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Sistem Kendali & Mekanika


Elektro - Mekanika

Agung Nugroho Jati, ST., MT.

Mechatronics Design Approach
Function of Mechatronics
Division of Functions between Mechanics and
A further considerable simplification in the mechanics resulted from
introducing microcomputers in connection with decentralized electrical
Improvement of Operating Properties
A combination of robust and adaptive control allows a wide range of
operation for flow-, force-, or speed-control, and for processes like
engines, vehicles, or aircraft
Addition of New Functions
Mechatronic systems allow functions to occur that could not be
performed without digital electronics
Ways of Integration
Integration of Components (Hardware)
The integration of components (hardware integration) results from
designing the mechatronic system as an overall system and
imbedding the sensors, actuators, and microcomputers into the
mechanical process

Integration of Information Processing

The integration of information processing (software integration) is
mostly based on advanced control functions. Besides a basic
feedforward and feedback control, an additional influence may take
place through the process knowledge and corresponding online
information processing
Multilevel Control Architecture
The information processing of direct measurable input and
output signals can be organized in several levels.
level 1 : low level control (feedforward, feedback for
damping, stabilization, linearization)
level 2 : high level control (advanced feedback control
level 3 : supervision, including fault diagnosis
level 4 : optimization, coordination (of processes)
level 5 : general process management
Special Signal Processing
To control damping ratios, material and heat stress, and slip, or to supervise
quantities like resistances, capacitances, temperatures within components, or
parameters of wear and contamination. This signal processing may require special
filters to determine amplitudes or frequencies of vibrations, to determine derivated
or integrated quantities, or state variable observers.

Model-based and Adaptive Control Systems

The mathematical models can be obtained by identification and parameter estimation,
which use the measured and sampled input and output signals. These methods are not
restricted to linear models, but also allow for several classes of nonlinear systems. If the
parameter estimation methods are combined with appropriate control algorithm design
methods, adaptive control systems result. They can be use for permanent precise
controller tuning or only for commissioning
Supervision and Fault Detection
Intelligent Systems (Basic Tasks)
System Interfacing, Instrumentation,
and Control System
Microprocessor Control System
Input Signals of a Mechatronic System

Transducer/Sensor Input
All inputs to mechatronic systems come from either some form of sensory
apparatus or communications from other systems.

Analog-to-Digital Converters
The ADC can basically be typed by two parameters: the analog input range
and the digital output range.
Output Signals of a Mechatronic System

Digital-to-Analog Converters
The output command from the microcontroller is a binary value in bit, byte
(8 bits), or word (16 bits) form.
Output Signals of a Mechatronic System

Actuator Output
Switches are simple state devices that control some activity, like turning
on and off the furnace in a house. Types of switches include relays and
solid-state devices. Solid-state devices include diodes, thyristors, bipolar
transistors, field-effect transistors (FETs), and metal-oxide field-effect
transistors (MOSFETs). A switch can also be used with a sensor, thus
turning on or off the entire sensor, or a particular feature of a sensor.
Solenoids are devices containing a movable iron core that is activated
by a current flow. The movement of this core can then control some
form of hydraulic or pneumatic flow.
Motors are the last type of actuator that will be summarized here. There
are three main types: direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and
stepper motors. DC motors may be controlled by a fixed DC voltage or by
pulse width modulation (PWM).
Signal Conditioning
Sampling Rate
The rate at which data samples are taken obviously affects the speed at
which the mechatronic system can detect a change in situation.

Filtering is the attenuation (lessening) of certain frequencies from a signal.
This process can remove noise from a signal and condition the line for
better data transmission. Filters can be divided into analog and digital
types, the analog filters being further divided into passive and active types.
Analog passive filters use resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Analog
active filters typically use operational amplifiers with resistors and
capacitors. Digital filters may be implemented with software and/or
Signal Conditioning
Data Acquisition Boards
There is a special type of board that plugs into a slot in a desktop personal
computer that can be used. This type of board can generate analog input
and multiplex multiple input signals onto a single bus for transmission to
the PC. It can also come with signal conditioning hardware/software and
an ADC.
Microprocessor Control
PID Control
PID control demonstrates three ways of looking at this error and correcting
it. The first way is the P of PID, the proportional term. This term represents
the control action made by the microcontroller in proportion to the error. In
other words, the bigger the error, the bigger the correction. The I in PID is
for the integral of the error over time. The integral term produces a
correction that considers the time the error has been present. Stated in
other words, the longer the error continues, the bigger the correction.
Lastly, the D in PID stands for derivative. In the derivative term, the
corrective action is related to the derivative or change of the error with
respect to time.
Microprocessor Control
Programmable Logic Controllers
A PLC is a simpler, more rugged microcontroller designed for environments
like a factory floor. Input is usually from switches such as push buttons
controlled by machine operators or position sensors. Timers can also be
programmed in the PLC to run a particular process for a set amount of
time. Outputs include lamps, solenoid valves, and motors, with the input
output interfacing done within the controller. A simple programming
language used with a PLC is called ladder logic or ladder programming.
Ladder logic is a graphical language showing logic as a combination of
series (ands) and parallel (ors) blocks.
To be continued