation of equilibrium results from equating the sum of moments of all forces about

the generatrix. Moments of all forces about the generatrix AD.

M AD 0

Theory of Plates and Shells

M M x

M dx M a d dx M x a d M x dx a d

a x

Q

Q a d dx a d 0

a

Neglecting higher powers of dx and d we obtained

M M x

dx d a dx d a Q dx d 0

x

M M x

a a Q 0 (6.32)

x

Moments of all forces about the generatrix AB.

M AB 0

M x

M x a d M x dx a d M x dx

x

M x Qx

Mx a d dx Qx dx a d dx 0

a x

M x M x

a dx d dx d a Qx dx d 0

x

M x M x

a a Qx 0 (6.33)

x

7.4.2 Flugges simultaneous equations:

Flugge was the first to derive three simultaneous differential equations in u, v and w for most

concrete reinforced shells.

u

From equation (6.15) N x Ed

x

Ed v

From equation (6.16) N w

a

Theory of Plates and Shells

Ed 1 u v

And from equation (6.17) N x a x

2

Substitute N x and N x in the equation (6.29) we get

u 1 Ed 1 u v

Ed 0

x x a 2 a x

2u Ed 1 2u 2 v

0

2 a 2 x

a Ed

x 2

2u 1 1 2u 2 v

0

2 a 2 x

a (6.34)

x 2

Ed v Ed 1 u v

w a 0

a x 2 a x

Ed 2 v w Ed 1 2u 2 v

2 a 2 0

a 2 a x x

2 v w 1 2u 2 v

2

2 a a 0

x 2

(6.35)

2 x

Now from equation (6.32) and (6.33) we obtained

1 M M x

Q

x

(6.36)

a

M x 1 M x

Qx

a

And (6.37)

x

Now using moment curvature relation

2w D 2w D 2w

Mx D , M and M x (6.38)

x 2 a 2 2 a x

Substitute equation (6.38) in the equation (6.36) we get

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 162

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 D 2w D 2w

Q

a a 2 2 x a x

D 3w D 3w

Q

a 3 3 a x 2

D 1 3w 3w

Q 2

a a 3 x 2

(6.39)

2w 1 D 2 w

Qx D

x x 2 a a x

3w D 3w

Qx D

x3 a 2 x 2

D 3w 1 3w

Qx

a x3 a x 2

a (6.40)

Q Qx

N

x

a

D 1 3w 3w D 3w 1 3w

N 2 3 2 a a 3 2

a a x

x

a x a x

D 1 4w 4w

D 4w 1 4w

N 2 a a

a a x 2 4 a x a x 2 2

4 4

D 1 4w 4w 2 w

4

N

a a 2 4 x 4

2 a

x 2 4

Ed v

But from equation (6.16) N w

a

Theory of Plates and Shells

Ed v D 1 4w 4w 2 w

4

a a 2 4 x 4

w 2 a

a x 2 4

v Ed 3 1 4 w 4w 2 w

4

12 Ed a 2 4 x 4

w 2 a

x 2 4

v d 2 4w 4w 4 w

4

2

12 a 2 4 x 4

w 2 a a

x 2 4

2

v d 2 2w 2 w

2

2

0

x 2

Or w a (6.41)

12 a

2

Equations (6.34), (6.35) and (6.41) are the simplified version of simultaneous differential

equations due to Flugges in the three displacements u, v and w.

To derive the differential equations interms of w by eliminating u and v from equations (6.34),

(6.35) and (6.41).

2

Therefore differentiate equation (6.35) w.r.t. operator 2

x

4v 3 w 1 4u 2 v

4

2 2 2

a a 0

x 4

(6.42)

x x 2 x

3

2

Differentiate equation (6.34) w.r.t. operator a

x

4u 1 4u 4v

a3 2

0

2 3 x x 2 2

a a

x 3

1 4u 4v 4u

2

3

2 3 x x 2 2

a a a (6.43)

x 3

Theory of Plates and Shells

2

Now differentiate equation (6.35) w.r.t. operator 2

4 v 3 w 1 4u 4v

4 3

2

0

x 2 2

a a

2 x

3

1 4u 4v 4v 3 w

2

4 3

2 3x x 2 2

a a (6.44)

Therefore from equation (6.43) and (6.44) we get

4u 4v 3 w

a3

(6.45)

x3 4 3

Put equation (6.45) into equation (6.42) we obtain

4v 3 w 1 1 4v 3 w 2 v

4

2 2 2

2

3

a 4

0

x x 2 a x

4

1 4v a 2 4v 4v 3 w 1 3w

2a 2 4 2 x 4 2x 2 x 2 a 2 3

1 4v 4v 4 v

4

3w 1 3w

4 2

x 4 x 2 a 2 3

2 a a

2a 2 2 x 2

2

1 2 2 2 3w 1 3w

x 2 2

a v (6.46)

2a 2 x 2 a 2 3

2

2 2 2 v 2 w

4

1 4w

x 2 2

a 2 a

2 x 2 a 2 4

2

2 2 2 v 2 4w 4w 4 w

4

4 w

4

x 2 2

x 4

a 2 a 2 a a

2 x 2 4 x 4

Theory of Plates and Shells

2 2

2 2 2 v 2 2 2 4 w

4

x 2 2

a

x 2 2

a w a

x 4

2

2 2 2 v 4 w

4

x 2 2

a w a (6.47)

x 4

2

2 2

Now differentiate equation (6.41) w.r.t. operator a 2 2

x 2

2

2 2 2 4 4 4 4

i.e. w.r.t. operator a 2a 2

2

i.e. a

x 2 2 4

we obtained

x x

2 4

2

2 2 2 v

x 2 2 w

a

2

2 2 d 2 2 4w 4 w

4

4w

a 2 2 0

2 12a 2 4

2 a a

x x 2 2 x 4

2 4

2 2 2 v d2 2 2 2

x 2 2

a w 2 x 2 2 w 0

a (6.48)

12a

From equation (6.47) and (6.48) we get

4

4w d2 2 2 2

a 4

x 2 2 w 0

a

x 4 12a 2

4

2 2 2 a6 4 w

a x 2 2 w 12 d 2 x 4

4

2 2 2 a6 4 w

x 2 2

a w 12 0 (6.49)

d 2 x 4

4

2 2 2 a4 4 w

Or a

x 2 2 w 0 (6.50)

k x 4

Theory of Plates and Shells

The schorer theory published in 1936 has merit of extreme simplicity. Schorer also

assumed M x M x Qx 0 like finsterwalder but another assumption implement in this theory

1 v 1 u v

is that tangential strain w and shear strain x are both very

a a x

u

small as compared to longitudinal strain x

x

Therefore this assumption leads to following relations

1 v v

w 0 w (6.51)

a

1 u v v 1 u

0 (6.52)

a x x a

Note: Schorer theory is applicable to only long shell.

From equation (6.32) we get

1 M

Q

a

1 D 2w D 2w

Q

M

a a 2 2 a 2 2

D 3w

Q (6.53)

a 3 3

From equation (6.31) we get

Q D 3w

N N

a 3 3

D 4w

N (6.54)

a 4 4

Theory of Plates and Shells

N x 1 N

x a

N x D 5 w

(6.55)

x a 4 5

From equation (6.29) we obtained

N x 1 N x

x a

2 Nx 1 N x

2

x 2 a x

2 Nx 1 N x

x 2

a x

2 Nx D 6w

5 (6.56)

x 2 a 6

Now from equation (6.15)

u

Nx E d

x

Differentiate with respective x twice we get

2 Nx 3u

E d (6.57)

x 2 x3

Therefore equation (6.56) and (6.57) we obtained

3u D 6 w

(6.58)

x3 E d a5 6

From relation (6.52)

Theory of Plates and Shells

v 1 u

x a

Differentiate with respective x we get

4v 1 4u

x 4 a x3

4v 1 3u

(6.59)

x 4 a x 3

4v D 7 w

(6.60)

x 4 E d a 6 7

Again from equation (6.51) we obtained

v

w

Differentiate with respective x we get

4w 5v

x 4 x 4

4w 4v

x 4 x 4

4w D 8 w

x 4 E d a 6 8

D 8 w 4 w

4 0

E d a 6 8 x

Ed 3 8 w 4 w

4 0 0 (6.61)

12 E d a 6 8 x

Theory of Plates and Shells

8 w a4 4w d2

0 k (6.62)

8 k x 4 12 a 2

6.6.1 Assumptions:

1. The squares and products of surface derivatives p dz / dx and q dz / dy are

negligible in comparison with unity.

2. The gauss curvature of the undeformed middle surface of the shell is very small and can

be assumed to be equal to zero.

3. The derivative of r, s and t may be neglected. This in effect amount assuming that the

principal curvature of the shell remains constant.

6.6.2 Equations of Equilibrium:

Let the equation of doubly curved shell surface be z = z(x, y); we usually denotes

2 z 2 z 2 z

r; s; t (6.63)

x 2 x y y 2

Equating all forces in the x direction to zero we get

Fx 0

N x N yx

N x dy N x dx dy N yx dx N yx dy dx X dx dy 0

x y

N x N yx

dx dy dy dx X dx dy 0

x y

Theory of Plates and Shells

N x N yx

X0 (6.64)

x y

Fy 0

N y N xy

N y dx N y dy dx N xy dy N xy dx dy Y dx dy 0

y x

N y N xy

dy dx dx dy Y dx dy 0

y x

N y N xy

Y 0 (6.65)

y x

Theory of Plates and Shells

For the sake of convenience denote H M xy M yx . Now summing up the moments about

M DC 0

M y M xy

M y dx M y dy dx M xy dy M xy dx dy

y x

Q

Qy y dy dx dy 0

y

M y M xy

dy dx dx dy Qy dx dy 0

y x

M y M xy

Qy 0

y x

M y H

Qy 0 (6.66)

y x

Similarly summing up the moments about edge AB and equate with zero we get

M x H

Qx 0 (6.67)

x y

Now resolving forces in z direction we get

Qx Qy 2 z 2 z 2 z

N x 2 2 N xy Ny 2 z 0

x y x x y y

M x H M y H 2 z 2 z 2 z

N 2 N N z 0

x x y y y x x 2 x y y 2

x xy y

2M x 2 H M y

2

2 z 2 z 2 z

2 N 2 N N z 0 (6.68)

x 2 xy y 2 x 2 x y y 2

x xy y

Theory of Plates and Shells

u u u v

x r w y t w xy 2s w (6.69)

x y y x

Moment curvature relations:

1 2w 1 2w 1 2w

(6.70)

rx x 2 ry y 2 rxy x y

2 x

y

Ed

Nx

1

2 y

x

Ed

Ny (6.71)

1

Ed

N xy N yx G xy xy

1

2w 2w

M x D 2 2

x y

2w 2 w

M y D 2 2 (6.72)

y x

2w

M xy H D 1

x y

From equation (6.69)

2 x 3u 2w 2 y 3v 2w

r ; t

y 2 xy 2 y 2 x 2 yx 2 x 2

2 x y 3u 3v 2w 2w

2

r t (6.73)

y 2 x 2 xy 2 yx 2 y 2 x 2

3u 3v 2 x y 2w 2w

2

r t (6.74)

xy 2 yx 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 x 2

Again from equation (6.69)

Theory of Plates and Shells

2 xy 3u 3v 2w

2 s (6.75)

x y y 2x x 2y xy

Therefore put equation (6.74) into the equation (6.75) we get

2 xy 2 x y

2

2w 2w 2w

r t 2 s (6.76)

x y y 2 x 2 y 2 x 2 xy

Let us consider influence of vertical force only i.e. X = Y = 0

2 2 2

Introduce a stress function such that 2 N y ; N and N xy (6.77)

x y x y

2 x

Rearranging the term in the equation (6.76) we get

2 x 2 y 2 xy 2 w 2w 2w

2 r t 2 s 0 (6.78)

y x 2 x y y 2 x 2 xy

Nx Ny 2 N xy

x y xy (6.79)

Ed Ed Ed

2 x 1 2 Nx 2 y 1 Ny

2

2 N xy

2

xy (6.80)

y 2 E d y 2 x 2 E d x 2 E d x y

Put equation (6.77) into the equation (6.80) we get

2 x 1 4 2 y 1 4 2 4

xy (6.81)

y 2 E d y 4 x 2 E d x 4 E d x 2 y 2

Put in the equation (6.78) we obtained

1 4 4 4 2 2 2

2

r t 2 s w 0

E d y 4 x 4 x 2 y 2 y 2 x 2 xy

1 4

k2 w 0

Ed

4 E d 2k w 0 (6.82)

Theory of Plates and Shells

get

D 4 w k2 z (6.83)

Lundgrens beam theory provides a simple approach of analysis for cylindrical shell of long

span, supported at ends. In this approach, shells are treated simply as a beam, and bending and

shear stresses for this beam is calculated.

6.7.1 Advantages:

1. It brings shell analysis within the reach of those who are not familiar with advance

mathematics.

2. It is also applicable to shell having nonuniform thickness (along the directrix).

3. Line load acting on the shell also treated by this.

4. Structural action of shell is easily visualized.

5. It can handle shell strengthened by ribs in longitudinal and transverse direction

(stiffening Beams).

6. Application to shell with non-circular directrices is possible.

6.7.2 Assumptions:

1. Transverse deflection of shell in its plane is neglected. This assumption is replaced by

Bernoullis assumption (plane section before deformation remains plane after

deformation) if shell is subjected to pure bending.

2. M x M xy Qx 0 (true only for a long shell)

All these assumptions will be linearly valid only for long beams. It is observed that beam theory

gives fairly acceptable answers for cylindrical roof shells without edge beams if L/a > 5, and

shells with edge beams if L/a > 3. These limits may be used as guidelines for a designer. The

shell must be uniformly loaded.

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 175

Theory of Plates and Shells

a) Beam analysis

b) Arch Analysis

6.7.3 Beam Analysis:

Shell regarded as a beam supported at curved edges. Bending stresses and shearing stresses are

found using the beam formulae.

M yy

At any c/s value of stress resultants Nx is given by N x .Z .d (6.84)

I yy

c 2

sin c

I yy 2 d a d a cos a

0 c

c

2 sin c sin 2 c

I yy 2 a3 d 0 cos 2cos

c

c2

d

c

1 cos 2 cos sin c sin 2 c

I yy 2 a d 2 d

3

c2

2

0 c

Theory of Plates and Shells

c

1 cos 2 cos sin c sin 2 c

I yy 2 a d 2 d

3

c2

2

0 c

c

sin 2 sin sin c sin 2 c

I yy 2 a d

3

2

2 4 c c2 0

I yy 2 a 3 d c 2

2 4 c c

sin 2c 2sin 2 c

I yy a d c

3

2 c

2sin c

I yy a 3 d c sin c cos c (6.85)

c

Equation (6.84) and (6.85) are applicable to only shells of symmetric cross/section.

V .Q

The beam analysis also enables N x to be found out by the use of well known formula for

Ib

the shell subjected to only vertical loading symmetrically distributed over the cross/section.

V .Q.d V .Q.d V .Q

N x (6.86)

I yy b I yy 2d 2 I yy

This is given by

sin sin c

Q a 2 a d

c

sin c

Q 2 a 2 d sin (6.87)

c

6.7.4 Arch Analysis: in this second part of analysis, a slice unit width is considered and is

Theory of Plates and Shells

The equilibrium of the arch is maintained by two set of forces, namely the load acting on the

N x

element and (Known as specific shear).

x

This specific shear is resolved into horizontal and vertical components. Sum of vertical

component balance load on shell and sum of horizontal components which are symmetrically

disposed on crown balance themselves.

N x

2 sin d Total load P on the arch of unit width (6.88)

0

x

Exercise:

Que. Derive the 8th order governing differential equations for cylindrical shell subjected to

bending, according to the Finsterwalder theory. [Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 6.3]

Que. Write short note on D-K-J theory for cylindrical shell. [Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 6.4]

Que. Derive equations of VLASOVs bending theory of shallow shells of double curvature from

first principal. [Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 6.6]

Que. Derive Schorer form of differential equations for cylindrical shell. [Dr. B.A.M.U. Article

6.5]

Que. Derive Flugges simultaneous differential equations. [Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 6.4.2]

Que. Describe in brief, the Lundgrens beam theory for thin shells. What are its limitations?

[P.U. & Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 6.7]

Que. Explain the beam method of analysis of cylindrical shell with advantages and limitations of

this method. [Dr. B.A.M.U. Article 6.7]

Chapter 7

Shells of Surface of Revolution

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 178

Theory of Plates and Shells

Surface of revolution is the surface obtained by revolving a plane curve about an axis in

its own plane. The curve is called as meridian and plane of the curve is called as meridianal

plane Intersections of the shell with planes normal to axis of revolution are called parallel

circles. Position of a parallel circle is defined by angle made by the normal to the surface and

axis of revolution. Meridianal plane and the plane perpendicular to the meridian at a point are the

planes of principal curvature at the point. The corresponding radii of curvatures are r1 and r2

respectively. Radius of parallel circle is r0 . Let the angle subtended by the element at the centers

of curvature be d and d .

Fig. (7.1)

The dimensions of the element are r1 d in y direction and r0 d in x direction.

Theory of Plates and Shells

r0 d r2 sin d

The surface area of the element is then

r1 r2 sin d d (7.2)

In writing the equations of equilibrium of the element, let us begin with the forces in the

direction of the tangent to the meridian. On the upper edge of the element the force N is acting

N r0 d = N r2 sin d (7.3)

Theory of Plates and Shells

N

Similarly corresponding force on the lower edge of the element, is N d acting over the

r

length r0 0 d . Therefore total force on the lower edge is

N r0

N d r0 d (7.4)

From equation (7.3) and (7.4), by neglecting small quantities of second order we find the

resultant in the y direction to be equal to

N r

N r0 d N d r0 0 d d

N r0 N r

N r0 d N r0 d d r0 d N d d d 0 d d

N r0

d r0 d N d d

N r

0 d d (7.5)

Theory of Plates and Shells

The forces acting on the lateral edges of the element are equal to N r1 d and have a resultant

in the direction of the radius of parallel circle equals to N r1 d d . Component of this force

The component of external force/body force in the same direction is

Y r1 r0 d d

Therefore now sum up the all forces in y direction, from equation (7.5), (7.6) and considering

body force, we get the equation of equilibrium in the direction of the meridian becomes,

Fy 0

N r

0 d d N r1 cos d d Y r1 r0 d d 0

N r

0 N r1 cos Y r1 r0 0 (7.7)

The second equation of equilibrium is obtained by summing up the projection of the forces in the

z direction. The forces acting on the upper and lower edges of the element have a resultant in z

direction equal to

N r0 d d (7.8)

The forces acting on the lateral sides of the element having the resultant N r1 d d in the

radial direction of the parallel circle gives a component in the z direction of the magnitude

N r1 sin d d (7.9)

The external load acting on the element has in the same direction a component

z r1 r0 d d (7.10)

Therefore sum up the forces in z direction; we obtained the second equation of equilibrium

Therefore from equations (7.8), (7.9) and (7.10) we get

Fz 0

Theory of Plates and Shells

N r0 d d N r1 sin d d z r1 r0 d d 0

N r0 N r1 sin z r1 r0 0 (7.11)

Divide by r1 r0 we get

N r0 N r1 sin zr r

1 0 0

r1 r0 r1 r0 r1 r0

N N sin

z 0

r1 r0

Since r0 r2 sin

N N sin

z 0

r1 r2 sin

N N

z 0 (7.12)

r1 r2

Due to Axisymmetric, equilibrium in x direction is obvious. From above two equilibrium

equations N and N can be found if , r0 , r1 , Y , Z are known.

Y r1 r0 N r1 cos

N r

0 (7.13)

N N

z

r2 r1

N

N r2 z (7.14)

r1

Substitute equation (7.14) in the equation (7.13) we obtained

Theory of Plates and Shells

N

Y r1 r0 r2 z r1 cos

N r

0

r1

Y r1 r0 z r2 r1 cos r2 N cos

N r

0

Y r1 r0 z r2 r1 cos r2 N cos

N r

0

r2 N cos sin

N r sin Y r

0 1 r0 sin z r2 r1 cos sin

r2 N cos sin

N r sin Y r

0 1 r2 sin 2 z r2 r1 cos sin

r2 N cos sin

N r sin r

0 1 r2 sin Y sin z cos (7.15)

Which is also written as,

N r2 sin 2 r1 r2 Y sin Z cos sin (7.16)

N r2 sin 2 N r2 2 sin cos r2 sin 2

N

And

N r2 sin cos

N r0 sin N r2 sin cos

N r2 sin sin

N r2 sin cos N r2 cos r2 sin N sin

N r2 2 sin cos r2 sin 2 N

Therefore we can write equation (7.15) as equation (7.16)

Therefore integrating equation (7.16) w.r.t. to find out value of N , we get

N r2 sin 2 d r1 r2 Y sin Z cos sin d

Theory of Plates and Shells

1

r1 r2 Y sin Z cos sin d C

r2 sin 2

N

1

2 r1 r2 Y sin Z cos sin d C

2 r2 sin 2

N (7.17)

The term 2 r1 r2 sin d stands for surface area of an elemental strip of the dome.

Alternatively we may consider equilibrium of the whole cap with total load R (downwards)

Therefore equation of equilibrium along axial direction

2 r0 N sin R 0

R

N (7.18)

2 r0 sin

This equation can be used instead of differential equation (7.7), from which it can be

obtained by integration (7.17). It can be seen that when N is obtained from equation (7.18), the

force N can be calculated from equation (7.12). Hence the problem of membrane stresses can

be readily solved in each particular case.

7.2 Membrane Theory for Surface of Revolution with Unsymmetrical Loading:

Theory of Plates and Shells

Considering again an element cut from a shell by two adjacent meridians and two parallel

circles as shown in figure, in general case not only normal forces N and N but also shearing

forces N N will act on the sides of the element. Area of the element is given in equation

(7.2).

Taking the sum of the projections in the y direction of all forces acting on the element, we must

add to the forces considered in the equations (7.5), (7.6) and External force. The shearing force

N

d r1 d (7.19)

Representing the difference in the shearing forces acting on the lateral sides of the element,

hence by adding equation (7.5), (7.6), External force and equation (7.19), we obtain the equation

N

d r1 d

N r 0 d d N r1 cos d d Y r1 r0 d d 0

N

r1

N r

0 N r1 cos Y r1 r0 0 (7.20)

The second equation of equilibrium is obtained by summing up the projection of the forces in the

x direction; we must include the difference of the shearing forces acting on the top and bottom of

the element as given by the expression

Theory of Plates and Shells

r0 N

N

d d

r0 d d

r0 N d d (7.21)

N

The force r1 d d (7.22)

Due to variation of the force N and the force

N r1 cos d d (7.23)

Due to the small angle cos d between the shearing forces N acting on the lateral sides of

the element. The component in x direction of the external load acting on the element is

X r0 r1 d d (7.24)

Summing up all these forces, we obtain the equation

N

r0 N d d

r1 d d N r1 cos d d X r0 r1 d d 0

N

r0 N

r1 N r1 cos X r0 r1 0 (7.25)

The third equation of equilibrium is obtained by projecting the forces on the z axis. Since the

projection of shearing forces on this axis vanishes, the third equation confirms with equation

(7.11), which was derived for symmetrical bending.

The problem of determining membrane stresses under unsymmetrical loading reduces to

the solution of equations (7.20), (7.25) and (7.11) for given values of components X, Y and Z of

the intensity of the external load.

7.3 Particular cases of Shells in the form of Surface of Revolution:

7.3.1 Example: Spherical dome of constant thickness under its own weight.

Theory of Plates and Shells

Solution: - Consider a spherical dome of constant thickness under its own weight as shown in

figure. Let q be the constant weight of dome per unit area and a be the radius of the sphere.

Let total load R on that part of the spherical dome subtended by angle .

Consider a section at an angle from axis

r0

Therefore sin

a

r0 a sin

The total load R on that part of the spherical dome subtended by angle is given by

R 2 r0 a d q

0

R 2 a 2 sin d q

0

Theory of Plates and Shells

R 2a q sin d

2

R 2 a 2 q cos 0

R 2 a2 q cos cos0

R 2 a2 q 1 cos (7.26)

2 a 2 q 1 cos

N

2 r0 sin

2 a 2 q 1 cos

N r0 a sin

2 a sin 2

a q 1 cos

N

sin 2

a q 1 cos

N

1 cos

2

a q 1 cos

N

1 cos 1 cos

a 2

b 2 a b a b

aq

N (7.27)

1 cos

Now from equation (7.12) we obtained value of N

z 0

a a r1 r2 a

Theory of Plates and Shells

Where z q cos

N N

q cos 0

a a

Substitute value of N from equation (8.20)

aq N

q cos 0

a 1 cos a

q

N a q cos

1 cos

1

N a q cos (7.28)

1 cos

Now

aq aq

At 0 N (compressive) and N (compressive)

2 2

(Negative sign indicates compressive force and Positive sign indicates tensile force)

Similarly at N a q (compressive) and N a q (Tensile)

2

Which indicates that N is compressive throughout from 0 to 90 but N is

Therefore to find out magnitude of where N changes its sign from compressive to tensile

1 1

a q cos 0 cos 0

1 cos 1 cos

cos2 cos 1 0

Solving quadratic equation for cos we get

Theory of Plates and Shells

1 1 4

cos

2

51.8 510 50' (7.29)

In above expression it is assumed that shell gets reaction tangential at the support. If reaction is

not tangential, bending must occur near the support. Generally for shell angles other

than 900 , it is difficult to provide tangential reaction. Hence for such angles usually a ring

beam is used to take horizontal components of the force N and only vertical components are

transferred to the supports. In such cases hoop strain in the beam is differed from strain along

angle in the shell at the beam. Hence there is bending induced locally in a small portion near

the ring beam.

7.3.2 Example: Spherical Tank filled with Liquid.

Theory of Plates and Shells

Solution: Consider a spherical tank with radius a supported along a parallel circle A-A as shown

in figure and filled with liquid of specific weight . Consider hydraulic pressure of the liquid of

specific weight at an angle .

R z a a cos (7.30)

Therefore resultant R of the pressure for the portion of shell defined by an angle is

R a a cos cos 2 a sin a d

0

R 2 a 1 cos cos sin d

3

cos t

Put

sin d dt

R 2 a3 1 t t dt

0

t2 t3

R 2 a

3

2 3 0

Theory of Plates and Shells

cos 2 cos3

R 2 a

3

2 3 0

cos 2 cos3 1 1

R 2 a

3

2 3 2 3

cos 2 cos3 1

R 2 a3

2 3 6

cos 2 2 cos 1

R 2 a3 1

2 3 6

1 cos 2 2 cos

R 2 a3 1

3

(7.32)

6 2

1 cos2 2cos

2 a3 1

R 6 2 3

N

2 r0 sin 2 a sin 2

a 2 1 cos 2 2 cos

N 1

sin 2 6 2 3

a2 1 3 2cos

N 1 3cos 2

sin 6

2

3

a2

N 1 cos 2 3 2 cos

6sin 2

a 2 1 3cos 2 cos

2 3

N

6 sin 2

N

6 sin 2 sin 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

a2 2cos 2 1 cos

N 1

6

1 cos 2

a2 2 cos 2 1 cos

N 1

6 1 cos 1 cos

a2 2 cos 2

N 1 (7.33)

6 1 cos

Now put value of N from equation (7.33) into the equation (7.12) to determine the value of N

N N

z 0

a a

N

N a z

a

Put value of N and z from equation (7.33) and (7.30) respectively we get

a2 2cos 2

N a 1 a a cos

1 cos

6a

a2 2cos 2

N 1 a 2 1 cos

1 cos

6

a2 2 cos 2

N 1 6 6 cos

6 1 cos

a2 2 cos 2

N 5 6 cos (7.34)

6 1 cos

These expressions for N and N are valid upto 0

For calculating the resultant R for 0 , we must take into account the sum of the vertical

reactions along the ring A-A also in addition to the internal pressure.

Theory of Plates and Shells

4

Weight of sphere r3

3

4

Weight of sphere a3

3

4 1 cos 2 2 cos

R a 2 a

3 3

1

3

(7.35)

3 6 2

a2 2 cos 2

N 5 (7.36)

6 1 cos

a2 2 cos 2

And N 1 6 cos (7.37)

6 1 cos

7.3.3 Example: Conical Shell filled with liquid.

Solution: Let consider a conical shell subjected to load P in the direction of the axis of cone as

shown in figure. Let the semi apex angle of the cone be . Therefore at point where radius of

parallel circle is r0

Theory of Plates and Shells

180

2

(7.38)

2

If the load P is applied in the direction of the axis of cone, then the stress distribution is

symmetrical.

We obtain value of N from equation (8.18)

R P

N

2 r0 sin

2 r0 sin

2

P

N (7.39)

2 r0 cos

Since the curvature of the meridian in the case of a cone is zero, r1 from equation (7.12)

N z r2

z r0

N r0 r2 sin (7.40)

sin

For the above case of loading z = 0 N 0 (7.41)

Theory of Plates and Shells

Now, Let us consider a conical tank to be filled with a liquid of specific weight as shown in

figure. Measuring the distances y from the bottom of the tank and denoting by the total depth of

liquid in the tank, the pressure at any parallel circle mn is

P z

P d y

z d y (7.42)

Also for such tank (7.43)

2

And r0 y tan (7.44)

Where, is the semi-cone angle of the tank. Substituting value of from equation (7.43) in the

equation (7.40) we obtained

z r0

N

sin

z r0

N

sin

2

z r0

N

cos

Put equation (7.44)

d y y tan

N (7.45)

cos

at, y 0 and y d N 0

And at y d / 2 N is maximum

d d

d tan

2 2

N max y d /2

cos

Theory of Plates and Shells

d 2 tan

N max y d /2 (7.46)

4cos

For calculating N we need total load R

+ Weight of liquid in the cylindrical part mnst

Volumeof cylidrical portion density

R

Volume of conical portion density

1

R r02 d y r02 y

3

1

R y 2 tan 2 d y y 2 tan 2 y r0 y tan

3

y

R y 2 d y tan 2 (8.40)

3

Substitute above equation in the equation to determine N

1 2 y 2

N

2 r0 cos y d y 3 tan

2

y 2 d y tan 2

N 3

2 y tan cos

2

y d y tan

N 3

(7.47)

2 cos

N 0 at y 0

But N 0 at y d

3

N is maximum at y d

4

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 198

Theory of Plates and Shells

3 2 3

d d d tan

4 3 4

N max

y 3 d /4

2 cos

3 d 2 tan

N max y 3d /4

16 cos

(7.48)

Solution: such shells are used as tops/bottom of vertical tanks, or boiler shells. Let a and b be the

semi axes of ellipsoid any angle the principle radius if curvature are given by

a 2b 2 a2

r1 And r2 (7.49)

a2 sin 2 b2 cos2 a2 sin 2 b2 cos2

3/2 3/2

a y b4 x 2 a y b4 x 2

4 2 3/2 4 2 1/2

r1 And r2 (7.50)

a 4b 4 b2

Theory of Plates and Shells

If P is the uniform pressure acting on the shell, then the resultant force R corresponding to an

angle is (Uniform pressure P acting over the area r02 )

P z

R z r02 P (7.51)

From equation (7.18) we get

r02 P

N

2 r0 sin

r22 sin 2 P

N r0 r2 sin

2 r2 sin 2

r2 P

N (7.52)

2

And from equation (7.12)

r P

N r2 2 z

2r1

r22 P

N r2 P z p

2r1

r

N r2 P 1 2 (7.53)

2r1

a2

At 0 from equation (A) r1 r2

b

P a2

N N (7.54)

2b

Similarly

b2

At / 2 r1 and r2 a

a

Theory of Plates and Shells

Pa a2

N And N P a 1 2 (7.55)

2 2b

Therefore N negative in some part near the equator if a 2 2 b2 . Sphere is a spherical case of

Pa

ellipsoid and has a = b from which we have at all points N N for steam pressure P

2

7.3.5 Example: Shell in the form of Torus.

Solution: Rotating a circle @ axis of symmetry we get torus or toroid. Let b be the mean

radius of torus and a be the radius of circular section. Consider equilibrium of a ring shaped

portion formed by rotating portion AB of the circle @ axis of symmetry. Forces N at edge B are

in horizontal plane and being same throughout, these being canceled mutually

(i.e. N cos & N cos ). To find forces N at edge A consider the external load.

Theory of Plates and Shells

Therefore vertical component of external force over the Surface area r02 b 2 is given by

z r02 b 2 P (7.56)

2 r0 N sin (7.57)

2 r0 N sin r02 b 2 P 0

2 r0 N sin r02 b 2 P

r2

b2 P r0 b

sin

0

N

2 r0

r0 b a

a

a r0 b r0 b P

N

2 r0 r0 b

a r0 b P

N (7.58)

2 r0

Now from equation (7.12)

N

N r2 z

r1

a r0 b P

N r2 P

2 r0 r1

r2 P

N r0 b 2 r0

2 r0

Pr2

N r0 b r0 r2 sin

2 r2 sin

Theory of Plates and Shells

N

P r0 b (7.59)

2 sin

Note: we can analyze toroids with elliptical section in a similar manner

Exercise:

Que. In terms of coordinates r , and , derive equations of equilibrium for a small element of

axisymmetric thin shell. [P.U. Article 7.1]

Que. For a small element of an axisymmetric shell subjected to axisymmetric loading; derive

equations of equilibrium interms of stress resultants N and N at a point defined by the

Que. For a thin spherical dome subjected to distributed gravity load q per unit area, prove that

there will be no tension in the shell id the meridianal angle is limited to 51 degrees.

[P.U. Article 7.3.1]

Que. A conical shell with apex at top and axis vertical carries a downward load P at the apex.

The semi apex angle is . Obtain expressions for meridianal and hoop stress resultants at

any point in the shell. [P.U. Article 7.3.3]

Que. A thin toroidal shell of circular section of radius a and mean radius of the torus b. The

shell is subjected to internal pressure of intensity p per unit area. Write equilibrium

equations for this shell and hence obtain expressions for meridianal and hoop stress

resultants. [P.U. Article 7.3.5]

Que. An ellipsoidal shell is used as a boiler shell. Its cross-section has semi major axis a and

semi-minor axis b. For a steam pressure p per unit area, derive expressions for stress

resultants in the shell. Comment on the nature of stresses. [P.U. Article 7.3.4]

Que. For a conical shell storing liquid of density for a depthd, obtain expressions for

Theory of Plates and Shells

Chapter 8

Shells of Double Curvature

8.1 Membrane Theory for Shells of Double curvature other than Surface of Revolution:

Theory of Plates and Shells

z z x, y Eq n of surface of shell

z z 2 z 2 z 2 z

p; q & r ; s ; t

x y x 2 x y y 2

It is expedient to introduce pseudo stress resultants N x , N y and N xy in place of the real stress

resultants N x , N y and N xy . Similarly also introduce pseudo loads X, Y and Z in the directions x, y

and z in place of the real loads Fx , Fy and Fz . The pseudo stress resultant N x is such that it exerts

cos 1 p2

N x dy N x dy Nx Nx

cos 1 q2

1 q2

similarly Ny Ny (8.1)

1 p2

N xy N xy

ABCD fictitious loads area A' B 'C ' D '

Apply this relationship in all the three directions x, y and z thus we get

Fx 1 p 2 q 2 dx dy X dx dy

Therefore,

Referring to the element A' B'C ' D' , the equations of equilibrium in x and y direction may be

formulated as follows,

Equating all forces in the x direction to zero we get

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 205

Theory of Plates and Shells

Fx 0

N x N yx

N x dy N x dx dy N yx dx N yx dy dx X 0

x y

N x N yx

dx dy dy dx X 0

x y

N x N yx

X0 (8.3)

x y

Similarly equating all forces in the y direction to zero we get

N y N xy

Y0 (8.4)

y x

For formulating the equations of equilibrium in the z direction, we have consider element ABCD

1 p 2 z

Vertical component of the normal force acting on AD = N x dy

1 q 2 x

z

= Nx

x

dy

z z

Vertical component of the normal force acting on BC = N x

x

dy Nx

x

dx dy

x

Therefore resultant of the vertical forces on the pair of sides AD and BC

z z z

Nx dy N x dy Nx dx dy

x x x x

z

Nx dx dy (8.5)

x x

z

Similarly, Vertical component of the shear force acting on AD = N xy

y

dy

z z

Vertical component of the shear force acting on BC = N xy

y

dy N xy

x

dx dy

y

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 206

Theory of Plates and Shells

z z z

N xy dy N xy dy N xy dx dy

y y x y

z

N xy dx dy (8.6)

x y

Therefore summing up all the forces acting on AD and BC we get

z z

N x dx dy N xy dx dy

x x x y

z z

Nx N xy (8.7)

x x x y

Similarly summing up all the forces acting on AB and CD we get,

z z

Ny N yx (8.8)

y y y x

The load z contributes a downward force of Z dx dy. summing up all the forces acting on the

element in the z direction we get,

From equation (8.7) and (8.8)

z z z z

Nx N xy Ny N yx z 0

x x x y y y y x

This may be expanded as,

2 z 2 z 2 z 2 z N N yx N y N xy

N x 2 N xy Ny 2 Ny x p q z 0

x x y y x y x y y x

2 z 2 z 2 z N x N yx N y N xy

Nx 2 N N p q z 0

x x y y x y y x

2 xy y 2

Making use of equation () and () we can write

Theory of Plates and Shells

2 z 2 z 2 z

N x 2 2 N xy Ny 2 X p Y q z 0

x x y y

Therefore the equation of equilibrium in the z direction takes the following form

r N x 2 s N xy t N y X p Y q z (8.9)

8.2 Membrane Theory for rectangular hyperbolic paraboloid with straight line generators

and boundaries:

Let, consider equation for a rectangular hyperbolic paraboloid, we may find p, q, r, s and t of

the surface by differentiation. Thus

xy

let z

c

z y z x

p ;q

x c y c

2 z 2 z 1 2 z

& r 0; s ; t 0

x 2 x y c y 2

Put this value in the equation (), we get

2

N xy X p Y q z

C

Denoting right hand side of the equation by L,

Theory of Plates and Shells

CL

N xy L X p Y q z (8.10)

2

Inserting this value in the equation (8.3) and integrate with respective x, we get

N x N yx

x y

X dx f1 y (8.11)

C dL

Nx X dx f1 y (8.12)

2 dy

Similarly making use of equation (8.4) to obtain N y

C dL

Ny Y dy f 2 x (8.13)

2 dx

Consider a rectangular hyperboloid under the action of dead weight g of the shell. The

value of L corresponding to this value is

g

L Z g 1 p2 q2 C 2 x2 y 2

C

Put in the equation (8.10) we obtained

Cg

N xy C 2 x2 y 2

2C

g

N xy C 2 x2 y 2

2

Therefore from equation (8.12)

N x g

C 2 x 2 y 2 dx f1 y

x y 2

g y

dx f1 y

2

Nx (8.14)

C 2 x2 y 2

g x

dy f 2 x

2

Ny (8.15)

C 2 x2 y 2

Theory of Plates and Shells

Nx

gy

2

log x C 2 x 2 y 2 f1 y (8.16)

And Ny

gx

2

log y C 2 x 2 y 2 f 2 x (8.17)

f1 y and f 2 x are to be evaluated from the boundary conditions which depend upon the

8.3 The Umbrella Roof:

Consider the arrangement of the umbrella roof formed by four abutting hyperbolic

paraboloids resting on four trusses along their edges. Taking any one of the hyperbolic

paraboloids, say OABCD, it abuts against the adjacent hyperbolic paraboloids along the edges

OA and OB. Along the remaining two edges AC and BC, it is supported on trusses which are stiff

in their own planes but are incapable of resisting any loads applied normal to their planes.

Nx 0 at xa (8.18)

Ny 0 at yb (8.19)

These two enables the arbitrary functions f1 y and f 2 x appearing in the equation (8.16) and

(8.17) to be evaluated.

Theory of Plates and Shells

0

gy

2

log a C 2 a 2 y 2 f1 y

f1 y

gy

2

log a C 2 a 2 y 2 (8.20)

Nx

gy

2

log x C 2 x 2 y 2

gy

2

log a C 2 a 2 y 2

gy x C 2 x2 y 2

Nx log (8.21)

2 a C 2 a2 y2

Similarly using equation (8.19) in the equation (8.17)

f2 x

gy

2

log b C 2 x 2 b2 (8.22)

gx y C 2 x2 y 2

Therefore, Ny log (8.23)

2 b C 2 x 2 b2

Equation (), () and (), define the state of stress in the shell. We may note, in passing, that no

boundary conditions were applied along the edges OA and OB which are open boundaries. Along

these edges, one should expect both a normal stress as well as a shear.

Let us consider shallow shell,

For shallow shell p 2 & q 2 are neglected in comparison with unity

z g

Hence from equation (8.10)

gc

N xy

2

Similarly from equation (8.21) and (8.23) Nx 0 & Ny 0

Theory of Plates and Shells

A shallow hyperbolic paraboloid submitted to the action of dead weight develops a state of

pure shear unaccompanished by normal stresses

Let us consider, Hyperbolic paraboloid may visualize as being made up of suspension

cables and arches placed at right angles to each other. At any point on the edge, the normal

components of the tension and thrust of the cable and arch, being equal, cancel each other; the

tangential components add up and give rise to shear. This interpretation also helps us in deciding

on the direction in which the shell is to be reinforced.

carried a load in pure tension and arches carries a load in pure compression.

Exercise:

Que. Explain how the state of pure shear is developed in s shallow hyperbolic paraboloid under

the action of its dead weight. How is direction of placement of tension steel in such shell

decided? [Dr. B.A.M.U.] [Ans. Article 8.2]

Que. Derive expression for membrane shear for rectangular hyper shell with straight line

generators as boundaries subjected to dead weight g according to membrane theory.

[Dr. B.A.M.U.] [Ans. Article 8.3]

Bibliography

1. Wartikar P. N., and Wartikar J. N., 1998 Engineering Mathematics-II, Pune Vidyarthi

Griha Prakashan., Pune,

Prof. Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad 212

Theory of Plates and Shells

3. Timoshenko S. P. and Goodier J. N., 1951, Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill Book

Company, Inc., New York

4. Timoshenko S. P. and Woinowsky-Krieger S., 1959, Theory of Plates and Shells,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York

5. Szilard, R., 1974, Theory and Analysis of Plates, Classical and Numerical Methods,

Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

6. Chandrashekhara K., 2001, Theory of Plates, Universities Press (India) Limited,

Hyderabad.

7. Bairagi N. K., 1986, Plate Analysis, Khanna Publishers., Delhi

8. Ugural, A. C., 1981, Stresses in Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,

New York

9. Bairagi N. K., 1986, Shell Analysis, Khanna Publication., Delhi

10. Ramaswamy G. S., Design and Construction of Concrete Shell Roofs, CBS

Publications

11. Chandrashekhara K., Analysis of Thin Concrete Shells, Universities Press (India)

Limited, Hyderabad.

- BeamUploaded byzahabul
- Body Flange .Pvdb FlangeUploaded byAnonymous aBg51lbe18
- STEEL STACK sample report.pdfUploaded byRamesh Subramani Ramachandran
- ElasticityUploaded byavpatil333
- A Refined RC Beam Element Including Bond SlipUploaded bycasanovavn
- Mechanics of SolidsUploaded bySekar Dinesh
- Flitched BeamUploaded byAnonymous hprsT3WlP
- Sr059210303 Mechanics of SolidsUploaded byandhracolleges
- lecture-4Uploaded byrajeshkumarmbcet
- IPC2012-90053Uploaded byMarcelo Varejão Casarin
- hyt dfre frtgUploaded bytrisha1234567
- Design of pressure vesselUploaded byJose Bijoy
- CompositesUploaded byDEEPAK
- free vibration of twisted platesUploaded byPratheesh Prasannan
- Mechanics of SolidsUploaded byselva1975
- EgR 236Lecture03Uploaded byAnonymous 5YMOxVQ
- photoelasticity 1Uploaded byS.h. Fahad Fiaz
- Stress Analysis of Welded Gusseted FramesUploaded byElias Martinez Santillan
- HD -CivilUploaded byRahul Phadake
- 3 Second Wind Gust for KenyaUploaded byadammzjin
- Bài giảngUploaded byThế Anh
- The Application of Flexural Methods to Torsional Analysis of Thin-walled Open SectionsUploaded byRm1262
- Open-Mode Delamination Stress Curved SandwichUploaded bysovsep
- Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Light Gage Steel Shear DiapUploaded byAlonso Aguilar Salas
- Analysis of Simply Supported Rectangular Kirchhoff Plates by the Finite Fourier Sine Transform MethodUploaded byIJAERS JOURNAL
- Sacramento.pdfUploaded byMárcio Alves
- Mechanics of Solids Supple Dec 2017Uploaded byMuhammed Sabeeh
- A refined RC beam element including bond slip.pdfUploaded byBuiDucVinh
- Fall 2017Uploaded byPhilip Trinh
- MATH_Reinforced_Concrete_Design_01.docxUploaded byAaron Steven Padua

- Regulations for Credit System 26-6-13Uploaded bysnilkanth
- Papazafeiropoulos_2010Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Lesson 1Uploaded byapi-3696315
- 001 2010_Bridges_EN1990 Bisis of Design Some BriefingUploaded byjunqiangdong
- 1.FRC.pdfUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- IS: 875.2.1987Uploaded byJagat Thoudam
- Demolition of BuildingUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Bridges_Oct 2015_2008Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Bridges_Oct 2012_2002Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Bridges_Oct 2012_2008Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Bridges_Oct 2014_2008Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Bridges_Apr 2015_2013Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Bridges_Apr 2016_2008Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Bridges_Oct 2014_2013Uploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Scope of BFRCUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Special-coated-Basalt-Fibres.pdfUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Long Term Behaviour of Prestressed Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer Bars 2013 Procedia EngineeringUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Flexural Behaviour of Full Scale Basalt FRP RC Beams Experimental and Numerical Studies 2015 Procedia EngineeringUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete Reinforced With Basalt Fibers 2014 Procedia EngineeringUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- 363r_92Uploaded byKhaled Aldossari
- STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING.docUploaded bySahil Gandhi
- Earthquake Resistant DesignUploaded byyeswanthr

- Ch 08Uploaded bychaitanyachegg
- 11 2 nanopolymersUploaded byPrashant Verma
- 1_amtechUploaded byArun Pillai
- 2510.Practical Aspects of Finite Element Modelling of Polymer Processing by Vahid NassehiUploaded byhalukg26
- Contour Integral EvaluationUploaded byBrandon Allen
- Columns 1Uploaded bym7j7a7
- Engineering Materials ReviewerUploaded byMuhammad Abundi Malik
- Acoustic MetamaterialsUploaded bywangxl2012
- A New Zinc Alloy Ilzro 12Uploaded byuzairmetallurgist
- Built Up ColumnsUploaded byfinn.crown
- TADILOUploaded bySamiMasresha
- RESPONSE OF STEEL BURIED PIPELINES TO THREE-DIMENSIONAL FAULT MOVEMENTSUploaded byggsachary
- SN003Uploaded byhapsinte
- 1.geeUploaded byRamla Qureshi
- Dlvo Theory - KthUploaded bylearningbox
- Fundamentals - DopingUploaded byOvidiu Adam
- SA08_Blast_H_Hao_2Uploaded byMena M. Zaki
- As 3822-2002 Test Methods for Bare Overhead ConductorsUploaded byCristian Walker
- antik_18Uploaded byrammech85
- seismic design of exterior beam-column jointUploaded byMohamed Salah
- www.pavement.pdfUploaded bysabapathi131
- 12227.pdfUploaded byBesma76
- document (4).pdfUploaded bytonicors_806375834
- Song Ping Epoxy Paper 1.Uploaded byrajaarainellahi
- NMTP (2)Uploaded bySreekumar Rajendrababu
- A Review on Mechanical Properties of GFRP with Different Filler MaterialsUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- First Prs EditedUploaded byMathew Sebastian
- Bruhn Errata 2nd Edition Draft2Uploaded bygamermax13
- Mechanics of Energy Absorption by Progressive PlasticUploaded byMahmoud Hisham
- Acid Job SpeUploaded byCristian Barbuceanu

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.