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ArmedForces of the World: Japan futi-tank helicopter wufue

Helicopter grunships in Vietnam


Mil-24 in Action with giant colour 4-view and cutaway

r' r:_;;:J;--
Volume I Issue 3

Armed Gombat Helicopters
A6rospatiale Alouette III 42
A6rospatialdWe$lurd Guelle 42
AgustaAl09A 43
AgustaA 129 M
Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm B0 105 44
Anti-ta* helicopter warfue 46
Vtle$landScout 48
We$landlynx(Army) 48
I![ilMi-24'Hind' 49
Mi-24 'Hind' in action 52
Bell209HueyCbbra 56
Hughes Model 500 Defender 57 Published by Australia: Back numbers are obtainable
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S :. c e theb battlefield debut in the Korean war, helicopters
:e;'e come along way. Firstusedinlarge ntmbersbythe
F:ench in Algeria andbroughtto fullprominence duringthe
'r'r e rnam War, the atmed helicopter now bristles with Byfar the most successtul dedrca ted
gunship helicopteryet built, the Bell
aivanced optical and electronic eguipment, carries awide AH-) HueyCobra has developed into
ran g e o f w e ap onry r anging from mac hine - gtns t o t ank - a m aj or family with diffe re n t engin es
sensors, weapons and equipment.
bus t in g guide d we ap ons, and may be armoure d. t o e nhanc e These are of the latest US Army
banIe fi eld suttivability. mode I, the Production AH - I S.

: .: .=-,-:ral fundamental reasons of aerodynamics, of structural stress led to new breeds of helicopter whrch car- -.',' :-. - ... :.. - " -
- _

.-- - ,-:atrgnre of metal parts sublected to oscillatrng loads, hehcopters deal devastating blows against hostrle ar:.,'.: : ' :,:...: i : _r :'
:' : ',/ery long time to develop to the point where they could do remainertherhrddenorsurprisinglyimmune:: :-'r:- --= : . . ....:
, - . -----ely useful;obs. Even today the fundamental hmrtations still apply the most rulnerable aircraft rn the sky the arr-:: -.=.., . '=- -
' . -, isrderable degree, so that tlre best modern helicopters are much become extremely drffrcult to shoot down
. , .'. =l than equivalent aeroplanes and, in general, more vulnerable and There are obvious advantages tn berng si:.r.. r.:.-r :...- _ :
:,- :ll to hrgher insurance premrums (which says somethrng about the battlefreld helicopters can be very elusive targe:s :.,:-: :: :- i ..:.
..: =--.13od of severe damage). At the same time, hehcopters offer a the Hughes Defender which has a main rotor of onr;; . '.-:' - :: _ -
-- . : ..e combination of agility and hovering efficiency whrch makes them diameter. The latest Defenders are available v,'rth -:. :.'.::'
:.= ,rrly vehicles of man's creatron that can truly be said to fly, in the mounted sight) whrch enables the heltcopter to eng- ':-:.: . - :-
.=.-,:: that birds or insects can fly. This has gradually opened up a targets whilst still remaining hull down behrnd natural '=
:,'. =t
,','rng range of applications in warfare for armed helicopters. Marrtrme helicopters range from compact types icr '^.= _-_.-,_ ,...:-_
- - re first armed helicopters of the period immedrately iollowrng warships up to larger ASW machines wrth the flight crei.'s=!t:: - -: :.-.
War II were used for simple experiments with machrne-guns, the missron crew in a tactical cabin with inputs from su::r s::-: , :: ::
.-:.-:c surface rockets and antr-submarine weapons. Even with the best sonobuoys, radar and MAD gear, wtth computers to manaera ::.= _ .:r r-_
r:srgns the payload was severely limited, so that it was impossible to attack, which may be co-ordinated wtth friendly warshrps 1,1:: -,.. =.
:=:ry much in the way of weapons and still have a worthwhiie mission helicopters must strli be small enough to operate from shrp. _-i.=. '-.-.
::i:us or endurance. The turning pornt was the switch to gas-turbine carriers, and it rs noteworthy that the newest large multr-rol'-- :-. _:..:.- -_-.
:::pulsion from the mid-1950s. At a stroke this slashed the helicopter's this class, the Westland/Agmsta EH 101, rs the same srze a. - J=:- :..:..
=:pty weight, greatly rncreased avarlable power and dramatrcally im- despite the fact rt wtll be 50 per cent heavier and 50 per :::. ::.-::
:::ved safety and reliabrlity. For the f,rst time twin-engine safety was powerful.
: , ssibie, failure of either engine of twin engrne helicopters resulting rn
,:-iy a sirght reduction in flight performance. Desrgned to su rvive while undertaking the most arduous of ba ttjef ejo :es-{s
Today continued improvement rn turbrne engrnes ln structural mater- the Hughes AH-64 is more sophisticated and more expensive than an.,-.::..:
-,-s in avionics and especially in newly devrsed desrgn techniques have battlefield helicopter.

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tl :=-''-:
Aerospatiale Alouette III

1973, and rmmedraieL',' proved the Specification Now being replaced by the SA342M
most successful variani of ihe senes, A6rospatiale SA 3I9B Alouette III G azelle with HO?mr'ssi/es, lft e
offering mllitary operators rmproved Astazou Alouette III is still widely used by the
attack capabrlrty (thanks to the types Tlpe: general-purpose mrlitary heli- French army light aviation as an anti-
ability to llft more weap.ns or to carry copter tankmachine.
the same weapons l:ac as the SA 316 Powerplant: one 870-shp (649-kW)
series at hrqher perf:rmance) and Turbom6ca Astazou XIV turboshaft 605 km (375 miles) with maxrmum rn-
greater economy T:cuJt more mod- derated to 600 shp (448 kW) ternal load
ern types have generall','replaced the Armament: a wide assortment of Weights: empty 1146 ks (2,527 lb),
Alouette III as a front l:ne :el:lcDter in weapons can be carrred, these includ- maximum take-off 2250k9 (4 960 lb)
the worlds more ai.::.--.: :-: arms ing a 20-mm cannon, varrous types of Dimensions: main rotor drameter
the type still plays a s:grirr:caii part Ln machrne-gmn, rocket pods and AS. I I 11.02m (36ft 132 rn) fuselage length
the inventorres ci r:ar.'.' snaiLer arr or AS. 12 arr-to-surface missiles 10.03m (32ft l0% rn) heisht 3.00m
alms. Performance: maxtmum speed (9 f t l0 rn ). marn rotor drsc area
220 krc'/h ( 136 mph) at sea level, range 95 38 mz t1,026 5 sq ft)


II n"rorpatiale Gazelle
the trols. The flrst prototype flew on 7 April
(optronally) TOW mtssrles and roof
srght, the HT varLants have a stabrlity-
augmentation system, the naval Gazel-
le HT 2 also havrng a rescue horst.
fenestron permrttlng welght to be in-
creased and resulted from a Kuwatti
requrrement. Of several military SA
342 versrons, ALAT rs buyrnq 120 ofthe
1967. and the first productron SA 341 Powerplant of the Gazelle AH.Mk I rs SA 342M model with advanced
flew on 6 Augn-rst 1971, and featured the the 600-shp (448-kW) Astazou IllN tur- avronics and four HOT mrssile tubes
lan Bolkow-developed rigid marn rotor boshaft. The SAL 34IF rs the basrc with a stabrhzed sight on the roof, this
:Ja and A6rospatiale fenestron shrouded ALAT (French Army light aviation) type providrng the French army with
tarl rotor in a duct built into the fin. As model, with the Astazou IIIC turboshaft very effectrve antr tank defence. Total
::c part olthe 1967 aqreement wrth the UK and rntended for utility purposes The sales of all versrons reached 1,000 by
a ar- many early Gazelies were assembled SA 34IH mrlitary export version is 1983, includrng dehvenes to 14 milttary
and partly brrilt by Westland for the powered by the Astazou IIIB tur- customers worldwrde. The type has
BntLsh army (Gazelle AH.Mk t), RN boshaft and licence-built by Soko of also been produced for the ctvil mar-
(Gazelle HT.Mk 2) and RAF (Gazelle Yugoslavia. The SA 342 introduced an ket in SA 34IG and SA 342J forms The
HT.Mk 3) The Gazelle AH Mk t has Astazou engrne uprated from 590 to 859 SA 342 variants generally have slightly
l:ppLer auto-chart dLsplay and shp (440 to 641 kW) and an improved better overall perlormance than the
SA 341 models, but
payload and superror

A6rospatiale SA 342M
Type:hilrtary utrlity helicoptet L ,
Accommodation: two pilots in front tfi,/7
tr':""#l'i"1"ti.?51-'f t,?:islfl
rying; shng for 700-kg (1,543-lb) frerght
load and hoist for 300 lb (135 kq)
E An Ae : c s.oa - zs S.:- ji
Kuwa:: a:: :: : - .'.: :-
: l:--:-:
-:r''- L-
-- -' -:.
Armament: option for two machine- I t,tq- D-t--i = -
quns or 2O-mm cannon, two pods of '" , frdt
rg e n tJ c
:F-- :-: : ---.---- : - :-- _:
^ i- =

2,75-in or 68-mm rockets, four/sx HOT =.

blades. a-=:--' -l? ::=- 1--? i--

mrssiles, or four AS. 11 or hvo AS. 12 km/h (148 mph); range with 500-kg and varoxs V::: I--:.- : i j ;-- .- i.-
mrssrles (1,102-lb) payload 360 kn (223 miles) fixed gan pc.zs.
Powerplant: one 859-shp (641-kW) Dimensions: main rotor diameter 10,5
T\:rbom6ca Astazou XIV turboshaft m (34 ft 5/z in); frxelage lengrth 9,53 m F iring a H OT a nti- tank mis sile from an 46r o s p a tt a
I e G e
"-z -
e L- .- _ ;.- :
Performance: maximum speed 310 (31 ft37+ in); heiqht3 lS m(l0 ft5% in); helicopter carriesfoursucft mr'ssrJes , the SA 342M ters::.: :e-:_:.::-.1: -: :- :
hri/h ( 193 mph); cruising speed 238 main rotor disc area 86.5 m' (931 sq ft) roof-mounted sight.

fI nhsta A loeA
One of the most aesthetrcally attractive
heltcopters, the Agusta A I09A was
planned as a streamlined twin{urbine
machine for a pilot and seven passen-
gers, with ali-weather avionics and a
cabin easily adaptable for a variety of
other civil and military applications.
The main rotor has an articulated hub
and aluminium honeycomb blades,
and the tricycle landing grear is fully
retractable. The flrst example flew on
4 Augmst 1971 and soon ambulance, One of the spoils of the Falklandswarwas thisAgustaA 109A multi-role helicopter captureci D,1' :.e 3:= i:---- r- ::
cargo and SAR (search and rescue) BrigadeAirSqn.
.:-:--: -:- . ::-:- 3a:.-.ued)
.,_-; i:-.--oy_ carqo or casevac patients, and provi- er options. ln 198 I production began to Allison 250-C20B turboshafts
':-: ]n 1975 sion for a slung load of 907 kg swlr-ch to the A l09A Mk II with an Performance: maximum sPeed at max-
an A l09A ESlvl/ECM wtth uprated transmisston for greater imum weight 269km/h (1B4mPh)
,: :.:::--::' aa;1:- a: i:r'ed vel- (2 0OO Ib);
weights and speeds, cruising speed 230 lcm/h (143 mPh)
. . . -1.: :.' -li: -:-J':::=eredanA comprehensive electronic warfare ranqe. not stated except with max-
--'1.:. .l-::-i *c::t
'.'.-.':. :3:h-lne-gun svstems including passlve recelvers rnum fuel and no reserires 548 km (34.
. . .: :: :-I--j:: ::i:-: and SPeClal actrve jammers and disPensed Specification
oavloads: and an A l09A Naval for Agrusta A I09A IvIk II miles)
, :: -,..:::.::.- ::- A I09A Light
---'-3c wllh rock- ASW, anti-ship, stand-off missile gui- Type: multr-role helicoPter Weishts: empty, depending on equtp-
-_-.:--< -- Accommodation: up to eight seats of menifrom 1551 kg (3,419 lb) to I8B9 kg
:j 1-,: :,:::,-::-fJs lol soft targets dance, SAR, Patrol, EW and manY (4, 164 Ib); maximum take-off 2600kg
other duttes. The proposed armament which front tvvo may both be pilots'
,, '-.= .-i-;.--=s -S- .lelescope stghtto for the A 109A Naval is a pair of AS 12 plus provision for 907-kg (2,000-lb) (s,732Ib)
---' :.-- -.: .-.:s: a:d rdbes for up sluns load, 150-kg (331-lb) hoist two Dimensions: main rotor diameter
- l',',-]es an A 109A Com- or AM-10 wire-gnrided missrles, and ll.Om (36ft l in); fuselage lengfth
=.::.' the tvDe can also be fitted to provide stretchers and tvvo attendants or more
::-a:.: control icr target designa-
quida;ce correction for the Otomat than 60 special role flts including wide i0,7 m (35 ft lYzin\ height 3 3 m (,10 !
, ,= ::. r r::::.::- ci attack helicopters,
range of weapon schemes 10 in); main rotor disc area 95 03 m'
1-. r '.'.--::. ::--: Irlament optrons of the A ihio-launched anti-ship missile Va- (1,023.0 sq ft)
A l09A Utility for rious sensors are available as custom- Powerplant: two 420-shp (313-kW)
.' :.:.'-.;:.'. -:-::a:k an

fl Asrusta A 129

Powerplant: hvo Rolls-Royc e Gem 2-2 Manv nations are considering buying
Specification the Aousta A I 29, shown here as a
Ao:sta A 129 twboshafts each with an emergency
ratins of I,035 shP (772 kW) full-slcale mock-up with eight Hughes
Tfpe: anti-armour and armed scout
TOW guided missiles'
helicopter Perftrmance: maximum sPeed
Armament: Italtan version has four 270 km/h (168 mPh); range wtth
weapons 574 kn/h (357 mtles) 11.9m (39ft OTzrn); fuselage Iength
ovlons for eiqht (two quadruple units) fr in); heisht 3.35 m
Weights: empty 2530 kq (5 575 Ib); 12.275i (40 37q
TbW missite! pltts either two 12 7-mm (ll ft 0in); main rotor disc area
fO.s-in) ouns or two Pods each with maxrmum take-off 3655 kq (B 058 Ib)
Dimensions: main rotor diameter i I t.z m2 (1,197.0 sq ft)
ieven'oi 19 70-mm (2 75 in) rockets


Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm BQ r05

TheGermanMBB comPanY has been

successfuJ rh m arketing manY
military and paramilitary versions of
its aoile BO I 05 twin-turbine
he liEopter. T he Royal N e therland s
armv uses the BO I 05C in various
utiliiy roles tqPicallY with four

though there is a lenQlthened sLx-seater in the Philippines, lndonesia and

the feathering hinge) hub of forged Soain. but the biqgest mtlitary custom-
trtanium carriinq efficrent blades of and MBB in partnership with Kawasakt
crlassfibre-retnfoiced plasllcs ln the ofJapan rs also producing the B/1O-seat eihas been Federal GermanY itsell
BK I'U. Versions are betng assembled The Heer (armY) has 227 BO l05M
fiassenger role most versions seat ftve,

Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm BO I05 (continued)
Armed Combat Helicop:e:s
(VBH) observation machines wrth seven. A further 2l are reserved for Specification
many advanced features. A prototype special dutres with the 6th Panzergre- MBB BO 105P (PAH_t)
is Lnvestigatlng further types of all- nadrer Division. The type is also the Type: antL-tank hel.c- c:=:
'..;eather sights and displays. The Heer
ras also deployed a further 212 of.the
basrs of the BO ]Os/Opheha (Optrque Armament: nclm"ll. :.;,: : _ l :.. -..=
BO t05P type as the PAH-I (anti-
Platforme HELlcoptere Allemande) on lareral ou rtc:.t.: ...'. ,

advanced experrmental model This reload of launch ruL*-.

armour helicopter No. l). These have has a mast-mounted sight (forward- Powerplant: two 420-hc : : - :-.,.:'.'.' -:-,_.-
sLx HOT antrtank missiles, a stabilized lookrng rnfra-red and TV sensors and a son C20B turboshafts
all-weather srght above the cabin, laser rangeflnder) in a spherical Performance: maxLmun :::- -:.,: -:
Doppler navigatron and numerous mountrng above the rotor head, and speed2l0 km h r 130 mph r,-..-.:.,:.. -..
-:ems for battlefleld protection. Each head-up/head-down displays in the durance wrrh 20-mrnute lese:..= . .-.: -:
army corps has an anti-tank PAH reg- cabrn. The type also has provisron for 30 mrnutes
rment with two squadrons of 28 heli-
copters operating rn four flights of
helmet-mounted sights and drsplays, Weights: empry J322 kr - j.r .:
and began flight trials rn l9Bt mdxrmum take.olf 2400 kg q5 2!- i:

l,'q; ;rs l-'I



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Anfi-fank helicopter warfare

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,- -= :-:nch who first gave the helicopter significant capab llty aga nst Firing aTOW high-speed antilankmissilefrom one of the twotwin pods
. ' : -; smallturbine-engined Sud-Aviation Alouette lls with batterres of carried by aHughes 500 MD Defender,whichis alsoequippedwith amast-
' mounted sight. In such flat terrain the high position of the sight cannot give
- .'.='AS..1 1) wire-guided missiles. These early m ss les were qu te
: : ,: -:i easy to steer accurately: the operator tended to over-correct,
: :- l to co-ordinate steering in both the lateral and vert,ca planes,
. :-:: ^g small helicopter with distorting Plexiglas from screen panels USA, there has been an emphasrs on making anti-tank helicopters better able to
,. :: \elvto provetoo much.Thefirst majoradvancewas deve opment withstand hostile fire, although extremely successful n the case of strikes by
--. :::n (iaterAdrospatiale) of an improved guidance cal ed TCA (Tdle- bullets, this philosophy has tended to distract attention from the bas c fact that
,-: --:cmatique) in which the operator was absolved oi tne need to every modern army has large numbers of close range SAMs wh ch are almost
,- -: sreering corrections to the missile's trajectory; a he had to do certain to destroy a helicopter with a single shot. lt s amaz ng that the newest
::: :-: s gntexactlyontargetandthe
ont exactlv on tarqet and the missileautomat callVff ewa
missile automat callV onq the
ew a ong antr{ank helicopter, the USA's Hughes AH-64A Apache, shou d after a decade
-' .:z'allel line defined by an lR (infra-red) sensing system TCA and of development be burdened by armour and features protect ng it against
: .:::-s
.- -
- J
^ made ii.^^+
I svv direct tr;+-
hits probable
v,,vv! ^'^h^hl^
.+ the
even at
thd extended
ow+an;ad r:nno of
range n{ up
rn tn
to small-arms f ire up to at least 20 mm, yet be unab e to engage its targets without
:- es achieved by second-generation anti-tank miss les exposing itself fully to gunfire and SAMs Th s ls because the stabilized sight
:' :-: 'rndamental requirements of an anti-tank he1 copter s that t system, its vital 'eyes', is at the very bottom of the nosel
= No anti-tank helicopter crew would disagree w th the assertion that such
r :: ::. to see the enemywithout itself being visible Partculary n the

An MBB BO 105 anti-tank helicopter displays its mast-mounted sight, which

affords this agile aircraft the opportunity to remain out of sight until it needs to

Left: I n all battlefield o pe r a :: : :. s

by helicopter s t he m ax im :
:. condeglrnent of such acos:.;' e.:3
. vulnerable macfirneis esse:--::=.
*. With an MMS (mast-rnoun :e: s:_--.- :
milssrJes can b e qtided whiie : :
,helicopter stays out of sight i>e:,::=
.. lnlvralcoven
helicopters are only as good as therr 'eyes'. The most basic form of vision dev ce
x4) magnification for a quick search and a much greater enlarqement (xi0 and
upwards) for long range weapon gurdance. The eyepiece has to be retractable,
and folded down when needed so that it comfortably f its any size of observer.
The latter has a control wlth which he can aim the other end of the s ght system
which projects outside the hel copter, preferably above the roof or above the
hub of the rotoron a mast The slght head has to be gyrostab lrzed to hold steady
on a target no matter how the he copter may be cavorting, and the whole sight
has to incorporate or be able to interface w th an B night-v s on device, with a
laser ranger and target designator, and w th a helmet s ght worn by e ther
member of the crew.
Almost always there are two crew n an ant -tank helrcopter. The pioneer Bell
AH-'1 HueyCobra established the rule that the seats should be in tandem, the
rear seat being higher than the froni, and that though there shou d be primary
flight controls in both cockpits the chief p lot shou d be at the rear. Bell's
second-generation rival to the AH-64A reversed this arrangement, puttrng the
piiot in the nose; nobody else has followed this arrangenrent and it was not
adopted. Anti-tank versions of existing machines, such as the Westland Lynx 3,
46rospatiale SA 342M and MBB BO 105P, seat the crew side-by-srde. So far
lrttle attention appears to have been paid to what seems the obv ous a ternative
to today's large anti-tank helicopters. the small single-seater w th great agility
and much reduced visual or radar cross-sectron, yet carrying the same sensors
and weapons as the vulnerable monsters in use (or planned for use) today.

Helicopter sight systems

WestGermany is well advanced with
night and badvisibility sighting
systems for its BO j,05 dedicated anti-
tank he licopter - ( I ) s hows a helmet
sightsystem which enables the
sensors to follow the obsewer's
visual scan or, conversely, direct the @
wearer's attention onto a target. The
cameraunitin(2) is a LLW unit,
which is pairedwith aFLIR camera.
The obsewer is of{ered a choice of
enhanced images (3) depending on
local flight conditions.
Westland Scout
: -
. ri exclu
.. :: .: l--:, :l- .- :,a',': been bUllt
:,.. .-. '..- Westland Scout was
:-_-: :, -r :: :. :: Saunders-Roe
-- :.: - a : :'. r-: r:.=:, :-.':r-.i'hen the
:,: -' r :.:::,'.' '.'.'rs absorbed by
::: .-::T:.e
-:'.:: -..,.-, .. irst P 531 was
__ _"ooowetofa
- '.-: -::-...','.' Blackburn (Turbo-
-r. -'-r::-.- :-: :ulbishaft. derated
: '-.. -:,':-.:...,^::: 325 shp (242kW).
..= : '..-, 1,.-'.-,'sroived an rmmedrate
. ':.::- .:. -:.= .-,-Oe anO IflLS WaS ln-

::-,::, =:r:,,' u'as the P.531-2 Mk I,

--.=:-:.:.1',' a pre-production and de-
.=.,::.=:.:'.,arLant whtch first flew tn
.: - :a! Thrs proved so successful
':...'I ::.',' lne month later the Britrsh
:- -

.'. :.. !. .:-d rls rnlual productron con-

': . : :- r ::e Scout AH.Mk I, whrch dif-
-: -: -:: m earher models only in hav-
.-: :-'.'.'ered controls. The first Scout
.:-: - tlew rn March 1961, and the mounted pods and a varrety of Specification An ATGW Scout helicopter from No.
' ':: a:Jan to entel sewice early in weapons. The rear bench seat which Westiand Scout AH.Mk I 652 Aviation S quadron, Army Air
.::: :s a replacement for the Saun- normally accommodates three pas Type: multr-role tactlcal hehcopter Corps, is seen firing an AS- I I anti-
-:=:-.-i.:: Skeeter, which it clearly out- sengers, can be removed to provrde Armament: thls can rnclude varrous tank guided weapon, Iive, at tank
::.-:=: by rts combrnation of greater space for two more lLtters The type combinatrons of guns up to 20-mm targets.
:=-.-c-lrty substantrally improved has proved rts operatronal versatrhty, calibre and rocket pods, or AS. I I antr
. . . :r and general operating super- operating in the close-support. haLSon, tank mrssiles and flve persons
. :,'.- Production amounted to 160 light frerghtrng modevac commurjca Powerplant: one Rolls-Royce (Bnstol) Weights: empty 1465 kq (3,232 lb)
i -,:: AH Mk I helicopters and these tion, reconnarssance. SAR and trarnLng Nrmbus Mk l0l or Mk 102 turboshaft maxrmum take-off 2405 kg (5,300 lb)
-:-. = slnce 1963 been standard multi- roles Small numbers of the Scout were derated from 1,050 shp (783 kW) to Dimensions; main rotor drameter
: = .actrcal alrcraft wlth skid landing exported, mainly to Jordan Austraha, 685 shp (51 I kW) 9 83 m (32 ft 3 rn); fuselage lengrth
:- -: r lvelsx-seat cabrn and the Nim- Bahrarn and Uganda More than I00 Performance: maximum speed 9 24 m (30 ft 4 in) height 2.72 m (B fl
:,.- --l or 102 turboshaft. External Scouts remarn ln servrce',^'lth the Brit- 21I km/h (131 mph) at sea level range 1i in); marn rotor dlsc area 75.9 m
. rnclude two lrtters in side- ish army, marnly rn second-lLne roles. 505 km (314 miles) wLth maxrmum fuel (16 9 sq ft)

X Westland Lynx (Army)

-- .:,:ired as part ofthe Anqlo-French
:.=,. r: Dier aqtreement of FebruarY
,.: - :i.e Westland Lynx rs an extreme-
.. ::-.::iern and versatile machine. lts
i::.1:r rs wholly of Westland orrgrn,
:- :-. Droductron of the type is shared
: :.: ratro of 70/30 between the UK
.-:,; : rance rn the form of the natronal-
.-=: -:,:rospatrale concern One of the
:,,' French responsrbrhtres rs the
. : .:=l :rtanrum hub, a one-piece struc
-:- ::l the four-blade semr-rrgrd main
": ." r.. --11 rs one of the most rmpor
..:,- :::::res of the desrgn. All versions
':- have advanced diqrtal
..:: -.,-n,:
-^:ntrols plus all weather Capableof being armedwith awide assortmentof weapons, theLynxis alsotaskedwithcarryingM|LAN armed
:. ,:,.:: and no prevrous hehcopter anti-tankteams.
:..:. =:-:l ihe type for agrlity and all- Specification
' -:'::l' :na-man opelatlon The orl- time the Lyrx has burlt up an enviable rotor, and can carry up to 22 troops. Westland Lynx AH.Mk I
:.: : - :r: lestgn lte wrth the WG.l3 reputatron as a versatrie battlefleid The Lynx 3 rs a more advanced armed Armament: weapons can rnclude a 20-
: ,:- ,.:l '.'.'hlch was schemed rn helicopter, berng able to carry up to l2 development of the Lynx AH.Mk 1; mm cannon, a 7 62-mm (0,3-in) Mtnt'
'-. -:..-c':n:ose naval and civilian ap- troops rn addrtion to a crew of two, or among rts features are the ability to gnrn, rocket pods, or various types of
::',.:.: Bu: sc versatrle drd the de- 907 kq (2,000 lb) of internal freigrht or a carry HOT, TOW or Hellfire antr-tank air-to surface mrssile rncludinq HOT,
::,:-=ir rhat the concept was ex slung load of 1361 kg (300Olb), or a mrssiles (wrth reloads rn the cabtn, a TOW and AS I I
:- : ', l:nd-based tactrcal opera- wide assortment of weapons rncludrng technrque pioneered with the Lynx Powerpiant: two 900-shp (671 kW)
: '.:,-:h ihe types agrlrty and erght TOW antr{ank mrssrles aimed AH Mk I), and to carry the Strnger arr- Rolls-Royce Gem 4l turboshafts, each
:.. .. :;. r: ','.'culd prove a very ccn- wrth a stabilized sight mounted in the to-arr mrssrle for self-defence or the flat-rated to 750 shp (559 kW)
.:. :: .: :.:-::: The first prototype of fliqhtdeck roof. The chLef distrngr- destructLon of enemy helicopters over Performance: maxrmum speed
:r 2l March 1971 and
- -.:-. ..='.'.',a=s urshlng feature of the land-based Lynx the battlefield. Sensors proposed for 259 km/h (171 mph); ranse 540 km (336
- i :r vrere used exhaus- is its skid iandrng grear, the naval Lynx the Lynx 3 are either a chrn- or mast- miles) wrth a full load of troops
:.. , r r-- ::.331s oithe certlflcation havrng wheeled tncycle landing grear. mounted package ol largel-dcquisilion Weights: empty equlpped for antr-
:. , r.--::'- :-r'lrrals and for record- Westiand is producing vanants of and night-vision items Wrth a max- tank stnke 3072k9 (6,772 Ib); max-
:. .:i r: .r. : l:.= second productton the basrc desigrn including the current Imum take-off werght of 5443 kq imum take-off 4 536 ks (10,000 lb)
' :=. .'.'.. ::-= Lynx AH.Mk I bat- WG.30 and the future Lynx 3. The (12,000 lb), the Lyrx
will also be able
3 Dimensions: maln rotor drameter
.':. r i....- :r--:: :':':.: B:'tsh army. WG.30 rs desrgned for civil and mtltt- to hft i4 troops over a ranqfe of 105 km 12,802 m (42 ft 0 rn); length overall,
.,:.:.'-.='.', -:. -- F:i::-a:.; i977 and ary applicatrons, and n rn essence a (65 mrles). The prototype should fly by rotors turning 15 163 m (49 ft 9 in)t
-,:=::::r-:. ^ l-r,- 'bLg fuselage Lynx wLth uprated 1986, wrth delivenes begrnnrng shortly nejghl 366m (12lt 0rn), marn rolor
: .' :. .-' ':-,= ::.r r: -:- - S-:,a-o that powerplant and larger drameler matn after thLs. drsc area I28.69 m2 (1,385.35 sq ft)
Westland Lynx (Army) (continued) Armed Combat Helicopters

". T"i


ia, e:p,fr

if i'. r& ti.i


Takenin 1977, this pictureshows f,hesecondproductionLynx AH.Mk t [or the sight.Westland is now developing the Lynx 3 as adedicated armed
British army. Since then over 100 have been delivered, of ,,vhich 60 in Germany helicopter.
are being equipped with the Hughes TOW, with a stabilized roof-mounted

il ifrr vri-e4'Hind'
The Mil Mi-24'Hind' is a most impor-
tant combat helicopter famrly, and has
dynamic parts (engines and rotors)
beanng close krnship with those of the
Mi-8, yet while the main rotor is con-
siderably smaller in diameter the en-
gines are much more powerfull The
series was designed to be able to
assaultland a squad of rnfantry and
support the squad from the air wrth :A.. ?,
gn-rnfire, rockets and missiles. The Mi- __F

24 is thus a massive hehcopter but Thetirstversionof theMi-24 tobebuiltin largenumberswas'Hind-A',withfourweapon pylons, two twin'Swattet'
agile for the bulk, and probably flew in mrsstJe rajls an d a heavy machine-gun.
prototype form in the early l97Os, en-
tering service in 1973. The flrst Mr24 or other hard targets. The 'Hind-A'was rotary-barrei heavy machrne-gun pylons for various loads (.-is:-ii; :2-
version, called'Hind-A' by NATO, was in fact preceded rnto servrce by the under the nose. Well over 1,000 of tube 57-mmi2.24-rn rocke' ; : :: ::to
Lnitially seen in large numbers in East 'Hind-B', with strarght wings lacking many sub-types had been built by two outboard pylons for :-,'.-: launch
Germany in 1974, and so is thought to the trp stations for mrssiles The 'Hind- 1983. about 150 berng exported lo five rails for AT-2 'Swatter or AT-c Sprral
have flown as a prototype in about C' ts similar to the 'Hind-A' but lacks the cllenl stales and development has Iaser-homing antr-armour n.ssrles
1968. Its fiselage is divided rnto a large nose g'un and tip stations for missrles. continued wrth the 'Hind-E' (AT-6 'Sprr- Powerplant: two 2.2C0-:c (1641-kW)
cockpit area for a normal flight crew of Relatively few were built. Larger num- al' tip missiles and improved sensors) Isotov TV3-1 17 turbosha-ts
four (pilot, co-pilot, gunner/navigator bers have been built ofanother model, and 'Hind-?' without the undernose Performance: maxtrnum speed 346
'wrth heavy machine-gnrn, and forward 'Hind-D', which has a revised airframe machine-gun but wtth a twin-barrel 23- krn/h (215 mph) ranqe wrth maximum
cbserver) and an unobstructed marn with the tail rotor moved from the right mm cannon on the dght side of the weapon load 900 knr (559 mrles)
cabin for eight fully equipped troops, to the left of the swept fin, and a new nose. Weights: empt)' about 6500 kq
On each side large wingJike weapon nose equipped for a pilot at the upper (14,300 lb) maxrmum take-off 11500 kq
arms (which do in fact give lift in for- level and a weapon operator lower Specification (25,400 rb)
ward flight) slope sharply downwards down in the extreme nose, and with the Mii Mi-24'Hind-D' Dimensions: marn rotor drameter ab-
and support six pylons, four ofthem for greatest array of tactlcal sensors, Type: tactical gmnshrp helicopter out 17 0 m (55 ft 9 rn); fuselage length
rocket pods, bombs or other heavy weapon-arming systems, communica- Armament: one 12.7-mm (0.S-in) rbur, 17 0 m (55 ft I in); heisht 4 25 m (14 ft
stores and the outermost carrying twin tions, EW devices and all-weather barrel gt-r,r in remote-control turret 0 in); main rotor dlsc a'rea 227 0 m
rails for a total of four AT-2 'Swatter' avionics ever seen on a hehcopter. unde; riose for use agarnst ground or (2,443 5 sq ft)
gurded missiles for use against armour This is a true gunshrp helicopter with a aerral targets; four inboard weapon

Thrs illustrationis probably themost accurateyet to have appeared of any
version of the MiI Mi-24, the type depicted being the so-called 'Hind-D' armed
assault and anti-tank version as used by the Czech air torce. Features include
the kinked main-rotor blades of composite construction, held in a titanium
hub, four W-32-57 pods (each housing 32 rockets ot 57-mm/ 2.24-in calibre),
four outboard AT-6 'Spiral' anti-tank mksiles, foreign-obiect dellectors ahead
ot the inlet to the 2, 200 - hp ( I 64 I - kW) W- 3- I I 7 engines, forw ar d-looking I R
and low-Iight Wsensors, four-barrel gan in a remotely-aimed turret, and long
air-data sensor probe.


rPU.O nelfleU]


- !t!


i: *.



._-=-: _*aF


t.lil ni24'Hind-D

- -71

llli .,{

$ €!t

ni-z6'Hind in action
USSR lras exp orted Mi-24 assault
helicopters to Afghanis tan, Algeria,
Cuba,lraq, Libya and SouthYemen,
in addition to members of the
Warsaw Pact. Most have been twin-
c o c kp it guns h ips, bu t Algeria has
received some of the earlier
' H ind-A' model. These have a large

enclosed flight deck for a four-man

crew, but lack many of the night and
inria!: , dqs
all-weather sensors of ffie gunsfirps. . i.r

.ny Western observers still frnd it hard to tection against ground frre. A second reason is
ierstand how the USSR can spend very that in several versions the Mi-24 has a
:.:-Je sums to procure military hardware of 'gunshrp' nose packed wrth advanced sensors
.=',',' and carefully optimrzed design when and weapon arming systems, and again these
,:rething already in existence could easily be are better suited to a smaller, high-power he[-
:,:iLfied to do the job. Nothing better illus copter than to the large Mi-8 series,
-::s thrs apparent disregard for cost than the NATO kne,r about the new helicopter for
'...Yt 24'Hind' family of helicopters, It would two years before the first photographs were
..'.'e been simpler merely to extend the seen rn 1974, and has allotted the reporting
:.=ady diverse famrly of Mi-B 'Hip' and Mi-17 name 'Hind'. The frrst major production version,
=..:rpters, which have the enormous benefit 'Hlnd-A', has a tail rotor very similar to that of
,' 8,000 production examples (eight times the Mr B family, but in all other versrons it is
:. : r . :han any Western helicopter of compara moved to the left side of the fln, to pull instead of
: srze or power). Instead the Mi-24 was push. This early model, first rdentrfled in East
..r.::l almost from the proverbial clean sheet Germany rn early 1974, has a nose cockpit for a Presenting its most menacing aspect, this'Hind-D'
flight crew of four, comprising pilot, co-prlot, displays its twin cockpits, remotely controlled
navrgatorigunner, and forward observer, The four-barrel gun, W-32-57 rocket pods and rails for
Greateragility last sometrmes forms part of the payload and on an fi-fankmrssiles.
: : , n the start the Mi-24 was tailored exactly arrival at the landing or drop zone departs as
' --:r.ryrng a squad of eight assault troops in a squad commander. Normal weapon load rs broadly sirnilar to those of the Mi-8 except that
.,,:-:- :abin with large doors on each side for 1275 kg (2 810 lb) and the mix of four missiies the main rotor is much smaller (17 m/55 ft 9 in
:::,-r egress, whrlst srmultaneously carrying (usually AT-2 'Swatter') anti-tank weapons and compared with 21 29 rn/69 ft I)Vz in drameter)
-.-:..",: armament to suppress opposition by four UV-32 pods rs almost universal, In the nose and rts flve blades are of advanced composite
.-.,: --: ground forces, In fact the basic external ts a heavy machine-gmn, of 12.7- or 14,5-mm steeVtitanium/qlassfibre construction to offer
.' -ri:n load comprises four anti-tank gurded (0.5- or 0 57-rn) calibre almost certainly slav- very high resistance to enemy fire. The en-
..'-:.:--:s plus four other stores such as UV-32 able to a srghtrng system under the nose which gines are basically those of the Mi-17, more
- :, =: pods. This is nothrng like as much as the provides a gyrostabilized picture of ground powerful than those of the Mr-8, and they are
1.1,': -nd Mi-17 can carry; these have cabins tarqets',','hich can be magnified up to about partly armoured and fitted wlth rnlet partrcle-
:-r -:-lr up to 32, and external pylons for four x l0 v,'hen necessary separators and special exhaust stacks to sup-
,..--:s plus srx UV-32s or simrlar loads. Why, press IR radiation on which enemy SAMs could
ie."'elop the Mi-24r Partlyarmoued
-:-= marn answer is that the new helicopter What thLs first ,.'ersrcn does not have are full Certainly the best photograph yet to become
' .,. i:srgned for greater agility, acirieved by a nrght and all-;,'eaiher senscrs but tt set the available in the West of a gunship Mi-24, this shows
. . . . :,=: ra:ro of power to weight, combrned with standard ol basrc desrgn fcr :he iater members a'Hind-D' in Afghan colours with the main cabin
.--':- :-are extensive armour and other pro- of the famlly. The basrc d1,'namic parts are occupied by troops.
'Hind' gunships in Afghanistan
--: i:: ._
-:'r - -::-:,..:->
-- -
: -_ :J !=g ^- --^:^
: --:-:: lr - :S :C'e:: !eS5, O: : :: :-.1:
:- :. :a3 !',^g Cvei\\,he rn "O;!:Ce S,aOe^
. :: - 3loaDesidurrro l956anci n PraEte
:-'-;'968. to crush aii cirssensror n a
--..-.a- ct hours in December 1g7g ihe
:':-::eil of Afghanrstan was murdered
:-: :.e puppei government whrch 'took
:" :: on the same day invited the USSF to
r--=^ opposition by bringing rn small ele-
-=-:s of the Russian army. The whole
- -: nad been planned in advance, but
.^3: had been miscalculated was the de-
:-- nation of the Afghan people to resist.
:sDite a gigantic build-up of Russian milit-
-, 'night the war in Afghanistan goes on.
::om the start the Soviet FA (Frontal
:. ation, or tactical air force) has played a
-.or role in trying to eliminate all oppo-
-:-is of the new regime who dare to show
:-:nselves. A substantial part of the FA
'=lrments now in Afghanistan are straight-
':-ward fixed-wing units whose main
:'eoccupation has been punitive dive-
:-rmbing of Afghan towns and villages, of
.',hich more than 80 have been completely
:oliterated. Some have the close-support
SJkhoi Su-25 'Frogfoot', which is well can winkle out pockets of resistance which 24s have at least one large-calibre gun in the known the large a-€:-: ::.:- :, :-- _-::
:dapted to this style of warfare against tll- might otherwise make such occupation nose, and the most effective single weapon flown in by Mi-1:5 13 ,; ':- . - :: - . -:
:quipped ground forces, but the most very costly. Many refugees from Afghanis- is the four-barrel 'i 2.7-mm (0.5-in)gun of rhe sian hands. largei! oe::-::'-: .:-:-:-:
-Jmerous single type appears to be the Mil tan have insisted that the Mi-24, used in gunship'Hind-D' and'Hind-E' models. This
\.'1;24 'Hind' armed helicopter, which was formerly tn possesso. ^: :-::.-., :-
several verslons including the modern tan- has a very high rate, is supplied with Not too much of the i'---:- ....''.'.::
- Afghanistan on the day Soviet troops dem-seat gunships, are the most feared severat thousand rounds of ammunition. across to a conflict bel,.,::- :..,_ -: _
:rossed the frontier. single weapon deployed by the Russian and appears to be very accurate over ranges powers. In the latter eve.: :-a -: :::-:':
Warfare in Afghanistan since 1979 has to forces. as great as 1000 m (1,095 yards). Wirh a would be qurre unable io s::-: : " :: : ::
: considerable degree resembled that in Such large and powerf ul 14,4OO hpl superb range of sensors, including com- range in full view of rhe e":-. -::-:
Algeria 20 years earlier in that jt is a no- 3282 kW) machines broadcast their pre- plete magnifying nightlvision systems, the several Mi-24s have been ,^<- - -':-:- i.
holds-barred struggle between a hardy but sence from a great distance, but the Mi-24 cannot be evaded. A typical techni- tan apparently to accuraie r' a '-a ,',-:-
'll-equipped people and a major military Afghans have hardly any effective anti que is to land eight troops from the main thrs campaign hasoore s :t: - ': :. ..:
power over rugged and completely unde- aircraft weapons. Both by day and night the cabin, wait Until their advance is checked by hea\ . .-- .: .- :
home the lesson that the
veloped terrain. As in that former conflict it Mi-24s continually succeed in pinning down resistance and then'mount a devastating armoured helicopter, car-', -: -:: _- .
nas been demonstrated repeatedly that, even individual Afghans who are then cap- assault with 57-mm 12.24-inl rockets or weapons but also a squad of ass:_ :
while avjation forces cannot actually occupy tured by the helicopter's own infantry or by even anti-tank missiles (very effective is the most potent single r,e:c.:-
and rule an area as can ground troops, they ground forces summoned by radio. All Mi against caves and rock crevices). So far as is COIN (counterinsurgency, r\: i :' ..

home. Many other crucial parts of the gearbox, fairrng at the top of the innermost weapon pylon separate fighter-type canopy for ea::. ::':::.-
shafting and flight-crew areas are protected by on the left side which is either a laser tracker the drfference in level berng such "i.:' 't.= t '
.tghtweight armour or specially robust (heavy and ranger or, more probably, a TV-type elec- tom of the pilot's windscreen is le'.'e_ '.'.'_::. -:.=
:rtanium sheet, for example) arrframe construc- tro-optical viewing system, It would be reason- top of the canopy in front. Both cre'.',' :.:::,::::
lion. Certainly it would be difficult to brinq able to suppose that this sensor is an image- have a bulletproof wrndscreen \\'l h ,'. .:. t : -'
down an Mi-24 with guns of 20-mm calibre or enhancing type such as LLTV (iow-ltqht TV), whereas the pilot enters via a doc r : :. :.-.= I . I .

smaller, and thus able to provide a picture of the qround side the front-seater chmbs rn from ::.+ _- :' .' . _-.

Later models at nlght or in some kinds of bad weather. On the the complete canopy hinged oper. : _ 'i.: I . r _-.'
other hand the later gunship Mi-24s retarn thrs Bulletproof qualities of the cancp.ii :t. . .'
Other early models include the 'Hind-B' sensor whilst introducing several others, known. but there is extensrve arm: *: :: -:.:
(actually the first variant to be burlt) wrth smal- Perhaps the most numerous of all versions, the lower parts of both cockprts
ler weapon wings without anhedral and lack- the 'Hind-D' retains the same airframe and Around the nose are extensi,,'e a-.
lng the misstle ra1ls, and the 'Hind-C' without cabin as before except that the four-seat cock- sensors and weapon-aiming sys:e:.:
missiles or nose grun, The latter machine has pit is replaced by a new forward fuselage sea- which can clearly be slaved to :r:
the modifled tail-rotor installation and so did trng just two. As in the American Bell HueyCob- turret under the nose, The oun rs ::
not precede the 'Hrnd A'; the reason for remov- ra and Hughes Apache, the front seat is occu- the West but rs a rapid-fire fo'ur-cart=
al of most of the armament is unknown but may pied by the weapon operator, the pitot being at
be in order to carry heavy slung loads. These a higher level to the rear. Unlike the US types,
partially stripped models often lack the bullet however the Soviet machine has a completely

Another'Hind-D', in this case

deployed by thePWL (Polish air "':'' *'i
force).Thelongrodprojectins L
aheadofthen6seisZniir-aaia I
lensor, which is particularly
important in peimitting pricise
";t ^-r
aiming of weapons af a/,1 arrspeeds.
'Hind' gunships deployed in Afghanistan. Two are
very fully protected by large, well-tailored covers Mil Mi-24 cutaway drawing key 13 Ventralsensorpack
14 Radardirectorunit
over the cockpits, weapons, rotor hubs, tail-rotor associated with AT 2
J Low speeo preisron I l ormalron lghl SwatleLarmed'H nd'D'
bjades and engrnes. Such cosselrn g is rare in the airsDeed sanscrs 9 Ammunton oadngdoors 1 5 Boarding steps
West. 2 Scnsor bocnl l0 4-barrc 2.7 mm rotary
1 16 Cockpitsectonarmoured
3 'Odd rots F; .rcr al canfon skin panellinq
.1 Arnrourccl lr nc:crccn 1 T Cannon sw vc I nq;
pana rno nt Lng
of estimated 12.7-mm (0.S-in) cahbre, Sensors 5 W ncscraen !1 pcr l2
Foruard ook ng rnf ra-r{td
are housed in numerous small and large blis- 6 Weapors ofl ccr s (FL R)and low-lght
nslrui_a ni pafa te ev s on (LLTV) scnsor
ters and probably include a radar, LLTV and 7 Plillrl.. housr ng
(desprte claims that the USSR had not de-
veloped such devices, notwrthstanding the fact
that they have been displayed rn public) a FLIR
(forward-looking IR) system, A long boom
ahead of the nose incorporates a precision
true-arrspeed sensor for providing essential
data for weapon-aiming, There are several
variations on the weapon and sensor flt, most
gunship models having the original (probably
electro-optical) pod moved to the tip of the left
weapon sponson and a version called 'Htnd-E'
having different mrssile installations matched
to the tube-launched AT-6 'Spiral' missile
which is believed to feature laser homrng.
Action in Afghanistan
Latest of the many variants, and not yet allo-
cated an announced NATO desrgnation, is a
gmnshrp with a smooth streamlined nose de-
void of the gun turret, Instead a long package
on the rrght side below the pilot's door contains
a GSh-23 twin-barrel cannon, which is armed as
rn fighter aircraft by the prlot steering the
whole machine. This version has a slightly
drfferent sensor fit, but al1 the recent Mi-24
versrons appeared to have as many as 13 major
avronic aerials and unidentifled bulges, sug-
festlng an extremely comprehensive array of
sensors for every conceivable purpose.
By mrd 1983 an estimated 1,240 ol all ver-
.-':-s of Mi-24 had been delivered, wtth pro-
per month.
'r-.l:-rn continuing at about 15
.:.:: numbers have been in action rn Afgha-
:--: .:-'.'.'here they have proved devastating to
-:-;:.-:.s'.'.'ho lack SAMs, aircraft, and (in most
::;t::s; even weapons of larger than rifle
'i ti:::
./ Yet several Mi-24s have been shot
j:'.','n in at least one case to carefully aimed 62

r-fie flre The suppression of Afghan resistance

has not been partrcularly helpful to the USSR's
rennement of tactical procedures, where the
l',i:-21 s performance against other helicopters
::l close support aeroplanes has yet to be A
i:::: i-rstrated. V--/

Prcbably themostnumerous of all
Mi-24 versions,'Hind-D'is one of
three gunship models which all
retain the eight-seat cabin amidsft jps
(which can be used Ior reload
mrssiles). This example serves with
the LSK (EastGerman airforce).

13 Ventralsensorpack '- Canopylatch 25 Cyclic pitch controlcolumn

14 Radardirectorunrt ': Weapons systems 26 Colleclive pitchcontrol
associated with AT'2 officer's seat lever
Swatter-armed'Hind D' '-r Sighting unit, stowed 27 Yawcontrol rudderpedals
15 Boardingsteps :a Upwardhingedcanopy 28 Noseundercarriageleg
l6 Cockpit section armoured cover strut
skin panelllng i- Twin barrel externally 29 Twin nosewheels
mounted 23-mm GShL-23 30 Airconditioning system
cannon fresh airintake
\\ :2 Pi ot'sarmoured
w ndscreen panel
i3 Windscreen wiper
:-1 nstrumentpanelshroud


..'.- -.<

"/-.' '
?:obably the most numerous of all
!,1 i- 2 versions,' H ind-D' is one of
:ree gunship models which all
:etain the eight-seat cabin amidshjps
l'thich can be used for reload
::rrssrTes). This example serves with
ne LSK (EastGerman air force). This Mi-24 variant, one of a rapidly
growing number used by Soviet
Frontal Aviation, is related to'Hind-
a E' in having tip pylons for the tube-
launched AT- 6 Sprrai' mrssj/e. ljke
several new models, the chin turret is
replaced hy aGSh-23 twin-barrel


'7 Canopylatch 25 Cyclcpitchcontro column

-8 Weapons systems 26 Co lectlve pitch control
officer's seat lever
: I Sighting unit. stowed 27 Yawconlrol rudderpedais
20 Upwardhingedcanopy 28 Noseundercarnage eg
si i!l
21 Twin barrel externally 29 Tw n nasev,,hee s
mounted 23-mm GShL-23 30 A r cc.d : on ng svstem
22 Pilot's armoured
windscreen panel
23 Windscreen wiper
24 lnstrument panel shroud
85 Rotorheadtailfalr ng
86 Hollowsection steel rotor
blade spar
87 Honeycombtrailing edge
88 Titanium leading edge antl-
abrasion sheathing
89 Aeriallead-in
90 HFaerialcable
91 VHFaerials
92 Anti-collision lrght
93 Rotorbladefixedrab
94 Allmoving tailp ane
95 Beveldrivegearbox
96 Tailrotordrveshaft
97 Frnaldrverghl-ange
98 3-badedta rotor
99 G assjrbre ta rolo'b ades
100 Ttaniumlead ngecAe
101 Baoeotch.onr.c
O Pilot Press Limited mechanrsr
102 Cambered:a 'c:c'c\ l.
103 Ta navcaic. c-:

'!6 la c:-:i:-:': ::u

'<.' '.1- -z eaa-
/ 'li -z ':'.:".'z-:- :::'
"-? 1,la'::u' z'. - re' z
::-a::: -_:
- -3 ::a-':: :a^r: e::-:^ cs

"t'6 =^tiar.- .-..

I l 7 ro( s:Jc ,i :E
36::::r::13:::-:c. I I8 lva nw,f eE ca\
a:,:' I i I Wrng s:cres c\ 3ns
37 S:a'c:r-r: :: e^:-! :::' >:a'aaa'aa'J _:::.. ^: T 20 ivla n JiCe'.a'i age leg
38 .l ^!-r ^::::?a: c^ ar Cao n :ea. bfkhead d oor
39 3oa'c -g s:ecs :_l _::a::ss:_! 63 Gearboxmountrngdeck 121 ShocKabsc'cerstrut
40 Ptciiuoe 3l- l-e^i:e:'ca\ 63 Ma n reduction gearbox 122 Af1 retracirng malnwheel
4l Ventra'ac!re 70 Gearboxsupponstruts leo slrut
42 Snge-barre 127'mr eng ne 7l Botor head hydraul c 123 Pdnmarnwheel
machrne€ u n 55 O ccoerLnlake contro jacks (3) 124 Laserdesrgnator
43 Armoured wrndscreen 56 Olcoolerfan 72 Rotorheadfalring 1 25 Pod navigation light
57 Engine gearboxdnveshaft 73 Swash plate mechanism '126 Wing tip missile pylon
44 Weaponssyslems 58 Exhaustpon 74 Blade p tch control rods '1
27 AT 2 Swatter launch rai s
officer's seat 59 Maincabindoorupper 75 Blade rootattachments 1 28 AT-2 Swatterairto{round,
45 Flat plate p lots' segment, open 76 Titanium rotorhead anl-tank mlssile
windscreen panels 60 Main cabin seating (8 fully- 77 Hvdraulic drag dampers 129 UB-32 rocketpod (32x57
46 Weapons off icer's entry armed troops) 78 Hydraulicreservoir mm rockets)
hatch 61 Doorlowersegment, open 79 Electric blade leading edge 1 30 4T-6 Spiral aiLto-ground
47 Pilotandco-pilot/ 62 Boardingstep de-icing antl-tank mlssile
engineer's seats, side-by- 63 Ventralaerialcable 80 Bladerootcuffs 131 Foldingfins
side 64 Underfloorfueltanks 81 s-bladedmainrotor 132 4T-6Spiral aunchrrbe
48 Slidingentryhatch 65 Cabinwindowpanels 82 Starboard sideAPU intake 133 Radardirectorpod
49 Engine air intake vorlex 66 Gearboxmounting 83 Auxiliarypower unit (APU) associated wrth Spira
tvpe dust/debrls extractors f uselage main f rames 84 APUexhaustduct armed'Hind-E

Bett 209 HueyCobra

:' ..:: .:.::.t:.:. \-te'nam during

r , : .. ' ,-. : , .:. ::: utrlrt'r' and the vul-
-:. :i.-.i-. r :--.: ::r;entional hehcop-
-: ,: '=: -:=, :rarlsport, and it was
:: : :::.:::d :hat the oplrmum
= , :: :.: :'.:lJ ano suPPorting
, --.-:,:::rs was',lrtth an agrle
. -. : : i:. : : Imed hellcopter. In
.-,rr!vPrLa. ' !uP-sed on lhe This was the original configuration of the AH-1G HueyCobra, with a singleTS3 engine, curved canopy and M28
: . --. --= ::.: llodel 209 had a new armamenlsubsystem with a Minigun and 40-mm grenades.
. :.: r-. .'..'r a nohrer type cock-
= :.,:: rrrgh Ln the rear and a stages: (the Modified AH-IS produced (1470-kW) T400 engrne group. One from 333 hn/h (207 mph) to 227 krilh
:-::.:r lcwer Ln the front by conversron of AH-lGs wrth the AH-lT has twin T700-700 engines of ( 141 mph) depending on equrpment fit;
:.1 .ra :re ol a wrde range of 1,800-shp/1342-k\ / T53-703 TOW mis- 3 200 shp (2387 kW) ancl rt rs proposed range at sea level with maximum fuel
:.. :.-.::nred on lateral stub srles and an upg.raded rotor system; to retroflt the USMC force wrth the and B per cent reserves 507 km (315
ler the
' -rcr rho nose.
nnco The
Tha AH-]G
ltlf-Il'l the Production AH-IS srmilar to the T700-401 giving no less than 3,380 shp miles)
b:a ','.-rt rnto productron In Modrfied AH-lS but wrth flat-plate (252r kW) Weights: empty 2939kq (6,479 1b);
- .-:: were delivered
-.C00 rn canopy and improved avronics/instru- maxrmurn take-off 4535 kq (10,000 lb)
.: ::-l Years. Powered bY a mentationt the Up-gnrn AH- lS based on Specification Dimensions: main rotor diameter
:;.: --;4-kW) T53, the AH-1G the Productron AH-1S but wrth super- Bell AH-IS 13.41 m (44 ft 0 in) or, rn AH-IT family,
:.,:=:.s-'.'e servlce in Vietnam. lor stores-management system and Type: anti-armour attack helicopter 14.63 m (48 ft 0 rn)t fuselage length
.'.'=:: l.nverted as TH-]G dual- provrsron for a unrversal turret capable Accommodation: pilot and co-piloV 13.59 m (44 ft 7 rn) or, rn AH- 1T, 14.68 m
..': - ::--:.ers The AH-tJ SeaCobra of accepttng a varrety of 20-mm and gmnner (48 ft 2 in); herght over tail rotor 4. l2 m
: '-= r-rSi r,vrn-engine version, for 30-mm cannon, and the Modernized Armament: eight TOW missiles on oui- (13 ft 67q rn), main rotor drsc area
l.l=:-:.e Corps wrth an I 800-shp AH-lS with all the prevrous rnprove- board wing points with pods inboard 14l.26m? (l 520 5 sq fr) or, in AH-IT,
.:', '.',' T+J0 Lnstallatroni in 1974-5 a ments and IR suppressron of the ex- housingr grroups of 7 or 19 of any of five 168. 1 m2 (1,809,6 sq ft)
,. -: 212'lrrth TOW mrssrles was hausts (to reduce the type's vulnerabil- types of 69.9-mm (2,75-in) rocket,
-:,.= j :: iran The AH-IQ was an
ity to IR-homLng mLssiles) endLng with General Electnc turret under nose Rotor downwash breaks up the
-S irny version adapted from flat-plate canoples TOW mLssrles and wtth M197 20-mm three-barrel gun motor smoke trail of amissile fired
:- I '..=-
:.=--:opters wLth TOW missrles, over B0 new or rmproved ltems of (alternatrves are 30-mm gun or com- by one of aformation of US Mafine
. ,- AH-]R has the 1,800-shp avionics and equLpment for all- btned 7.62-mm/0.3-in Minignrn plus 40- Corps AH- lT SeaCobras on an
: -:',:',',' lc3-703 engtne but no pro- weather flyrnq at almost ground level. mm grenade-launcher) assauil exercrse. These are twin-
.. :. :,r :ie TOW mrssrle. The cur- The current USMC model ts the AH-IT Powerplant: one I,B0O-shp (1343-kW) engined and have the tilple-barrel
:.' - S -:.lil,r model is the AH-]S pro Improved SeaCobra wLth lonqer fusel- Avco Lycoming T53-703 turboshaft GE M 1 97 cannon in an under-nose
,,=: .:- :cur successrvely rmproved age, TOW mLss:les and 1,970-shp Performance: maximum speed varres turret.


Armed Combat Helicopte:s
Hughes Model 500 Defend
' - 1:: - - c ' ': Lrv
-v r Lr-:J

Helicopter) con-
t.l.l an LoH

--;:.: 3bse:-"'at:on
'::: r,':::. po:entral production for a
::::-:;-.lle total. When the Hughes
C:{-6A Cayuse won there was a storm
:: :::resr it being claimed the com-
: r:.'.' '.F/as selling below cost Despite
':- = - 415 OH-6s qrave splendid ser-
.--:: :r Vietnam, and as its tadpole
:.--:ae was extremely compact, and
:=:--:rnance on a 317 shp (236-kW)
.:-.'r:n engine the highest in its class,
'--.= lll-6 was most popular. From it the
:,:.:any developed the Hughes Mod-
:- 500 iamily, the company astutely
.=:-:.J ihe considerable market for a
'=:-.a:ile hrgh-performance military
-=--:lDter of low cost and proven re-
.--,-:v The basic Model 500M with
---:::';ed 317-shp (236-kW) engine
' ..
s:ld to nine countries and licence-
--::: rn Argentina and Japan, Oper-
.'=: by Spain as a light antr-submarine
: ::::rm. the Model 500M has AN/
.-:-81 magnetic anomaly detection line fit of 14 2,75-in/70-mm rockets plus looking IR) night vision and many other Alltsci. 2:--l:,i -:: -. --
l '-:-l) gear with a towed 'bird', and one 7.62-mm/0,3 in Minigrun wlth 2,000 devices including APR-39 passive Performar.ce
4111*t :'---
----- t _
: .::::
: : -',-sron for two Mk 44 torpedoes, The rounds, or one 7,62-mm/0,3-in EX-34 radar warninq. This model can carry 611ru1- -: -: -: --
ilcdel 500MD Defender has the more Chain Gun with 2,000 rounds, or one two Stinger air-to-air missiles, indrcat- mrles)
: -'.';erirl Allison 250-C208 engine and 3O-mm Chain Gun with 600 rounds, or ing the way in which the helicopter rs Weights:
r'] =:.;' j'.; :- . '-. -

- r-. :ave self-sealing tanks, inlet parti one 40-mm grrenadelauncher) and a becoming an air{o-air weapon, and \riuvv
An rrlF
:,= :-:er, IR-suppressinq exhausts, and sub-type (Model 500MD Quiet Adv- that the company is keeping more than (3,000 rb)
: ::.'.- role fits includrng seven seats, or anced Scout Defender) has the MMS abreast of developments with thrs clas- Dimensions: :i.:. :. .. r :-.
-'.: srretchers and two attendants, or (mast-mounted srght) for'hull-down' sic light helicopter. onF*
o.uJ llt /1e
LVr *tlt /a):- - :-
suweillance or missile gn:tdance, and
-..Lrs weapons, including the TOW
mr-:.::-:: li: -.. -
\4J - - ,.,
.-.:.-:ank missile and nose-mounted quiet-running features. The Model Specification 103/q Ln).
..;.-.: Lrcensed production proceeds 500MD/[OW Defender has four TOW Hughes Model 500MD Defender (546.0 sq ft)
=. 3:edaNardr (ltaly) and KAL
(South missiles, original deliveries having a Tlpe: multi-role combat helicopter
i.-::a), and the type is in worldwide stabilized nose sight The Model Accommodation: two Kenya is one of many cus!.=..::
:::'.':ce for trainingr, command and 500MD Defender II is an updated mul- Armament: options include Hughes 30- worldwide for the Hughes i - - ).!-
: - :.::cl, Iight attack, observation, logis- ti-role model now being delivered mm Chain Cun (firing rate reduced to Defender family. this exa=.=.:
,r s,rpport, troop transport and ASW. with quiet rotors (includinq a flve- 350 rounds per minute), four TOW mis- having a nose-mounted s g :. :
-:.: Model 500MD Scout Defender rs rather than four-blade main unit), siles and two Stinger MLMS AAMs installation to direct the hre :: ::::
',-.: rasrc armed versron (wtth a base- MMS, IR suppressron, FLIR (forward- Powerplant: one 420-shp (313-kW) TOW anti-tank guided m:s-.:.e-:

Helicopter gunships in Vietnam
Large Luftwaffe Focke-Achgelis Fa 223 transport helicop-
ters invariably had a hand-aimed machine-gun in theirglazed
nose, and in Korea many Sikorsky H-1 9s had seven tandem
rocket launch-tubes bolted on each side of the fuselage to
fire straight ahead. ln Algeria in 1 956-63 the French took the
concept of the armed tactical helicopter much further, de-
veloping in the harsh school of war new ways to use heli-
copters armed with machineguns, cannon, rockets and
wire-guided missiles. In 1957 Colonel Jay D. Vanderpool of
the US Army formed the first highly experimental American
platoon of armed helicopters, but it took five years for a
regular company to be formed. ln Vietnam in 1962 this
proved so useful in providing mobile firepower that it won
over the doubters. Spuned by the vision of Lieutenant
General Hamilton Howze, US Army, the concept of a heli-
copter built solely to carry armament gradually matured in
1962-3. ln the latter year Bell privateiy built the small Model
207 Sioux Scout, a streamlined Bell 47 with a chin turret,
and this led quickly to the machine the USA had been
waiting for. the Model 209 HueyCobra. The first of these
flew as a company-financed prototype in September 1 965,
and it mated the wide-blade 'door hinge' rotor of the UH-1C
Huey with a new slim f uselage just wide enough fortandem
cockpits for a co-pilot/gunner in the nose and a pilot at a
higher level behind the gunner, This was the first effective
gunship, designed to fly like a fixed-wing fighter whilst
carrying sensors, aiming systems and a variety of weapons
either aimed from a chin turret or fired from stub wings on
each side.
Production of this AH-1 G was immediately put in hand on
the largest possible scale, and in Vietnam the type multi-
plied the effectiveness of a wide range of missions. The US Above : UH - I B H uey in action in
Army got the AH-1 only after a bitter political battle with the South V ietnam. fitted with two
I t is
USAF, which claimed a monopoly of tactical combat air- seven-tube rocket launchers, and
craft. ln fact the USAF had never been able to provide a four 7.6 2 -mm M 60 machine-guns
single such aircraft tailored to the tasks of escorting troop- are fked to fire forwards. Here
carrying helicopters or keeping enemy heads down as such another M60 is aimed to the rear.
machines were arriving at an LZ (landing zone). Later AH-1
helicopters received powerful anti-armour weapons, but Right: Looking ahead from aBell
early examples had armament for use against infantry. The tJH - I B I roquois (62- I 25 I 5 ),
Emerson TAT-102 chin turret was fitted with an M134 operated by Detachment7 of
rapid-fire Minigun, and various guns including M134s could Ligh t H elico p t er Attack S quadron
be bolted on the sides. By 1968 the usual chin turret was 3, IJ S N avy. A firing run is being
Emerson's M28 with two weapon positions either of which made on aVietCong samPan.
could be occupied by an M134 with 4,000 rounds or an
M129 launcher with 300 grenades of 40-mm (1.57-in) Below : The U H - I D offered much
calibre. Side arms included many rocket pods, cannon pods gr e ater c abin volum e than
ard special launchers. previous Huey versions, with
ln the final four years of the Vietnam war (1968-72) the room for up to 14 trooPs. Here the
jnd battles saw important use of three types of USA heli- large side door is slid aft tor
.oDter, the UH-1 'Huey', the AH-1 Cobra (called the aimed fire with M60s.
S.ake'), and the Hughes OH-6A Cayuse (called the 'Loach'
"om its original designatlon LOH). All operated together.
lach US Army division usually had an 'air cavalry' troop
rade up of a 1 st Platoon (Aero Scouts) whose Snakes and
-oaches would carefully reconnoitre the country around a
-ostile ground force and mark a chosen LZ, a 2nd Platoon
-rft) with Hueys for transport of troops and supplies, a 3rd
= atoon {Weapons) with Cobras, and a 4th Platoon
-eaning Aero Rifle Platoon) bringing infantry with Hueys.
I re. 600,000 hours were flown by the Cobras, Loaches and
proximity to the enemy,
='ev; armed Hueys in the closest
r, antl-aircraft capabilities increased all the time. The
: :se team of Cobras (Snakes) and Loaches used seven
::-munications radios. laser beams, 14 coloured
:,'::echnics. air-dropped radio beacons and special sen-
s:'s ^ lherr unprecedented tasks within a few metres of
-:s: e troops Constant agilitywasvital. and the likelihood
-' :3<,^g strikes from ground fire on each mission often
: '::3oed 60 per cent. Casualties were inevitably heavy, but
a- a*azt.g number of Cobra crews were recovered. Cap-
-. - --gi. Mills flew 3,300 hours in 1,019 combat Snake
-:::^s. in the course of which he was shot down 16
- -=:
- :e(ainly a record for any helicopter pilot.
: . '?-: SMASH {Southeast Asia Multi-sensor Arma-
-:-- !.s::- for HueyCobra) was in action, with high-
-:r: -::- -::a, with MTI imoving-target indlcation) and
:':.. .: : -::a ver to give superior vision at night or in
::,:-.: r,:::-3r SMASH Snakes operatedwith groups of
::-:--: ,s -r -,3h-intensity Xenon searchlights, batteries of
-::. -i:: 3--3C landing lights and Starlight Scopes (image
-:=-s'=-s 3'' Julv 1972 kills were being registered with
:^: -ar, -C,r, - ssile.
Above: One ofthe numerous UH- lB Hueys builtfor
:he US Army but transferred to the Navy in South
iaslAsia. This model has the short cabin and
singleTS3 engine.

.:-bove: Many of the early AH- I G HueyCobra Above:A7.62-mm (0.3-in)Browning is the gur
;unship helicopters inVietnam were painted with being used by a gunner through the open doon"'e
-:.:ark's teefh. This example may have been fitted of a UH-ID inVietnam. Such defence-suppressrc.:
:th a replacement M28 chin turret, because the fire was a necessary preliminary to the delive4' c:
: ;rret was usually painted red. troops in dispufed areas.

+' €,'::':'
:1i;.;,. .:

-- *.-3 i
F .{'
",,.diib -"*
P%. ?;-
"ilr: ffiw

l; f{r
ffi- Hughes AH-64 Apache

-i-3 to meet the US

(Advanced a: AAH
-: ',:, r::r'
---=-.: the Hughes AH-
::-:. : =:-' = a=-- rrmpetrtor which had
: :ri:: :..: :radrtronal cobla
rr r... '::.::- -: seatlng the pllot above
-: :-:..:. j ::.= co-prloL/gtunner, an
:.. -rlarred by Huohes
:' r .. -: r. r - )+ 'wo T700 engines
. . .

r'.::--r :- :r:','Lde hrgh emergency

: . : .'. .:. -arge IF 'suppressing
.. : .
. r -: --.'-: =:rs ic reduce the chances
: ..-- ;-'.'.:. -i.-:romrngmissrle, alarge The Hughes AH-64 Apache, certainly the most expensive vehicle ever proposed for use in a land battle.
:' :,.r.:= r:.:.rcy wrth boron armour,
..'-'-::-:.r :::rnless steel and glass- and the nose carrres the Martin Manet- rather than above the rotor, as thrs Performance: maximum speed (at
:-:: : -::laCes designed to with- ta TADSiPNVS (Target Acqursitron means the type has to leave cover to 6316 ks/13,925 lb) 309 km/h (192 mph);
.. - :.::.: :,:ts extremely compre- and Designatlon SrghvPilot's Night VL- acqurre targets, and is thus very ranqe (rnternal fuel) 6ll km (380
:.,-:. : :'.'.,rr3S and weapon flts, and sron System). New mrssiles have be- vulnerable miles), and (ferry) 1B04km (1,121
..r:.:i, -.: :r:sh reststant features to come available, and as well as laser miles)
r':: .:.: ::ew Allthesefeaturesare designation and rangrng an IHADSS Specification Weights: empty 4657k9 (10,268 1b);
'... .:. . ::rbat hehcopter designed (lntegrated Helmet And Drsplay Stght- Hughes AH-64A Apache maximum take-off 8006 kq (17,650 lb)
. --r:r :.(: lhe most arduous of bat- ing System) is fitted both crew mem- Type: armed battlefreld helLcopter Dimensions: main rotor diameter
--=,,: :,.:s by day and mght, and bers beinq able to acqurre targets by Accommodation: pilot and co-piloV 14.63m (4Bft 0in); fuselage length
-.. i=r ::e most adverse of weath-
-:. head movement The type ls due to gunner 14 97 m (49ft Ir/z in); height 4.22 m
:- :.r.'--:-s Developmentwasunfor- enter service late rn l9B3 and pro- Armament: one 30-mm Hughes Chain (13 ft10 rn); main rotor disc area
-: .'=..- :::l:nqred the flrst prototype curement has already been sent back Gun with I,200 rounds and remote arm- 168.11 'z (1,809 5 sq ft)
': : .:. :- September 1975 and the to 446 units. There can be little doubt ing; four stub-wing hardpoints for nor-
,.r:r:r.:--= beLng hard hrt by mod- as to the technrcal excellency and ing- mal antr-armour load of l6 Hellfire mis Air Vehicle 0 6, last of the
r , - ,-, : - :nat rnflation has multrplled enuity represented by the AH-64A siles (initially with laser quidance); deve lopment pr ototy pe s, hovering
:,:,:: :nd not all the planned 536
=-r:.:: Apache, but even the most enthuslas- other Ioads can rnclude four l8-round practically at ground level. The AH-
: r.ay be funded Appearance tic supporter of the type must have pods of 2.75-in (70-mm) rockets 64 is the most sophisticated of all
. .: :- j j:amatLcally during develop- grave reservattons about the location Powerplant: two 1,536-shp (1 146-kW) battlefield helicopters, and probably
-: - of the sensor package rn the nose General Electric T700-700 h.rrboshafts
=,.:e:tally at the nose and tall, the most survivable.

q il+,
f ,r'i l-

,i"t ,

'5 t' .: t
\il ' ., ,,',7 t -t
t: *\n
Armed Forces of the World

- 1951 the Americans approved the forma-
: cn in Japan of the National Police Reserve,
-ainly for internal security duties, so allowlng
-merican occupational troops in Japan to be
sent to South Korea. This new force was soon
-:named the National Safety Force and was
:ren merged with the Maritime Safety Fo_rce,
:nd this ih tgS+ became the Japanese Self-
Jefense Forces. ln the 1950s much of the
:quipment came from the USA, but in the
the Japanese started to design and de-
. elop systems to meet their own specialized
'equirements and today most equipment is
cullt in Japan. ln the case of high-technology
equipment such as aircraft (for example the
'u4cDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle and the Lock-
^eed P-3C Orion), this is licence-produced
-ainly from the USA.
The army
-ne Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force
.iGSDF) has a strength of about 150,000 men
and is organized into one armoured and 12
rfantry divisions, plus five engineer, one sig-
'al, one airborne, two composite, one artillery
and two air-defence brigades. 57-mm, 75-mrr a.:'le -'- 'ires.
^c lding Jeep-
Over 850 tanks are in service, including the mounted) stanor'J -:. - ::s
rdigenously designed and built Type 61 with a Air defence o' :-: - lSl= -2 s Provided bY
90-mm gun and the Type 74 with a 105-mm obsolete M42 :--^'" .^) 7-mm self-
qun (this latter type will remain in production propelled ant -: ':':': ;-^s SPAAGs), im-
rntil the late 1980s). APCs include the older proved rrAV\r =': =.:=.= S-Ms, Oerlikon
type SU-60 and about 150 of the more recent iwin 35-n^r -*- -- '." -5 .rm M51 and
Type 73. Artillery includes 105-mm M101, 90-mm M' : '-: - ':raf t guns. The
155-mm M114 and 203-mm M115 towed Japanese-de. )^.. .^ SAN'l s expected to position. A second truck carr es s

howitzers and a few 155-mm M59'Long Tom' enter ser\'a: - :-: ^eai f;t;re, while the rockets, each with a range c'
guns, all of which date from World War ll. American C=-:': -:, nar cs Stinger man- (30,600 yards).
Self-propelled artillery includes 10 'l 55-mm portable S-'.' - :' :: -ade under licence as a The JGSDF also operates a r:., -, - ---'
M44, 30 'l 55-mm M52, 20 105-mm TYPe 7 4 replacer=-: '-'-.'= .:e'Fedeye. To replace craft and helicopters. The {orrre' '- ,.=
(no longer in production) and over 50 155-mm tne Mz12 ---^-* Sr:-C a new twin 35-mm Mitsubishi LR-1 , Fuji LM-1 ard J:.--= :,
Type 75 (currently in production) self- svste- : . -'-=': . 3: r'g Ceveloped under the Bird Dog, which lastwas bl lt ^ -:::- :.
propelled howitzers. Japan is expected to desiq-;: -' . -= - 'A, -\ prodlction systems asthe L-19. Helicopters includet-= f : --
undertake licensed production of the Euro- w,ll ls+ r-: .r= -J V3T cnassis. HueyCobra (to be built under ce-
pean 155-mm FH-70 and the American 203- Japa-es= -'ar'!ry r/eapons include the old 107 (Boeing Vertol made under c:-,=
mm M 1 0A2 self-propelled howitzers. Also in
Arne.::i , -: n (11.43 mm) M3A'l sub- 160 UH-'1 B/UH-lH lroquo's uI t, -
service are some 50 Type 75 multiple rocket- n ac. re c-^ ine 7.62-mm (0.3-in) Type 64 (now being produced under ce'::
launcher systems. ll e.I -62-:--,0.3 in) Type 62 and Browning numbers of the Hughes TH-55 .
Huqhes TH-55
Anti-tank defence is provided by about 250 O 5- r 2 i--:^nt M2 HB machine-guns; the Huqhes C --:
H-'1 3s and some 150 of Hughes

Type 60 self-propelled equipments armed 60-r-- \i", 81-mm M1, 8'l -mm TYPe 64 and series which are produced f or t- = ^-
with twin 106-mm recoilless rifles; Type 64, 'ai',r:- '4.2:tn) M30 mortars. The 81 -mm for civil operators by Kawasa<
Type 75 and Hughes TOW ATGWs; the Swed- rcrtar s a so mounted in the Type 60 APC
ish 84-mm Carl Gustav light anti-tank weapon J.der tne designation Type SV 60 self- The air force
(now being made under licence in Japa.); and prope led moTtar carrier, while the 107-mm The Japanese Air Self-Def e-s= -' -
mortar is mounted in a similar vehicle desig- has a strength of 45,000 me^ :- I -:
nated Type SX 60. 300 combat aircraf t organ:ze: -
TheTTpe 61 Main BattleTankwas the first post- The JGSDF also has the Type 67 Model 30 airwings, one composite a' l . : -- .'
warJapanese tank, and served from 1962 (560
rocket-launcher in service. This is fitted to the reconnaissance squadron, \'! i :- - ::':
p roduced). M ain amamen t was a J apanes e -
rear of a Hino (6x6) 4{onne truck chassis, and McDonnell Douglas RF-4: tr-.-:-
developed 90-mm rifled gun. The.Tlpe 6 ) is now
being steadily replaced by the Type 74. carries two rockets in the ready-to-launch three fighter/ground-attac< s I -: --l' .

equipped with the Mitsrb s- =-.

version of this being tr: - i -:

defence squadrons are ec-:::l

4EJ built under licence ir -zcz- -

A'Yuushio'-classpafrolsubm artr.e .: ::.. .

Maritime Selt-Defense Force. J apa:. .;.:.

locally-built conventional subrna: ::.. s .'. .
further boats on order.
Armed Forces of the World Japan -

The Japanese Air Self-Defense Force operates the

Lockheed F- I04J single-seater in the interceptor
role, and also the F-|14DJ trainer. Both are
assembled by Mifsubr'shi.

ron). There are also three transport squadrons

which operate 30 Japanese-built Kawasaki C-
'I and 10 NAMC YS-1 1 transport aircraft, one
search-and-rescue wing with a variety of f ixed-
wing aircraft and helicopters, plus the usual
trials, weather-reconnaissance and training
units. New equipment on order includes four
Lockheed C-130H Hercules transport aircraft,
more F-l fighters andT-2 trainers, Grumman
E-2C Hawkeye airborne early-warning aircraft
(which should prove a valuable asset in
countering Soviet aircraft in the Far East) and
additional F-15J fighters and F-1 SDJ trainers.

The navy
The Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force
(JMSDF) has a personnel strength of 45,000
including a very important naval air arm of
some 4,000. Major surface ships include 33

destroyers, 6 f rigates, f ive large patrol craft,

The Shin Meiwa US- I is an amphibious adaptation Order of Battle
over 1 0 coastal patrol craft, five fast attack of the PS- I flying-boat, configared for search and
Ground Self-Defense Force
craft, almost 40 mine-warfare vessels includ- rescue duties with theJMSDF. Eight aircraft were
ordered, serving with N o. 7 I S AR S qn o{ the J M SDF. One armoured division
ing three MCM support ships, over 40 amphi- 12 infantry divisions
bious warfare craft including six tank landing One airborne brigade
ships, and the usual support vessels. There Two composite brigades
are 14 conventional submarines in service and craft to provide protection against anti- -wo a,r defence artillery br;gbdes
another three on order. Many of the des- shipping missiles. One artillery brigade
troyers and frigates are equipped with the The naval air arm includes seven maritime Five engineer brigades
One signals brigade
American ASROC anti-submarine warfare sys- reconnaissance squadrons with almost 68 Eight SAM groups
tem and carry a helicopter for ASW. Missiles Kawasaki P-2J Neptune and 21 Grumman One helicopter wing (Kawasaki KV-10711)
fitted to the warships include the Sea Sparrow S-2F-1 Tracker landplanes, and 'l 9 Shin Meiwa 24 squadrons of aircraft and helicopters (Hughes
and Standard SAMs and the Harpoon surface- PS-'l flying-boats. There are six ASW helicop- OH-6, Bell/Fuli UH-1 B/H, Mitsubishi LR-1)
to-surface missile. The Amerlcan General ter squadrons equipped with some 50 Mitsu- Air Self-Defense Force
Dynamics Phalanx 20-mm close-in weapon bishi-built SH-3 series helicopters, one mine- Three FGA squadrons (Mitsubishi F-1)
system is being fitted to a number of surface countermeasures squadron with seven Kawa- 1'1 interceptor squadrons (F-4EJ Phantom, F-104J
saki-built Boeing Vertol KV-107 helicopters, Starfighter, F-1 5J Eagle)
plus transport, training, test and evaluation, One reconnaissance squadron (RF-4EJ Phantom)
and search-and-rescue flights equipped with a Three transport squadrons (Kawasaki C-1A, NAMC
The anti-submarine destroyer Asakaze r's unlrke YS-1 C/E)
earlierJapanese destroyers in that she has an up- variety of fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. 1
One search and rescue wing (Shin Meiwa US-1)
to-datemrssi/e-based air defence in addition to There is no national service in Japan and One air test wino
p ote n t an ti- su bm a r ine we a pon ry. service is voluntary. For some years the USA One weather grdup
has been putting increasing pressure on Japan Five training wings with 10 squadrons (Fuii T-1A,
to increase spending on defence, which repre- Mitsubishi T-2A, Fuji T-3 etc)
sents only 0.9 per cent of the gross national '19 SAM squadrons
product. This compares with 6.1 per cent for Maritime Self-Defense Force
the United States, 4.3 per cent for West Ger- 49 destroyers and frigates
many and 3 per cent for Australia (all based on 20 patrol craft include five large and five fast attac<
1981 figures). Japan spends less of her GNP craft
on defence than any other country in NATO, 40 mine warfare vessels
Europe and the Far East. Many of the systems 40 plus amphibious warfare craft. including six LS-s
used by the Japanese armed forces are built in 14 submarines with three more on order
Seven MR squadrons with more than 100 aircra':
very small numbers and are therefore very (including P-2J Neptunes, S-2F-1 Trackers, Sh:
expensive; and it is Japanese government Meiwa flying-boats Lockheed P-3C Orions)
policy to build equipment in Japan rather than Six ASW helicopter squadrons with 50 SH-3s
to obtain it from abroad. One MCM helicopter squadron with seven KV-10-s