VMware Infrastructure 3 Quick Evaluator’s Guide

Transform IT Infrastructure with Enterprise-Class Virtualization

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VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

Table of Contents
1 2 3 Getting Started .................................................................................................................................- 2 Evaluation Planning and Environment Setup ...................................................................................- 4 VMware Infrastructure Evaluation Setup ..........................................................................................- 7 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 Install the VirtualCenter Server and the VI Client ....................................................................- 7 Install VMware ESX Server 3 ................................................................................................- 14 Configure an ESX Server 3i server .......................................................................................- 20 -

Building the Virtual Datacenter .......................................................................................................- 22 4.1 4.2 4.3 Starting the VI Client and Logging On ...................................................................................- 22 Creating a Datacenter............................................................................................................- 22 Bringing Hosts Under VirtualCenter Management ................................................................- 23 -

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Creating Virtual Machines ..............................................................................................................- 26 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 39 Creating Virtual Machines by Importing Virtual Appliances (Import) .....................................- 26 Creating Virtual Machines from Scratch (Create New) .........................................................- 29 Creating Virtual Machines from Existing Physical Servers ....................................................- 35 Creating Virtual Machines from Existing Virtual Machines (Clone) .......................................- 36 Creating Templates and Deploying Virtual Machines from Templates (Deploy from Template) . -

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Managing Virtual Machines ............................................................................................................- 41 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Managing Virtual Machines States ........................................................................................- 41 Edit Virtual Machine Settings and Add Virtual Machine Hardware Devices..........................- 41 Configure Network Connections ............................................................................................- 42 Configure Resource Pools on a Standalone Host .................................................................- 44 Schedule Tasks, View Events and Set Alarms......................................................................- 47 Monitor the Virtual Infrastructure ...........................................................................................- 48 -

7 8 9

Evaluate Specific Application Workloads within a VMware Virtual Machine..................................- 51 Next Steps ......................................................................................................................................- 52 About VMware ................................................................................................................................- 52 -

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VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

1 Getting Started
About this Guide
The document is intended to facilitate a self-guided, hands-on evaluation of VMware Infrastructure 3, consisting of VirtualCenter 2.5 managing one or more physical servers with ESX Server 3.5 and ESX Server 3i version 3.5 in a local storage environment i.e. the physical servers have storage such as SCSI or SATA disks attached to them. Once the supporting hardware and software is on hand, the suggested walk-through scenario will typically take a few days to complete depending on your evaluation objectives.

Conventions Used in this Guide
The following conventions are used in this guide. Style Blue Courier Bold Italic Elements Used for cross-references and links Used for commands, filenames, directories, paths, user input Used for interactive interface objects, keys, buttons and items of interest Used for variables, parameters and web addresses

Additional Documentation Resources
Although the material presented in this document can all be found on the VMware Web site, this evaluation guide attempts to consolidate the majority of the information into a single document to facilitate the evaluation process. For further information and specific installation / configuration steps that are beyond the scope of this guide, the guide will refer to documentation in the VMware Infrastructure 3 Online Library available at http://pubs.vmware.com/vi3 as needed. The reference format will be Book > Chapter > Section. The Contents tab in the left pane of the Online Library provides quick navigation to the referenced content.

Customer References
Over 20,000 VMware customers across all geographies and industries realize significant benefits from their VMware Infrastructure 3 deployments. Visit our website at http://www.vmware.com/customers/ to find out how virtualization makes IT infrastructure more manageable, flexible and reliable for a number of our customers.

VMware Infrastructure 3 Software Download and Evaluation Licensing
Before purchasing and activating licenses for your ESX Server 3.5 and VirtualCenter 2.5, you can install and run evaluation modes of the software. When run in evaluation mode, intended for demonstration and evaluation purposes, your ESX Server and VirtualCenter are completely operational immediately after installation, do not require any licensing configuration, and provide full functionality of ESX Server and VirtualCenter for 60 days from the time you first activate them. VMware Infrastructure 3 installation images can be downloaded from http://www.vmware.com/download/vi/eval.html and the ISO image files burned to CD-ROMs to support the installation. You will need to register as an evaluator with a valid email address to get the binaries. If you are using a physical server which has ESX Server 3i pre-installed on it for your evaluation, you may need to download VirtualCenter 2.5 from the above site.

VMware Help & Support During the Evaluation

VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

The best source for support during a VMware Infrastructure 3 evaluation is to refer to the VMware online Knowledge Base. The Knowledge Base contains hundreds of documented issues and typically offers workarounds or fixes that can help you resolve your issue quickly. This online Knowledge Base is searchable and covers all the products that VMware offers. The resources below are useful linksfor self-help tools and technical information: • • • • • • Support Knowledge Base – http://kb.vmware.com Product Information – http://www.vmware.com/products/ General Product Documentation – http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs Solution Information – http://www.vmware.com/solutions/ Technical Papers – http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/ VMware Communities – http://communities.vmware.com

For press and analysts performing a VMware Infrastructure review, please contact your VMware Press and Analyst Relations to request assistance. VMware press and analyst contact information is available at http://www.vmware.com/news/pr_contacts.html.

Providing Feedback
We appreciate your feedback on the material included in this guide. In particular, we would be grateful for any guidance on the following topics: How useful was the information in this guide? What other specific topics would you like to see covered? Overall, how would you rate this guide? Please send your feedback to the following e-mail address: docfeedback@vmware.com, with “VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide” in the subject line. Thank you for your help in making this guide a valuable resource.

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2 Evaluation Planning and Environment Setup
Quick Evaluation Scenario: This environment framework provides a quick path for demonstrating virtualization benefits such as server consolidation, flexibility and ease of provisioning with a single server and local storage. This evaluation scenario is recommended if you do not have access to shared storage for your evaluation. For more information on how to evaluate VMware Infrastructure 3 in a shared storage environment, please use the VMware Infrastructure 3 Comprehensive Evaluator’s guide at http://www.vmware.com/download/vi/eval.html

What to Expect – Quick Evaluation Scenario:

Figure 1: VMware Infrastructure Relationship View for the Quick Evaluation Figure 1 shows an overview of the example VMware Infrastructure datacenter deployment used in the quick evaluation. A single VirtualCenter Server with the default co-located VirtualCenter Server Database is managing a single ESX Server host using local disk storage. Users access and manage the environment through the VMware Infrastructure Client and the Web Access Client. The quick evaluation will walk you through setting up the evaluation environment and then creating and managing virtual machines to test server consolidation effectiveness and workload performance.

What You Need – Quick Evaluation Planning Worksheet
Below are tasks and reminders that should be completed before software installation. Supported server system for installing VMware ESX Server- See ESX Server 3.x Systems Compatibility Guide for a list of servers certified with ESX Server Server contains VMware certified I/O adapters and has at least one LAN-connected certified NIC. See the ESX Server 3.x I/O Compatibility Guide for a list of certified devices Server system and I/O components are at latest BIOS / Firmware Server has ample memory for virtual machine testing requirements (2GB minimum, preferably 3GB+) Server contains ample SCSI, IDE or SATA local storage for ESX Server installation and Virtual Machine storage (10GB minimum, 40GB recommended) A Windows workstation / server for the VirtualCenter Server is available with network visibility of the physical server that will have ESX Server installed. Note that to reduce the evaluation hardware required, the Virtual Infrastructure Client can be installed and run on the same system as the VirtualCenter Server. VirtualCenter can be installed onto 32-bit versions of Windows 2000 Pro SP4, Windows 2000 Server SP4, Windows XP Pro (any SP level) or Windows 2003. User has at least 2 IP addresses per physical server that is being virtualized. (VMware Infrastructure does support DHCP, but static addresses are generally simpler to manage)

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User has VMware install media These can be downloaded from

http://www.vmware.com/download/vi/eval.html
Or the user has the media available because ESX Server 3i is preinstalled on the server and VirtualCenter is available on a DVD.) User has all necessary operating system installation media, license keys and service packs to support operating system installations on virtual machines (For example, Windows 2003 Server with Service Packs) See Guest Operating System Installation Guide for a list of supported Operating Systems

Typical Quick Evaluation Timeline
This section outlines a test plan for evaluating VMware Infrastructure 3 environment quickly with servers connected to local storage. This timeline highlights the common tasks when setting up the VirtualCenter server, installing an ESX Server 3 host (or configuring an existing ESX Server 3i host), creating virtual machines and managing the ESX Server and the virtual machines from VirtualCenter. This list is to serve as a guideline only.

Evaluation Planning & Environment Setup

Timeline: Complete prior to software installation
Verify that your hardware meets the requirements in the VMware compatibility guides Confirm that target ESX Server and VirtualCenter Server systems have network connectivity Confirm that target ESX Server has access to a supported storage device Confirm access to installation media, documentation, web support forums, etc ESX Server & VirtualCenter Installation & Overview Timeline: Week 1: Day 1

Install VirtualCenter Server on the designated server
Install ESX Server 3 on the designated server host (or configure an existing ESX 3i host) Place ESX Server host under VirtualCenter management

Optionally install Virtual Infrastructure Client on other management workstations
Virtual Machine Functional Testing Timeline: Week 1 Import an existing virtual appliance Create a new virtual machine from scratch Install the virtual machine operating system using local media or operating system ISO image Power on the virtual machine and install VMware Tools in the virtual machine Configure and test basic network connectivity of a virtual machine Explore virtual machine management settings and virtual hardware options Clone an existing virtual machine to create a new one Exploring VirtualCenter Management Features Timeline: Week 2 Create a template from a virtual machine Deploy and customize the template as a new virtual machine Create a scheduled task Create an alert

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Use VMware Converter to export an existing virtual machine Application Functional & Load Testing Timeline: Week 3 Install target test applications in virtual machine Configure application settings in virtual machines per your standard process Application functional test: Application starts without errors and functions as it does on a physical server Simulate actual “real world” load on application in the virtual machine Monitor virtual machine performance with existing performance tools such as PerfMon Monitor virtual machine performance using VirtualCenter Have and end user test core functionality of applications in a virtual machine

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3 VMware Infrastructure Evaluation Setup

3.1 Install the VirtualCenter Server and the VI Client
The following steps provide a straightforward installation of the VirtualCenter Server software into a Windows environment. A single installer package contains the VirtualCenter Server and VI Client as well as other optional components such as VMware Update Manager, VMware Capacity Planner, VMware License Server and VMware Converter. You can install the VMware Infrastructure client and VirtualCenter server components separately or on the same Windows system. You can also repeat this installation to install just the VirtualCenter client on other computers for ease of access during the evaluation. This evaluation will use the default Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express database for demonstration and evaluation purposes. Note that for production environments, VMware recommends using an Oracle or SQL Server database for higher performance. To install the VirtualCenter Server and VI Client on your system: 1. As Administrator on the Windows system, insert the installation CD or manually select and run the installer. When the VMware Infrastructure Management Installer screen is displayed, click Next. An Introduction page appears. This page describes the benefits of installing VirtualCenter Server.

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2. Click Next. The license agreement appears. Select I accept the terms in the license agreement, and click Next.

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3.

The Customer Information page appears. Type your user name and company name, and click Next. The Installation Type page appears.

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Accept the default installation type VirtualCenter Server and Infrastructure Client to install all VirtualCenter components as well as the VI Client. Click Next. The database selection page appears.

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5. On the database selection page, leave the Use an existing database checkbox unselected. The VMware Infrastructure Management Installer will install Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express database for you to support the evaluation.

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On the License Server page, check the I would like to evaluate the product first check box to run VMware Infrastructure 3 in evaluation mode for 60 days.

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For the Administrator login and password, enter the username and password that you use when you log into the system on which you are installing VMware Infrastructure. Click Next. The Installation Summary page appears.

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8. Click Install to begin the installation. Installation might take several minutes. Multiple progress bars appear during installation of the selected components.

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9. For each component that you are installing, enter the port and proxy information that you want to use or accept the default information shown on screen. Click Next to continue through the screens.

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10. Click Finish to complete the VMware Infrastructure Management installation. The selected VirtualCenter components are installed on your system. The VirtualCenter Server is installed as a service that automatically starts on the system, and the VI client is an application with a shortcut available on the desktop. We will access the VirtualCenter environment via the VI Client once an ESX Server host is installed.

Note that the VI Client can additionally be installed from any Windows client. Simply open a Web browser and go to the URL for either the VirtualCenter Server or an ESX Server host. The VMware Infrastructure Client is available at this URL for download. Download and install the VMware Infrastructure Client. Also, note that all the clients and servers must be able to communicate over the network, so if firewalls are present between the VirtualCenter Server, managed ESX Server hosts and Virtual Infrastructure clients, ports will need to be opened to allow communication. Refer to the Installation Guide > Chapter 6 Installing VMware Infrastructure Management > Configuring Communication between VirtualCenter Components to configure firewall ports.

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If you plan to customize a Windows guest operating system following a virtual machine cloning or a deployment from a template, you must first install the Microsoft Sysprep tools on your VirtualCenter Server machine. Microsoft includes the Sysprep tool set on the installation CD ROM discs for Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows 2003. It also distributes Sysprep from the Microsoft Web site. To perform a Windows customization, you must install the Sysprep tools either from your installation disc, or from the Microsoft download package. You must install the correct version of the Sysprep tools for each operating system you want to customize. Also, ensure that the password for the local administrator account on the virtual machine is set to blank (““). If the password for the local administrator account on the virtual machine is not set to blank, you will have to access the virtual machine console and login as an administrator to enable the Sysprep to continue. During customization, VirtualCenter searches for the Sysprep package corresponding to your guest operating system. If VirtualCenter does not find any Sysprep tools, the Windows virtual machine customization does not proceed. To install the Microsoft Sysprep tools from a Microsoft Web site download: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Download the Sysprep package from the Microsoft download center. Make sure that you download the correct version for the guest operating system you want to customize. Click Next to continue. Click I agree to accept the terms and conditions. Click Download. Save the file to your local disk. Open and expand the .cab file, using a tool such as Winzip.exe or another tool capable of reading Microsoft CAB files. Extract the files to the provided directory. The following Sysprep support directories were created during VirtualCenter installation: C:\<ALLUSERSPROFILE>\Application Data\Vmware\VMware VirtualCenter\sysprep ...\1.1\ ...\2k\ ...\xp\ ...\svr2003\ ...\xp-64\ ...\svr2003-64\ where <ALLUSERSPROFILE> is usually \Documents And Settings\All Users\. This is where vpxd.cfg is also located. Select the subdirectory that corresponds to your operating system. 8. Click OK to expand the files. After you have extracted the files from the .cab file, you should see: ...\<guest>\deptool.chm ...\<guest>\readme.txt ...\<guest>\setupcl.exe ...\<guest>\setupmgr.exe ...\<guest>\setupmgx.dll ...\<guest>\sysprep.exe ...\<guest>\unattend.doc where <guest> is 2k, xp, svr2003, xp 64, or svr2003 64.

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To install the Microsoft Sysprep tools from the Windows operating system CD: 1. 2. 3. 4. Insert the Windows operating system CD into the CD ROM drive (often the D: drive.) Locate the DEPLOY.CAB file in the CD directory, \Support\Tools. Open and expand the DEPLOY.CAB file, using a tool such as Winzip.exe or another tool capable of reading Microsoft CAB files. Extract the files to the directory appropriate to your Sysprep guest operating system. The following Sysprep support directories were created during VirtualCenter installation: C:\<ALLUSERSPROFILE>\Application Data\Vmware\VMware VirtualCenter\sysprep ...\1.1\ ...\2k\ ...\xp\ ...\svr2003\ ...\xp-64\ ...\svr2003-64\ where <ALLUSERSPROFILE> is usually \Documents And Settings\All Users\. This is where vpxd.cfg is also located. Select the subdirectory that corresponds to your operating system. 5. Click OK to expand the files. After you have extracted the files from the .cab file, you should see: ...\<guest>\deptool.chm ...\<guest>\readme.txt ...\<guest>\setupcl.exe ...\<guest>\setupmgr.exe ...\<guest>\setupmgx.dll ...\<guest>\sysprep.exe ...\<guest>\unattend.doc where <guest> is 2k, xp, svr2003, xp 64, or svr2003 64. 6. Repeat this procedure to extract Sysprep files for each of the Windows guest operating systems (Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows 2003) you plan to customize using VirtualCenter.

You are now ready to customize a new virtual machine with a supported Windows guest operating system when you clone an existing virtual machine.

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3.2 Install VMware ESX Server 3
This section describes how to install the ESX Server software on your server machine using the graphical installer. Note that when installing ESX Server on IDE/ATA or SATA drives, keep in mind the following considerations. • For IDE/ATA RAID: Make sure that your controller for an IDE/ATA RAID is included in the supported hardware. Do not use IDE/ATA RAIDs to store virtual machines. Virtual machines must be stored on VMFS partitions configured on a SCSI or SATA drive, a SCSI RAID, or a SAN. VMFS refers to the VMware file system used by ESX Server. For SATA drives: Ensure that your SATA drives are connected through supported SAS controllers. Do not use SATA disks to create VMFS datastores shared across multiple ESX Server hosts.

To install ESX Server: 1. Verify the network cable is plugged into your primary Ethernet adapter. The ESX Server installer needs a live network connection to properly detect certain network settings, such as the machine name under DHCP. Also, if the ESX Server is connected to a SAN, VMware recommends temporarily disconnecting the ESX Server from the SAN prior to installation to avoid the risk of accidentally overwriting the data on a shared LUN. Power on the machine with the VMware ESX Server CD in the CD drive. The ESX Server begins its boot process until the mode selection page appears. If this page does not appear, reboot the machine and press the key required to enter your machine’s BIOS Setup page. This key is often F1, F2, or F10. Set the CD drive as the first boot device and reboot the machine. Press Enter to start the graphical installer. A series of installation messages scroll past until the CD Media Test page appears.

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Click Test to have the installer inspect the installation CD media for errors. If you click Skip, continue now with Step 5. If you click Test, a progress bar appears. The CD media is being tested for errors. When testing is complete, a Media Check Result dialog box appears. Click OK. The Welcome page appears. Click Next.

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5. The Select Keyboard page appears. Select your keyboard language from the list, and click Next.

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6.

The Mouse Configuration page appears. Select your mouse. Mouse configuration is not a critical setting. After ESX Server is installed, the setting is ignored. The X Window System is not supported from the service console. When you have selected your mouse, click Next.

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Accept the VMware license agreement. You cannot install this product unless you accept the license agreement. Read through the end user license agreement and select I accept the terms of the license agreement. Click Next. If any drives or LUNs are not already initialized, a warning dialog box appears and offers to initialize the drive. If you do not have data on the drive, click OK to allow partitioning to occur. You must initialize the target installation drive to use it during installation. You do not need to initialize any other drives or LUNs that are currently unreadable.

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8. Accept Recommended as the partitioning option. This option configures default partitions for you, based on the capacity of the hard drive. Select the local volume on which to install the ESX Server software. If you want to preserve any existing VMFS partitions with existing virtual machines, select Keep virtual machines and the VMFS that contains them. This usually applies only if you are installing on top of a previous version of ESX Server.

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9.

WARNING - This is your last opportunity to cancel and return to your previous configuration. When you click Next, the installer begins partitioning and formatting the file system. A warning dialog box appears. Click Yes to continue with your partitioning selection.

10. The installer will display the recommended partitioning for your review. You do not need to change anything on this page. To continue, click Next.

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11. Accept the default to boot the ESX Server from a drive (install on the MBR of the drive). Verify that the same local volume you selected on the Partitioning Options screen is selected in the dropdown menu of the radio button. If your local volume is not selected, select to edit the bootloader configuration and select the correct drive. This drive must match the first boot device set in the host BIOS. If these settings do not match, the host cannot boot into the ESX Server software. Booting from a partition is used for legacy hardware that stores BIOS information in the MBR. Click Next to continue the installation.

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12. Configure the network settings. a. Select the network interface for use by the ESX Server console. Virtual machine network traffic shares this network adapter until you configure a virtual switch for another network adapter. You can configure other network adapters at a later time from the VI Client. Configure the ESX Server host network IP address. VMware recommends that you use a static IP address to simplify client access. If you do not have the required network configuration information, see your network administrator for assistance. Enter the ESX Server host name. Type the complete machine name, including the domain where appropriate. This option is available only if you have opted to use a static IP address. VI Clients can use either the host name or the IP address to access the ESX Server host. If your network requires a VLAN ID, enter a VLAN ID. Keep Create a default network for virtual machines selected to create a default port group for virtual machines. Your virtual machines will share a network adapter with the service console, which is fine for an evaluation purposes but not the recommended configuration for optimum security. If you do not select this option, create a network connection for your virtual machines as described in the Server Configuration Guide. Click Next.

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13. Set your time zone. Click Next.

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14. Enter a root password. Type the same password into both fields and click Next. The root password must contain at least six characters. A warning appears if the passwords do not match.

15. Confirm your installation configuration, and click Next.

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16. Progress bars appear to show the status of the installation, and a dialog box informs you when the installation completes.

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17. Click Finish to exit.

18. Once the installation is complete, the server will restart and boot ESX Server automatically. If your ESX Server is shut down, you must manually restart it. To shutdown or reboot an ESX Server, select the ESX Server in the Virtual Infrastructure Client’s inventory panel and choose Reboot or Shut Down from the main or right-click pop-up menu. Refer to the Installation Guide > Chapter 7 Installing VMware ESX Server Software if needed for more information on installing ESX Server.

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3.3 Configure an ESX Server 3i server
An ESX Server 3i host is a physical server that contains an ESX Server image preinstalled as firmware in the factory. By attaching a monitor to the host, you can access the direct console for initial configuration and troubleshooting of the ESX Server software. When you power on the ESX Server 3i host for the first time, the host enters a boot up phase during which system network and storage devices are configured with defaults. The default behavior for networking is for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to configure IP. The default behavior for storage is for all visible blank local disks to be formatted with the virtual machine file system (VMFS) so that virtual machines can be stored on the disks. After the host completes the boot up phase, the direct console appears on the attached monitor. Using a keyboard attached to the host, you can examine the default network configuration applied during the boot up phase and change any settings as needed. If you initially boot the ESX Server 3i host with no network attached or no DHCP server available, the software assigns a default IP address of 192.168.0.2. If this is the case, you can use this default address to connect initially and then configure a static network address. If you are not local to the host, you can use the VI Client to configure static IP settings. If you are local to the host, you can use the direct console to configure static IP settings, including the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.

Selecting the Boot Device for ESX Server 3i
The basic input/output system (BIOS) boot configuration determines which mode your server boots into. You always have the choice to boot into ESX Server 3i mode or into another mode. For ESX Server 3i, the boot device is the USB flash. Generally, the USB flash device is listed first in the BIOS boot settings on the machine that hosts ESX Server 3i. The ability to change the boot setting is helpful if you have other supported operating systems on the host. You can change the boot setting by configuring the boot order in the BIOS during startup or by selecting a boot device from the boot option menu. Some ESX Server 3i hosts might not be preconfigured in the BIOS to boot into ESX Server 3i mode. To configure the boot setting for ESX Server 3i mode, press the key required to enter your host’s BIOS Setup page while the ESX Server 3i host is powering on. Depending on your server hardware, the key might be <F1>, <F2>, <F10>, <F11>, <F12>, or DEL. Select the USB flash device and move it to the first position in the list.

Configuring ESX Server 3i using the Direct Console
We recommend powering on the host with no network cables connected to initially configure the server. You can then use the direct console to configure the administrative password and configure a static IP address. The direct console is similar to the BIOS of a computer interface with a keyboard-only user interface. To navigate and perform actions in the direct console, press the directional arrows, Enter key, and spacebar. 1. 2. Boot the ESX Server 3i with only a keyboard and monitor connected to access the direct console. Press <F2> to access the initial setup menu. To set an administrative password, select Configure Root Password from the direct console and enter the new password. The administrative username for the ESX Server 3i host is root. By default, the administrative password is null, meaning there is no administrative password. To configure static IP settings, select Configure Management Network and then IP Configuration to update the IP Address, Subnet Mask and Default Gateway values. To configure DNS settings, select Configure Management Network and DNS Configuration to specify the Primary Server, Alternate Server and Hostname. Connect a network cable to the host and use the direct console to perform some simple network connectivity tests. Select Test Management Network and press Enter to start the test. The ESX Server 3i host pings the default gateway, the primary DNS nameserver, the secondary DNS nameserver and then resolves the DNS host name to test your network configuration.

3. 4. 5.

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Once the networking is successfully configured, you will be able to connect to the host remotely using the VI Client.

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4 Building the Virtual Datacenter
4.1 Starting the VI Client and Logging On
The VI Client is the interface to VirtualCenter Server and hosts. That is, you can connect to and manage the VirtualCenter Server with the VI Client, and you can also connect to individual hosts with the VI Client. The interface displays different options depending on which type of server you are connected to. If you are connected to VirtualCenter Server, you can manage the VirtualCenter Server as well as all of the hosts and virtual machines being managed by it. If you are connected to an individual host, the VirtualCenter Server options do not display. Connect to your host through VirtualCenter to have an aggregated datacenter-level view of multiple ESX Server hosts. When you manage your ESX Server hosts through VirtualCenter Server, the users who can log on to the VirtualCenter Server are users in the Windows domain. When you first log on to the VirtualCenter Server, all users in the Windows Administrators group are assigned VirtualCenter Administrator privileges by default. You, as a VirtualCenter Administrator, need to explicitly grant permissions for all other VirtualCenter users and user groups. To start the VI Client and log on: 1. 2. 3. To launch the VI Client, double click a shortcut, or choose the application through Start>Programs>VMware>VMware Infrastructure Client. The VI Client logon dialog box appears. Type the host name or IP address of the VirtualCenter server you previously installed. To log on to a VirtualCenter Server, enter an appropriate Windows domain user name and password. If this is the first time you are logging on, log on as Windows Administrator so you can set permissions for other users. If you want to later log in to an individual ESX Server host, enter a user name that will be accepted by this host. If this is the first time you are logging on to an ESX Server, log on as root. For the purposes of this evaluation, you only need to log into the VirtualCenter server. Click Log In.

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4.2 Creating a Datacenter
If you are loggin in for the first time, the VI Client opens to the Getting Started tab with no ESX Server hosts under management. The Getting Started tab is designed to provide new users with background information and suggestions for next steps. Experienced users can select to close the tab if desired to simplify the user interface. The next step is to create a datacenter and bring one or more ESX Server hosts under VirtualCenter management. You can then create virtual machines and determine how you want to organize virtual machines and manage resources. Datacenters serve as containers for your hosts,

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virtual machines, resource pools, and clusters. Use datacenters to create organizational structures so that you can dedicate virtual configurations to specific departments, build isolated virtual environments for testing, or otherwise organize your environment. To create a datacenter: 1. Click Inventory in the navigation bar to display the inventory panel. Right click the Hosts & Clusters folder icon in the inventory panel, and choose New Datacenter from the pop up menu. A datacenter icon is added to the inventory. Type a name for your datacenter such as Eval Datacenter. If you want to further subdivide the datacenter, you can create folders and folder hierarchies for specific host or resource groups. The method for creating folders is similar to the method you used to create your datacenter—just choose New Folder instead of New Datacenter.

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4.3 Bringing Hosts Under VirtualCenter Management
ESX Server hosts serve as the virtualization platform for the virtual machines you create. Hosts provide the CPU and memory resources to your virtual machines, give virtual machines access to storage, and offer network connectivity. You manage your hosts through the VI Client, connected either directly to each individual host, or indirectly to a group of hosts through a connection to a VirtualCenter Server. When you use the VI Client to connect to your ESX Server hosts directly, you manage each of them individually as a standalone host. When you access your host through the VirtualCenter connection, you register each host with VirtualCenter to manage the entire infrastructure of your hosts as a group. To add a host to the inventory: 1. 2. Click Inventory in the navigation bar to display the inventory panel. Right click the datacenter you just created, and choose Add Host. The Add Host Wizard appears. Type the Host Name of the host on the Connection Settings page. Note that ESX Server or ESX Server 3i must be installed on the machine you wish to add to VirtualCenter. Type root in the Username field, and type the root password in the Password field.

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5. Click Next, and review the information on the Host Summary page. Click Next again.

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6.

Accept the default to not Enable Lockdown Mode on the host. Click Next to continue.

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Select a datacenter or a folder from the Virtual Machines and Templates inventory as the location of the host’s virtual machines. Click Next.

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8. Review the information on the final page of the Add Host Wizard, and click Finish.

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After you close the wizard, VirtualCenter Server performs the following: • • • Searches the network for the host and determines whether the host has any virtual machines. Connects the host. If the wizard can’t connect the host, it doesn’t add the host to the inventory. Verifies that the host is not already being managed by another datacenter. If so, VirtualCenter displays a message. If VirtualCenter can connect to the host but for some reason cannot maintain the connection, the host is added in a disconnected state. This occurs, for example, if the host is already being managed by another VirtualCenter Server. Reads the number of processors on the host and allocates the appropriate number of licenses. The number of processors is stored in the VirtualCenter database and is verified during each host reconnection and VirtualCenter startup. Verifies that the host version is supported. If not, VirtualCenter checks to see if the host can be upgraded to a supported version. If the host can be upgraded, the VI Client prompts you to perform an upgrade. After this sequence completes successfully, the host appears in the VI Client inventory panel.

9.

Once the host is added to the datacenter, it is available to support virtual machines. Next, we will import a virtual appliance and create a virtual machine from scratch.

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5 Creating Virtual Machines
The VI Client provides several ways to create virtual machines: • • • • • Import – You can import previously created virtual machines such as virtual appliances Create New – You can manually configure entirely new virtual machines. Convert physical machines to virtual – You can convert existing physical Windows-based machines to virtual machines using the “convert” functionality in VirtualCenter or using VMware Converter. Clone – You can create exact replicas of existing virtual machines. Deploy from Templates – You can create virtual machines from templates that provide a base configuration which you can customize.

For each type of creation process, a wizard guides you through the steps to produce a complete and working virtual machine. For new users, we recommend that you use the “import” or “create new” options to create your initial virtual machines.

5.1 Creating Virtual Machines by Importing Virtual Appliances (Import)
A virtual appliance is a pre-built, pre-configured and ready-to-run software application packaged with the operating system inside a virtual machine. Virtual appliances are changing the software distribution paradigm because they allow application builders to choose the best operating system for their application and deliver a turnkey software service to the end user. This new approach to software distribution combines the simple deployment of software with the benefits of a pre-configured device. For solution providers, building a virtual appliance is simpler and more cost effective than building a hardware appliance. For end users, virtual appliances allow for a more consistent, highlyutilized operating environment. Many VMware partners build virtual appliances to distribute evaluation software and full production software to their customers. VMware virtual appliance partners range from small to large software vendors to solution providers that have delivered their products as traditional hardware appliances. All of these partners wanted to make it easy to download and install a complete, production-ready solution stack that has been pre-installed and pre-configured on an optimized configuration of the underlying operating system. These production-ready virtual appliances that our partners have developed are available at http://www.vmware.com/appliances/directory/. To create a new virtual machine using a virtual appliance, download the virtual appliance and point to the virtual disk file rather than creating a new one when creating the virtual machine. To import a virtual appliance: 1. In the VI Client, choose File > Virtual Appliance > Import. The Import Virtual Machine wizard is displayed. Select Import from VMTN from the following options: a. Import from Disk – Browse your file system for an appliance. Import from URL – Specify a URL to an appliance located on the internet. Import from VMTN – Select from VMware appliances available on the VMTN Web site.

2.

b.

c.

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Select Browser Appliance – 288MB and the Virtual Machine Details page is displayed. Click Next.

4. 5.

If license agreements are packaged with the appliance, the End User License Agreement page is displayed. Agree to accept the terms of the licenses and click Next. (Optional) Edit the name and select a datacenter. A default name might be provided. You can optionally edit the name. The name can be up to 80 characters long and can contain alphanumeric characters and the underscore ( _ ) and hyphen ( ) characters. It should also be unique within the virtual machine folder. Names are case sensitive. Click Next.

6.

Choose your local datastore for the virtual machine, and click Next. The virtual machine configuration file and virtual disk files are stored on the datastore. Choose a datastore large enough to accommodate the virtual machine and all of its virtual disk files.

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7. (Optional) If your virtual infrastructure contains multiple networks, map each network specified in the OVF file to a network in your infrastructure. Click Next. Review your settings and click Finish. The progress of the import task is displayed in the VI Client Status panel.

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8.

9.

Once the virtual appliance has finished downloading, it will show up as an available virtual machine in the inventory panel under the host. Right-click on the virtual machine and select Power On.

10. Switch to the Console tab for the virtual machine to see it boot up. This is a simple virtual appliance that let’s you browse the Internet securely using the Mozilla Firefox web browser.

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5.2 Creating Virtual Machines from Scratch (Create New)
The VI Client provides a simple and flexible user interface from which you can create new virtual machines through manual configuration, from templates, or by cloning existing virtual machines. All virtual machines are created in place using a wizard that guides you through the steps to produce a complete and working virtual machine. The typical path shortens the process by skipping some choices that rarely need changing from their defaults. The figure to the right summarizes the typical virtual machine path.

To create a virtual machine from the VI Client: 1. 2. 3. Click Inventory in the navigation bar, and expand the inventory as needed. In the inventory list, select the managed host or cluster to which you want to add the new virtual machine. From the File menu, choose New>Virtual Machine. The New Virtual Machine wizard appears. Select Typical, and click Next.

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4. The Name and Folder page appears: a. Type a name in the Virtual Machine Name field for your virtual machine. This name appears in the VI Client inventory. It is also used as the name of the virtual machine’s files. Avoid spaces and special characters when naming virtual machines. To set the inventory location for your virtual machine, select a folder or the root of a datacenter from the list under Virtual Machine Inventory Location list. Click Next.

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b.

5.

The Datastore page appears. Select a datastore in which to store the virtual machine files, and click Next.

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On the Guest Operating System page: a. Under Guest Operating System, select the operating system family (Microsoft Windows, Linux, Novell NetWare, Solaris, or Other). Note that selecting the operating system doesn’t automatically install it inside the virtual machine being created. Choose the version from the drop down menu, and click Next. VirtualCenter does not install the guest operating system. The New Virtual Machine Wizard uses this information to select appropriate default values, such as the amount of memory needed.

b.

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7. If the host is multiprocessor and the guest operating system supports SMP, the Virtual CPUs page appears. Choose the number of virtual processors in the virtual machine from the drop down list, and click Next.

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8.

The Memory page appears. Click any of the colored arrows to set the memory size, and click Next. You can also drag the slider or select the number using the up and down arrows.

9.

The Network page appears. Choose network connections: a. b. Select the number of NICs you want to connect to. For each NIC, use the Network pull down menu to choose one of the port groups that are configured for virtual machine use on the host. If no virtual machine port groups are configured, a warning dialog box appears, and you cannot configure any virtual network cards. For each NIC that you do not want the virtual network adapter to connect when the virtual machine is powered on, deselect the Connect at Power On check box. Click Next.

c.

d.

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10. The Virtual Disk Capacity page appears. Enter the disk size in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB) in the Disk Size field, and click Next. The virtual disk should be large enough to hold the guest operating system and all of the software that you intend to install with room for data and growth.

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11. The Ready to Complete page is displayed. Review your choices, and click Finish.

12. At this point, the new virtual machine is like a physical computer with a blank hard disk. Before you can use your new virtual machine, you must partition and format the virtual disk and then install a guest operating system and VMware Tools. The operating system’s installation program can handle the partitioning and formatting steps for you. Installing a guest operating system inside your virtual machine is essentially the same as installing it on a physical computer. The basic process to install a typical operating system is to insert the installation CD-ROM for your guest operating system and power on the virtual machine. Right-click on the new virtual machine and select Edit Settings to open the Virtual Machine Properties window.

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13. If you are installing from a CD-ROM, insert the disk into the VI Client or ESX Server drive.

14. Select CD/DVD Drive 1. Select one of the following options: a. Client Device – Select this option to connect the virtual CD ROM device to a CD ROM device on the machine from which you are running the VI Client. Host Device – Select this option to connect the virtual CD ROM device to a device on the ESX Server host machine on which this virtual machine is located. Choose the device from the drop down menu.

b.

c.

Datastore ISO File – Select this option to connect the virtual CD ROM device to an ISO file on a datastore. This is a faster alternative to installing from CD-ROM. Click Browse to locate and select the file. Check Connect at power on to make it available to the virtual machine at boot.

15. Click OK.

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16. Right-click on your new virtual machine and select Power On. Select the Console tab to see the virtual machine’s display. If you are installing from local media in the VI Client, click to Connect CD/DVD in the toolbar. Note that you might need to change the boot order in the virtual machine BIOS so that the virtual machine attempts to boot from the CD/DVD device before trying other boot devices. To do so, press F2 when prompted during virtual machine startup. Once the installation CD is running, follow the instructions provided by the operating system vendor to complete the installation. Note that when working with virtual machines in the console, additional commands such as sending a Ctrl-Alt-Del are available by right clicking on the virtual machine in the Inventory panel. Also, pressing Ctrl-Alt releases the mouse focus from the console window.

17. The final step is to install VMware Tools. VMware Tools is a suite of utilities that enhances the performance of the virtual machine’s guest operating system and improves management of the virtual machine. Although the guest operating system can run without VMware Tools, you lose important functionality and convenience. The installers for VMware Tools for Windows, Linux, and NetWare guest operating systems are built into ESX Server as ISO image files. With the guest operating system running, right-click on the virtual machine and select to Install / Upgrade VMware Tools to launch the installer. Follow the instructions to complete the typical installation.

18. Once the installation is complete, be sure to enable time synchronization between the virtual machine and the ESX Server. In the VM Console, double-click the VMware Tools icon in the system tray to open the options tab and enable time synchronization.

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5.3 Creating Virtual Machines from Existing Physical Servers
Conversion of physical machines to virtual machines can be done using VMware Converter. We recommend that users new to virtualization create new virtual machines from scratch initially or import virtual appliances from http://www.vmware.com/appliances/

For users familiar with virtualization, physical to virtual machine conversion can be performed in the following steps: 1. Download VMware Converter onto the physical server being converted (source) or onto a different server with network access to the source physical server as well as the virtualized server where the virtual machine will be placed. (destination) Launch the conversion wizard which will guide a user through the conversion specifics Configure the newly created virtual machine once conversion is complete.

2. 3.

For more information, refer http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/converter_pubs.html

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5.4 Creating Virtual Machines from Existing Virtual Machines (Clone)
A clone is a copy plus customization of a virtual machine. When you create a clone, VirtualCenter provides an option to customize the guest operating system of that virtual machine. You can place the new clone on any host within the same datacenter as the original virtual machine. To clone a virtual machine: 1. Select the source virtual machine and shut down the guest if it is running.

2.

To start the Clone a Virtual Machine wizard, right-click on the source virtual machine and select Clone. The Clone Virtual Machine Wizard appears. Enter a virtual machine name, select a location, and click Next.

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3. Select a host or cluster on which to run the clone, and click Next.

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4.

Select the datastore location where you want to store the virtual machine files, and click Next.

5.

The Select Guest Customization Option page appears. If you earlier installed the Microsoft Sysprep tools for this guest operating system, you can choose to customize the guest operating system using the wizard. If not, the guest operating system will not be customized following cloning. Click Next.

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6. If you installed the Sysprep tools and selected to customize the guest operating system, the Windows Guest Customization Wizard appears and asks for the following customization information and offers to save the choices as a reusable configuration file: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Registration Information Computer Name Windows License Administrator Password Time Zone Run Once Commands Network Configuration Workgroup or Domain Configuration Operating System Options

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7.

Review your selections, and click Finish. On the Ready to Complete New Virtual Machine page, you can select the check box to power on the new virtual machine after creation. After you click Finish, you cannot use or edit the virtual machine until the task completes. If the task involves the creation of a virtual disk, it could take several minutes to complete. You can switch to the Tasks & Events tab for the new virtual machine to monitor the progress of the task.

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5.5 Creating Templates and Deploying Virtual Machines from Templates (Deploy from Template)
Virtual machines can be converted into templates to speed the creation of additional virtual machines. A good practice to expedite server provisioning is to convert golden ‘master copy’ virtual machines (with freshly installed operating systems or operating systems and configured applications) into templates. To convert an existing virtual machine to a template: 1. 2. Select the virtual machine you want to convert into a template and shut it down if it is running. Right-click on the virtual machine and select Convert to Template. VirtualCenter marks that virtual machine as a template and displays the task in the Recent Tasks pane. Note that if you are in the Hosts and Clusters view of the Inventory panel, the virtual machine converted to a template will disappear from view. You can access it by viewing the Virtual Machines tab of the host or datacenter, or by switching the inventory view to Virtual Machines and Templates using the Inventory dropdown. For clarity, right-click on the new virtual machine template and rename it to include Template in the name.

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To deploy a new virtual machine from a template, right-click the template and choose Deploy Virtual Machine from this Template. Name the new virtual machine and select its location (datacenter, host, folder, resource pool, etc.) and the datastore for its virtual disk files. Optionally select to customize the guest operating system to customize the virtual machine’s hostname, networking, licenses and administrative credentials. To deploy a new virtual machine from a template: 1. 2. Select the datacenter that contains the template, and click the Virtual Machines tab. The virtual machines and templates associated with the datacenter appear in the datacenter panel. Right click the template, and choose Deploy Virtual Machine from this Template. The Deploy Template wizard appears. Give the new virtual machine a name, select a location, and click Next. The name can be up to 80 characters long and can contain alphanumeric characters and the underscore ( _ ) and hyphen ( ) characters. It should also be unique across all templates and virtual machines in the datacenter. Names are case insensitive: the name my_vm is identical to My_Vm . On the Host / Cluster page, select the host on which you want to store the template and click Next. Choose a datastore for the virtual machine, and click Next. You are choosing the datastore in which to store the files for the virtual machine. You should choose one that is large enough to accommodate the virtual machine and all of its virtual disk files so that they can all reside in the same place.

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On the Select Guest Customization Option page, perform one of these actions: a. b. 7. If you do not want to customize your guest operating system, select Do not customize and click Next. If you want to customize your guest operating system, click one of the other selections as appropriate.

On the Ready to Complete window, review the information for your new virtual machine, select the Power on the new Virtual Machine after creation check box if you want to power on the virtual machine immediately, and click Finish. After you click Finish, you cannot use or edit the virtual machine until the task completes. This might take several minutes. The virtual machine is added to the datastore.

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6 Managing Virtual Machines
6.1 Managing Virtual Machines States
To change the state of virtual machines in inventory, either right-click on the virtual machine or select a command in the toolbar. The basic power state options for virtual machines include: • • • • • Power on – Powers up the virtual machine and boots the guest operating system if the guest operating system is installed. Power off – Powers down the virtual machine. The virtual machine does not attempt to shut down the guest operating system gracefully. Suspend – Pauses the virtual machine activity. All transactions are frozen until you issue a resume command. Resume – Allows virtual machine activity to continue and releases the suspended state. Reset – Shuts down the guest operating system and restarts it. If the guest operating system does not support this operation, VMware Tools must be installed.

The following power options perform extra functions in addition to the basic virtual machine power operations. VMware Tools must be installed in the virtual machine to perform these functions. • • Shut down guest – Shuts down the guest operating system. If the guest operating system automatically powers off after shutting down, the virtual machine also powers off. Restart guest – Shuts down and restarts the guest operating system without powering off the virtual machine.

6.2 Edit Virtual Machine Settings and Add Virtual Machine Hardware Devices
The Virtual Machine Properties editor and the Add Hardware wizard allow you to edit and configure your existing virtual machines. These activities are typically performed after you create the virtual machine and install the guest operating system. The Virtual Machine Properties Editor allows you to change nearly every characteristic of your virtual machine that you choose when you create the virtual machine. To edit an existing virtual machine configuration: 1. 2. 3. 4. From the VI Client inventory, select the virtual machine you want to customize. Power off the virtual machine. You cannot edit most virtual machine properties if the virtual machine is powered on. Right-click on the virtual machine and click Edit Settings. The Virtual Machine Properties dialog box is displayed. Select one of the following tabs according to the settings you want to change: a. Hardware – To add, edit, or remove hardware from your virtual machine. The devices that can be added are serial ports, parallel ports, floppy drives, DVD/CD-ROM drives, Ethernet adapters, hard disks and SCSI devices. Options – To edit power management settings and other options. Resources – To edit CPU, memory, disk, and advanced resource settings for this virtual machine.

b.

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Make changes as needed, and click OK.

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You can configure additional virtual hardware for your virtual machine as needed. The following hardware devices can be added: • • • • • • • • Serial Port Parallel Port Floppy Drive DVD/CD ROM Drive Sound card Ethernet Adapter Hard Disk SCSI Controller

To add a hardware device: 1. 2. 3. From the Hardware tab, and click Add to display the Add Hardware Wizard. Select the type of device you want to add, and click Next. Follow the steps in the wizard to add the device.

Adjust these settings and add devices as needed to evaluate their impact on the virtual machines. Refer to the Basic System Administration Guide > Chapter 12 Configuring Virtual Machines if needed for more information.

6.3 Configure Network Connections
Networking for the service console, which runs the management services, is set up by default during the installation of ESX Server. As you selected the default option during ESX Server installation to create a port group for virtual machines, you do not need to configure networking for your virtual machines. However, in this default configuration, virtual machine network traffic shares a network adapter with the service console. For security and other reasons, VMware recommends that virtual machine traffic not share a network adapter with the service console in production environments. To create or add a virtual network for a virtual machine: 1. Select the ESX Server host from the inventory panel and click the Configuration tab. Click on Networking to display the existing virtual switches. This example shows a virtual switch named vSwitch0 that is handling management traffic for the service console, NFS access for the VMkernel and network traffic for four virtual machines.

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2. On the right side of the screen, click Add Networking to create a new internal-only virtual switch to handle network traffic between two virtual machines on the host. The Add Network Wizard appears. As a connection type, select Virtual Machine, which is the default. Click Next.

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3.

The Network Access page appears. Virtual machines reach physical networks through uplink adapters. A vSwitch is able to transfer data to external networks only when one or more network adapters (vmnics) are attached to it. When two or more adapters are attached to a single vSwitch, they are transparently teamed. Select Create a virtual switch. You can create a new vSwitch with or without Ethernet adapters. If you create a vSwitch without physical network adapters, all traffic on that vSwitch will be confined to that vSwitch. No other hosts on the physical network or virtual machines on other vSwitches will be able to send or receive traffic over this vSwitch. This is desirable if you want a group of virtual machines to be able to communicate with each other but not with other hosts or with virtual machines outside the group. In this case, we want to create an internal only network so deselect any vmnic adapters that are checked. Changes are reflected in the Preview pane. Click Next. The Connection Settings page appears. Provide a network label for the new virtual switch. Click Next again to view the Ready to Complete summary and click Finish to create the new internal-only virtual switch. Virtual machines can now be connected to this virtual switch, and they will be able to communicate with other virtual machines on the same switch.

4.

Refer to the Server Configuration Guide for more information on network configuration.

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6.4 Configure Resource Pools on a Standalone Host
You can use resource pools to hierarchically partition available CPU and memory resources. Each standalone host and each DRS cluster has an (invisible) root resource pool that groups the resources of that host or cluster. The root resource pool is not displayed because the resources of the host (or cluster) and the root resource pool are always the same. If you don’t create child resource pools, only the root resource pools exist. Users can create child resource pools of the root resource pool or of any user created child resource pool. Each child resource pool owns some of the parent’s resources and can, in turn, have a hierarchy of child resource pools to represent successively smaller units of computational capability. A resource pool can contain child resource pools, virtual machines, or both. This creates a hierarchy of shared resources. The resource pools at a higher level are called parent resource pools, while the resource pools and virtual machines that are at the same level are called siblings. In this figure, RP QA is the parent resource pool for RP QA UI. RP Marketing and RP QA are siblings. The three virtual machines immediately below RP Marketing are also siblings. For each resource pool, you can specify reservation, limit, shares, and whether the reservation should be expandable. The resource pool resources are then available to child resource pools and virtual machines. When you create a child resource pool, you are prompted for the following resource pool attribute information. The system uses admission control to make sure you can’t allocate resources that aren’t available. CPU Resources Shares Number of CPU shares the resource pool has with respect to the parent’s total. Sibling resource pools share resources according to their relative share values bounded by the reservation and limit. You can choose Low, Normal, or High, or choose Custom to specify a number that assigns a share value. Guaranteed CPU allocation for this resource pool. Use this check box to indicate that, if virtual machines are powered on in this resource pool, and the reservations of the virtual machines combined are larger than the reservation of the resource pool, the resource pool can use a parent’s or ancestor’s resources. Default is selected. Upper limit for the amount of CPU the host makes available to this resource pool. Default is Unlimited. To specify a limit, deselect the Unlimited check box and type in the number Number of memory shares the resource pool has with respect to the parent’s total. Sibling resource pools share resources according to their relative share values bounded by the reservation and limit. You can choose Low, Normal, or High, or choose Custom to specify a number that assigns a share value. Guaranteed memory allocation for this resource pool. Use this check box to indicate that more than the specified reservation should be allocated if resources are available in a parent. Upper limit for this resource pool’s memory allocation. Default is Unlimited. To specify a different limit, deselect the Unlimited check box.

Reservation Expandable Reservation

Limit

Memory Resources

Shares

Reservation Expandable Reservation Limit

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Let’s create two resource pools on the evaluation server to demonstrate how they work. We’ll create a Test Resource Pool with a low priority access to CPU resources and then a Production Resource Pool with a high priority access to CPU resources. To create a resource pool: 1. Right-click on the intended parent ESX Server host in the Inventory panel and select New Resource Pool.

2.

In the New Resource Pool dialog box, enter the name Test Resource Pool and change the CPU Resource Shares from Normal to Low. Notice that the Shares value changes from 4,000 to 2,000 as low provides half the resources of normal. Click OK. VirtualCenter creates the resource pool and displays it in the inventory panel.

3.

Right-click on the host ESX Server host again and select to create another resource pool. This time, name the resource pool Production Resource Pool and change the CPU Resource Shares from Normal to High. Notice that the Shares value doubles from 4,000 from to 8,000 to provide double the resources of a normal share. With a total of 10,000 shares across the two pools, the virtual machines in the Test Resource Pool will only be able to access 20% (2,000 of 10,000) of the available CPU resources if the Production Resource Pool is using the other 80% (8,000 shares of 10,000). As the CPU Resources is not limited in the configuration, if the virtual machines in the Production Resource Pool are only using 60% of the available CPU Resources, the Test Resource Pool will be able to access the remaining 40% of CPU Resources so that no compute cycles are wasted.

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When you create a new virtual machine, the Virtual Machine Wizard allows you to add it to a resource pool as part of the creation process. You can also add an already existing virtual machine to a resource pool as described below. To add an existing virtual machine to a resource pool: 1. Select the virtual machine from any location in the inventory. The virtual machine can be associated with a standalone host, a cluster, or a different resource pool. Drag the virtual machine (or machines) to the desired resource pool object.

2.

Go ahead and drag some of your virtual machines into the Production Resource Pool with a high share of resources and others into the Test Resource Pool with a low share of CPU resources. When you move a virtual machine to a new resource pool: • • • • The virtual machine’s reservation and limit do not change. If the virtual machine’s shares are high, medium, or low, %Shares adjusts to reflect the total number of shares in use in the new resource pool. If the virtual machine has custom shares assigned, the share value is maintained. If the virtual machine would receive a very large percentage of total shares, a warning is displayed. The information displayed in the Resource Allocation tab about the resource pool’s reserved and unreserved CPU and memory resources changes to reflect the reservations associated with the virtual machine (if any).

If a virtual machine is powered on, and the destination resource pool does not have enough CPU or memory to guarantee the virtual machine’s reservation, the move fails because admission control does not allow it. An error dialog box explains the situation. The dialog box compares available and requested resources, so you can consider whether an adjustment would resolve the issue.

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6.5 Schedule Tasks, View Events and Set Alarms
Tasks are planned activities such as powering on or off a virtual machine, cloning a virtual machine, or adding a virtual machine to a resource pool. These activities can be scheduled or initiated manually. Tasks generate event messages that indicate any issues associated with the task. You can schedule tasks to occur at designated times. Each scheduled task option runs the corresponding wizard for the task and adds a scheduling time option at the end of the wizard. Schedule a few tasks to evaluate by selecting File > New > Scheduled Task from the menu.

Alarms send notification messages when selected events occur to or on hosts or virtual machines. Alarms indicate the status levels of an object or collection of objects in the hierarchy. Alarms can be defined at all hierarchical levels, including folders, datacenters, clusters, resource pools, hosts, and virtual machines. Alarms are inherited from parent levels and cannot be changed or overridden at a child level. When you add new alarms to any object you contribute to the collection of alarms that are in force at any of its child levels. When an alarm is created, VirtualCenter verifies the user permissions to perform the actions on the relevant datacenters, hosts, and virtual machines. After the alarm is created, the alarm is performed even if the creating user no longer has permission to create the alarm. Alarms are applied to either hosts or virtual machines. Each alarm has a triggering event such as CPU usage is above 90% or state is off and a notification method such as send an email notification, send an SNMP notification trap, or run a script. To view the default alarms for your installation, select Hosts & Clusters from the Inventory panel and then select the Alarms tab. Right-click and select to Edit Settings to see how the alarm is triggered and view and view the available configuration settings. Create several alarms to evaluate by selecting File > New > Alarm.

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6.6 Monitor the Virtual Infrastructure
You can collect performance statistics for all hosts, clusters, virtual machines, resource pools, and in your environment. This includes statistical data on CPUs, disks, networks, and the like. VirtualCenter uses statistic counters to query each entity and writes the data to the VirtualCenter database. To ensure performance is not impaired when collecting and writing the data to the database, VirtualCenter performs cyclical queries rather than performing one single query. It also uses collection levels to determine how many statistic counters to use while querying for data. Combined, collection intervals and collection levels enable you to control how statistics are collected across your environment. For more information on monitoring virtual machine performance, see Basic System Administration > System Administration > Setting Up and Monitoring Performance Statistics and Resource Maps in the VI3 documentation. After you add hosts to VirtualCenter and create and power on virtual machines, you can customize and monitor your environment using the Performance tab and Global and Inventory Maps. The Performance tab is available when you select a cluster, resource pool, host, or virtual machine from the inventory panel. The Performance tab displays the selected object’s resource performance in graph and list form. Performance views show graphs for resources specific to the selected inventory object. A stacked graph is another way to view the statistical information. With virtual machines running, click on the Performance tab for the datacenter, host server and virtual machine to monitor their performance. Experiment with changing the statistics collection interval, changing the performance counters, and exporting the performance chart data to Excel.

You can also export performance data to Excel files for later evaluation and comparison using the Inventory > Virtual Machine > Report Performance option.

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VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

The Maps feature of the VI Client provides a visual understanding of the relationships between the virtual and physical resources available in VirtualCenter. Maps of the items within VirtualCenter are available in the Inventory through the Maps tabs for hosts, virtual machines, networks, and datastores, (Inventory Maps) and through the Maps button in the navigation bar (Global Maps). Global maps are accessible from the button in the VI Client toolbar and provide a high-level view of the relationships between all physical and virtual elements in the entire VirtualCenter environment. By selecting or deselecting the boxes on the side of the inventory, you can see which clusters or hosts are most densely populated, which networks are most critical, and which storage devices are being utilized (or not). Physical, Virtual, and Custom map types exist for both inventory maps and global maps. They constrain and filter information on a VirtualCenter-wide level for the global maps. Click the Maps button in the navigation bar to view a global map. Inventory maps are accessible from the inventory view and show a selected item's relevant host, virtual machine, network, and storage relationships. This makes it easy to understand what items are affected or attached to the item in question. These maps appear for folders, datacenters, clusters, resource pools, and hosts. Physical, Virtual, and Custom map types exist for both inventory maps and global maps. They constrain and filter information on an item-specific level for the Inventory maps. The Maps tab is available when you select folders, datacenters, clusters, resource pools, hosts, or virtual machines from the inventory panel of the navigation bar. Click Inventory in the navigation bar and select the Inventory Hosts and Clusters or Virtual Machines and Templates options. Select a folder, datacenter, cluster, resource pool, or host inventory object. Click the Maps tab to view an inventory map. VMotion resource maps appear only in the tabs for virtual machines selected in the inventory. In addition to visual representations of the resources (hosts, datastores, and networks) associated with a virtual machine, these maps display which hosts in a virtual machine’s cluster or datacenter are candidate hosts to which a virtual machine can migrate. Though the VMotion map is not the last word on whether VMotion is possible, it provides information about which hosts are heavily loaded, which are connected to all the same resources that the target virtual machine is connected to, and which hosts have compatible CPU and software with the target virtual machine. Click Inventory in the navigation bar and select the

VMware

VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

Inventory Hosts and Clusters or Virtual Machines and Templates options. Select a virtual machine. Click the Maps tab to view a VMotion map.

VMware

VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

7 Evaluate Specific Application Workloads within a VMware Virtual Machine
With VMware Infrastructure installed and configured, your evaluation of specific application workloads is at this point self-directed. You could, for example, convert several production systems from your IT infrastructure and consolidate them onto one host server to test their relative performance individually and under consolidated load. With any of these virtual machines, you can click through the full menu structure of the Virtual Infrastructure Client and test out the other configuration properties and actions available. Keep in mind that you can refer to the full user documentation for more information or to support evaluation steps not addressed in this guide. For additional context, below is a list of applications that VMware customers commonly deploy within virtual machines. These are all good candidates to evaluate for consolidation onto virtual infrastructure. Software Categories Web Services Application Servers Enterprise Messaging Database File and Print Services Remote Session Access Enterprise Applications Business Integration Helpdesk Applications System Management Backup Services Network Services Firewall / Proxy Services Custom Developed & Legacy Applications Development and Quality Assurance Software Products Microsoft IIS, Netscape, Apache, Allaire Coldfusion BEA WebLogic, IBM WebSphere, .ASP Microsoft Exchange, Lotus Notes, Groupwise, Sendmail, Other POP & IMAP services Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2 Microsoft, Novell, Samba/CIFS, NFS Citrix MetaFrame, Windows Terminal Services SAP, Siebel, Peoplesoft, J.D. Edwards, Microsoft Great Plains, Oracle Applications Microsoft BizTalk, IBM MQSeries Remedy HP Openview, Tivoli, MS Systems Management Server, VMware VirtualCenter Veritas BackupExec, Veritas NetBackup, Tivoli Storage Manager, CA ArcServe, CommVault Galaxy, Legato Networker, HP Data Protector Windows NT / 2000 Domain Controllers, MS Active Directory, Sun One Directory Server, LDAP, WINS, DHCP, DNS Squid, Netscape Proxy Server, Microsoft ISA Custom NT and Linux applications Rational TestSuite, Microsoft Visual Studio, IBM VisualAge, Mercury Interactive

VMware

VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

8 Next Steps
If you would like to purchase, evaluate or get more information about VMware Infrastructure, VMware has a global network of solutions providers who are ready to help you. If you'd like to contact VMware directly, you can reach a sales representative at 1877-4VMWARE (650-475-5000 outside North America) or email sales@vmware.com. When emailing, please include the state, country and company name from which you are inquiring. You can also visit our online store at http://www.vmware.com/vmwarestore/.

9 About VMware
VMware (NYSE:VMW) is the global leader in virtual infrastructure software for industry-standard systems. Organizations of all sizes use VMware solutions to simplify their IT, fully leverage their existing computing investments and respond faster to changing business demands. VMware is based in Palo Alto, California and majority-owned by EMC Corporation (NYSE:EMC). For more information, visit www.vmware.com. © 2007 VMware. All rights reserved.

VMware

VMware Infrastructure 3 Evaluator’s Guide

VMware, Inc. 3401 Hillview Ave Palo Alto CA 94304 USA Tel 877-486-9273 Fax 650-427-5001 www.vmware.com
© 2007 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Protected by one or more of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,397,242, 6,496,847, 6,704,925, 6,711,672, 6,725,289, 6,735,601, 6,785,886, 6,789,156, 6,795,966, 6,880,022, 6,961,941, 6,961,806, 6,944,699, 7,069,413; 7,082,598 and 7,089,377; patents pending.

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