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from the Greek word litera meaning letter

defined as the total of creative, imaginative,
I durable writings belonging to a given language
T or people of the past and of the present

E faithfully expresses and reproduces life in

an artistic manner by focusing on the
R significant human experience
A all the best that has been thought or said
in this world Matthew Arnold (English poet)
writings in which expression and form, in
U connection with ideas of permanent and
R universal interest, are characteristic or
essential features, as poetry, romance,
E history, biography, essays, etc.
Knowledge about Literature vs.
Knowledge of Literature

knowledge about literature knowledge of literature

accumulating facts about: better expressed in terms
literary contexts of pleasure and
dates enjoyment rather than in
terms of the accumulation
authors of facts, however valuable
titles of texts those facts may
names of conventions sometimes be
literary terms
Questions in Literature Classes
low-order retrieve factual information, literal meanings, or the
questions basic propositions or content of a text

high-order involve the learners own responses, inferences,

questions knowledge, and experience of the world

open questions open to exploration and probing investigation

require above all an accurate, information-based

closed questions

Closed, low-order questions focus on the factual content

of a text; open, high-order questions focus on the
imaginative or symbolic content of a text or the context
of meaning which it generates.
unit of thought expressed in a
sentence and a group of thoughts
expressed in a paragraph

does not consider the use of


appeals more to our reason and

General Divisions intellect
of Literature
unit of thought expressed in a
verse and a group of thoughts
expressed in a stanza

presents regular rhythm (rhyme

and meter)

appeals more to our emotions and

Types of Prose

Fiction Non-fiction
composed of works of composed of works of
imaginative narration in narrative prose dealing
prose form with or offering opinions or
conjectures upon facts
characters and incidents and reality
wholly or partly imaginary
primary purpose is to
disseminate information or
express an idea in a direct
Kinds of Fiction
short story a prose narrative of limited length, usually shorter than a novel
a fictitious prose narrative of considerable length and
novel complexity

a short tale conveying a moral or a principle of behavior, often

fable with animals or inanimate objects as characters
a nonhistorical or unverifiable story handed down by tradition
legend from earlier times and popularly accepted as historical

a short allegorical story designed to convey some truth,

parable religious principle, or moral lesson

a body of myths that belong to particular people or culture and

mythology tell about their ancestors, heroes, gods, and other
supernatural beings and history
a prose narrative with supernatural and magical event in which
fairy tale there is always a happy ending
Kinds of Non-fiction
a recorded narrative of past events as relating to a
particular people, country, period, person, etc.
a daily record of the writers own experiences, activities,
diary observations, attitudes, and feelings

letters written or printed communication usually sent by mail

a short, analytic, descriptive, or interpretive piece of literary
essay or journalistic prose dealing with a specific theme or
biography a written account of another persons life
autobiography an account of a persons life written by himself

a lecture or piece of writing describing travels, usually

illustrated by photographs, exhibited items, etc.
Types of Poetry

Narrative Lyric Dramatic

tells a story expresses the presents in
following a emotions and dialogue or
sequence of feelings of a poet pantomime a
events story involving
has the form and conflict or
musical quality of contrast of
a song character
intended to be
acted on the
Kinds of Narrative Poetry

a majestic poem centered upon a hero, in which a

epic series of great achievements or events is narrated
continuously and at length in elevated style
a simple narrative poem of popular origin or traditional
ballad style that tells a story in a number of short regular
metrical tale relates real or imaginary events about ordinary people

centered on adventure which often shows the ideal

metrical romance virtues and the fight between good and evil
Kinds of Lyric Poetry
includes all those lyric poems which do not properly
simple lyric belong to any of the other types of lyric poetry
lyric poem of fourteen lines with a formal rhyme scheme
Shakespearean or English sonnet divided into
three quatrains and a couplet and has a rhyme
sonnet scheme of abab, cdcd, efef, gg
Petrarchan or Italian sonnet consists of an octave
and a sestet and has a rhyme scheme of abbaabba,
cdecde or cdcdcd
a short metrical composition intended or adapted for
song singing; has a particularly melodious quality

a lyric poem typically of elaborate or irregular metrical

form and expressive of exalted or enthusiastic emotion
a mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, especially a
elegy funeral song or a lament for the dead
Kinds of Dramatic Poetry
a dramatic poem of light and humorous
character with a happy or cheerful ending;
comedy the central motif is the triumph over adverse
circumstance, resulting in a successful or
happy conclusion
a dramatic composition dealing with a
serious or somber theme, typically that of a
noble person whose character is flawed by a
tragedy single weakness, as pride, envy, etc., which
causes him to break a divine law or moral
precept and which leads inevitably to his
downfall or destruction
Why do we study

To benefit from the insights of others

To open our minds to ambiguities of meaning
To explore other cultures and beliefs
To appreciate why individuals are the way they are
To expand our grasp of the machinations of history
To exercise our brains
To teach us to see individual bias
Why do we study
To encourage us to question accepted knowledge
To help us see ourselves as others do
To appreciate the contributions it made to history
To see the tragedy
To further our mastery of language
To explore ethical complexities
To recognize language devices and appreciate their
emotional power
Why do we study

To see the admirable in everyday life

To learn better ways to behave
To know we are not alone
To refine our judgment
To develop empathy for those who are unlike us
To expand our vocabularies
To learn to support our points of view and trust our own