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# Skewness and Kurtosis Explored

## Person Skewness Coefficient -0.3784

Skewness: SKEW() -0.4587
Data (xi-xbar)^3 ((xi-xbar)/stdev)^3 Skewness: formula -0.4587
2- 0 - 0.00 SKEW.P - 0.3010
3 0 0.05 Workings
-1 - 34 - 4.41 average 2.2500
3 0 0.05 standard deviation 1.9821
4 5 0.69 standard deviation cubed 7.7867
5 21 2.67 n 8.0000
0- 11 - 1.46 sum (xi-xbar)^3 -18.7500
2- 0 - 0.00 median 2.5000
min -1.0000
max 5.0000
SKEW.P(R) = SKEW(R)*(n2)/SQRT(n(n1)) where n = COUNT(R).
-0.3677
ry-skewness-kurtosis/

## Skewness: SKEW() = -0.4587

SKEW is negative so negative skewness Skewness: SKEW() = -0.4587
2.5

1.5

1
median > mean so negative skew
0.5

## T(n(n1)) where n = COUNT(R). 0

-1 0 1 2 3 4

Bin frequency
-1 1
0 1
1 0
2 2
3 2
4 1
5 1
SKEW() = -0.4587

2 3 4 5
Skewness Explored
The data and explanations that follow are mine!

SKEW.P
Data Data (xi-xbar)^3 ((xi-xbar)/stdev)
602 602 - 7,625,829,940 - 3.24
4,119 4,119 3,714,369,200 1.58
1,751 1,751 - 549,997,441 - 0.23
3,091 3,091 141,160,338 0.06
3,779 3,779 1,765,769,487 0.75
3,262 3,262 330,914,391 0.14
1,853 1,853 - 369,095,559 - 0.16
3,564 3,564 981,159,575 0.42
139 139 - 14,372,303,108 - 6.11
4,567 4,567 7,960,226,098 3.39
1,605 1,605 - 899,526,397 - 0.38
1,281 1,281 - 2,143,296,025 - 0.91
3,470 3,470 728,222,676 0.31
1,533 1,533 - 1,116,190,326 - 0.47
1,483 1,483 - 1,285,500,143 - 0.55
1,368 1,368 - 1,738,041,789 - 0.74
1,642 1,642 - 800,005,774 - 0.34
3,459 3,459 701,836,934 0.30
4,645 4,645 8,930,039,112 3.80
246 246 - 12,557,053,875 - 5.34
4,471 4,471 6,866,367,036 2.92
2,803 2,803 12,597,291 0.01
3,641 3,641 1,227,380,081 0.52
4,717 4,717 9,892,405,958 4.21
3,015 3,015 87,931,158 0.04
1,760 1,760 - 532,071,105 - 0.23
1,736 1,736 - 580,761,694 - 0.25
2,170 2,170 - 64,153,723 - 0.03
1,857 1,857 - 362,955,350 - 0.15
2,439 2,439 - 2,264,606 - 0.00
1,052 1,052 - 3,500,176,449 - 1.49
2,067 2,067 - 127,506,570 - 0.05
4,220 4,220 4,489,511,907 1.91
1,422 1,422 - 1,514,219,333 - 0.64
1,271 1,271 - 2,193,554,203 - 0.93
3,770 3,770 1,726,617,969 0.73
3,708 3,708 1,472,517,179 0.63
4,418 4,418 6,307,834,260 2.68
1,329 1,329 - 1,912,719,380 - 0.81
3,628 3,628 1,183,212,848 0.50
4,930 4,930 13,138,909,909 5.59
4,663 4,663 9,164,493,577 3.90
3,189 3,189 236,809,015 0.10
696 696 - 6,584,627,601 - 2.80
2,722 2,722 3,489,675 0.00
749 749 - 6,041,694,620 - 2.57
2,953 2,953 56,041,183 0.02
2,004 2,004 - 181,629,212 - 0.08
2,067 2,067 - 127,506,570 - 0.05
1,590 1,590 - 942,114,285 - 0.40
atistics.com/descriptive-statistics/symmetry-skewness-kurtosis/

## Pearson Skewness Coefficien 0.5997

Skewness: SKEW() 0.1175
Skewness: formula 0.1175 SKEW is positive so positive skewness
SKEW.P 0.1105 XY Scatter
Workings
6,000
average 2,570.32
standard deviation 1,330 5,000
standard deviation cubed 2,351,054,323
n 50 4,000
sum (xi-xbar)^3 12,995,021,776 3,000
median 2304.50 mean > median so positive skew
min 139 2,000
max 4,930
1,000

## SKEW.P(R) = SKEW(R)*(n2)/SQRT(n(n1)) where n = COUNT(R). -

0.1139476124 0 10 20

From To f 10
0 0
9
0 500 2
500 1000 3 8
1,000 1500 7 7
1,500 2000 9 6
2,000 2500 5 5
2,500 3000 3
4
3,000 3500 6
3,500 4000 6 3
4,000 4500 4 2
4,500 5000 5 1
50 0
0 500 1000 150
XY Scatter Graph of the Data
6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Boxplot Larger Skew Example

## Data Boxplot Larger Skew Example

602 Q1 1547.3 Boxplot La
4119 Minimum 139
6000
1751 Median 2304.5
3091 Maximum 4930 5000
3779 Q3 3637.75
3262 4000
1853
3564 3000
139
4567 2000
1605
1000
1281
3470 0
1533
1483
1368
1642
3459
4645
246
4471
2803
3641
4717
3015
1760
1736
2170
1857
2439
1052
2067
4220
1422
1271
3770
3708
4418
1329
3628
4930
4663
3189
696
2722
749
2953
2004
2067
1590
Boxplot Larger Skew Example
6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
Dot Plot Using REPT

500 2 nn
1000 3 nnn
1500 7 nnnnnnn
2000 9 nnnnnnnnn
2500 5 nnnnn
3000 3 nnn
3500 6 nnnnnn
4000 6 nnnnnn
4500 4 nnnn
5000 5 nnnnn

frequencies

2000
9..

1500
....

2500
...

1000

3000
....

.0

500
-

-
1000

1500

2000

2500
500
0

Class Intervals
3000 3500

Class Intervals

3500 4000

4000 4500

4500 5000
Simulation: using the larger skew example

## mean 2,570.32 =larger_skew!G9

stdev 1,329.70 =larger_skew!G10
n 50

## Data Point Simulation min -486.84

1 97.03 0.0314 max 4985.12
2 542.20 0.0636 Clas Size 547.20
3 1,541.73 0.2196 Skewness 0.0235
4 1,449.87 0.1997 Kurtosis -0.8652
5 892.69 0.1035
6 3,327.40 0.7154 mean 2,234.76
7 2,278.43 0.4131 median 2,350.58
8 1,382.01 0.1858 Negative Skew
9 688.94 0.0786
10 3,520.80 0.7626 Bin f
11 1,473.66 0.2048 - 486.84 1
12 506.26 0.0603 60.36 0
13 4,148.80 0.8824 607.55 6
14 98.19 0.0315 1,154.75 6
15 2,422.73 0.4558 1,701.94 7
16 152.51 0.0345 2,249.14 4
17 3,782.64 0.8190 2,796.34 7
18 3,203.23 0.6830 3,343.53 8
19 2,965.04 0.6167 3,890.73 5
20 2,835.32 0.5790 4,437.92 4
21 2,737.02 0.5499 4,985.12 2
22 766.75 0.0875 50
23 741.06 0.0845
24 4,173.51 0.8860
25 2,427.43 0.4572
26 2,779.20 0.5624
27 3,952.81 0.8508
28 3,604.00 0.7815
29 502.26 0.0599
30 2,186.62 0.3865
31 2,519.90 0.4849
32 1,274.64 0.1649
33 2,904.63 0.5993
34 3,288.40 0.7054
35 4,321.82 0.9061
36 - 486.84 0.0107
37 4,856.75 0.9572
38 3,103.33 0.6557
39 2,620.75 0.5151
40 3,561.15 0.7719
41 1,550.87 0.2216
42 2,068.82 0.3530
43 3,685.31 0.7991
44 1,635.97 0.2411
45 879.53 0.1018
46 4,985.12 0.9653
47 1,756.41 0.2702
48 1,094.08 0.1335
49 2,938.13 0.6090
50 1,998.98 0.3337
Skewness = 0.0235
Skewness = -0.0095
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Skewness and Kurtosis Explored
King Kong Example from Makridakis pages 197 - 198

## Gorillas without King Kong SKEW.P

Height Weight Height (xi-xbar)^3 ((xi-xbar)/stdev)
45 45 45 - 1 - 0.13
51 45 51 121 0.24
57 41 57 1,313 2.63
57 37 57 1,313 2.63
47 35 47 1 0.00
51 33 51 121 0.24
51 31 51 121 0.24
43 31 43 - 28 - 0.06
54 31 54 502 1.01
31 29 31 - 3,409 - 6.83
39 29 39 - 350 - 0.70
55 29 55 717 1.44
45 27 45 - 1 - 0.00
53 27 53 336 0.67
35 25 35 - 1,349 - 2.71
49 5 49 26 0.05
41 21 41 - 129 - 0.26
35 17 35 - 1,349 - 2.71
47 17 47 1 0.00
35 13 35 - 1,349 - 2.71
130 150 130 591,646 1,186.23

Gorilla Heights a
50
45
40
35
30
Weight

25
20
15
10
5
0
25 30 35 40
Heig
Skewness: SKEW() -0.3980
Skewness: formula -0.3980
SKEW.P - 0.3468
Workings
average 46.05
standard deviation 8
standard deviation cubed 499
n 20
sum (xi-xbar)^3 - 3,394
median 47.00
min 31
max 57

-0.3675

## Gorilla Heights and Weights

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Height
SKEW is negative so negative skewness

## Weights Gorilla Heights and Weights:

with King Kong!
160
140
120
100
Weight

80
60
40
20
0
45 50 55 60 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Height
ts:

120 140
Skewness and Kurtosis Explored
King Kong Example from Makridakis pages 197 - 198

## Gorillas with King Kong SKEW.P

Height Weight Height (xi-xbar)^3 ((xi-xbar)/stdev)
45 45 45 - 129 - 0.25
51 45 51 1 0.00
57 41 57 336 0.04
57 37 57 336 0.04
47 35 47 - 28 - 0.00
51 33 51 1 0.00
51 31 51 1 0.00
43 31 43 - 350 - 0.04
54 31 54 62 0.01
31 29 31 - 6,911 - 0.88
39 29 39 - 1,348 - 0.17
55 29 55 121 0.02
45 27 45 - 129 - 0.02
53 27 53 26 0.00
35 25 35 - 3,407 - 0.43
49 5 49 - 1 - 0.00
41 21 41 - 741 - 0.09
35 17 35 - 3,407 - 0.43
47 17 47 - 28 - 0.00
35 13 35 - 3,407 - 0.43
130 150 130 511,086 65.02

Gorilla Heights a
50
45
40
35
30
Weight

25
20
15
10
5
0
25 30 35 40
Heig
Skewness: SKEW() 3.4594
Skewness: formula 3.4594
SKEW.P 2.9696
Workings
average 50.05
standard deviation 20
standard deviation cubed 7,861
n 21
sum (xi-xbar)^3 492,083
median 47.00
min 31
max 130

3.2073

## Gorilla Heights and Weights

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Height
SKEW is positive so positive skewness

## Weights Gorilla Heights and Weights:

with King Kong!
160
140
120
100
Weight

80
60
40
20
0
45 50 55 60 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Height
ts:

120 140
Skewness and Kurtosis Explored
The data come from http://office.microsoft.com/en-001/excel-help/skew-HP005209261.aspx

## Skewness: SKEW() 0.3595

Data (xi-xbar)^3 ((xi-xbar)/stdev)^3 Skewness: formula 0.3595
3- 2 - 0.66 SKEW.P 0.2589
4- 0 - 0.01 Workings
5 0 0.10 average 4.3000
2- 12 - 3.65 standard deviation 1.4944
3- 2 - 0.66 standard deviation cubed 3.3376
4- 0 - 0.01 n 10.0000
5 0 0.10 sum (xi-xbar)^3 8.6400
6 5 1.47 median 4.0000
4 - 0 - 0.01 min 2.0000
7 20 5.90 max 7.0000
SKEW.P(R) = SKEW(R)*(n2)/SQRT(n(n1)) where n = COU
0.3032
SKEW is positive so positive skewness

## SQRT(n(n1)) where n = COUNT(R).

Simulation: using the larger skew example

## mean 2,570.32 =larger_skew!G9

stdev 1,329.70 =larger_skew!G10
n 50

## Data Point Simulation min -347.55

1 2,168.95 max 6329.44
2 3,217.72 Clas Size 667.70
3 3,714.06 Skew 0.2000
4 922.92 Kurtosis -0.1146
5 1,674.88
6 2,514.50 Bin f
7 546.41 - 347.55 1
8 4,578.99 320.15 6
9 3,639.00 987.84 5
10 218.98 1,655.54 4
11 3,262.48 2,323.24 8
12 2,978.85 2,990.94 9
13 2,515.26 3,658.64 9
14 1,556.78 4,326.34 4
15 2,114.71 4,994.04 3
16 3,309.39 5,661.74 0
17 4,101.47 6,329.44 1
18 2,817.17 50
19 2,069.33
20 23.55
21 3,449.53
22 2,399.09
23 4,862.11
24 1,573.41
25 1,875.50
26 3,185.20
27 1,953.92
28 968.55
29 2,896.47
30 234.05
31 789.90
32 2,620.22
33 4,409.18
34 3,000.06
35 1,331.20
36 3,967.38
37 184.76
38 - 347.55
39 2,173.50
40 1,789.23
41 142.03
42 2,632.52
43 916.20
44 2,387.13
45 3,447.73
46 - 18.11
47 6,329.44
48 3,134.63
49 3,949.29
50 1,184.12
Skew 0.2
Skew 0.2
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Boxplot Example

## Death Rates Boxplot Method 1: Line Chart

1 Q1 1.0
2 Minimum 0
2 Median 2.5
2 Maximum 10
10 Q3 6.25
10
8
7 Boxplot Method 1: Line Chart
5
12.0
8
6 10.0
5
10 8.0
7
5 6.0
1
4 4.0
7
2.0
3
6 0.0
1
3
1
7
4
1
1
2
1
2
0
2
0
2
0
1
art