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EE 158

Interior Lighting Design

Dr. A. C. Nerves
U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engineering Institute

In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident
on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of how much the
incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by
the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness
In SI derived units these are measured in lux (lx) or lumens
per square metre (lmm2). In the CGS system, the unit of
illuminance is the phot, which is equal to 10000 lux. The foot-
candle is a non-metric unit of illuminance that is used in
A lux meter measures illuminances in work environments.

Measuring Units Light Level - Illuminance
Illuminance is measured in foot candles (ftcd, fc, fcd) (or lux in the metric
SI system). A foot candle is actually one lumen of light density per square
foot,one lux is one lumen per square meter.
1 lux = 1 lumen / sq meter = 0.0001 phot = 0.0929 foot candle (ftcd, fcd)

1 phot = 1 lumen / sq centimeter = 10000 lumens / sq meter = 10000 lux

1 foot candle (ftcd, fcd) = 1 lumen / sq ft = 10.752 lux

Common Light Levels Outdoor
Common light levels outdoor at day and night can be found in the table
(ftcd) (lux)
Sunlight 10,000 107,527
Full Daylight 1,000 10,752
Overcast Day 100 1,075
Very Dark Day 10 107
Twilight 1 10.8
Deep Twilight .1 1.08
Full Moon .01 .108
Quarter Moon .001 .0108
Starlight .0001 .0011
Overcast Night .00001 .0001

Common and Recommended Light Levels Indoor
The outdoor light level is approximately 10,000 lux on a clear day. In the
building, in the area closest to windows, the light level may be reduced to
approximately 1,000 lux. In the middle area its may be as low as 25 - 50
lux. Additional lighting equipment is often necessary to compensate the
low levels.
Earlier it was common with light levels in the range 100 - 300 lux for
normal activities. Today the light level is more common in the range 500 -
1000 lux - depending on activity. For precision and detailed works, the
light level may even approach 1500 - 2000 lux.
The table below is a guidance for recommended light level in different
work spaces:

(lux, lumen/m2)
Public areas with dark surroundings 20 - 50
Simple orientation for short visits 50 - 100
Working areas where visual tasks are only occasionally
100 - 150
Warehouses, Homes, Theaters, Archives 150
Easy Office Work, Classes 250
Normal Office Work, PC Work, Study Library, Groceries,
Show Rooms, Laboratories

Supermarkets, Mechanical Workshops, Office Landscapes 750

Normal Drawing Work, Detailed Mechanical Workshops,

Operation Theatres

Detailed Drawing Work, Very Detailed Mechanical Works 1500 - 2000

Performance of visual tasks of low contrast and very small

2000 - 5000
size for prolonged periods of time

Performance of very prolonged and exacting visual tasks 5000 - 10000

Performance of very special visual tasks of extremely low

10000 - 20000
contrast and small size
Lumen Method
Specifications often require the lighting professional to know or
design for average uniform horizontal illuminance.
To do this with the Inverse Square Law for a large number of points
would be tedious and expensive.
A second set of calculations would have to be made to determine
the interreflected components.
Lumen method:
used in calculating the illuminance that represents the average
of all points on the work-plane in an interior.
used to calculate the number of luminaires required for a
uniform or general lighting layout.
uniform = (1) no more than 20% variation in illuminance, (2)
symmetrical lighting layout that meets the spacing criterion.

Lumen Method
Definition of illuminance:
Luminous Flux
Illuminanc e

where luminous flux is in lumens

If area is in ft2, the illuminance is in fc (lm/ft2).
If area is in m2, the illuminance is in lux (lm/m2)
Since not all lamp lumens will reach the work-plane due to losses in
the luminaire and at the room surfaces,
Lamp Lumens Coefficient of Utilization
Initial Illuminanc e

Lumen Method
To account for the estimated depreciation in lamp lumens, the
estimated losses from dirt collection on the luminaire surfaces
(including lamps), etc.
Lamp Lumens CU LLF
Maintained Illuminanc e

where CU = Coefficient of Utilization

LLF = Light Loss factor
If the lamp lumens is taken as taken as the total rated lamp lumens
in the luminaire, and the area becomes the area per luminaire,

Lamp Lumens per Lumenaire CU LLF

Maintained Illuminanc e
Area per Luminiare

Lumen Method
If the desire illuminace is known, the area per luminaire (and hence
the spacing between luminaires) to produce this illuminance may be
obtained by:
Lamp Lumens per Luminaire CU LLF
Area per Luminaire
Maintained Illuminanc e

A lighting system can be designed with spacings between units to

approximate the above area. If the total number of luminaires is
Total Room Area
Total Number of Luminaires
Area per Luminaire

Lumen Method
The illuminance computed is an average value that will be
representative only if the luminaires are spaced to obtain
reasonably uniform illuminance.
The calculation of the of the coefficients of utilization is based on
empty interiors having surfaces that exhibit perfectly diffuse
The average value of illuminance determined this way may vary
considerably from that obtained by averaging discrete values of
illuminance at several points.
Calculated illuminace values may differ from measured values
due to luminaire input data, assumed room and system
parameters and mathematical modelling of the lighting system.

Light Loss Factors
Light loss factors adjust lighting calculations from controlled
laboratory to actual field conditions; they account for differences in
lamp lumen output, luminaire output and surface reflectances
between the two conditions.
Light loss factors:
1. Recoverable factors those that can be changed by regular
maintenance such as cleaning and relamping luminaires and
cleaning or painting room surfaces.
2. Nonrecoverable factors those attributed to equipment and
site conditions and cannot be changed with normal
Light loss factors are multiplicative; Total Light Loss Factor (LLF) =
product of all factors.

Light Loss Factors
Light Loss Factors:
Nonrecoverable Recoverable
Temperature Factor Lamp Lumen Depreciation
Line Voltage Factor Lamp Burnout Factor
Ballast Factor Luminaire Dirt Depreciation
Lamp Position (Tilt) Factor Room Surface Dirt
Depreciation Factor
Equipment Operating Factor
Luminaire Surface
Depreciation Factor

Light Loss Factors
Temperature Factor
Variations in temperature, above or below those normally
encountered in interiors, have little effect on the light output of
incandescent and high intensity discharge lamp luminaires but have
an effect on light output of fluorescent luminaires.
The designer needs to know the highest or lowest temperature
expected and have data showing the variation in light output vs
ambient temperature for the specific luminaire to be used, and the
application (mounting) conditions and the effect of heat transfer (if

Light Loss Factors
Line Voltage Factor
Light output change due to voltage change:

Light Loss Factors
Ballast Factor
Lumen output of fluorescent lamps depends on the ballast used
to drive the lamps.
Lumen output from lamps on commercial ballasts generally
differs from the rated lumen output used for photometric test
The ballast factor is the fractional flux of a fluorescent lamp(s)
operated on a ballast compared to the flux when operated on
the standard (reference) ballasting specified for rating lamp

Light Loss Factors
Equipment Operating Factor
Lumen output of high intensity discharge lamps depends on the
ballast, the lamp operating position and the effect of reflected
power. These effects are collectively incorporated in the
equipment operating factor.
The equipment operating factor is the fractional flux of an HID
lamp-ballast-luminaire combination, in a given operating
position, compared to the flux of the lamp-luminaire combination
operating in the position for rating the lamp lumens and using
the standard (reference) ballasting specified for rating lamp

Light Loss Factors
Lamp Position (Tilt) Factor
For HID lamps, the lamp position factor is the fractional flux of
an HID lamp in a given operating position compared to the flux
when the lamp is operated in the position at which the lamp
lumens are rated.
This factor is determined at constant lamp wattage and
comprises part of the equipment operating factor.
For metal halide lamps:

Light Loss Factors
Lumainaire Surface Depreciation Factor
Luminaire surface depreciation results from adverse changes in
metal, paint and plastic components which result in reduced
light output.

Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD) Factor

Information about lamp lumen depreciation is available from
manufacturers tables and graphs for lumen depreciation and
mortality of the chosen lamp.

Light Loss Factors
Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD) Factor
The accumulation of dirt on luminaires results in a loss in light
output, and therefore a loss on the work-plane.
The LDD factor is determined as follows:
1. Luminaire maintenance category is selected from
manufacturerss data or by using the Figure 9-7.

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factors
LDD determination procedure:
2. The atmosphere (one of five degrees of dirt conditions) in
which the luminaire will operate is found.

Sources of dirt: that passed from adjacent atmosphere(s) and

that generated by work done in the surrounding atmosphere.
Adhesive dirt cling to luminaire surfaces by its stickiness
Attracted dirt held by electrostatic force
Inert dirt vary in accumulation from nothing on vertical
surfaces to as much as a horizontal surface can hold.

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factors
LDD determination procedure:
3. From the appropriate luminaire maintenance category curve in
Fig. 9-10, the applicable dirt condition curve and the proper
elapsed time in months of the planned cleaning cycle, the LDD
is found.

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factor
An alternative to Fig. 9-10 is to use the curve-fitted equation:
A (t B )
where constants A and B are found from Fig. 9-11, based on the
luminaire maintenance category and the atmosphere condition
involved, and t is time in decimal years.

Light Loss Factors
Room Surface Dirt Depreciation (RSDD) Factor
The accumulation of dirt on room surfaces reduces the amount of
luminous flux reflected and interreflected to the work-plane.
1. Find the expected dirt depreciation using the Area Atmosphere
determined using Fig. 9-8 or 9-9 as guides, the time between
cleaning and curves in Fig. 9-12. For example, if the atmosphere
is dirty and room surfaces are cleaned every 24 months, the
expected dirt depreciation would be approximately 30%.

Since room surface dirt is essentially a function of room

cleanliness and time, one can also use
At 0.53
% Dirt depreciation 1001 e

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factors
2. Knowing the expected dirt depreciation, the type of luminaire
distribution and the room cavity ratio, determine the the RSDD
factor from Fig. 9-12. For example, for a dirt depreciation of
30%, a direct luminaire and a Room Cavity Ratio (RCR) of 4,
the RSDD would be 0.92.

Lamp Burnout (LBO) Factor

If lamps are not replaced promptly after burnout, the average
illuminance will decrease proportionately.
Quantity of lamp burnouts is determined by the quality of the
lighting services program incorporated in the initial design & the
quality of the physical performance of the program.
LBO Factor = ratio of the lamp remaining lighted to the total, for the
maximum number of burnouts permitted 33
Light Loss Factors
Total Light Loss Factor (LLF) = product of all the contributing
If LLF is excessive, it may be desirable to reselect the luminaire.

Cavity Ratios
The zonal cavity method subdivides an interior space into three
1. Floor cavity space beneath the work plane
2. Ceiling cavity space above the luminaires
3. Room cavity extends from the work plane to the work plane

Cavity Ratios
In the Zonal Cavity Method for calculating average maintained
illuminance, the effects of room proportions, luminaire suspension
length, and work-plane height upon the coefficient of utilization are
respectively accounted for by the Room Cavity Ratio (RCR), Ceiling
Cavity Ratio (CCR) and Floor Cavity Ratio (FCR).

5h(Room Length Room Width)

Cavity Ratio
Room Length Room Width
where h = hRC for the RCR
= hCC for the CCR
= hFC for the FCR
Note that
Cavity Ratios
Each CR is essentially the ratio of the amount of vertical surface
area in the cavity to the amount of horizontal surface area.
Horizontal surface area = 2LW {L=room length, W=room width}
Vertical surface area = 2H(L+W) {H=cavity height}
Ratio = H(L+W)/LW {< 1, except for tall, narrow rooms}
Multiplier 5 is used to obtain whole numbers greater than 1 for most

For rooms of irregular shape, 2.5A1 2.5hP1

A2 A2

A1 = wall (vertical) area; A2 = work-plane (horizontal) area, which

is also the floor area; P1 = work-plane perimeter; h = cavity height.

Effective Cavity Reflectances
In zonal cavity procedure: Replace the original 3-cavity space by its
room cavity only.
If we can find effective reflectances for the 2 boundary planes
between the room cavity and the ceiling and floor cavities, there is
no need to retain the latter cavities in our calculations.
Effective cavity reflectance = ratio of the total flux out of the cavity
opening to the total flux into the cavity opening.

Effective Cavity Reflectances
Fig. 9-39 provides a means of converting the combination of wall
and ceiling or floor and wall reflectances into a single Effective
Ceiling Cavity Reflectance (CC) and a single Effective Floor Cavity
Reflectance (FC).
For surface-mounted and recessed luminaires, CCR = 0 and the
ceiling reflectance may be used as CC.

Effective Cavity Reflectances

Effective Cavity Reflectances
A rectangular cavity consists of 4 walls, each having a reflectance of
W, and a base of reflectance B (ceiling or floor).
The effective reflectance eff of this cavity is the ratio of flux
reflected out, divided by the flux entering the cavity through its
If the reflectances are assume to be perfectly diffuse and the flux is
assumed to enter the cavity in a perfectly diffuse way, it is possible
to calculate the effective cavity reflectance using flux transfer
theory. The result is

Effective Cavity Reflectances
B W 2
1 f ) f B f W 1 f 2
eff AW AW
A 2 A
1 B W B 1 f W 1 2 B 1 f
AB, AW = areas of the cavity base and walls, respectively
B, W = reflectance of the cavity base and walls, respectively
f = form factor between the cavity opening and the cavity base
2 1 2

ln 1
x 2

1 y
1 x
2 1 2

1 y

2 2 1 2

2 1 x y

1 x2

212 x

x 1 y tan 1
1 2
1 1
y tan (y ) x tan (y )

1 y2

Effective Cavity Reflectances
y = cavity length cavity depth
y = cavity width cavity depth
Arc tangents are expressed in radians

If the cavity is square, x = y = 10 Cavity Ratio

The effective cavity reflectance of non-rectangular cavities can be
approximated by the following formula:

As As
Ao Ao
Ao = area of the cavity opening
As = area of the cavity surfaces
= reflectance of the cavity surfaces
Effective Cavity Reflectances
If the ceiling surface reflectance is not the same for all parts of the
ceiling, use an area-weighted average. Thus, if a ceiling has several
sections 1, 2, 3,...
1A1 2 A 2 3 A 3

A1 A 2 A 3

This formula for CC applies to concave ceilings such as a

hemispherical dome where all parts of the ceiling are exposed to all
other parts of the ceiling.

Luminaire Coefficients of
Absorption of light in a luminaire is accounted for in the
computation of CU for that particular luminare.
Fig. 9-62 is a tabulation of CUs for representative luminaire types.
These CUs are for Effective Floor Cavity Reflectance of 20%.
Correction multipliers are given in Fig. 9-40 for other FC.

Luminaire Coefficients of

Spacing Criterion (SC)
Spacing Criterion = ratio of the maximum spacing between
luminaires to the mounting height of the luminaires above the work
plane which is likely to give reasonable uniformity of horizontal
illuminance throughout the space.
SC is simply a guide and not a specification
Layouts for determining SC:
S1 S2

S1/2 S2/2
1 2 1 2

P Q S2/2

Layout A R

3 4
P Layout B 48
Spacing Criterion
Layout A: S1 is set so that the illuminances at P, due to source 1,
and at Q, due to both sources, are equal.
Layout B: S2 is set so that the illuminances at P, due to source 1,
and at R, due to all four sources, are equal.
SC = S/MH where MH = mounting height and S = smallest of S1
and S2.
For the lumen method to be valid, the calculated maximum spacing
can not be exceeded.